WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular behavior perspectives

  1. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  2. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. PMID:26811272

  3. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  4. Central neural control of the cardiovascular system: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, Roger A L

    2016-09-01

    This brief review, which is based on a lecture presented at the American Physiological Society Teaching Refresher Course on the Brain and Systems Control as part of the Experimental Biology meeting in 2015, aims to summarize current concepts of the principal mechanisms in the brain that regulate the autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Such cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms do not operate in isolation but are closely coordinated with respiratory and other regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. The brain regulates the cardiovascular system by two general means: 1) feedforward regulation, often referred to as "central command," and 2) feedback or reflex regulation. In most situations (e.g., during exercise, defensive behavior, sleep, etc.), both of these general mechanisms contribute to overall cardiovascular homeostasis. The review first describes the mechanisms and central circuitry subserving the baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, and other reflexes that work together to regulate an appropriate level of blood pressure and blood oxygenation and then considers the brain mechanisms that defend the body against more complex environmental challenges, using dehydration and cold and heat stress as examples. The last section of the review considers the central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function associated with different behaviors, with a specific focus on defensive behavior and exercise. PMID:27445275

  5. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S W; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; J. Pallister

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  6. Perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cells for cardiovascular system regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Polák, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for basic research and regenerative medicine. They offer the same advantages as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and moreover new perspectives for personalized medicine. iPSCs can be generated from adult somatic tissues by over-expression of a few defined transcription factors, including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-myc. For regenerative medicine in particular, the technology provides great hope for patients with incurable diseases or potentially fatal disorders such as heart failure. The endogenous regenerative potentials of adult hearts are extremely limited and insufficient to compensate for myocardial loss occurring after myocardial infarction. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that iPSCs have the potential to significantly advance future cardiovascular regenerative therapies. Moreover, iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells of patients with genetic basis for their disease. This human iPSC derivates offer tremendous potential for new disease models. This paper reviews current applications of iPSCs in cardiovascular regenerative medicine and discusses progress in modeling cardiovascular diseases using iPSCs-derived cardiac cells. PMID:25595188

  7. Patient perspective on remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, M H;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The primary...... objective of the REMOTE-CIED study is to evaluate the influence of remote patient monitoring versus in-clinic follow-up on patient-reported outcomes. Secondary objectives are to: 1) identify subgroups of patients who may not be satisfied with remote monitoring; and 2) investigate the cost-effectiveness...... of remote monitoring. METHODS: The REMOTE-CIED study is an international randomised controlled study that will include 900 consecutive heart failure patients implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) compatible with the Boston Scientific LATITUDE® Remote Patient Management system...

  8. Work stress and cardiovascular disease: a life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bosma, Hans; Angerer, Peter

    2016-05-25

    Individuals in employment experience stress at work, and numerous epidemiological studies have documented its negative health effects, particularly on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although evidence on the various interrelationships between work stress and CVD has been accumulated, those observations have not yet been conceptualized in terms of a life course perspective. Using the chain of risk model, we would like to propose a theoretical model incorporating six steps: (1) work stress increases the risk of incident CVD in healthy workers. (2) Among those whose work ability is not fully and permanently damaged, work stress acts as a determinant of the process of return to work after CVD onset. (3) CVD patients experience higher work stress after return to work. (4) Work stress increases the risk of recurrent CVD in workers with prior CVD. (5) CVD patients who fully lose their work ability transit to disability retirement. (6) Disability retirees due to CVD have an elevated risk of CVD mortality. The life course perspective might facilitate an in-depth understanding of the diverse interrelationships between work stress and CVD, thereby leading to work stress management interventions at each period of the lifespan and three-level prevention of CVD.

  9. Klotho in cardiovascular disease:Current and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Donate-Correa; Ernesto; Martín-Nú?ez; Carmen; Mora-Fernández; Mercedes; Muros-de-Fuentes; Nayra; Pérez-Delgado; Juan; F; Navarro-González

    2015-01-01

    Protein Klotho,beyond its role as a regulator of the phosphatemia,is also involved in the maintaining of the cardiovascular health,being associated its alterations with the development of cardiovascular damage and increased morbi-mortality. For all this,nowadays Klotho is the subject of a thorough research which is focused on uncover its intimate mechanisms of action,and in analyzing the utility of its modulation as a potential strategy with clinical applicability. Molecular mechanisms of Klotho are not well understood but an emerging research area links Klotho deficiency with vascular pathology. Changes in this protein have been associated with cardiovascular-related complications like inflammation,vascular calcification,and endothelial dysfunction. All this is particularly relevant if considering the recent discovery of Klotho expression in vascular tissue.

  10. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  11. Cognitive changes in cardiovascular patients following a tailored behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, FJ; Dijkstra, A; de Haes, JCJM; Legemate, DA; Smets, EMA

    2005-01-01

    Background. Action aimed at changing smoking behavior to prevent cardiovascular patients from further impairing their health is advisable. Cognitive behavioral interventions can be effective in this regard since they attempt to influence cognitive determinants that presumably lead to smoking cessati

  12. ENTREPRENEURSIPH IN ROMANIA. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neațu Alina-Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavioral economics combines insights of psychology, sociology and economics in trying to better understand and predict human decision-making. At the intersection of economic studies with social sciences, behavioral economics succeeds to demonstrate, using laboratory tests and experiments, that on a shorter term people are quite capable to perform profitable economic computations and adopt rational behaviors, but on a long term run they easily become fallible in performing rational mental accounting and are vulnerable to several factors such as emotions, certain mass-manipulation techniques, lack of self control or procrastination, etc. Extended research in the field of behavioral economics reports many other various behavioral anomalies that may have the ability to explain seemingly irrational and unpredictable responses of individuals, in general, and entrepreneurs, in particular – especially when finding themselves in conditions of risk, uncertainty or incomplete information. Furthermore, the elevated consistency of these abnormalities suggests that they are divergent only to our traditional models, but that they could otherwise be the norm. The present article seeks to explain how such insights from behavioral economics may help us better understand and enhance our perspective on entrepreneurship, what are some of the most frequent biases characteristic to entrepreneurial behavior and decision-making, accounting as most notable for the field of

  13. ENTREPRENEURSIPH IN ROMANIA. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Neațu Alina-Maria; Imbrișcă Cosmin-Ionuț

    2015-01-01

    Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavi...

  14. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism.

  15. Aldosterone and Its Blockade: A Cardiovascular and Renal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lahera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldosterone not only contributes to salt and water homeostasis, but also exerts direct cardiovascular and renal effects. Numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate that aldosterone participate in cardiac alterations associated with hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and other pathological entities. It is important to mention that dietary salt is a key factor in aldosterone-mediated cardiovascular damage, since damage was moreevident in animals on a high-salt diet than animals on a low salt diet. A pathophysiological action of aldosterone involves development of extracellular matrix and fibrosis, inflammation, stimulation of reactive oxygen species production, endothelial dysfunction, cell growth and proliferation. Many studies showed local extra-adrenal production of aldosterone in brain blood vessel, and the heart, which contribute in an important manner to the pathological actions of this mineralocorticoid.Several studies such as RALES, EPHESUS, 4E and others, recently showed that mineralocorticoid-receptor (MR antagonists, alone or in combination with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, reduced the risk of progressive target organ damage and hospitalization in patients with hypertension and heart failure. These clinical benefits support the therapeutic usefulness of MR antagonists.

  16. [Psychiatric and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Blumenthal, James A

    2011-10-01

    Psychosocial and behavioral factors, including mood (depression, anxiety, anger, and stress), personality (Type A, Type D, and hostility), and social support, are associated with both the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. "Negative" emotions have been associated with increased rates of cardiovascular death and recurrent cardiac events, although the mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain these relationships, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Behavioral factors also have been implicated, such as nonadherence to prescribed medical therapies and physical inactivity. Several randomized trials of patients with cardiovascular disease have examined the impact of pharmacologic and behavioral treatments on hard cardiovascular disease events as well as on cardiovascular disease biomarkers of risk. Although psychological treatments generally have been shown to improve quality of life and psychological functioning among cardiac patients, the benefit of psychological interventions with respect to improving clinical outcomes has not been conclusively demonstrated.

  17. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M

    2016-09-27

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes.

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for women. A life course-events perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Chander P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD in women is the most common cause of death and in 2009 accounted for one third of all deaths. The purpose of this paper is to present what conditions during pregnancy and during the pre-menopause period lead to a greater risk of CVD. The early recognition and the application of interventions may decrease this risk. To emphasize this point we have taken a «Life course-events perspective». Current data suggests that genetic predisposition to disease in conjunction with behavior and environmental factors during fetal life is related to permanent changes in fetalplacental-maternal physiology and function, resulting in fetal programming characterizing the phenotype of the child which may persist into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have identified biological, behavioral and environmental factors related to childhood diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance and mental health disorders. Gender differences have been identified and animal studies have suggested that estrogens in women are protective and when the risk of CVD in men is considered, the risk in women is delayed by 10 years. Thus, a normal pregnancy may be protective and reduce the risk of CVD in women. However, hypertension developing in women before or during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for women and diabetes further increases this risk of CVD, as does smoking. It is very clear that an «intervention action plan» must be developed. It is the current opinion of the authors that this action plan must be implemented early in life to decrease the risk for the development of CVS in women.

  19. Association of sedentary behavior time with ideal cardiovascular health: the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina E Crichton

    Full Text Available Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg.A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off, were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score.Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend, after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both. A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04.Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health.

  20. Prospects of Brand Choice Behavior Research from Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Lin, Lin

    The article reviews relevant literature at home and abroad on consumer brand choice behavior and summarizes the study evolution of consumer brand choice behavior, and puts forward view on relevant research prospects from cognitive perspective in this field.

  1. Insights and perspectives on dietary modifications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David J; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Mente, Andrew; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes presentations from “Insights and Perspectives on Dietary Modifications to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease,” a symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in conjunction with Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 26 April 2014. Presenters reviewed historic and current evidence on the relation between diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) to identify gaps in knowledge, discuss the promises and pitfalls of macronutrient replacement strategies in the diet, and suggest various options for issuing dietary guidance aimed at reducing the burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. Observational studies and clinical trials indicate that overall diet quality have a marked impact on health benefits, which is shifting the emphasis on recommending healthful dietary patterns to focusing only on single nutrients or foods.

  2. Information-seeking behavior of cardiovascular disease patients in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Maryam; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Afshar, Mina; Shahrzadi, Leila; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients, as one of the most prominent groups requiring health-based information, encounter numerous problems in order to obtain these pieces of information and apply them. The aim of this study was to determine the information-seeking behavior of cardiovascular patients who were hospitalized in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals. Materials and Methods: This is a survey research. The population consisted of all patients with cardiovascular disease who were hospitaliz...

  3. Associations Between Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Korean Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video gam...

  4. Incidence of behavior's habits in the cardiovascular disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpi-Ballester, Amparo; Zurriaga-Llorens, Rosario; Gonzalez-Navarro, Pilar; Marzo-Campos, Juan C.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2007-01-01

    Different models have been proposed from Health Psychology in order to understand and to predict healthy behaviours. Theory of Planed Behavior is a prevailing model in the study of health. Using this theoretical framework, the objective of this descriptive study is to test the impact of behavioral h

  5. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease : answering basic questions regarding cell behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the re

  6. Attenuated Cardiovascular, Neuroendocrine, and Behavioral Responses After a Single Footshock in Central Amygdaloid Lesioned Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of bilateral electrolytical CEA lesioning on behavioral, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine changes has been studied in male Wistar rats before, during and shortly after a brief aversive stimulus of an unavoidable footshock. Blood samples were withdrawn via a permanent heart catheter. Lesi

  7. Return on Investment for Digital Behavioral Counseling in Patients With Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Su, MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We calculated the health and economic impacts of participation in a digital behavioral counseling service that is designed to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with prediabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors (Prevent, Omada Health, San Francisco, California. This program enhances the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program. Participants completed a 16-week core program followed by an ongoing maintenance program. Methods Analysis was conducted for 2 populations meeting criteria for lifestyle intervention: 1 prediabetes (n = 1,663, and 2 high cardiovascular disease risk (n = 2,152. The Markov-based model simulated clinical and economic outcomes related to obesity and diabetes annually over 10 years for the 2 defined populations. Comparisons were made between participants and propensity-matched controls from the community. Results The return-on-investment break-even point was 3 years in both populations. Simulated return on investment for the population with prediabetes was $9 and $1,565 at years 3 and 5, respectively. Simulated return on investment for the population with cardiovascular disease risk was $96 and $1,512 at years 3 and 5, respectively. Results suggest that program participation reduces diabetes incidence by 30% to 33% and stroke by 11% to 16% over 5 years. Conclusion Digital Behavioral Counseling provides significant health benefits to patients with prediabetes and cardiovascular disease and a positive return on investment.

  8. An Evolutionary Perspective of Nutrition and Inflammation as Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Rubio-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When cardiovascular diseases are viewed from an evolutionary biology perspective, a heightened thrifty and an inflammatory design could be their mechanisms. Human ancestors confronted a greater infectious load and were subjected to the selection for proinflammatory genes and a strong inflammatory function. Ancestors also faced starvation periods that pressed for a thrifty genotype which caused fat accumulation. The pressure of sustaining gluconeogenesis during periods of poor nourishment selected individuals with insulin resistance. Obesity induces a proinflammatory state due to the secretion of adipokines which underlie cardiometabolic diseases. Our actual lifestyle needs no more of such proinflammatory and thrifty genotypes and these ancestral genes might increase predisposition to diseases. Risk factors for atherosclerosis and diabetes are based on inflammatory and genetic foundations that can be accounted for by excess fat. Longevity has also increased in recent times and is related to a proinflammatory response with cardiovascular consequences. If human ancestral lifestyle could be recovered by increasing exercise and adapting a calorie restriction diet, obesity would decrease and the effects on chronic low-grade inflammation would be limited. Thereby, the rates of both atherosclerosis and diabetes could be reduced.

  9. Perspective Taking, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Hans; Johnson, Lena

    1992-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perspective taking in response to another's distress and prosocial behavior and dispositional affective empathy in late childhood. The tendency to reflect spontaneously on the inner experience of others who are unfortunate was positively related to prosocial behavior in boys and to affective empathy in both sexes.…

  10. Trauma and Psychotherapy: Implications from a Behavior Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This article examines attachment theory and traditional models of family therapy from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a rationale for a behavioral treatment approach for abused children and their foster or…

  11. Early Empowerment Strategies Boost Self-Efficacy to Improve Cardiovascular Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn H; Walizer, Elaine M; Fuller, Clarie E; Engler, Renata J; Villines, Todd C; Vernalis, Marina N

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to carry out behavior to achieve a desired goal, is considered to be a prerequisite for behavior change. Self-efficacy correlates with cardiovascular health although optimal timing to incorporate self-efficacy strategies is not well established. We sought to study the effect of an empowerment approach implemented in the introductory phase of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular health outcomes. Design: Prospective intervention cohort study. Methods: Patients in the Integrative Cardiac Health Project Registry, a prospective lifestyle change program for the prevention of cardiovascular disease were analyzed for behavioral changes by survey, at baseline and one year, in the domains of nutrition, exercise, stress management and sleep. Self-efficacy questionnaires were administered at baseline and after the empowerment intervention, at 8 weeks. Results: Of 119 consecutive registry completers, 60 comprised a high self-efficacy group (scoring at or above the median of 36 points) and 59 the low self-efficacy group (scoring below median). Self-efficacy scores increased irrespective of baseline self-efficacy but the largest gains in self-efficacy occurred in patients who ranked in the lower half for self-efficacy at baseline. This lower self-efficacy group demonstrated behavioral gains that erased differences between the high and low self-efficacy groups. Conclusions: A boost to self-efficacy early in a lifestyle intervention program produces significant improvements in behavioral outcomes. Employing empowerment in an early phase may be a critical strategy to improve self-efficacy and lower risk in individuals vulnerable to cardiovascular disease. PMID:27157185

  12. THE CONCEPT OF MEANING FROM BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS AND OTHER PERSPECTIVES.

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCA PATRICIA BALLESTEROS DE VALDERRAMA

    2005-01-01

    This article presents crucial points related to the concept of meaning trying to emphasize some convergences betweenbehavior analysis, other behavioral perspectives, like Staats’ and Ribes-Iñesta’s, and postures outside behaviorism,specially those made by J. Bruner and other representatives of constructivism and constructionism. DeGrandpre(2000) presented some ways how behaviorism can contribute to the “science of meaning” and the “psychology ofpractical significance”; his suggestions are com...

  13. Behavioral targeting: a European legal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium i

  14. Sedentary leisure time behavior, snacking habits and cardiovascular biomarkers: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenlund, Gitte; Jørgensen, Torben; Toft, Ulla;

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a populat......Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow......), with equal gender distribution and mean age of 52. SLTB (hours per day) was significantly positively associated with triglyceride in men (ß = 1.030, [1.013; 1.047]) and women (ß = 1.036, [1.022; 1.050]), non-HDL cholesterol in men (ß = 0.044, [0.012; 0.076]) and women (ß = 0.064, [0.035; 0.094]), waist...

  15. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Moira McAllister Pryde; William Bernard Kannel

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive bene...

  16. Diagnosing cardiovascular disease from the perspective of the brain and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicholas R S

    2013-01-01

    Numerous lifestyle, emotional, and biological factors have been identified as risk factors for heart disease. These include socioeconomic status, early childhood and intimate partner abuse, disruption of sleep patterns, lack of exercise, and unhealthy food choices. Genetic and epigenetic factors are also critical components of the equation. A common denominator that links directly or indirectly all of these factors is inflammation. In some instances, the production of inflammatory molecules may precipitate the illness, while in others they may be produced in response to the underlying cause. Regardless of whether through direct or indirect means, inflammation contributes to the gradual loss of cellular energy substrates, which culminates in impaired diastolic performance. For that reason, to refer to a failure of the cardiovascular system as heart or cardiovascular disease lessens the potentially important contribution of a myriad of other factors. This article begins with the premise that impaired cardiac functioning is more than a heart disorder. An argument will be made that impaired cardiac functioning can also be an economic, behavioral, and/or emotional disorder, which subsequently gives rise to a metabolic failure. Therefore, a multi-systems approach should be taken to identify prior to the onset of damage biological and non-biological predictors of impending heart disease. PMID:23981461

  17. Humanistic psychology and contextual behavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C

    2012-12-01

    Humanistic psychology historically defined itself in part by its opposition to behavioral psychology, but the conditions now exist for a fundamental reconsideration of the relationship between these two traditions. Behavioral psychology includes contextualistic variants and is no longer limited to principles drawn from animal learning. Behavioral and cognitive therapies commonly address humanistic topics and have developed process accounts that cast new light on them. In that context, a reconsideration of this relationship could prove to be beneficial for both traditions.

  18. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  19. Personalized Cardiovascular Medicine Today: A Food and Drug Administration/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaus, Alison; Madabushi, Rajanikanth; Pacanowski, Michael; Rose, Martin; Schuck, Robert N; Stockbridge, Norman; Temple, Robert; Unger, Ellis F

    2015-10-13

    Over the past decade, personalized medicine has received considerable attention from researchers, drug developers, and regulatory agencies. Personalized medicine includes identifying patients most likely to benefit and those most likely to experience adverse reactions in response to a drug, and tailoring therapy based on pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic response, as well. Perhaps most exciting is finding ways to identify likely responders through genetic, proteomic, or other tests, so that only likely responders will be treated. However, less precise methods such as identifying historical, demographic, or other indicators of increased or reduced responsiveness are also important aspects of personalized medicine. The cardiovascular field has not used many genetic or proteomic markers, but has regularly used prognostic variables to identify likely responders. The development of biomarker-based approaches to personalized medicine in cardiovascular disease has been challenging, in part, because most cardiovascular therapies treat acquired syndromes, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, which develop over many decades and represent the end result of several pathophysiological mechanisms. More precise disease classification and greater understanding of individual variations in disease pathology could drive the development of targeted therapeutics. Success in designing clinical trials for personalized medicine will require the selection of patient populations with attributes that can be targeted or that predict outcome, and the use of appropriate enrichment strategies once such attributes are identified. Here, we describe examples of personalized medicine in cardiovascular disease, discuss its impact on clinical trial design, and provide insight into the future of personalized cardiovascular medicine from a regulatory perspective.

  20. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  1. A Behavior Analytic Perspective on Victimology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenburger, Karola

    2007-01-01

    The field of victimology has become an area of serious scientific enquiry only recently and now attracts a wide range of theories from within multiple disciplines. In this paper, the contribution that the science of behavior analysis can make to the conceptualization of the field is explored by investigating what makes people vulnerable to…

  2. Economic Cycles in a Behavioral Disequilibrium Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews the characteristic features of the main economic cycles and discusses the behavioral foundation for each mode at the microlevel. The analysis continues to illustrate some of the nonlinear dynamic phenomena that can arise through interaction between the various modes and through...

  3. Advertising and obesity: a behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Concern over the levels of obesity observed in Western countries has grown as researchers forecast a rapid growth in the medical care that a progressively more obese population will require. As health workers deal with increased incidences of diabetes and other obesity-related disorders, policymakers have examined the factors contributing to this problem. In particular, advertising that promotes high fat and high sugar products to children has come under increasing scrutiny. Advertisers have rejected claims that advertising contributes to obesity by arguing that it cannot coerce people into purchasing a product, and does not affect primary demand. This reasoning overlooks the role advertising plays in reinforcing and normalising behavior, however, and it assumes that only direct causal links merit regulatory attention. Ehrenberg's "weak" theory suggests advertising will support unhealthy eating behaviors, while the wide range of sales promotions employed will prompt trial and reward continued consumption. This article presents an alternative analysis of how marketing contributes to obesity and uses behavior modification theory to analyse the "fast-food" industry's promotions. We also review the New Zealand government's response to obesity and suggest policy interventions that would foster healthier eating behaviors. PMID:16720538

  4. The Fremont complex: A behavioral perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, D.B.; Simms, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Fremont complex is composed of farmers and foragers who occupied the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin region of western North America from about 2100 to 500 years ago. These people included both immigrants and indigenes who shared some material culture and symbolic attributes, but also varied in ways not captured by definitions of the Fremont as a shared cultural tradition. The complex reflects a mosaic of behaviors including full-time farmers, full-time foragers, part-time farmer/foragers who seasonally switched modes of production, farmers who switched to full-time foraging, and foragers who switched to full-time farming. Farming defines the Fremont, but only in the sense that it altered the matrix in which both farmers and foragers lived, a matrix which provided a variety of behavioral options to people pursuing an array of adaptive strategies. The mix of symbiotic and competitive relationships among farmers and between farmers and foragers presents challenges to detection in the archaeological record. Greater clarity results from use of a behavioral model which recognizes differing contexts of selection favoring one adaptive strategy over another. The Fremont is a case where the transition from foraging to farming is followed by a millennium of adaptive diversity and terminates with the abandonment of farming. As such, it serves as a potential comparison to other cases in the world during the early phases of the food producing transition.

  5. Combating the Epidemic of Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Perspectives from School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the obstacles to positive dietary practices and increased physical activity and to solicit the students’ recommendations for addressing and possibly reducing the negative practices that are associated with the rise in obesity and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Data for the study were obtained from the administration of the 2005 Project Health High School Survey (PHHSS which measured the students’ perceptions regarding obstacles to eating more nutritious, healthier foods and obstacles to participating in daily physical activity. The reasons for students’ lack of interest in practicing more life-healthy behaviors are ranked and recorded. Some of the students indicated that they usually ate what they liked to eat, and the decision about what to eat was made because of the taste of the food without regard for any health consequence or negative health outcomes. Finding ways to reach these students at their young ages is the key to successfully combating the high prevalence of obesity and the development of other chronic diseases in childhood, as well as in adulthood.

  6. Type A behavior pattern, parental history of hypertension, and cardiovascular reactivity in college males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Lawler, K A; Mitchell, V P; Matthews, K A; Rakaczky, C J; Jamison, W

    1987-01-01

    Two risk factors for cardiovascular disorders, parental history of hypertension and the Type A behavior pattern, were investigated concurrently with respect to cardiovascular reactivity to challenging situations. Sixty-four college males were given both the Structured Interview (SI) and Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) for the Type A behavior pattern and a family health questionnaire to determine parental history of hypertension. The students were monitored for blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and pulse transit time (PTT) response to four tasks: cold pressor, isometric handgrip exercise, a reading comprehension task, and backwards digit span. Type As based on SI classification had significantly higher HR levels across all tasks than did Type Bs, as well as higher diastolic BP levels in the cold pressor task. No main effects for Type A-B using JAS classification were found. Positive parental history students had higher HR and shorter PTT levels across all the tasks. Type A and parental history did interact in a limited way on some tasks, but the interactions were also dependent on the Type A classification used. PMID:3830119

  7. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-05-31

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Mersereau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  9. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles Zandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  11. Abortion in America: A Consumer-Behavior Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hill, Ronald Paul; Maloy, Kate

    1995-01-01

    Abortion is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in this country, yet its provision to consumers remains one of the most contentious issues within our society. The purpose of this article is to broaden our understanding of this problem by examining abortion from a consumer-behavior perspective. The phenomenological study described in this article revealed that (1) a wide gap exists between the language of the public debate and that of private decision making, (2) the language of p...

  12. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  13. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.......We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  14. Efficacy of dietary behavior modification for preserving cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Moira McAllister; Kannel, William Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol. PMID:21253499

  15. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira McAllister Pryde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.

  16. Instantiating the multiple levels of analysis perspective in a program of study on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M

    2012-08-01

    During the last quarter century, developmental psychopathology has become increasingly inclusive and now spans disciplines ranging from psychiatric genetics to primary prevention. As a result, developmental psychopathologists have extended traditional diathesis-stress and transactional models to include causal processes at and across all relevant levels of analysis. Such research is embodied in what is known as the multiple levels of analysis perspective. We describe how multiple levels of analysis research has informed our current thinking about antisocial and borderline personality development among trait impulsive and therefore vulnerable individuals. Our approach extends the multiple levels of analysis perspective beyond simple Biology × Environment interactions by evaluating impulsivity across physiological systems (genetic, autonomic, hormonal, neural), psychological constructs (social, affective, motivational), developmental epochs (preschool, middle childhood, adolescence, adulthood), sexes (male, female), and methods of inquiry (self-report, informant report, treatment outcome, cardiovascular, electrophysiological, neuroimaging). By conducting our research using any and all available methods across these levels of analysis, we have arrived at a developmental model of trait impulsivity that we believe confers a greater understanding of this highly heritable trait and captures at least some heterogeneity in key behavioral outcomes, including delinquency and suicide.

  17. The Relationship between Social Class and Childrearing Behaviors: Parents' Perspective Taking and Value Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerris, Jan R. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1997-01-01

    Uses the concept of parental perspective to explain relationships between social class and parental childrearing behaviors. Results, based on 237 mothers and fathers, indicate that parental perspective taking plays a mediating role between social classes and parental behavior. Furthermore, value orientations and childrearing behaviors appeared…

  18. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  19. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess...

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a perspective and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2009-01-01

    Data from animal and human studies provide a biological plausibility to the notion that obstructive sleep apnea activates pathways that lead to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Sleep apnea thus activates the same pathways as does obesity. That obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is supported by epidemiological association studies. Longitudinal cohort studies also provide evidence that patients with untreated severe sleep apnea have an increased rate of cardiovascular events. But these studies, while highly suggestive, do not provide the evidence needed to convince the skeptic. This would only be obtained by randomized treatment trials with hard cardiovascular endpoints such as cardiac events and deaths. While such studies are in the planning stages, they will be challenging. There are issues about randomizing individuals with severe sleep apnea and excessive sleepiness into no therapy, since they are at known increased risk for car crashes. Thus, lack of therapy puts others on the road at risk as well as the subject with sleep apnea. There is, moreover, the concern that treating obstructive sleep apnea in very obese individuals will have little impact, since any effect of therapy for OSA will be overwhelmed by the effects of obesity itself. Data from randomized treatment trials for cardiovascular endpoints will likely not be available for many years. In the interim, physicians need to consider how to treat such patients. It is proposed that given that CPAP treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is highly effective and essentially totally safe, and that the evidence is suggestive that sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, then we propose all patients with severe sleep apnea should be treated to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:19249449

  1. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  2. Modifying Health Behavior to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases: A Nationwide Survey among German Primary Care Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72% and alcohol (61% consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%, and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%, and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%. However, only between 23% (quitting smoking and 49% (diet modification of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD.

  3. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  4. Physical fittness and cardiovascular risk factors in children : an epidemiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. de Man (Stella)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe studies on physical fitness in children as descnbed in this thesis address the following questions: (1) is there a relation between physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors, notably blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins, at a young age? (2) what is the effect of in

  5. Quantification of scientific output in cardiovascular medicine: A perspective based on global data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); A. Rodriguez (Alfredo Chapin); N. Bruining (Nico); J. Milei (José); J. Aoki (Jiro); K. Tsuchida (Keiichi); R. del Valle-Fernández (Raquel); C.A. Arampatzis (Chourmouzios); A.T.L. Ong (Andrew); P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); R. Ayala (Rosa); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); F. Saia (Francesco); M. Valgimigli (Marco); E.S. Regar (Eveline); E. McFadden (Eugene); G.G. Biondi-Zoccai (Giuseppe); E. Barbenza (Ezequiel); P. Schoenhagen (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims: We sought to explore whether global and regional scientific output in cardiovascular medicine is associated with economic variables and follows the same trend as medicine and as science overall. Methods and results: We registered the number of documents, number of citations, citati

  6. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  7. The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and cardiovascular diseases from pharmacotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan-Cusa, Bjanka; Marcinko, Darko; Sagud, Marina; Jakovljević, Miro

    2009-09-01

    The heart and mind are intimately linked. Patients with severe mental disorders have increased mortality rates compared with the general population and the leading cause of premature death is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite their high prevalence and substantial medical impact, comorbidity between cardiac conditions and psychiatric illnesses frequently go undiagnosed and untreated. It is very interesting to investigate the impact of mental health on cardiac disease and what is the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions. PMID:19794361

  8. THE COMORBIDITY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES FROM PHARMACOTHERAPY PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Vuksan–Ćusa, Bjanka; Marčinko, Darko; Šagud, Marina; Jakovljević, Miro

    2009-01-01

    The heart and mind are intimately linked. Patients with severe mental disorders have increased mortality rates compared with the general population and the leading cause of premature death is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite their high prevalence and substantial medical impact, comorbidity between cardiac conditions and psychiatric illnesses frequently go undiagnosed and untreated. It is very interesting to investigate the impact of mental health on cardiac disease and what is the com...

  9. Mitochondria-targeted agents: Future perspectives of mitochondrial pharmaceutics in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Jayakumar, Thankamani Gopinathan

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are one of the major sites for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an undesirable side product of oxidative energy metabolism. Damaged mitochondria can augment the generation of ROS. Dysfunction of mitochondria increase the risk for a large number of human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Heart failure (HF) following ischemic heart disease, infantile cardiomyopathy and cardiac hypertrophy associated with left ventricular dilations are some of the...

  10. Clinical perspectives and fundamental aspects of local cardiovascular and renal renin-angiotensin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmor eDe Mello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the potential role of organ specific cardiovascular renin-angiotensin systems (RAS has been demonstrated experimentally and clinically with respect to certain cardiovascular and renal diseases. These findings have been supported by studies involving pharmacological inhibition during ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure; hypertension associated with left ventricular (LV ischemia, myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; structural and functional changes of the target organs associated with prolonged dietary salt excess; and intrarenal vascular disease associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Moreover, the severe structural and functional changes induced by these pathological conditions, can be prevented and reversed by agents producing RAS inhibition (even when not necessarily coincident with alterations in arterial pressure.In this review, we discuss specific fundamental and clinical aspects and mechanisms related to the activation or inhibition of local renin angiotensin systems and their implications for cardiovascular and renal diseases. Fundamental aspects involving the role of angiotensins on cardiac and renal functions including the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney and the controversial role of ACE2 on angiotensin peptide metabolism in humans, were discussed.

  11. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  12. Roles and mechanisms of ginsenoside in cardiovascular diseases: progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Liu, Yue; Chen, Keji

    2016-03-01

    Ginseng is among the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and is widely used in China and Southeast Asia. Over the past 50 years, considerable research has focused on the chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and clinical applications of ginseng. In this review, we examine the current state of research on ginseng, including the main active ingredient ginsenoside, its pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, and mechanisms of action. We focus on what is known of the effects of ginseng against atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, and its inhibition of ventricular remodeling, providing a basis for expanding the clinical applications of ginseng.

  13. A Study of Awareness and Screening Behavior of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Psoriasis and Dermatologists

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Han Su; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies have suggested an increased frequency of cardiovascular (CV) diseases in patients with psoriasis. Objective In this study, we assessed the awareness among psoriasis patients and dermatologists in private primary clinics about the increased CV risk linked to psoriasis, and examined the screening behaviors of dermatologists for CV risk factors in psoriasis patients. Methods We distributed questionnaires to dermatologists in primary clinics and to psoriasis patient...

  14. Predoctoral and postdoctoral students' perspectives about pediatric dental behavior guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, Enrique; Azari, Amir F; Riley, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    This study compared acceptability scores of pediatric dental behavior guidance between predoctoral senior dental students and postdoctoral pediatric dentistry graduates. The scores were obtained with an anonymous survey that included twenty-five items related to behavior guidance techniques or situations, with the degree of acceptability of each being marked on a visual analog scale. Demographic data collected included year of graduation from the postdoctoral program, type of employment, being board-certified or not, gender, marital and parental status, previously receiving dental or medical treatment, and degree of unpleasantness from these treatments. Thirty-nine predoctoral and fifty-one postdoctoral surveys were compared. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the predoctoral acceptability scores were statistically significantly higher than the postdoctoral scores for not allowing the child to speak during treatment, voice control, hand over mouth, active immobilization, and providing an exact explanation to the child. The predoctoral scores were lower than the postdoctoral scores for not using local anesthetic when the child does not want it, parent's presence in the operatory during treatment, or talking with the dentist during treatment. ANOVA of the predoctoral and postdoctoral scores combined indicated statistically significant differences between scores from male and females respondents for parent talking with the dentist during treatment; between married and not married respondents for hand over mouth, encouraging the child not to be a coward, the child being allowed to stop the treatment, and the parent being in the operatory during treatment; and between parents and not parents respondents for child not allowed to speak during the treatment, voice control, and hand over mouth. This study found that perspectives about pediatric dental behavior guidance are influenced by pre- and postdoctoral education and postgraduate experience. PMID:21546595

  15. Cardiovascular risk amongst migrant and non-migrant Greenland Inuit in a gender perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2007-01-01

    surveys among adult Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark (n = 1542). General Linear Models adjusted for age, smoking, diet (seal, fish, and fruit), and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Blood pressure was significantly higher among Inuit migrants of either sex than among the Inuit in Greenland....... Among women, HDL-cholesterol concentrations were 1.59 mmol/l in Greenland and 1.83 among migrants (pmigrants. Blood lipids, HbA(1c), and obesity did not differ between men in Greenland and migrants. Smoking, diet, and alcohol...... consumption differed significantly among migrants and non-migrants. Adjusted for the consumption of seal meat and alcohol, the difference in HDL cholesterol for men (1.44 and 1.66 mmol/l; p = 0.002) was of a similar magnitude to that of women. CONCLUSIONS: Migration was associated with cardiovascular risk...

  16. Is that the answer you had in mind? The effect of perspective on unethical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Schurr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored how the perspective through which individuals view their actions influences their ethicality, comparing a narrow perspective that allows for evaluation of each choice in isolation, to a broad perspective that promotes an aggregate view of one's choices. To examine unethical behavior we employed a computerized variation of a trivia game that challenges the player's integrity because, rather than choosing the correct answer, players indicate whether the correct highlighted answer is the answer they had in mind. In Experiment 1 perspective was modified through the choice procedure: broad perspective evoked by an aggregate decision regarding the upcoming test items and narrow perspective evoked by a segregated decision regarding each upcoming test item. In Experiment 2 perspective was evoked through differential priming. Across both experiments, when given a monetary incentive to succeed, the adoption of a narrow perspective increased cheating, as evidenced by overall higher reported success rates.

  17. Older People's Perspectives on Health, Physical Activity and Nutritional Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Alizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approaches for investigating health-promoting lifestyle generally focus on physical activ­ity and regular diet. To explore the perspectives of Iranian elders regarding health, healthy eating and physical activity (PA this study was conducted in 2012. Methods: Participants in this qualitative study were selected through purposeful sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted with 60 older adults in 3 elderly centers in Tehran. A moderator’s guideline that consisted of general and specific questions was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. Results: Participants explained their perspectives regarding health, healthy eating and PA in the follow­ing 5 categories: meaning of health was represented based on issues such as absence of pain and disor­der, complete body wellbeing, staying away from hazards, complete individual satisfaction, experiencing positive events, effective communication, faithfulness and trust in God. The healthy eating category was featured by adequate eating, age balanced diet, refraining from under or over nutrition and sensible consumption of fruits and vegetables. The PA was described - according to the level of performing outdoor activities or household tasks. Expressions about the perceived benefits and barriers of healthy eating and PA were aligned the two remaining categories. Conclusions: Participants have referred to the association between both PA and dietary practices and health. Understanding how older people define physical activity and nutritional behavior and recognition of the most important perceived benefits and barriers that might contribute to have a healthy eating or adequate PA profile could procure insight into the type of interventions that are required to promote healthy lifestyle among Iranian older adults.

  18. Effects of oily fish intake on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive...... function, and behavior in healthy children. METHODS/DESIGN: We are conducting a randomized controlled trial with 8- to 9-year-old Danish children, comparing the effect of consuming 300 g/week of oily fish with poultry (control) for 12 weeks between August 2016 and June 2017. The primary outcomes are blood...... and sleep. We will also examine effects on cognitive function (attention, memory, and executive functions) by using standardized tests, behavior and emotions by administering parent-rated questionnaires and child interviews, and we will measure physiological stress response and cortisol levels. We need 150...

  19. How are physical activity behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors associated with characteristics of the built and social residential environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eichinger

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to identify perceptions of built and social residential characteristics and their association with behaviors such as physical activity (PA, nutrition and smoking and with cardiovascular risk factors (elevated BMI and fasting blood glucose.Among participants of a preventive medical checkup at an Austrian District Health Insurance Fund (n=904, response rate = 82.2%, 42% women, 18-91 years self-reported and measured data were collected.Total PA was positively associated with the presence of trees along the streets and high levels of pro-physical activity social modeling (SM and it was negatively related to perceived safety from crime. More leisure-time PA was associated with higher levels of cycling/walking infrastructure and high levels of SM. PA for transportation was positively related to high levels of connectivity and high levels of SM. Better behavioral cardiovascular risk factor profiles (smoking and nutrition were associated with high levels of SM and high levels of total PA. Lower BMI values were associated with high levels of infrastructure and high levels of SM.Both built and social residential characteristics are important correlates of PA as well as of major cardiovascular risk factors besides PA.

  20. Fatores de risco cardiovasculares em adolescentes: indicadores biológicos e comportamentais Cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: biological and behavioral indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Oferecer informações descritivas e investigar a extensão com que os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares de natureza comportamental estão associados aos fatores de risco biológicos na população jovem. MÉTODOS: Amostra de 452 adolescentes (246 moças e 206 rapazes com idades entre 15 e 18 anos, selecionados de uma escola de ensino médio da cidade de Londrina, Paraná. Fatores de risco de natureza comportamental foram analisados mediante prática insuficiente de atividade física, ingestão excessiva de gorduras e de colesterol e uso de tabaco. Como indicadores dos fatores de risco biológicos recorreu-se ao sobrepeso, aos níveis elevados de pressão arterial e concentrações não-favoráveis de lipídios-lipoproteínas plasmáticas. RESULTADOS: Por volta de 20% das moças e 16% dos rapazes apresentaram pelo menos um fator de risco biológico para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares. O sobrepeso se associou significativamente com a ingestão excessiva de gorduras, enquanto a pressão arterial elevada se relacionou com o estilo de vida sedentário e o uso de tabaco. A excessiva ingestão de gorduras e de colesterol indicou risco aumentado de concentrações indesejáveis de lipídios-lipoproteínas plasmáticas. Adolescentes fumantes tenderam a demonstrar risco de pressão arterial e de lipídios-lipoproteínas plasmáticas alterados duas vezes maior que não-fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de que intervenções direcionadas à adoção de um estilo de vida saudável, incluindo prática regular de atividade física, padrões dietéticos adequados e abstenção ao uso de tabaco, deverão ser iniciadas em idades jovens.OBJECTIVE: To provide descriptive information and investigate to what extent behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are associated with biological risk factors in the young population. METHODS: The sample included 452 adolescents (246 girls and 206 boys

  1. Mitochondria-targeted agents: Future perspectives of mitochondrial pharmaceutics in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thekkuttuparambil; Ananthanarayanan; Ajith; Thankamani; Gopinathan; Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are one of the major sites for the genera-tion of reactive oxygen species(ROS) as an undesirable side product of oxidative energy metabolism. Damaged mitochondria can augment the generation of ROS. Dys-function of mitochondria increase the risk for a large number of human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases(CVDs). Heart failure(HF) following ischemic heart disease, infantile cardiomyopathy and cardiac hypertrophy associated with left ventricular dilations are some of the CVDs in which the role of mitochon-drial oxidative stress has been reported. Advances in mitochondrial research during the last decade focused on the preservation of its function in the myocardium, which is vital for the cellular energy production. Expe-rimental and clinical trials have been conducted using mitochondria-targeted molecules like: MnSOD mimetics, such as EUK-8, EUK-134 and MitoSOD; choline esters of glutathione and N-acetyl-L-cysteine; triphenylphospho-nium ligated vitamin E, lipoic acid, plastoquinone andmitoCoQ10; and Szeto-Schiller(SS)- peptides(SS-02 and SS-31). Although many results are inconclusive, some of the findings, especially on CoQ10, are worthwhile. This review summarizes the role of mitochondria-tar-geted delivery of agents and their consequences in the control of HF.

  2. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  3. Do behavioral responses mediate or moderate the relation between cardiovascular reactivity to stress and parental history of hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Nicole L; Larkin, Kevin T; Goodie, Jeffrey L

    2002-05-01

    To examine whether differences in behavioral responses to stress mediated or moderated the relation between cardiovascular response to stress and parental history of hypertension, 64 healthy undergraduates-16 men with hypertensive parents (PH+), 16 men without hypertensive parents (PH-), 16 PH+ women, and 16 PH- women-participated in a mental arithmetic task, mirror tracing task, and 2 interpersonal role plays. PH+ participants exhibited higher resting heart rates than PH- participants and higher resting systolic blood pressures (SBPs) than PH- women. PH+ participants exhibited greater SBP responses to tasks and engaged in more negative verbal and nonverbal behavior across tasks than PH- counterparts. Differences in behavioral responding neither mediated nor moderated the observed relation between parental history status and SBP response to stress.

  4. Why and when workplace ostracism inhibits organizational citizenship behaviors: an organizational identification perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Liu, Jun; Kwong Kwan, Ho; Lee, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Why and when do employees respond to workplace ostracism by withholding their engagement in citizenship behavior? Beyond perspectives proposed in past studies, we offer a new account based on a social identity perspective and propose that workplace ostracism decreases citizenship behavior by undermining employees’ identification with the organization. We also theorize that perceived job mobility influences the extent to which employees identify with the organization when being ostracized. The...

  5. Primary prevention with statins in cardiovascular diseases: A Saudi Arabian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, D; Jahan, K; Habibullah, K

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes one of the major causes of deaths and disabilities, globally claiming 17.3 million lives a year. Incidence of CVD is expected to rise to 25 million by 2030, and Saudi Arabia, already witnessing a rapid rise in CVDs, is no exception. Statins are the drugs of choice in established CVDs. In the recent past, evidence was increasingly suggesting benefits in primary prevention. But over the last decade Saudi Arabia has a witnessed significant rise in CVD-related deaths. Smoking, high-fat, low-fiber dietary intake, lack of exercise, sedentary life, high blood cholesterol and glucose levels were reported as frequent CVD-risk factors among Saudis, who may therefore be considered for primary prevention with statin. The prevalence of dyslipidemia, in particular, indicates that treatment should be directed at reducing the disorder with lipid-modifying agents and therapeutic lifestyle changes. The recent American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines has reported lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target levels, prescribed by the 2011 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). The new ACC/AHA guidelines have overemphasized the use of statin while ignoring lipid targets, and have recommended primary prevention with moderate-intensity statin to individuals with diabetes aged 40-75 years and with LDL-C 70-189 mg/dL. Treatment with statin was based on estimated 10-year atherosclerotic-CVD (ASCVD) risk in individuals aged 40-75 years with LDL-C 70 to 189 mg/dL and without clinical ASCVD or diabetes. Adoption of the recent ACC/AHA guidelines will lead to inclusion of a large population for primary prevention with statins, and would cause over treatment to some who actually would not need statin therapy but instead should have been recommended lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, adoption of this guideline may potentially increase the incidences

  6. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  7. p38 MAPK mediates cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by central IL-1β and footshock in conscious rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-mao ZHENG; Chang-jiang ZOU; Shi-gong ZHU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by intracerebral ventricular injection (icv) of interleukin- 1 β (IL- 1 β) or footshock.METHODS: We examined the effects of p38 MAPK on mean artery blood pressure (mABP), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA) during central administration of IL- 1 β, or footshock after icv SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of the p38 MAPK) with Cardiovascular and Behavior Telemetry System in conscious SD rats. RESULTS: (1) IL-1 β (icy) or footshock remarkably rise the mABP, and the maximal changes are (7.8± 1.8) and (12.3±3.5) mmHg,respectively, which was abrogated by the pretreatment with p38 inhibitor SB203580 intracerebroventricularly. (2)Compared with icv saline group, the motor activity was significantly decreased in SB203580 group with maximal changes (-7.6± 1.1) counts/min after footshock. CONCLUSION: p38 MAPK plays an important role in the pressor response induced by central administration of IL- 1 β or footshock and change of motor activity after footshock in conscious rats.

  8. Fatores de risco comportamentais acumulados para doenças cardiovasculares no sul do Brasil Factores de riesgo conductuales acumulados en enfermedades cardiovasculares en el sur de Brasil Accumulated behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Correa Muniz

    2012-06-01

    de base poblacional con muestra representativa de 2.732 adultos de ambos sexos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, en 2010. Los factores de riesgo conductuales investigados fueron: tabaquismo; inactividad física en las horas de ocio; consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne, e consumo diario de embutidos, carne roja y leche integral. El desenlace del estudio fue el escore de aglomeración de factores de riesgo conductuales, variando de cero a tres: ningún factor de riesgo conductual para enfermedades cardiovasculares o exposición a 1, 2 o > 3 factores de riesgo conductuales. Se realizó regresión logística multinomial para evaluar el efecto ajustado de las características individuales sobre la acumulación de factores de riesgo conductuales, teniendo como categoría de referencia individuos sin alguno de los factores. RESULTADOS: La inactividad física fue el factor de riesgo más prevaleciente (75,6%, seguido del consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne (52,3%. Dos tercios de la población presentaron dos o más factores de riesgo conductuales. La combinación de inactividad física y consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne ocurrió en 17,5% de la muestra; e inactividad física, consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne y tabaquismo, en 6,7%. Los odds ratios de acumulación de dos o más factores fueron mayores entre hombres y se asociaron inversamente con el indicador económico nacional. CONCLUSIONES: La acumulación de factores de riesgo conductuales en enfermedades cardiovasculares es elevada en la población estudiada. Son necesarias intervenciones públicas capaces de prevenir la ocurrencia simultánea de tales factores.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, accumulated risky behavior relating to cardiovascular diseases among adults. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 2732 adults of both sexes in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2010. The behavioral

  9. To total amount of activity. And beyond: Perspectives on measuring physical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs, and outcome parameters of physical behavior. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity and active lifestyle vs. sedentary behavior and sedentary lifestyle; Amount of phys

  10. Socially Situated Financial Markets: A Neo-Behavioral Perspective on Firms, Investors and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Naumovska (Ivana)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this dissertation I seek to redirect the conversation on stock market evaluations from the more traditional economic and behavioral finance theories, by proposing a neo-behavioral perspective, which views financial markets as socially situated. Specifically I combine

  11. Job Satisfaction: I/O Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Perspectives on job satisfaction and its relations with job performance among members of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology (IOP) and Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) cultures are identified and compared. Comparisons include vantage points of each culture on the roles of theory and data regarding the definitions of behavior, job…

  12. Behavioral Advantages of the First-Person Perspective Model for Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Rui; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Visuomotor information may be better conveyed through a first-person perspective than through a third-person perspective. However, few reports have shown a clear behavioral advantage of the first-person perspective because of the confounding factor of spatial stimulus-response compatibility. Most imitation studies have utilized visuospatial imitation tasks in which participants use the same body part as that used by the model, identified by its spatial position (i.e., the response action is predefined). In such studies, visuomotor information conveyed by the model does not appear to facilitate imitative behavior. We hypothesized that the use of the first-person perspective would facilitate more efficient imitative behavior than a third-person perspective when participants are asked to choose and reproduce an action identical to that of the model rather than to select the same body part; this task requires the analysis of both visual and motor information from the model rather than a simple assessment of spatial information. To test this hypothesis, we asked 15 participants to observe a model from two perspectives (first-person and third-person) with left or right hand laterality and to lift their index finger with an identical movement type (extension or flexion) as quickly as possible. Response latencies were shorter and fewer errors were made in trials using the first-person perspective than in those using the third-person perspective, regardless of whether the model used the right or left hand. These findings suggest that visuomotor information from the first-person perspective, without confounding effects of spatial information, facilitates efficient imitative behavior.

  13. Behavioral health providers' perspectives of delivering behavioral health services in primary care: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beehler Gregory P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-located, collaborative care (CCC is one component of VA’s model of Integrated Primary Care that embeds behavioral health providers (BHPs into primary care clinics to treat commonly occurring mental health concerns among Veterans. Key features of the CCC model include time-limited, brief treatments (up to 6 encounters of 30 minutes each and emphasis on multi-dimensional functional assessment. Although CCC is a mandated model of care, the barriers and facilitators to implementing this approach as identified from the perspective of BHPs have not been previously identified. Methods This secondary data analysis used interview data captured as part of a quality improvement project in 2008. Fourteen BHPs (48% of providers in a regional VA network agreed to participate in a 30-minute, semi-structured phone interview. The interview included questions about their perceived role as a CCC provider, depiction of usual practice styles and behaviors, and perceptions of typical barriers and facilitators to providing behavioral healthcare to Veterans in CCC. Interviews were transcribed verbatim into a text database and analyzed using grounded theory. Results Six main categories emerged from the analysis: (a Working in the VA Context, (b Managing Access to Care on the Front Line, (c Assessing a Care Trajectory, (d Developing a Local Integrated Model, (e Working in Collaborative Teams, and (f Being a Behavioral Health Generalist. These categories pointed to system, clinic, and provider level factors that impacted BHP’s role and ability to implement CCC. Across categories, participants identified ways in which they provided Veteran-centered care within variable environments. Conclusions This study provided a contextualized account of the experiences of BHP’s in CCC. Results suggest that these providers play a multifaceted role in delivering clinical services to Veterans while also acting as an interdependent component of the larger VA

  14. Cardiovascular risk behavior among students of a Medical College in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7% was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6% were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Students of a Medical College in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, N; Taneja, DK; Mishra, P; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7%) was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6%) were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students. PMID:21687382

  16. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and long-term cardiovascular risk in young people:A review and discussion of methodology in prospective studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakob Tarp; Jan Christian Brønd; Lars Bo Andersen; Niels Christian Møller; Karsten Froberg; Anders Grøntved

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of physical activity (PA) or sedentary behavior on cardiovascular health in young people are not well understood. In this study, we use a narrative format to review the evidence for a prospective association with adiposity and other well-established biological cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young people, considering only studies with at least 2 years of follow-up. PA appears to elicit a long-term beneficial effect on adiposity and particularly markers of cardiovascular health. With adiposity, however, a few studies also reported that higher levels of PA were associated with higher levels of adiposity. Time spent sedentary does not appear to be related to adiposity or markers of cardiovascular health independent of PA. We then discuss the uncertainties in the underlying causal chain and consider a number of alternative modeling strategies, which could improve our understanding of the relationship in future studies. Finally, we consider the current methodology for assessing PA and sedentary time.

  17. A Historical Perspective on the Future of Behavior Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Linda J; Fryling, Mitch J

    2015-10-01

    Like all natural sciences, behavior science has much to offer toward an understanding of the world. The extent to which the promise of behavior science is realized, though, depends upon the extent to which we keep what we know before us. This paper considers fundamental concepts in behavior science, including the concepts of behavior, stimulation, setting conditions, and language. In considering these concepts, we revisit comments from B. F. Skinner and J. R. Kantor and also consider some areas of behavior analytic research and the implications they have for reconsidering long-held assumptions about the analysis of behavior. We hope that, in considering our foundations, the vitality and strength of the discipline might be enhanced, our impact on science improved, and our future secured. PMID:27606169

  18. Perspectives on communicating health food behavior in health blogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain a better understanding of the meanings consumers attach to health food consumption. The phenomena was observed from the perspective of health food bloggers and in addition to how the bloggers communicated their health food behaviour, the role of word-of-mouth in electronic environment and companies’ word-of-mouth marketing was also investigated. The research was carried out using qualitative research methods and the empirical part of the stud...

  19. Examination of the Obesity Epidemic from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A. Tamlyn

    2009-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has doubled among adults and overweight has tripled among children since 1980. This article discusses behavioral approaches to the obesity epidemic, focusing on recent environmental changes, the resulting behaviors, and possible solutions. Over the last 4 decades, time spent in sedentary activities, the consumption of fast food,…

  20. "Correlates of Affectionate and Angry Behavior." Practitioner Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Notes that the most comforting finding in Mill and Romano- White's study was the high level of affectionate caregiver behaviors in early childhood settings. Suggests that a broader definition of anger might yield different results. Argues that the lack of a relationship between caregivers' self-esteem and angry or affectionate behavior contradicts…

  1. The Restructuring of Family Schemas: A Cognitive-Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapists define schemas as cognitive structures that organize thought and perception. Schemas are also viewed as having an integral influence on emotion and behavior. In this article, I examine the role of schema in family conflict and the specific interventions used in restructuring them during the course of family therapy.…

  2. Caregiver perspectives of memory and behavior changes in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia C; Dunbar, Sandra B; Aycock, Dawn M; Courtney, Elizabeth; Wolf, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    Post-stroke memory and behavior changes (MBC) are associated with negative outcomes for stroke survivors and caregivers. This article describes the types of MBC that occur most frequently and caregivers' responses to these behaviors. Data were obtained through in-person interviews and administration of questionnaires to 132 caregivers of first-time stroke survivors 3-9 months after stroke. MBC were measured with a modified version of a Memory and Behavior Problems checklist. On average, caregivers reported 7.7 +/- 3.6 (range 0-17) behaviors. Common stroke survivor MBC included appearing sad or depressed, interrupting the caregiver, and being restless or agitated. These MBC were distressing to caregivers. Caregivers may not recognize some MBC as potential symptoms of depression. In addition, caregiver misunderstanding of the amount of control survivors may have over some behaviors has implications for rehabilitation and caregivers' responses to these changes. PMID:16422042

  3. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Hua Huang; Shu-Ling Huang; Ren-Hau Li; Ling-Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Chen; Feng-Cheng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochem...

  4. Why and when workplace ostracism inhibits organizational citizenship behaviors: An organizational identification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Liu, Jun; Kwan, Ho Kwong; Lee, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    Why and when do employees respond to workplace ostracism by withholding their engagement in citizenship behavior? Beyond perspectives proposed in past studies, we offer a new account based on a social identity perspective and propose that workplace ostracism decreases citizenship behavior by undermining employees' identification with the organization. We also theorize that perceived job mobility influences the extent to which employees identify with the organization when being ostracized. These hypotheses were examined in two time-lagged studies conducted in China. The proposed hypotheses were supported by results in Study 1, and findings were generally replicated in Study 2, where effects of other known mediators (i.e., organization-based self-esteem, job engagement, and felt obligation toward the organization) and moderators (i.e., collectivism, power distance, and future orientation) suggested by previous perspectives were controlled. Results of Study 2 provided further support of the hypothesized directional effect of workplace ostracism on citizenship behavior via organizational identification. Our studies support the identification perspective in understanding workplace ostracism and also strengthen the application of this perspective in understanding workplace aggression broadly. PMID:26524112

  5. A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of the psychological contract framework to understanding organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) using survey data gathered at three measurement points over a three year period from 480 public sector employees. Separating perceived contract breach into its two components, the data suggest that perceived employer obligations explained unique variance in three dimensions of citizenship behavior (helping, advocacy and functional participation) beyond that a...

  6. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H; Galuska, Chad M; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although there is a fundamental discrepancy between these two approaches, the emerging neuroscience of reinforcement and choice behavior eventually may shed li...

  7. Corporate Governance and Ethical Behavior: A National Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel-Alin Ienciu

    2012-01-01

    Ethical behavior is an important aspect for the success of a company, as it influences its relations with various stakeholders. Our study reflects how the efficiency of the board of directors influences the ethical behavior of companies. We conclude stating that the efficiency of the board of directors, ensured by a sufficient number of members, by the predominance of independent non-executive members would lead to an efficient supervision of the executives, impeding the management from actin...

  8. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mascetti GG

    2016-01-01

    Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different s...

  9. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  10. Experiences and perceptions about cause and prevention of cardiovascular disease among people with cardiometabolic conditions: findings of in-depth interviews from a peri-urban Nepalese community

    OpenAIRE

    Oli, Natalia; Vaidya, Abhinav; Subedi, Madhusudan; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nepal currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Earlier studies on health literacy and the behavior dimension of cardiovascular health reported a substantial gap between knowledge and practice.Objective: This qualitative study aimed to deepen understanding of the community perspective on cardiovascular health from the patients’ viewpoint.Design: We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 13 individuals with confirmed heart disease, hypertension, or di...

  11. The Concept of Employee Engagement: A Comprehensive Review from a Positive Organizational Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Employee engagement has been understood from various academic and practical perspectives, mainly due to its recent popularity. This study explores not only positive movements--positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), and positive organizational behavior (POB)--as a background of engagement but also the conceptualization,…

  12. Inclusion Strategies for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems: Perspectives, Experiences, and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zionts, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents discussions of the practical implementation of inclusion principles with students having learning and/or behavioral problems and disorders. The chapters, arranged under two topical units, "Perspectives and Experiences" and "Best Practices" are: (1) "Inclusion: Chasing the Impossible Dream? Maybe" (Paul Zionts); (2) "Responsible…

  13. A CIT Investigation of Disruptive Student Behaviors: The Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on gaining a better understanding of how students negatively impact other students' classroom experience. More specifically, this research develops a typology of disruptive student behavior, including frequency of occurrence and the perceived magnitude of the disruption from a student perspective. Students also provide…

  14. Statin-centric versus low-density lipoprotein-centric approach for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease prevention: a Singapore perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peter; Tan, Eng Kiat Kevin; Choo, Jason Chon Jun; Liew, Choon Fong Stanley; Lau, Titus; Waters, David D

    2016-01-01

    The link between cholesterol levels and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is well-established. In Singapore, there is an increasing prevalence of risk factors for ASCVD. Like many Asian countries, Singapore’s population is rapidly ageing and increasingly sedentary, which predisposes individuals to chronic health problems. Current international and local guidelines recommend statin therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, despite the effectiveness of statin therapy, some studies have highlighted that Asian patients with cardiovascular disease are not achieving target lipid goals. Furthermore, it is widely believed that the responses of Asians (both patients and physicians) to statin therapy are different from those of their Western counterparts. Experts convened in 2014 to determine the impact of current guidelines on clinical practice in Singapore. This review summarises the key findings and recommendations of these guidelines, and presents key principles to aid clinicians to manage the cardiovascular risk of their patients more effectively. PMID:27439304

  15. British Philosopher Gilbert Ryle’s Perspective on Behaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BANCIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1890, William James’ manual, The principles of psychology, followed by Psychology (lectures in 1892, form the foundation of behaviorism. The same year, Animal life and intelligence by C. Lloyd Morgan correlates with James’ view, extending it to wildlife. The next step was taken by Lloyd Morgan, with the publication of An introduction to comparative psychology (1894, in which the issue of trial and error learning in animals receives a systematic approach, thus pointing research to a specific area and interpretive apparatus that will ultimately lead to the full crystallization of behaviorism’s ideas in the past century. The most prestigious version of behaviorism, that of psychological behaviorism, has strong historical roots; in this way, one can invoke the works of Aristotle (On Nature. Another version of behaviorism, like that suggested by Gilbert Ryle, is logical behaviorism. Long before that, however, classical British empiricists, led by John Locke (1632-1704 and David Hume (1711-1776, used associationist prescriptions to reveal cause-effect coupling in mental phenomena.

  16. Corporate Governance and Ethical Behavior: A National Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel-Alin Ienciu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethical behavior is an important aspect for the success of a company, as it influences its relations with various stakeholders. Our study reflects how the efficiency of the board of directors influences the ethical behavior of companies. We conclude stating that the efficiency of the board of directors, ensured by a sufficient number of members, by the predominance of independent non-executive members would lead to an efficient supervision of the executives, impeding the management from acting towards the maximization of their own interests and acting non-ethically.

  17. A sociogenomic perspective on neuroscience in organizational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Michael Spain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We critically examine the current biological models of individual organizational behavior, with particular emphasis on the roles of genetics and the brain. We demonstrate how approaches to biology in the organizational sciences assume that biological systems are simultaneously causal and essentially static; that genotypes exert constant effects. In contrast, we present a sociogenomic approach to organizational research, which could provide a meta-theoretical framework for understanding organizational behavior. Sociogenomics is an interactionist approach that derives power from its ability to explain how genes and environment operate. The key insight is that both genes and the environment operate by modifying gene expression. This leads to a conception of genetic and environmental effects that is fundamentally dynamic, rather than the static view of classical biometric approaches. We review biometric research within organizational behavior, and contrast these interpretations with a sociogenomic view. We provide a review of gene expression mechanisms that help explain the dynamism observed in individual organizational behavior, particularly factors associated with gene expression in the brain. Finally, we discuss the ethics of genomic and neuroscientific findings for practicing managers and discuss whether it is possible to practically apply these findings in management.

  18. Emissions trading for households? : A behavioral law and economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Bolderdijk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first research article on expanding emissions trading in the EU to households in which law and economics is explicitly and systematically combined with behavioral science. The goal of the article is neither to plead in favor nor against emissions trading for households, but rather to pro

  19. A dynamic-logical perspective on quantum behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baltag; S. Smets

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show how recent concepts from Dynamic Logic, and in particular from Dynamic Epistemic logic, can be used to model and interpret quantum behavior. Our main thesis is that all the non-classical properties of quantum systems are explainable in terms of the non-classical flow of quantum

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter

    2001-01-01

    Eight experts in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) provide personal examples of their own successes and failures in applying REBT to themselves. The experts actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts. (GCP)

  1. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  2. A developmental behavior-genetic perspective on alcoholism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R J

    1998-01-01

    Although behavioral problems associated with abuse of alcohol emerge during late adolescence and adulthood, some behavioral characteristics indicative of an increased risk of alcoholism may already be obvious during early childhood. Studies in several countries have demonstrated that children with high levels of novelty-seeking behavior and low levels of harm-avoidance behavior are more likely to develop alcohol-related problems during adolescence. Moreover, as early as age 3, children at high risk of future alcoholism because of a family history are more active, more impatient, and more aggressive than matched controls of low-risk children. Causal influences on the initiation of drinking must be distinguished from those that affect patterns of consumption once drinking is initiated. Studies of adolescent twins have demonstrated that initiation of drinking is primarily influenced by the drinking status of parents, siblings, and friends and by socioregional differences in the environments within which adolescent twins reside. The influence of genetic factors is negligible. Conversely, once initiated, differences in frequency and quantity of drinking are strongly influenced by genetic factors. However, these influences, too, are modulated by sibling and peer effects and by regional environmental variation. PMID:15706788

  3. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  4. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes’ closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  5. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  6. Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: unified perspective on personality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, N L; MacDonald, K B

    1998-04-01

    Behavioral geneticists and evolutionary psychologists have generally pursued human behavioral analyses with little theoretical or methodological exchange. However, significant benefits might accrue from increased communication between these disciplines. The primary goals of this article are (1) to identify meaningful junctures between behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, (2) to describe behavioral genetic research designs and their applications to evolutionary analyses, and (3) to reassess current personality research in light of behavioral genetic and evolutionary concepts and techniques. The five-factor model of personality is conceptualized as subsuming variation in normative species-typical systems with adaptive functions in the human environment of evolutionary adaptation. Considered as universal evolved mechanisms, personality systems are often seen in dynamic conflict within individuals and as highly compartmentalized in their functioning between settings. However, genetically influenced individual differences in personality may also be understood within an evolutionary framework. Studies of the heritability of personality traits indicate broad-sense heritabilities in the 0.40-0.50 range with evidence of substantial nonadditive genetic variation and nonshared environmental influences. Evidence indicates that evolutionary theory (e.g., inclusive fitness theory) predicts patterns of social interaction (e.g., cooperation and bereavement) in relatives. Furthermore, variation in personality may constitute a range of viable strategies matching the opportunities available in the complex niche environment of human societies. Within this wide range of viable strategies, personality variation functions as a resource environment for individuals in the sense that personality variation is evaluated according to the interests of the evaluator (e.g., friendships, coalitions, or mate choice).

  7. Relational correlates of interpersonal citizenship behavior: a social network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Wm Matthew; Brass, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of social network ties in the performance and receipt of interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB), one form of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). A field study involving 141 employees of a manufacturing firm provided evidence that social network ties are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. Results support hypothesized relationships, which are based on social exchange theory, suggesting strength of friendship is related to performance and receipt of ICB. Support was also found for impression management-based hypotheses suggesting that asymmetric influence and 3rd-party influence are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. These relationships were significant when controlling for job satisfaction, commitment, procedural justice, hierarchical level, demographic similarity, and job similarity. Implications and directions for future research are addressed. PMID:16435939

  8. Ras- ERK signaling in behavior: old questions and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eFasano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of Ras-ERK signaling in behavioral plasticity is well established. Inhibition studies using the blood-brain barrier permeable drug SL327 have conclusively demonstrated that this neuronal cell signaling cascade is a crucial component of the synaptic machinery implicated in the formation of various forms of long-term memory, from spatial learning to fear and operant conditioning. However, abnormal Ras-ERK signaling has also been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including mental retardation syndromes (RASopathies, drug addiction and L-DOPA induced Dyskinesia (LID. The work recently done on these brain disorders has pointed to previously underappreciated roles of Ras-ERK in specific subsets of neurons, like GABAergic interneurons of the hippocampus or the cortex, as well as in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we will highlight the open questions related to Ras-ERK signaling in these behavioral manifestations and propose crucial experiments for the future.

  9. Political behavior, social responsibility, and perceived corruption: a structuration perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yadong Luo

    2006-01-01

    This study unites the three lenses – political behavior, corporate social responsibility, and corruption – and evaluates the way in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) manage political and social forces in a foreign emerging market. Using the theory of structuration as the conceptual foundation, we propose that an MNE's propensity to cooperate with the host government is positively related to its philanthropic contribution and resource accommodation, whereas its propensity to be assertive ...

  10. THE PERCEIVED ETHICAL BEHAVIOR OF BANKERS: A NORTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa M’SALLEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the impact of the ethical dimension of selling behavior on some marketing relational variables in the banking sector: satisfaction, trust, commitment and loyalty. Structural equations modelling (SEM is used to assess the simultaneous effects of the predictive variables. An empirical survey confirms the impact of the ethical dimension on the trust. The satisfaction has an effect on the customer trust which influences his commitment and loyalty.

  11. A sociogenomic perspective on neuroscience in organizational behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Spain, Seth M.; Harms, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    We critically examine the current biological models of individual organizational behavior, with particular emphasis on the roles of genetics and the brain. We demonstrate how approaches to biology in the organizational sciences assume that biological systems are simultaneously causal and essentially static; that genotypes exert constant effects. In contrast, we present a sociogenomic approach to organizational research, which could provide a meta-theoretical framework for understanding organi...

  12. A BEHAVIORAL FINANCE PERSPECTIVE OF THE EFFICIENT MARKET HYPOTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Oprean

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, a central theme in the finance and economic theory is market efficiency. After several decades of research, economists have not yet reached a consensus about the existence of efficient financial markets in terms of information. In the problematized approaches regarding the treated subject, one can find the inquiries on the validity of assumptions underlying the informational efficiency theory of the financial market. The emerging discipline of behavioral economics and finance has ch...

  13. Managing sedentary behavior to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Owen, Neville; Biddle, Stuart J H; Dunstan, David W

    2014-01-01

    Modern human environments are vastly different from those of our forebears. Rapidly advancing technology in transportation, communications, workplaces, and home entertainment confer a wealth of benefits, but increasingly come with costs to human health. Sedentary behavior-too much sitting as distinct from too little physical activity-contributes adversely to cardiometabolic health outcomes and premature mortality. Findings from observational epidemiology have been synthesized in meta-analyses, and evidence is now shifting into the realm of experimental trials with the aim of identifying novel mechanisms and potential causal relationships. We discuss recent observational and experimental evidence that makes a compelling case for reducing and breaking up prolonged sitting time in both the primary prevention and disease management contexts. We also highlight future research needs, the opportunities for developing targeted interventions, and the potential of population-wide initiatives designed to address too much sitting as a health risk. PMID:25052856

  14. DETERMINANTS OF PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOR REGARDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Platonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze potential determinants of preventive behavior (PB in patients with essential hypertension (HT and chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD, and to establish their significance and hierarchy. Material and methods. Patients with HT (n=285 and CIHD (n=223 were studied. Questioning of all patients was performed to assess the characteristics of their PB. Differentiated multivariate analysis of activity and efficacy of PB determinants was performed in HT and CIHD patients by the method of step-by-step backward logistic regression. Results. Awareness of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD and its prevention (odds ratio [OR] 6.08 as well as high level of general education (OR=2.29 were the most significant determinants of active PB in HT patients. Sufficient social support (OR=3.77, awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR=3.16 were the most significant determinants of active PB in patients with CIHD. Efficacy of PB in patients with HT and CIHD mostly depends on satisfaction of medical service (OR=10.2 and 6.63, respectively, social support (OR=6.25 and 10.5, respectively, adequate awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR, 6.92 and 6.64, respectively. Conclusion. PB activity and efficacy in patients with HT and CIHD depends on many contributing and impeding factors. Disregarding these factors can result in failure in preventive efforts at both individual and population levels.

  15. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects produced by administration of liposome-entrapped GABA into the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, G C; Bahia, A P C O; de Figueiredo Müller-Ribeiro, F C; Xavier, C H; Patel, K P; Santos, R A S; Moreira, F A; Frézard, F; Fontes, M A P

    2015-01-29

    Liposomes are nanosystems that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). We developed a liposomal formulation of GABA for application in long-term CNS functional studies. Two days after liposome-entrapped GABA was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), Wistar rats were submitted to the following evaluations: (1) changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) to ICV injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) in anesthetized rats; (2) changes in cardiovascular reactivity to air jet stress in conscious rats; and (3) anxiety-like behavior in conscious rats. GABA and saline-containing pegylated liposomes were prepared with a mean diameter of 200 nm. Rats with implanted cannulas targeted to lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 5-8/group) received either GABA solution (GS), empty liposomes (EL) or GABA-containing liposomes (GL). Following (48 h) central microinjection (2 μL, 0.09 M and 99 g/L) of liposomes, animals were submitted to the different protocols. Animals that received GL demonstrated attenuated response of RSNA to BMI microinjection (GS 48 ± 9, EL 43 ± 9, GL 11 ± 8%; P central nervous system.

  16. Fatores de risco cardiovasculares em adolescentes: indicadores biológicos e comportamentais Cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: biological and behavioral indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes; Joana Elisabete Ribeiro Pinto Guedes; Decio Sabbatini Barbosa; Jair Aparecido de Oliveira; Luiz Cláudio Reeberg Stanganelli

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Oferecer informações descritivas e investigar a extensão com que os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares de natureza comportamental estão associados aos fatores de risco biológicos na população jovem. MÉTODOS: Amostra de 452 adolescentes (246 moças e 206 rapazes) com idades entre 15 e 18 anos, selecionados de uma escola de ensino médio da cidade de Londrina, Paraná. Fatores de risco de natureza comportamental foram analisados mediante prática insuficiente de atividade físi...

  17. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  18. Perspectives of cardiac care unit nursing staff about developing hospice services in iran for terminally ill cardiovascular patients: A qualitative study

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    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was conducted aiming to determine the points of view of cardiac care units′ nursing staff about designing and providing Hospice services in Iran for cardiovascular patients in the final stages of life. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, the perspectives of 16 Cardiac Care Unit (CCU nurses selected purposefully among hospitals of Tabriz-Iran University of Medical Sciences were investigated using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed in content analysis method. Results: 33 themes were finally extracted. Some nurses were for and some were against designing and providing Hospice services in Iran. The main reasons identified for supporting this plan included: Possibility of designing and providing these services consistent with high ethical values of Iranian society; approval of authorities due to increasing the load of chronic diseases and aged population; need of families due to the problems in taking care of patients and life concerns; better pain relief and respectful death; decrease of costs as a result of lower usage of diagnostic-therapeutic services, less use of expensive facilities and drugs, and better usage of hospital beds. Conclusion: Growing load of chronic diseases has made the need for Hospice as a necessary issue in Iran. In order to provide these services, studying the viewpoints of health service providers is inevitable. Therefore using and applying the results of this study in planning and policy making about designing and providing these services in Iran for cardiovascular patients in their final stages of lives could be helpful.

  19. Disruptive Behaviors in an Emergency Department: the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Rosenstein, Alan H; Akaberi, Arash; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED).This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%). In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%), job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%), quality of care (72%), and errors (70%). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors.

  20. Disruptive Behaviors in an Emergency Department: the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maddineshat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED.This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%. In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%, job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%, quality of care (72%, and errors (70%. Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors.

  1. Test of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of an E-Mail Marketing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Menon, R. G. Vishnu; Sigurdarson, Johannes Pall; Kristjansson, Jon Skafti; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    An e-mail marketing experiment based on the behavioral perspective model was conducted to investigate consumer choice. Conversion e-mails were sent to two groups from the same marketing database of registered consumers interested in children's books. The experiment was based on A-B-A-C-A and A-C-A-B-A withdrawal designs and consisted of…

  2. Adherence With Therapeutic Regimens: Behavioral and Pharmacoeconomic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Vincent J; Kamal, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    There is an extensive literature regarding nonadherence with both therapeutic regimens and medication. This literature includes reviews of empirical research regarding the factors associated with nonadherence. Health care system, provider, and patient factors as well as the nature of the illness and therapeutic regimen all effect adherence rates. Different behavioral models for adherence counseling such as the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Medication Interest Model, and Motivational Interviewing have also been reported in the research literature. This article will discuss the development of a brief model for patient counseling with specific techniques illustrated for pharmacists based on empirical findings that have demonstrated effectiveness in the adherence research literature. In addition, the article will address the measurement of the economic impact of medication nonadherence and propose a framework for assessing the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist counseling to increase adherence. The problem of nonadherence has significant effects upon health care expenditures through increase in physician's visits, emergency department incidents, rehospitalizations, and nursing home readmissions. Thus, the overall goal is to assist the pharmacist in developing a brief adherence counseling program in community pharmacy and evaluating the economic feasibility of the intervention demonstrating the value-added proposition of pharmacist intervention. PMID:25292442

  3. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and long-term cardiovascular risk in young people: A review and discussion of methodology in prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tarp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of physical activity (PA or sedentary behavior on cardiovascular health in young people are not well understood. In this study, we use a narrative format to review the evidence for a prospective association with adiposity and other well-established biological cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young people, considering only studies with at least 2 years of follow-up. PA appears to elicit a long-term beneficial effect on adiposity and particularly markers of cardiovascular health. With adiposity, however, a few studies also reported that higher levels of PA were associated with higher levels of adiposity. Time spent sedentary does not appear to be related to adiposity or markers of cardiovascular health independent of PA. We then discuss the uncertainties in the underlying causal chain and consider a number of alternative modeling strategies, which could improve our understanding of the relationship in future studies. Finally, we consider the current methodology for assessing PA and sedentary time.

  4. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-04-29

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  5. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

  6. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  7. Perspectives on Some Controversies in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment in the Pharmaceutical Development of Glucose-Lowering Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogwerf, Byron J; Manner, David H; Fu, Haoda; Moscarelli, Elena; Gaydos, Brenda L; Heine, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance on requirements to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with drugs being developed for approval for clinical use. The guidance was triggered by a meta-analysis published by Nissen and Wolski that suggested an increased risk for myocardial infarction with the use of rosiglitazone. This article discusses controversies around CVD trials in diabetes beginning with the University Group Diabetes Program. This is followed by a brief description of the FDA guidance for evaluating CVD risk with glucose-lowering medications. Limitations of meta-analyses of data from phase 2 and 3 (phase 2/3) trials to inform CVD risk are highlighted. These include the differences between patient characteristics in phase 2/3 trials and those in cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) and the relatively short exposure time in phase 2/3 trials. The differences may partly explain the observed disparity between phase 2/3 meta-analyses and the results of completed CVOTs. Approaches to understanding CVD risk with a new medication should get to the answer about risk as efficiently as possible to minimize any potential harm to patients. In that context, we discuss options for clinical trial design and an alternative approach for statistical analyses. PMID:27440836

  8. Why are there social gradients in preventative health behavior? A perspective from behavioral ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within affluent populations, there are marked socioeconomic gradients in health behavior, with people of lower socioeconomic position smoking more, exercising less, having poorer diets, complying less well with therapy, using medical services less, ignoring health and safety advice more, and being less health-conscious overall, than their more affluent peers. Whilst the proximate mechanisms underlying these behavioral differences have been investigated, the ultimate causes have not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper presents a theoretical model of why socioeconomic gradients in health behavior might be found. I conjecture that lower socioeconomic position is associated with greater exposure to extrinsic mortality risks (that is, risks that cannot be mitigated through behavior, and that health behavior competes for people's time and energy against other activities which contribute to their fitness. Under these two assumptions, the model shows that the optimal amount of health behavior to perform is indeed less for people of lower socioeconomic position. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The model predicts an exacerbatory dynamic of poverty, whereby the greater exposure of poor people to unavoidable harms engenders a disinvestment in health behavior, resulting in a final inequality in health outcomes which is greater than the initial inequality in material conditions. I discuss the assumptions of the model, and its implications for strategies for the reduction of health inequalities.

  9. Educational attainment and life expectancy: a perspective from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittel, Michael L; Riley, William T; Kaplan, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    The NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) furthers the mission of the NIH by stimulating behavioral and social sciences research throughout NIH and integrating these areas of research more fully into the NIH health research enterprise, thereby improving our understanding, treatment, and prevention of disease. OBSSR accomplishes this mission through several strategic priorities: (1) supporting the next generation of basic behavioral and social sciences research, (2) facilitating interdisciplinary research, (3) promoting a multi-level systems perspective of health and behavior, and (4) encouraging a problem-focused perspective on population health.

  10. Council Clinical Perspective: Cardiovascular Health of Patients with Cancer and Cancer Survivors: A Roadmap to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Ana; Murtagh, Gillian; Carver, Joseph R.; Chen, Ming Hui; Freeman, Andrew M.; Herrmann, Joerg; Iliescu, Cezar; Ky, Bonnie; Mayer, Erica L.; Okwuosa, Tochi M.; Plana, Juan Carlos; Ryan, Thomas D.; Rzeszut, Anne K.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2015-01-01

    Many existing and emerging cancer therapies have significant impact on the cardiovascular (CV) health of patients with cancer and cancer survivors. This manuscript examines current aspects of interdisciplinary cardio-oncology clinical care delivery and education in the United States and outlines how these data provide a platform for future development of the field. We present the results of the nationwide survey on cardio-oncology services, practices and opinions, conducted among Chiefs of Cardiology and Program Directors, that demonstrate ranges of clinical activities and identify significant interest for increased educational opportunities and expert training of CV physicians in this field. The survey respondents recognized clinical relevance, but emphasized lack of national guidelines, lack of funds, and limited awareness and infrastructure as the main challenges for development and growth of cardio-oncology. We discuss potential solutions to unmet needs through interdisciplinary collaboration and the active roles of professional societies and other stakeholders. PMID:26112199

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Burden: Evolving Knowledge of Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction and Stroke through Population-Based Research and Perspectives in Global Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO B.F. OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge and research perspectives on the top ranking causes of mortality worldwide, i.e., ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases have developed rapidly. In fact, until recently, it was considered that only half of the myocardial infarctions were due to traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and diabetes. In addition, most of the available evidence of incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes, if not all of it, was derived from studies conducted in developed countries, which included lower proportion of female individuals and with low ethnic diversity. Recent reports by the WHO have provided striking public health information, i.e., the global burden of cardiovascular mortality for the next decades is expected to predominantly occur among developing countries. Therefore, multi-ethnic population-based research including prospective cohorts and, when appropriate, case-control studies, is warranted. These studies should be specifically designed to ascertain key public health measures such as geographic variations in noncommunicable diseases, diagnosis of traditional and potential newly discovered risk factors, causes of death and disability, and gaps for improvement in healthcare prevention (both primary and secondary and specific treatments. As an example, a multinational, multiethnic population-based cohort study is the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is the largest global initiative of 150,000 adults aged 35-70 yrs, looking at environmental, societal and biological influences on obesity and chronic health conditions such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and cancer among urban and rural communities in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with national, community, household and individual-level data. Implementation of population-based strategies is crucial to optimizing limited health system resources while improving care and cardiovascular morbidity

  12. A new perspective on behavioral inconsistency and neural noise in aging: Compensatory speeding of neural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lee Hong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to present a new perspective on the aging brain. Here, we make connections between two key phenomena of brain aging: 1 increased neural noise or random background activity; and 2 slowing of brain activity. Our perspective proposes the possibility that the slowing of neural processing due to decreasing nerve conduction velocities leads to a compensatory speeding of neuron firing rates. These increased firing rates lead to a broader distribution of power in the frequency spectrum of neural oscillations, which we propose, can just as easily be interpreted as neural noise. Compensatory speeding of neural activity, as we present, is constrained by the: A availability of metabolic energy sources; and B competition for frequency bandwidth needed for neural communication. We propose that these constraints lead to the eventual inability to compensate for age-related declines in neural function that are manifested clinically as deficits in cognition, affect, and motor behavior.

  13. The Covariation of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Adolescence: A Behavioral Genetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom; Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate genetic studies have revealed genetic correlations between antisocial behavior (ASB) and substance use (SU). However, ASB is heterogeneous, and it remains unclear whether all forms are similarly related to SU. The present study examines links between cannabis use, alcohol consumption, and aggressive and delinquent forms of ASB using a…

  14. To total amount of activity….. and beyond: perspectives on measuring physical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Johannes B J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs, and outcome parameters of physical behavior. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity and active lifestyle vs. sedentary behavior and sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture and movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioral context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behavior vs. physiological response. Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided by data reduction procedures are discussed: Distribution of length of bouts; Variability in bout length; Time window; Intensity and intensity threshold. The overview indicates that physical behavior is a multi-dimensional construct, and it stresses the importance and relevance of constructs and parameters other than total amount of physical activity. It is concluded that the challenge for the future will be to determine which parameters are most relevant, valid and responsive. This is a matter for physical behavior researchers to consider, that is critical to multi-disciplinary collaboration.

  15. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed.

  16. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. PMID:26902519

  17. Acquisition and analysis of cardiovascular signals on smartphones: potential, pitfalls and perspectives: by the Task Force of the e-Cardiology Working Group of European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruining, Nico; Caiani, Enrico; Chronaki, Catherine; Guzik, Przemyslaw; van der Velde, Enno

    2014-11-01

    Smartphones, mobile applications ('apps'), social media, analytics, and the cloud are profoundly changing the practice of medicine and the way health decisions are made. With the constant progress of technology, the measurement of vital signals becomes easier, cheaper, and practically a standard approach in clinical practice. The interest in measuring vital signals goes beyond medical professionals to the general public, patients, informal caregivers, and healthy individuals, who frequently lack any formal medical training. On smartphone platforms such as iOS and Android, a proliferation of health or medical 'apps' acquire and analyse a variety of vital signs through embedded sensors, interconnected devices or peripherals utilising on occasion analytics and social media. Smartphone vendors compete with traditional medical device manufacturers in the grey area between health care, wellness, and fitness, as US and EU regulatory bodies are setting and revising rules for these new technologies. On the other hand, in the absence of robust validation results, clinicians are hesitant to trust measurements by apps or recommend specific apps to their patients, partly also due to lack of a cost reimbursement policy. This review focuses on the acquisition and analysis on smartphones of three important vital signs in the cardiovascular and respiratory field as well as in rehabilitation i.e. heart or pulse rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation. The potential, pitfalls, and perspectives on mobile devices and smartphone apps for health management by patients and healthy individuals are discussed. PMID:25354948

  18. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Activity Behavior among Elementary School Personnel: Baseline Results from the ACTION! Worksite Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Larry S.; Rice, Janet C.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rose, Donald; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing during adulthood, there have been few assessments of obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, and levels of physical activity among adult elementary school staff. Methods: Data were collected from 745 African-American and White female school personnel in a suburban school district in…

  20. Analysis of internationalization process of IBQ Britanite under the perspective of the behavioral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Dal-Soto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of internationalization of companies has proceeded in different ways and contexts. Among the models that guide and explain the moves made by companies into the international market, this study is on the behavioral perspective of internationalization theories  The main objective of this paper is to analyze, in the light of the theoretical assumptions of the behavioral approach, the process of internationalization of IBQ Britanite, leader in the Brazilian civil explosives and providing services in blasting rocks . Therefore, the study is characterized by bias qualitative study using a single case study that answers the five questions of the internationalization process: why, what, when, where and how companies internationalize their activities. The results show that the process of internationalization of the company came to advantages gained both domestically and restrictions growth. Throughout his international career, the company gradually progressed in export activities, and also for stages greater commitment to the foreign market through joint ventures and production subsidiary.

  1. Relating spatial perspective taking to the perception of other's affordances: providing a foundation for predicting the future behavior of others

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah H Creem-Regehr; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what another agent can see relates functionally to the understanding of what they can do. We propose that spatial perspective taking and perceiving other's affordances, while two separate spatial processes, together share the common social function of predicting the behavior of others. Perceiving the action capabilities of others allows for a common understanding of how agents may act together. The ability to take another's perspective focuses an understanding of action goals so...

  2. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  3. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  4. Generational Perspectives of Unprotected Sex and Sustainable Behavior Change in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaechi D. Okonkwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the HIV/AIDS pandemic and over two decades of safe-sex communication and condom social marketing in Nigeria, unmarried people continue to engage in unprotected sex. Understanding their perspectives of unprotected sex will be imperative for sustainable policy and intervention design. To realize this objective, the author synthesized Giddens’s structuration theory and Rob Stones’s structurationist project research brackets to develop a long interview guide used to elicit unmarried university students’ perspectives of influences on unprotected sex, and the feasibility of sustainable behavior change in Nigeria. Participants’ constructed unprotected sex as prescripted, and the cumulative outcome of complex institutional (structural, interpersonal, and agential influences. Their narratives challenge the popular but narrow loss of control, sensation-seeking, and ignorance theses of unprotected sex. Instead, participants’ narratives implicate an interrelated web of persuasive and insidious institutional and agential influences, in a manner that privilege neither structure nor agency. To promote safer sexual practices therefore, stakeholders must concurrently engage with institutional and agential influences on unprotected sex—and not focus on unmarried people’s sexual agencies alone, as current interventions do in Nigeria.

  5. Prediction and Cross-Situational Consistency of Daily Behavior across Cultures: Testing Trait and Cultural Psychology Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.; Salanga, Maria Guadalupe C.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Adams, Nerissa B.

    2008-01-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on the cross-situational consistency of behavior, and the predictive validity of traits, were tested in a daily process study in the United States (N = 68), an individualistic culture, and the Philippines (N = 80), a collectivistic culture. Participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and a measure of self-monitoring, then reported their daily behaviors and associated situational contexts for approximately 30 da...

  6. A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…

  7. Observing Engineering Student Teams from the Organization Behavior Perspective Using Linguistic Analysis of Student Reflections and Focus Group Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…

  8. Do brooding and polygamy behaviors exist on Cretaceous oviraptoroid dinosaurs of China: a paleobiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.-R.; Cheng, Y.-N.; Yang, K.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Brooding, parental care, and polygamy represent three different stages in bird's reproduction. The oringin of these behaviors is still in debate. Several samples excavated from China strengthen the phylogenetic relationship between birds and dinosaurs, for example, feathered dinosaurs, paired-eggs in pelvic region of an oviraptorid dinosaur, and small theropod fossils. Previous studies in past two decades, including an oviraptor sitting on a clutch and comparison of the ratio of clutch-volume to adult-body-size between Aves and Mesozoic dinosaurs, proposed that these behaviors had appeared on some Cretaceous theropods (e.g., oviraptor and troodon). These researches also indicate the possibility of endothermy and male care first. In conclusion, this reproduction strategy might support females having more remnant energy to build a larger clutch contributed eggs from multiple females, and brooded by males only. From our cluster analysis through paleoecological perspectives, the eggs in Cretaceous oviraptor's nest should not be corporately laid by multiple females. In morphological observation, the fossilized clutches from Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Mainland China, are 2-layered interbeded with matrix of reddish-brown siltstone or clays. The inner-layer eggs are hampered from directly contacting with adult dinosaurs body. Furthermore, the blunt ends of the eggs point to the center, and incline away forming a mound-shape nest, which is completely different from those of precocial and male-caring megapode. The ornamentation of eggshell surface and microstructures from thin sections of eggs from oviraptors and ostrich (Struthioniformes) are totally different. Comparison of thickness in different part of oviraptor's egg also reveal possible physiological structure in the egg and ecological behaviors. The detailed comparison implies that the Mesozoic oviraptoroid dinosaurs hold absolutely different incubation and caring behaviors from extant birds. We propose an alternative

  9. Parents’ Empathic Perspective Taking and Altruistic Behavior predicts Infants’ Arousal to Others’ Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Boone Upshaw

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy emerges in children’s overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others’ emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants’ arousal towards others’ emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants’ (n = 49 pupillary changes in response to another infant’s emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants’ pupil dilation in response to others’ emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others’ emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal towards others’ emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents’ empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors.

  10. Parents’ empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants’ arousal to others’ emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela B.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children’s overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others’ emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants’ arousal toward others’ emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants’ (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant’s emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants’ pupil dilation in response to others’ emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others’ emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others’ emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents’ empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors. PMID:25883577

  11. Parents' empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants' arousal to others' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela B; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children's overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others' emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants' arousal toward others' emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants' (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant's emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants' pupil dilation in response to others' emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others' emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others' emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents' empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors.

  12. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  13. Down syndrome: a cardiovascular perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Vis; M.G.J. Duffels; M.M. Winter; M.E. Weijerman; J.M. Cobben; S.A. Huisman; B.J.M. Mulder

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skilful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart

  14. Histamine as a punisher in squirrel monkeys: effects of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide and H1- and H2-receptor antagonists on behavior and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S R

    1980-09-01

    Squirrel monkeys pressed a key under a two-component, 30-response fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation. In both nonpunishment and punishment components, every 30th key-pressing response resulted in food presentation. In the punishment component, the 11th and 22nd response in each 30-response fixed-ratio also produced a 200msec i.v. injection of 30 to 100 microgram/kg of histamine; this resulted in about an 80% suppression of responding in the punishment component. A second group of squirrel monkeys, with arterial catheters for monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate, received automatic i.v. injections of 30 and 100 microgram/kg of histamine; key presses had no programmed consequences. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 5 to 20 min Hg and heart rate increased by 60 to 120 beats/min after each injection of histamine. As an effective punisher, histamine was functionally similar to other noxious stimuli such as electric shock. Behavior suppressed by histamine could be markedly increased by presession i.m. treatment with pentobarbital (3-5.6 mg/kg) or chlordiazepoxide (10-30 mg/kg). Presession i.m. treatment with 1 to 3 mg/kg of the H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, reversed the punishment effects of histamine but only enhanced the cardiovascular effects of histamine. In contrast, 10 to 30 mg/kg of the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, failed to reverse the punishment effects of histamine but markedly attenuated the cardiovascular effects of histamine. Thus, histamine's suppression of responding appeared to be an H1 effect and did not appear to be related to its effects on blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:6105208

  15. Effects of Emotional Stimuli on Cardiovascular Responses in Patients with Essential Hypertension Based on Brain/Behavioral Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Taban Sadeghi; Hossein Namdar; Shahram Vahedi; Naser Aslanabadi; Davoud Ezzati; Babak Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Effects of emotional stimuli on hemodynamics in patients with essential hypertension based on brain/behavioral systems have not been studied broadly. Methods: Eighty five essential hypertensive male patients who had completed Carver-White BIS/BAS scale were enrolled to the study. Later, 25 BIS and 25 BAS patients were selected and their blood pressure and heart rate were recorded prior to stimuli induction. Participants were then exposed to stressor pictures. After that, 15 m...

  16. Therapist and patient perspectives on cognitive-behavioral therapy for older adults with hoarding disorder: A collective case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayers, Catherine R.; Bratiotis, Christiana; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a qualitative approach, the current study explored therapist and patient perspectives on a specialized cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for clinically significant hoarding in older adult patients. Data were derived from the following sources: (1) therapist observation; (2) CBT consultant observation; (3) clinical treatment notes; (4) participant feedback, including a focus group; and (5) participant in-session notes and completed homework assignments. Our findings showed ...

  17. Human factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morris Gordon,1,2 Ken Catchpole,3 Paul Baker1,41Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, UK; 3Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4North Western Deanery, Manchester, UKBackground: Junior doctors are at high risk of involvement in medication errors. Educational interventions to enhance human factors and specifically nontechnical skills in health care are increasingly reported, but there is no work in the context of prescribing improvement to guide such education. We set out to determine the elements that influence prescribing from a human factors perspective by recent medical graduates and use this to guide education in this area.Methods: A total of 206 recent medical graduates of the North Western Foundation School were asked to describe their views on safety practices and behaviors. Free text data regarding prescribing behaviors were collected 1, 2, and 4 months after starting their posts. A 94.1% response rate was achieved. Qualitative analysis of data was completed using the constant comparison method. Five initial categories were developed, and the researchers subsequently developed thematic indices according to their understanding of the emerging content of the data. Further data were collected through group interviews 8–9 months into the placement to ensure thematic saturation.Results: Six themes were established at the axial coding level, ie, contributors to inappropriate prescribing, contributors to appropriate prescribing, professional responsibility, prescribing error, current practices, and methods for improvement of prescribing. Utilizing appropriate theoretical elements, we describe how recent medical graduates employ situational and error awareness to guide risk assessment.Conclusion: We have modeled the human factors of prescribing behavior by recent medical graduates. As these factors are related to

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  19. Conceptual framework for research and clinical practice concerning cardiovascular health-related behaviors Modelo conceptual para la investigación y la práctica clínica en los cambios de comportamiento en salud cardiovascular Estrutura conceitual para pesquisa e prática clínica na mudança de comportamentos em saúde cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme Gallani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a conceptual framework based on the PRECEDE model conceived to guide research and the clinical practice of nurses in the clinical follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases. METHOD: The conceptual bases as well as the study designs used in the framework are discussed. The contextualization of the proposed structure is presented in the clinical follow-up of hypertensive patients. Examples of the intervention planning steps according to the intervention mapping protocol are provided. RESULTS: This conceptual framework coherently and rationally guided the diagnostic steps related to excessive salt intake among hypertensive individuals, as well as the development and assessment of specific interventions designed to change this eating behavior. CONCLUSION: The use of this conceptual framework enables a greater understanding of health-related behaviors implied in the development and progression of cardiovascular risk factors and is useful in proposing nursing interventions with a greater chance of success. This model is a feasible strategy to improve the cardiovascular health of patients cared for by the Brazilian Unified Health System.OBJETIVO: presentar el marco conceptual basado en el modelo PRECEDE, concebido para orientar la investigación y la práctica clínica de las enfermeras para el seguimiento clínico de pacientes cardíacos. MÉTODO: La base conceptual, así como los diseños metodológicos de los estudios implicados en el marco conceptual son discutidos. Además, la contextualización del modelo se ilustra en el seguimiento clínico de los pacientes hipertensos. Ejemplos de las etapas de planificación de la intervención de acuerdo con el protocolo intervention mapping son proporcionados. RESULTADOS: Se observó que la utilización del marco conceptual permitió guiar coherentemente y racionalmente los pasos de diagnóstico relacionados con el consumo excesivo de sal entre hipertensos, así como el

  20. Corrosion and ion release behavior of Cu/Ti film prepared via physical vapor deposition in vitro as potential biomaterials for cardiovascular devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hengquan [Center of Research and Development, Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang Deyuan, E-mail: zhangdeyuan@lifetechmed.com [Center of Research and Development, Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shen Feng [Center of Research and Development, Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang Gui [Center of Research and Development, Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Song Shenhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Cu/Ti films of various Cu/Ti ratios were prepared on a TiNi alloy via vacuum arc plasma deposition. The phase composition, structure, and concentration of elements were investigated via X-ray diffraction and X-photoelectron energy spectrum. The hemolysis ratio and platelet adhesion of the different films were characterized to evaluate blood compatibility. The corrosion and ion release behavior were investigated via a typical immersion test and electrochemical method. The growth of endothelial cells (ECs) was investigated, and methylthiazolyte-trazolium method was employed to evaluate the effect of Cu{sup 2+}. The sophisticated films showed good compatibility. However, with increasing quality ratio of Cu/Ti, the hemolysis ratio increased, and some platelets started to break slightly. The Cu{sup 2+} release was gradually stabilized. The open circuit potential of the Cu/Ti film-modified samples was lower than that of the TiNi substrate. The polarization test result indicates that the passivation stability performance of Cu/Ti film samples is less than the TiNi substrate, and is favorable to Cu{sup 2+} release. The adhesion and proliferation of ECs would be inhibited with 10 wt.% Cu concentration of the film, and ECs would undergo apoptosis at >50 wt.% concentration. A Cu/Ti film with good compatibility and anti-endothelialization has potential applications for special cardiovascular devices.

  1. Behavioral Contagion and Manageability: Learning Disability and Regular Education Teachers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1987-01-01

    Statistical analyses of the Behavior Manageability and Behavioral Contagion Scales completed by 44 regular education teachers and 44 teachers of the learning disabled found that no significant group differences existed, that withdrawn behavior was most difficult to manage, and that acting-out behaviors were most disruptive to other students.…

  2. Visual Sexual Stimuli-Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS. PMID:27574507

  3. Visual Sexual Stimuli—Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS. PMID:27574507

  4. Visual Sexual Stimuli-Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS.

  5. The Undesirable Behaviors of Students in Academic Classrooms, and the Discipline Strategies Used by Faculty Members to Control Such Behaviors from the Perspective of the College of Education Students in King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qahtani, Norah Saad Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the undesirable students' behaviors in academic classrooms, and the disciplinary, preventive and therapeutic strategies that will be used by faculty members to control those behaviors from the perspective of the College of Education's students in King Saud University. The results of the study has shown that the…

  6. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health. PMID:27671918

  7. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Stu...

  8. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  9. Turning Visitors into Customers: A Usability-Centric Perspective on Purchase Behavior in Electronic Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath Venkatesh; Ritu Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model for predicting purchase behavior in electronic channels. The model suggests that website use (i.e., technology use), a key indicator of the degree to which a site is "sticky," is a significant antecedent of purchase behavior. Furthermore, we relate the usability of a website to use behavior and purchase behavior. Specifically, individual characteristics and product type are argued to differentially influence the weights that customers place on five different cat...

  10. Learning and production of movement sequences: Behavioral, neurophysiological, and modelling perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, Bradley J.; Bullock, Daniel; Verwey, Willem B.; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Page, Michael P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A wave of recent behavioral studies has generated a new wealth of parametric observations about serial order behavior. What was a trickle of neurophysiological studies has grown to a steady stream of probes of neural sites and mechanisms underlying sequential behavior. Moreover, simulation models of

  11. The Expanding Vision of Positive Behavior Support: Research Perspectives on Happiness, Helpfulness, Hopefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) represents an empirically driven concern with quality of life (QOL), support through systems change, and linkage to multiple behavioral, social, and biomedical sciences. The major impediments to QOL are problem behavior, skill deficits, and dysfunctional systems. A model for addressing dysfunctional systems is…

  12. Hierarchically Organized Behavior and Its Neural Foundations: A Reinforcement Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure--the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely…

  13. Precision test for precision medicine: opportunities, challenges and perspectives regarding pre-eclampsia as an intervention window for future cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Niu, Jian-Min; Ji, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zhuoli; Wang, Peizhong P; Ling, Xue-Feng B; Li, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) comprise a spectrum of syndromes that range in severity from gestational hypertension and pre-eclamplsia (PE) to eclampsia, as well as chronic hypertension and chronic hypertension with superimposed PE. HDP occur in 2% to 10% of pregnant women worldwide, and impose a substantial burden on maternal and fetal/infant health. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women. The high prevalence of non-obstructive coronary artery disease and the lack of an efficient diagnostic workup make the identification of CVD in women challenging. Accumulating evidence suggests that a previous history of PE is consistently associated with future CVD risk. Moreover, PE as a maladaptation to pregnancy-induced hemodynamic and metabolic stress may also be regarded as a "precision" testing result that predicts future cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the development of PE provides a tremendous, early opportunity that may lead to changes in maternal and infant future well-being. However, the underlying pathogenesis of PE is not precise, which warrants precision medicine-based approaches to establish a more precise definition and reclassification. In this review, we proposed a stage-specific, PE-targeted algorithm, which may provide novel hypotheses that bridge the gap between Big Data-generating approaches and clinical translational research in terms of PE prediction and prevention, clinical treatment, and long-term CVD management. PMID:27347303

  14. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children's Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P; Carrasco, Miguel Á

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children's behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children's (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother-father or child-father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children's behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582

  15. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  16. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

    2013-06-01

    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  17. Violent Video Games and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents: a Risk Factor Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between viole...

  18. A Behavioral Theory Perspective on Acquisitions, Acquisition Performance, and Strategic Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    Attention and performance aspirations are two focal concepts of the behavioral theory of the firm (BTOF), and extensive prior research has examined their role as antecedents of firm behavior. The effects of aspirations and attention on the relationship between firm behavior and performance outcomes are substantially less well understood. To address this gap, I study the performance implications of attention and performance relative to aspirations in the context of serial acquisitions. This di...

  19. Behavioral scripts of urban park offenders : a rational choice perspective on influences of the park setting

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Sean Edward

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Iocational factors on offender behavior in four serious and common park offenses: auto burglary, drug sales, indecent exposure by homosexual males, and robbery. Specifically, the study sought 1) to develop prototypical script(s) for each of the four study crimes, and 2) to support or contradict the influence of effort, risk and reward on offender behavior. Using the theoretical bases of opportunity, rational choice, and scripts, behavior of ...

  20. An evolutionary perspective on the behavioral consequences of exogenous oxytocin application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Becket Ebitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT is released in response to social signals, particularly positive ones like eye contact, social touch, sexual behavior, and affiliative vocalizations. Conversely, exogenous delivery of OT has diverse behavioral effects, sometimes promoting affiliative and prosocial behaviors, but sometimes suppressing them. Here, we argue that one unifying interpretation of these diverse effects is to view OT as an evolutionarily conserved physiological signal indicating affiliative interactions and predicting their behavioral consequences. In this model, OT regulates the way information about the social environment accesses the neural circuitry responsible for social behavior, thereby shaping it in sometimes counterintuitive but adaptive ways. Notably, prosociality is not always the most adaptive response to an affiliative signal from another individual. In many circumstances, an asocial or even antisocial response may confer greater fitness benefits. We argue that the behavioral effects of exogenous OT delivery not only parallel the behavioral effects of affiliative interactions, but are themselves adaptive responses to affiliative interactions. In support of this idea, we review recent evidence that OT does not unilaterally enhance social attention, as previously thought, but often reduces the salience of social signals in the environment. Such diminished social vigilance may be an adaptive response to affiliative social interactions because it frees attentional resources for the pursuit of other goals. Finally, we predict that OT may mediate other behavioral consequences of social interactions, such as reduced predator vigilance, and argue that this is a rich avenue for future behavioral and neurobiological study.

  1. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  2. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  3. A Mind-Reader Does Not Always Have Deontological Moral Judgments and Prosocial Behavior: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    of mind may be a permanent tool for moral judgment development but a temporary tool for prosocial behavior development. Thus, the present study enriches the rationalistic theories of morality from a developmental perspective. Different relationships between theory of mind and morality from middle childhood to late adulthood are discussed. PMID:27602011

  4. A Mind-Reader Does Not Always Have Deontological Moral Judgments and Prosocial Behavior: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    of mind may be a permanent tool for moral judgment development but a temporary tool for prosocial behavior development. Thus, the present study enriches the rationalistic theories of morality from a developmental perspective. Different relationships between theory of mind and morality from middle childhood to late adulthood are discussed.

  5. Staff Perspectives of Precipitants to Aggressive Behavior of Adolescents in Residential Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Davarya, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with 18 staff in a public psychiatric adolescent residential treatment facility were conducted to obtain an inductive approach to their understanding of what leads to aggressive behavior among adolescents. Staff's views of the precipitants of aggressive behavior centered on three themes: understanding of the…

  6. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  7. The Role of the Pediatric Cerebellum in Motor Functions, Cognition, and Behavior: A Clinical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S; Tsai, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the pediatric cerebellum to locomotion, ocular motor control, speech articulation, cognitive function, and behavior modulation. Hypotheses on cerebellar function are discussed. Clinical features in patients with cerebellar disorders are outlined. Cerebellar abnormalities in cognitive and behavioral disorders are detailed. PMID:27423796

  8. Aggressive Behavior in the Adolescent Psychiatric Patient: A Clinical-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; Noam, Gil G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ego development and psychological defenses to aggressive behavior in a group of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Method: Subjects were 245 adolescents ages 12-16, who were assessed for aggressive behaviors, assaultive incidents, ego development and defenses. Results: Aggressive…

  9. A philosophy of science perspective on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'.

  10. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  11. Of mice and marbles: Novel perspectives on burying behavior as a screening test for psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-06-01

    Burying forms part of the normal behavioral routine of rodents, although its expression is species-specific. However, it has been suggested that aberrant burying behavior, of which marble-burying (MB) is an example, may represent neophobic and/or compulsive-like behavior. In the present investigation, we assessed MB in an established animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-namely, spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse-to establish whether high (H) stereotypy is associated with neophobia and/or another compulsive endophenotype, i.e. MB, as compared to nonstereotypical (N) controls. A three-trial, one-zone MB test was performed over three consecutive evenings both before and after chronic treatment with high-dose (50 mg/kg/day) oral escitalopram. Neophobia was measured via the number of marbles buried during the first pre- and posttreatment MB trials, and compulsive-like behavior via the number of marbles buried over all pre- and posttreatment MB trials. The data from the present study support earlier findings that burying is a normal behavioral routine (inherent burying behavior, IBB) that is expressed by all deer mice, irrespective of stereotypical cohort, and is not associated with either neophobia or compulsiveness. Indeed, chronic escitalopram treatment, which is similarly effective in treating clinical anxiety and OCD, as well as in attenuating H behavior, failed to influence IBB. Although 11 % of the animals presented with a unique burying endophenotype (high burying behavior), escitalopram also failed to attenuate said behavior, necessitating further investigation as to its relevance. In conclusion, MB cannot be regarded as a measure of anxiety-like or compulsive behavior in the deer mouse model of OCD. PMID:26920212

  12. Mechanical behaviors and failure processes of precracked specimens under uniaxial compression: A perspective from microscopic displacement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Lin, Baiquan; Zou, Quanle; Zhu, Chuanjie; Yan, Fazhi

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic slotting is an efficient permeability enhancement method that has been widely used in China for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery. Although some research has been conducted on hydraulic slotting, the mechanical behaviors such as strength, deformation, and cracking processes of coal treated by this technique are still unclear. This paper numerically investigates the mechanical behaviors of specimens containing combined flaws with various inclination angles. Research results show that different flaw inclination angles result in variations in strength and deformation of precracked specimens. We also analyzed the crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence processes to understand the underlying mechanisms for the aforementioned variations. To evaluate the crack initiation and propagation process and its corresponding mechanisms, we proposed 12 types of displacement field modes from the perspective of particles relative motion. Based on this, evolution of the displacement field during loading process is analyzed and 11 types of crack and three types of crack initiation modes are extracted from the cracking processes of specimens with different inclination angles. Analysis of the displacement field not only indicates the type of each crack, but also reveals the formation mechanism of the three crack initiation modes. A comparison between the numerical results and the previous laboratory test results shows that numerical simulation can reproduce most of the phenomenon observed in the laboratory test. The research result is expected to contribute to the further understanding of the mechanical behavior of coal subjected to hydraulic slotting or the stability of rock structures.

  13. The Influences of Perceived Factors on Consumer Purchasing Behavior: In the Perspective of Online Shopping Capability of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingcong Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, firstly, based on related researches about consumer online purchasing behavior before, we proposed that there were some perceived factors that influence perceived value which has a direct impact on consumer’s online purchasing decision-making. Secondly, on the analysis for the antecedent of consumer perceived factors with online shopping, we proposed the definition of online shopping capability of consumer and try to explore what factors would affect consumers’ perceived value when they are online shopping in the perspective of consumer’s online shopping capability and their different influences on consumer purchasing behavior. We designed a questionnaire and obtained 1359 valid data from our investigation. Data analysis indicates that besides online shopping capability of consumers, there are other four significant common factors such as trust, perceived risk, perceived benefit and perceived cost, have significant influences on consumers’ perceived value. The causal relation among online shopping capability of consumers, the other four perceived factors and perceived value and consumer online purchasing behavior are verified using confirmatory factor analysis. We explored the differences and their changing way among different kinds of consumers. Discussions for the results indicated that consumers with different shopping experiences have different online shopping capabilities and significant differences on the other four perceived factors.

  14. New perspectives in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS III: endogenous inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE provides protection against cardiovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Fagyas

    Full Text Available ACE inhibitor drugs decrease mortality by up to one-fifth in cardiovascular patients. Surprisingly, there are reports dating back to 1979 suggesting the existence of endogenous ACE inhibitors. Here we investigated the clinical significance of this potential endogenous ACE inhibition. ACE concentration and activity was measured in patient's serum samples (n = 151. ACE concentration was found to be in a wide range (47-288 ng/mL. ACE activity decreased with the increasing concentration of the serum albumin (HSA: ACE activity was 56 ± 1 U/L in the presence of 2.4 ± 0.3 mg/mL HSA, compared to 39 ± 1 U/L in the presence of 12 ± 1 mg/mL HSA (values are mean ± SEM. Effects of the differences in ACE concentration were suppressed in human sera: patients with ACE DD genotype exhibited a 64% higher serum ACE concentration (range, 74-288 ng/mL, median, 155.2 ng/mL, n = 52 compared to patients with II genotype (range, 47-194 ng/mL, median, 94.5 ng/mL, n = 28 while the difference in ACE activities was only 32% (range, 27.3-59.8 U/L, median, 43.11 U/L, and range 15.6-55.4 U/L, median, 32.74 U/L, respectively in the presence of 12 ± 1 mg/mL HSA. No correlations were found between serum ACE concentration (or genotype and cardiovascular diseases, in accordance with the proposed suppressed physiological ACE activities by HSA (concentration in the sera of these patients: 48.5 ± 0.5 mg/mL or other endogenous inhibitors. Main implications are that (1 physiological ACE activity can be stabilized at a low level by endogenous ACE inhibitors, such as HSA; (2 angiotensin II elimination may have a significant role in angiotensin II related pathologies.

  15. Teacher performance goal practices and elementary students' behavioral engagement: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G

    2011-02-01

    We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students' behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed.

  16. The influence of dispositional mindfulness on safety behaviors: a dual process perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Changxu

    2014-09-01

    Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators' safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators' selection and training program to improve organizational safety.

  17. Relationship of Corporate Social Responsibility with Consumer Buying Behavior: An Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supran Kumar Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the help of binary logistic regression model present attempt examines the impact of business organization’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices on buying behavior of the consumers. By taking the responses of 197 consumers in the Jammu and Kashmir province of India, the study highlights that how different dimensions of CSR practices and selected demographics of the organizations are significantly associated with the buying behavior of consumers. The study finds negative relationship between both legal responsibilities and environment friendly practices of companies with the consumer buying behavior. The results have implications for marketing practitioners and strategic management professionals who would like to use their organisation’s CSR practices as a tool to positively influence consumer behavior. Findings suggest that business organizations should be more transparent on their legal aspects and philanthropic activities.

  18. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D is a precursor of the steroid hormone calcitriol that is crucial for bone and mineral metabolism. Both the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and the identification of the vitamin D receptor in the heart and blood vessels raised interest in the potential cardiovascular effects of vitamin D. Experimental studies have demonstrated various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D, but vitamin D intoxication in animals is known to induce vascular calcification. In meta-analyses of epidemiological studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Findings from Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) do not indicate significant effects of a general vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Previous RCTs, however, were not adequately designed to address extraskeletal events, and did not focus on vitamin D-deficient individuals. Therefore, currently available evidence does not support cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation with the commonly used doses, and whether vitamin D has cardiovascular effects in individuals with overt vitamin D deficiency remains to be evaluated. Here, we provide an update on clinical studies on vitamin D and cardiovascular risk, discuss ongoing vitamin D research, and consider the management of vitamin D deficiency from a cardiovascular health perspective. PMID:27150190

  19. Self care behavior among patients with diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: the health belief model perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ketema Ayele; Bisrat Tesfa; Lakew Abebe; Tizta Tilahun; Eshetu Girma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong medical treatments and a life style adjustment. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, it requires dedication to demanding self-care behaviors in multiple domains. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Methods: From a total of 425 follow up diabetic patients, a quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among 222 of them from three diffe...

  20. Relationship of Corporate Social Responsibility with Consumer Buying Behavior: An Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Supran Kumar Sharma; Shravani Sharma

    2013-01-01

    With the help of binary logistic regression model present attempt examines the impact of business organization’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices on buying behavior of the consumers. By taking the responses of 197 consumers in the Jammu and Kashmir province of India, the study highlights that how different dimensions of CSR practices and selected demographics of the organizations are significantly associated with the buying behavior of consumers. The study finds negative relati...

  1. Modeling collective animal behavior with a cognitive perspective: a methodological framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weitz

    Full Text Available The last decades have seen an increasing interest in modeling collective animal behavior. Some studies try to reproduce as accurately as possible the collective dynamics and patterns observed in several animal groups with biologically plausible, individual behavioral rules. The objective is then essentially to demonstrate that the observed collective features may be the result of self-organizing processes involving quite simple individual behaviors. Other studies concentrate on the objective of establishing or enriching links between collective behavior researches and cognitive or physiological ones, which then requires that each individual rule be carefully validated. Here we discuss the methodological consequences of this additional requirement. Using the example of corpse clustering in ants, we first illustrate that it may be impossible to discriminate among alternative individual rules by considering only observational data collected at the group level. Six individual behavioral models are described: They are clearly distinct in terms of individual behaviors, they all reproduce satisfactorily the collective dynamics and distribution patterns observed in experiments, and we show theoretically that it is strictly impossible to discriminate two of these models even in the limit of an infinite amount of data whatever the accuracy level. A set of methodological steps are then listed and discussed as practical ways to partially overcome this problem. They involve complementary experimental protocols specifically designed to address the behavioral rules successively, conserving group-level data for the overall model validation. In this context, we highlight the importance of maintaining a sharp distinction between model enunciation, with explicit references to validated biological concepts, and formal translation of these concepts in terms of quantitative state variables and fittable functional dependences. Illustrative examples are provided of the

  2. Perceived Usefulness and Trust towards Consumer Behaviors: A Perspective of Consumer Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Yi Jin; Abdullah Bin Osman; Mohd Suberi Bin AB.Halim

    2014-01-01

    In this globalization era, the Internet has become an important tool for web browsing, social networking and even making online purchases. In Malaysia, few studies have examined the influence of perceived usefulness and trust on the online shopping behavior of consumers. Thus, the current study intends to investigate whether perceived usefulness and trust influence the online shopping behavior of consumers in northern Malaysia which comprises Kedah, Perlis, Penang and Perak. The relationship ...

  3. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles eStory

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a model-based (or goal-directed system and a model-free (or habitual system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes.

  4. PREDICTORS OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN 1-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN: A LONGITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle

    2016-07-01

    Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health. PMID:27336695

  5. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25732796

  6. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. What patients think about E-health: patients' perspective on internet-based cognitive behavioral treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, M.; Beugen, S. van; Burik, A. van; Middendorp, H. van; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (internet-based CBT) for a wide range of patients has grown intensively. Incorporating the patients' opinions and perspective into new health care innovations might improve the quality and applicability of these innovation

  8. The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a relational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liang, Jian; Crant, J Michael

    2010-03-01

    Drawing from a relational approach, the authors conceptualize the quality of leader-member exchange as a mediator and procedural justice climate as a contextual moderator for understanding the role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Data from a sample of 200 Chinese employees within 54 work groups were used to examine the hypothesized models. Results show that having a proactive personality was associated with employees establishing a high-quality exchange relationship with their supervisors; in turn, the quality of leader-member exchange was associated with greater job satisfaction and more organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, the relationship between proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior was positively moderated by procedural justice climate within the group. Implications for management theory and practice are discussed. PMID:20230079

  9. Health behavior change benefits: Perspectives of Latinos with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Burrows, Kimberly; Aschbrenner, Kelly; Barre, Laura K; Pratt, Sarah I; Alegría, Margarita; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the perceived benefits of engaging in health behavior change from the viewpoint of overweight and obese Latinos with severe mental illness (SMI) enrolled in the U.S. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 obese Latinos with SMI who were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a motivational health promotion intervention adapted for persons with SMI. Overweight and obese Latino participants believed that engaging in health behavior change would have both physical and mental health benefits, including chronic disease management, changes in weight and body composition, and increased self-esteem. Interventions that explicitly link physical activity and healthy eating to improvements in mental health and well-being may motivate Latinos with SMI to adopt health behavior change. PMID:26873582

  10. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  11. The meat market: a dea international perspective and an econometric behavioral model for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo da Silva e Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relative participation of the Brazilian meat market (beef, pork and chicken in total agribusiness exports and in total country exports. An analysis of the world meat market is carried out from the point of view of the values of consumption, production, exports and imports. A DEA (data envelopment analysis approach is then used to generate classifications of the importance of countries in the meat world market, and the insertion of Brazil into this market is viewed from these perspectives. A partial equilibrium model for the meat market is fitted to Brazilian data by a three-stage least squares procedure. The model is consistent with the data and is used for simulation purposes. In this context, we investigate the joint and separate effects of changes in the corn price and in the exchange rate on the market of endogenous variables, ceteris paribus.

  12. Integrating behavioral-motive and experiential-requirement perspectives on psychological needs: a two process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M

    2011-10-01

    Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel adaptive behavior and (b) innate experiential requirements that when met reinforce adaptive behavior and promote mental health. The literature is reviewed to find support for 8 hypotheses derived from this model: that certain basic psychosocial motives are present at birth; that successful enactment of these motives supports the functioning and wellness of all humans; that individual differences in these motives develop in childhood; that these strong motive dispositions tend to produce the satisfying experiences they seek; that motive dispositions do not moderate the effect of motive-corresponding need satisfaction on well-being but do moderate the effect of assigned goal-type on rated self-concordance for those goals; that need dissatisfaction and need satisfaction correspond to the separable behavioral-motive and experiential-reward aspects of needs; and that motives and needs can become decoupled when chronic dissatisfaction of particular requirements warps or depresses the corresponding motives, such that the adaptive process fails in its function. Implications for self-determination theory and motive disposition theory are considered. PMID:21787097

  13. Voting Behavior among Low-Income Black Elderly: A Multielection Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined voting behavior among 370 low-income older African Americans by assessing impact of various predictors on electoral participation in 7 elections. Elders who were active in community, with strong sense of citizen duty, who identified as strong Democrats, and with higher levels of education were more likely to vote. (Author/NB)

  14. Integrating behavioral-motive and experiential-requirement perspectives on psychological needs: a two process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M

    2011-10-01

    Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel adaptive behavior and (b) innate experiential requirements that when met reinforce adaptive behavior and promote mental health. The literature is reviewed to find support for 8 hypotheses derived from this model: that certain basic psychosocial motives are present at birth; that successful enactment of these motives supports the functioning and wellness of all humans; that individual differences in these motives develop in childhood; that these strong motive dispositions tend to produce the satisfying experiences they seek; that motive dispositions do not moderate the effect of motive-corresponding need satisfaction on well-being but do moderate the effect of assigned goal-type on rated self-concordance for those goals; that need dissatisfaction and need satisfaction correspond to the separable behavioral-motive and experiential-reward aspects of needs; and that motives and needs can become decoupled when chronic dissatisfaction of particular requirements warps or depresses the corresponding motives, such that the adaptive process fails in its function. Implications for self-determination theory and motive disposition theory are considered.

  15. Media violence and children’s ADHD-related behaviors: a genetic susceptibility perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.C. Nikkelen; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg; F.P. Velders; D.A. Windhorst; V.W.V. Jaddoe; A. Hofman; F.C. Verhulst; H. Tiemeier

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between media violence exposure and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behaviors. Using survey (parent-reported) and genetic data of 1,612 Dutch children (aged 5 to 9 years), we examined genetic disposition as a possible cause of individual d

  16. Temporal perspective on individual driver behavior using electronic records of undesirable events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicant, Oren; Bar-Gera, Hillel; Schechtman, Edna

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDRs) information about the count of undesirable driving events (such as hard braking, lane changing, and sharp turning) of 148 individuals. The information was logged over three years and included time stamp information about the occurrence of undesirable driving events in each trip (N=573,238). The objective was to gain deeper understanding about the heterogeneity among drivers with respect to behavior change over time, the effect of trip duration and the distribution of events count. Our findings show that in some respects drivers are similar: for all drivers, the variance of the events count was larger than the mean, indicating that the negative binomial distribution is suitable to model the distribution of events count per trip. Most drivers (95%) had lower events rate during longer trips, suggesting that a 'simple' events rate index is problematic when comparing between those driving longer trips and drivers driving short trips. In addition, most drivers (87%) improved their driving behavior throughout the measurement period. However, there are important differences among drivers in terms of the frequency of behavior change and the trends in behavior over time. These findings demonstrate the need for personalized examination of individual drivers. Several tools for such personalized examination were developed and discussed in this study. PMID:24694900

  17. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  18. Complementary Roles of Care and Behavioral Control in Classroom Management: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how classroom management practices--care and behavioral control--were differentially associated with students' engagement, misbehavior, and satisfaction with school, using a large representative sample of 3196 Grade 9 students from 117 classes in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential relations.…

  19. Cleavage-based voting behavior in cross-national perspective : Evidence from six postwar democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, Clem; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Manza, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    We investigate trends and cross-national variation in the impact of class, religious, and gender cleavages on voting behavior in six advanced capitalist democracies in the postwar period. Earlier research on cleavage voting has been criticized for utilizing outdated ‘‘two-class’’ models of class str

  20. Cleavage-based voting behavior in cross-national perspective: evidence from six postwar democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, Clem; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Manza, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    We investigate trends and cross-national variation in the impact of class, religious, and gender cleavages on voting behavior in six advanced capitalist democracies in the postwar period. Earlier research on cleavage voting has been criticized for utilizing outdated “two-class” models of class struc

  1. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  2. Information Behaviors and Information Literacy Skills of LIS Students: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Laura; Kurbanoglu, Serap; Boustany, Joumana; Dogan, Guleda; Becker, Peter; Blumer, Eliane; Chowdhury, Sudatta; Dobreva, Milena; Gendina, Natalia; Grgic, Ivana Hebrang; Haddow, Gaby; Koltay, Tibor; Kortelainen, Terttu; Krakowska, Monika; Majid, Shaheen; Mezhova, Marina; Repanovici, Angela; Rudžioniene, Jurgita; Schneider, Rene; Terra, Ana Lucia; Todorova, Tania Y.

    2015-01-01

    Librarians are expected to be expert searchers, and developing information literacy skills to navigate the vast world of information is a focus of most library and information science (LIS) programs. It is important to understand the information literacy and behaviors of LIS students to see if they are employing the skills they will need to assist…

  3. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  4. Youth, Caregiver, and Staff Perspectives on an Initiative to Promote Success of Emerging Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kathleen F; Connors, Elizabeth H; Chambers, Kerri L; Thomas, Charmaine L; Stephan, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is more challenging for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) as compared to youth with other disability types and typically-developing peers. Outcomes for emerging adults with EBD as a group are particularly concerning in the domains of unemployment, educational dropout rates, and interactions with the judicial system including incarceration, early parenting, homelessness, substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide. The current study presents qualitative program evaluation data for one of seven grantee states awarded 5-year cooperative agreements by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to build developmentally-appropriate and effective youth-guided local systems of care for transition age youth, ages 16-25 years, to promote positive transition outcomes. Findings, obtained from focus groups of 25 participating transition age youth, caregivers, staff, and supervisors, include strategies for maintaining and expanding on the strengths of program, as well as for improving specific program areas. Also, consistent with the goals of the program, this process provided an opportunity for the youth and caregivers to voice their opinions and perspectives regarding their services. Implications for research and practice on effectively serving the unique needs of young adults experiencing EBD and their families in areas such as navigating special education, providing emotional and behavioral supports, and leveraging interagency collaboration are discussed. PMID:25005428

  5. An Analysis of Colombian Power Market Price Behavior from an Industrial Organization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Duarte Venslauskas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of spot prices in the Colombian wholesale power market, using a series of models derived from industrial organization theory.  We first create a Cournot-based model that simulates the strategic behavior of the market-leader power generators, which we use to estimate two industrial organization variables, the Index of Residual Demand and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.  We use these variables to create VAR models that estimate spot prices and power market impulse-response relationships.  The results from these models show that hydroelectric generators can use their water storage capability strategically to affect off-peak prices primarily, while the thermal generators can manage their capacity strategically to affect on-peak prices.  In addition, shocks to the Index of Residual Capacity and to the HHI cause spot price fluctuations, which can be interpreted as the generators´ strategic response to these shocks.

  6. Discipline and Flexibility: A Behavioral Perspective on Product Design in Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Labie, Marc; Laureti, Carolina; Szafarz, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The success of both microcredit and micro-savings products rests upon simplicity and standardization in order to stimulate client discipline. Meanwhile, these products lack flexibility. This paper attempts to make sense of behavioral product design in microfinance. We focus on the potential trade-offs between discipline and flexibility. While discipline devices encourage clients make payments duly on time, flexibility improves clients’ day-to-day money management and helps them cope with shoc...

  7. Perceived Risk, the Internet Shopping Experience and Online Purchasing Behavior: A New Zealand Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Doolin; Stuart Dillon; Fiona Thompson; James L. Corner

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a research model of the importance of consumers’ perceived risk and the Internet shopping experience in the online purchasing behavior of Internet users. The model was tested using a survey of some 700 New Zealand Internet users. Both the perceived risk and perceived benefits of Internet shopping were found to be significantly associated with the amount and frequency of online purchases made. Loss of social interaction in Internet shopping was associated with reduced onl...

  8. PERSPECTIVES ABOUT THE ANTICIPATION OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR- THE KEY ELEMENT IN SELLING INSURANCE

    OpenAIRE

    STROE Andreea Mihaela; Daniel Constantin JIROVEANU

    2013-01-01

    Insurances represent a special product by their nature, thing that implies the management of risks and protective measures in which concerns them. Consumers of this kind of products are individuals that are risk averse, their main concern being to protect their assets or stock echange.In this case, selling this type of products depends on knowing the consumer behavior and adapting continuously the products to the consumer needs. Selling insurance products means effectively to offer a financia...

  9. Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lapp, Amie L.

    2002-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kinder...

  10. The impact of culture and gender on leadership behavior: Higher education and management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Qureshi; Khalid Zaman; Mansoor Nazir Bhatti

    2011-01-01

    The study of culture, gender and leadership behavior has received much interest from researchers during the last three decades. This paper attempts to propose a conceptual framework consisting three human resource management (HRM) practices (culture, gender and leadership styles) and to explain the relationship among these variables. Culture plays an important role to adopt different leadership styles because it influences the way in which individuals, groups and teams interact with each othe...

  11. Intrasexual peer aggression and dating behavior during adolescence: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; O'Brien, Daniel T; Wilson, David Sloan

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of intrasexual aggression is a form of competition associated with reproductive opportunities. Here the authors investigated the relationship between retrospective dating and flirting behavior and peer aggression and victimization during middle and high school. Results indicate that the use of peer aggression was associated with adaptive dating outcomes in both sexes, whereas experiencing peer victimization was correlated with maladaptive dating behaviors among females only. Females who perpetrated high levels of indirect (i.e. nonphysical) aggression reported that they began dating at earlier ages in comparison to their peers, whereas aggressive males reported having more total dating partners. Experiencing female-female peer victimization was correlated with a later onset of dating behavior, more total dating partners, and less male flirtation while growing up. This report strengthens the connection between adolescent peer aggression and reproductive competition, suggesting a potential functionality to adolescent peer aggression in enhancing one's own mating opportunities at the expense of rivals. PMID:21433032

  12. Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

    2014-11-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  13. Hybrid Societies: Challenges and Perspectives in the Design of Collective Behavior in Self-organizing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eHamann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid societies are self-organizing, collective systems composed of different components, for example, natural and artificial parts (bio-hybrid or human beings interacting with and through technical systems (socio-technical. Many different disciplines investigate methods and systems closely related to the design of hybrid societies. A~stronger collaboration between these disciplines could allow for re-use of methods and create significant synergies. We identify three main areas of challenges in the design of self-organizing hybrid societies. First, we identify the formalization challenge. There is an urgent need for a generic model that allows a description and comparison of collective hybrid societies. Second, we identify the system design challenge. Starting from the formal specification of the system, we need to develop an integrated design process. Third, we identify the challenge of interdisciplinarity. Current research on self-organizing hybrid societies stretches over many different fields and hence requires the re-use and synthesis of methods at intersections between disciplines. We then conclude by presenting our perspective for future approaches with high potential in this area.

  14. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperer, A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Aloise-Young, P. A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Suryanarayanan, S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Zimmerle, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Roche, R. [Univ. of Technology, Belfort-Montebeliard (France); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bauleo, P. [Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  15. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.; Zimmerle. D.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  16. Effects of the lipid regulator drug gemfibrozil: A toxicological and behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Jorge F; Almeida, Ana Rita; Andrade, Thayres; Koba, Olga; Golovko, Oksana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Oliveira, Miguel; Domingues, Inês

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants as their worldwide consumption increases. Fibrates such as gemfibrozil (GEM) are used in human medicine to reduce blood concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol and also are some of the most frequently reported pharmaceuticals in waste waters and surface waters. Despite some studies have already demonstrated the negative impact in physiological and/or reproductive endpoints in adult fish, data on survival and behavioral effects in fish larvae are lacking. This study aimed to assess the effects of GEM on zebrafish eleutheroembryo development and locomotor behavior. A fish embryo toxicity (FET) test was undertaken to evaluate GEM acute toxicity by exposing embryos to 0, 6.58, 9.87, 14.81, 22.22, 33.33 and 50mg/L. Developmental endpoints such as hatching success, edemas and malformations were recorded. A second test was undertaken by exposing embryos to 0, 1.5, 3 and 6mg/L in order to evaluate the effects of GEM on 120 and 144h post fertilization (hpf) larvae locomotor activity by video tracking, using a Zebrabox(®) (Viewpoint, France) device. From the data recorded, several parameters such as total swimming distance (TSD) and total swimming time (TST) in each 120s integration time were calculated. Data showed that this compound has a moderate toxic effect on fish embryo development, affecting both survival and hatching success with a calculated 96h LC50 of 11.01mg/L and no effects at the developmental level at 6mg/L. GEM seems to impair locomotor activity, even at concentrations where developmental abnormalities were unperceived, at concentrations as low as 1.5mg/L. Both TSD and TST were sensitive to GEM exposure. These effects do not seem to be independent of the developmental stage as 120hpf larvae seem to present a development bias with repercussions in locomotor behavior. This study highlights the need to include behavioral endpoints in ecotoxicological assays as this seems to be a more sensitive endpoint often

  17. Typical Behavior of the Linear Programming Method for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: A Statistical-Mechanical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji

    2014-04-01

    The typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover problem, which is a type of integer programming (IP) problem. To deal with LP and IP using statistical mechanics, a lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs is analyzed by a replica method. It is found that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by IP below the critical average degree c*=e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for LP = IP extends the previous result c = 1, and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF THE TELEVISION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG VIEWERS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE CONVERGENCE AND THE CULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARITHZA SANDOVAL ESCOBAR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing relation between the consumption of television and the behavior of the children and adolescentshas been a topic of interest for different sciences implied in the analysis and intervention on thecollective social behavior. Although a definitive answer does not exist, the evidence demonstrates thattelevision has important effects on the aggressive behavior, but questions subsist about the conditionsunder which these effects appear. Since one is a global social phenomenon, the relation between televisingmedia and the behavior of the viewers extends the analysis and intervention of the individual behavior,so that it becomes necessary to use a more integrating and interdisciplinary frame to explain and topredict the effects. Of such form, this article reviews the positive evidence of the hypothesis of injuriouseffects of the television, shows a more integrating frame to include and understand the effect of televisingmedia from the perspective of the cultural practices and explains the social effects of the televisionfrom the analysis of the convergence.

  19. Effects of Granular Control on Customers’ Perspective and Behavior with Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-08-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.

  20. Altruism, egoism, or neither: A cognitive-efficiency-based evolutionary biological perspective on helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Armin W

    2016-04-01

    I argue for differences in the cognitive efficiency of different psychologies underlying helping behavior, and present an account of the adaptive pressures that result from these differences. Specifically, I argue that organisms often face pressure to move away from only being egoistically motivated to help: non-egoistic organisms are often able to determine how to help other organisms more quickly and with less recourse to costly cognitive resources like concentration and attention. Furthermore, I also argue that, while these pressures away from pure egoism can lead to the evolution of altruists, they can also lead to the evolution of reciprocation-focused behaviorist helpers or even of reflex-driven helpers (who are neither altruists nor egoists). In this way, I seek to broaden the set of considerations typically taken into account when assessing the evolution of the psychology of helping behavior-which tend to be restricted to matters of reliability-and also try to make clearer the role of evolutionary biological considerations in the discussion of this apparently straightforwardly psychological phenomenon.

  1. Pharmacists' perspective on providing care when patients engage in unhealthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Segal, Richard; Kimberlin, Carole; Smith, W Thomas; Weiler, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association between unhealthy lifestyle-related behaviors in patients and the pharmacist's professional obligation for providing care. DESIGN Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the effect of severity of lifestyle disease on professional obligation. SETTING Four live continuing education programs on law and management conducted in the state of Florida. PARTICIPANTS 488 Florida pharmacists were surveyed with 65% completing the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Pharmacists' opinions based on lifestyle-related diseases classified as follows: low lifestyle-related disease (low LD): nonsmoker with asthma who is adherent with asthma medications; moderate (mod) LD: nonsmoker with asthma who is nonadherent with asthma medications; high LD: smoker with asthma who is adherent with asthma medications. RESULTS The difference between the scales for measuring professional obligation for low and mod LD was significant, with pharmacists reporting greater professional obligation for low versus mod LD. The difference between professional obligation for low and high LD was significant, with pharmacists reporting greater professional obligation for low than high LD. The difference between professional obligation for mod and high LD was significant, with pharmacists reporting a higher professional obligation for mod than high LD. CONCLUSION The differences in professional obligation between the three patient scenarios were small but statistically significant. The findings suggest that certain patient behaviors, such as smoking or medication nonadherence, can have a negative effect on pharmacists' sense of professional obligation to the patient.

  2. Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Their Related Socio-Economical, Environmental and Health Behavioral Factors: Focused on Low-Middle Income Countries- A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yuan Sun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD, social determinants for CVD risk factors have been extensively studied in developed countries. However, few studies about them have been performed in low-middle-income countries. This study describes factors related to CVD risk factors in low-middle-income countries at a national level.Data were assembled from international databases for 47 low-middle-income countries and were collected from various sources including WHO, World Bank, and previous studies. Coefficient estimates between male and female CVD risk factor prevalence and each independent variable were calculated via linear regression.Statistically significant inverse associations were observed between adult literacy rate and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose. Pump price for gasoline was negatively associated with blood glucose also. Associations for female unemployment, adult literacy rate, paved roads and urban population, alcohol and western diet were positively associated with CVD risk factors. Unemployment, urban population and alcohol were positively associated with CVD risk factors in males.The effectiveness of intervention program for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in populations in developing countries should be explored, and more attention should be given to women.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  4. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  5. Virtue training in medical schools: the perspective of behavioral science course directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowote, James Olumide

    2015-01-01

    Although the multidisciplinary research on physician socialization has focused on areas such as developments in learners' ideological commitments and ethics knowledge and skills, the literature on physician virtues has been anecdotal. To contribute empirical knowledge of virtue development during socialization, I performed constant comparisons on interviews with 20 directors of preclinical behavioral science courses. In discussing their courses, participants revealed foci on virtues involved in making intimate connections with patients (e.g., empathy) and "being professional" with colleagues (e.g., trustworthiness). To cultivate virtues for intimate connections, participants used the strategies of learner engagement with patients' narratives of illness, service in underserved communities, and shadowing and observing role models. To develop virtues for being professional, participants used the strategy of small learner groups, which consisted of discussions, project collaborations, and group evaluations. I conclude with implications for training students of various health sciences and managing health care teams.

  6. The impact of culture and gender on leadership behavior: Higher education and management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qureshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of culture, gender and leadership behavior has received much interest from researchers during the last three decades. This paper attempts to propose a conceptual framework consisting three human resource management (HRM practices (culture, gender and leadership styles and to explain the relationship among these variables. Culture plays an important role to adopt different leadership styles because it influences the way in which individuals, groups and teams interact with each other and cooperate to achieve organizational goals. The seven cultural elements are measured in the current study i.e., i member identity ii rewards criteria iii team emphasis iv means-end orientation v control vi unit integration and vii risk/ conflict tolerance. Results show that the culture has a significant influence on male leaders to adopt different leadership styles, but female leaders likely participative in their leadership positions and try to adopt democratic leadership in different cultures.

  7. Dealing with defaulting suppliers using behavioral based governance methods: An Agency Theory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosman, Ernst Johannes; Scholten, Kirstin; Power, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore factors influencing the effectiveness of buyer initiated Behavioral Based Governance Methods (BBGMs). The ability of BBGMs to improve supplier performance is assessed considering power imbalances and the resource intensiveness of the BBGM. Agency Theory...... is used as an interpretive lens. Design/methodology/approach: An explorative multiple case study approach is used to collect qualitative and quantitative data from buying companies involved in 13 BBGMs. Findings: Drawing on agency theory several factors are identified which can explain BBGM effectiveness....../value: This study develops a series of propositions indicating that Agency Theory can provide valuable guidance on how to better understand the effectiveness of BBGMs. Underlying mechanisms are identified that explain how power imbalances do not necessarily make improvement initiatives unsuccessful....

  8. Repurposing of approved cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Konishi, Masaaki; Ebner, Nicole; Springer, Jochen

    2016-09-20

    Research and development of new drugs requires both long time and high costs, whereas safety and tolerability profiles make the success rate of approval very low. Drug repurposing, applying known drugs and compounds to new indications, has been noted recently as a cost-effective and time-unconsuming way in developing new drugs, because they have already been proven safe in humans. In this review, we discuss drug repurposing of approved cardiovascular drugs, such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, cardiac glycosides and statins. Regarding anti-tumor activities of these agents, a number of experimental studies have demonstrated promising pleiotropic properties, whereas all clinical trials have not shown expected results. In pathological conditions other than cancer, repurposing of cardiovascular drugs is also expanding. Numerous experimental studies have reported possibilities of drug repurposing in this field and some of them have been tried for new indications ('bench to bedside'), while unexpected results of clinical studies have given hints for drug repurposing and some unknown mechanisms of action have been demonstrated by experimental studies ('bedside to bench'). The future perspective of experimental and clinical studies using cardiovascular drugs are also discussed.

  9. Factors predicting BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria: a behavioral-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Lawan, Umar

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the predictors of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization status among infants in northern Nigeria using a behavioral-ecological model. The findings show only 37.3 percent of the children had received BCG vaccine, and reveal that BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria is influenced by multiple layers of factors, including child's characteristics, parental or household factors, community characteristics, vaccine supply and the policy environment. At the child's level, place of birth and ownership of an immunization card are the two most significant predictors. The parental and household predictors of BCG immunization status include maternal use of antenatal care, maternal knowledge about immunization, maternal exposure to child health information, social influence and paternal approval of immunization. Both the regularity of vaccine supply to the health facility and the state of residence are associated independently with BCG immunization status. These findings stress the need for interventions at multiple levels in order to increase BCG immunization status. PMID:19240190

  10. An Approach for Multi-Artifact Testing Through an Ontological Perspective for Behavior-Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rocha Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a user-centered development process, artifacts evolve in iterative cycles until they meet users’ requirements and then become the final product. Every cycle gives the opportunity to revise the design and to introduce new requirements which might affect the specification of artifacts that have been set in former development phases. Testing the consistency of multiple artifacts used to develop interactive systems every time that new requirements are introduced is a cumbersome activity, especially if it is done manually. This paper proposes an approach based on Behavior-Driven Development (BDD to support the automated assessment of artifacts along the development process of interactive systems. The paper uses an ontology for specifying tests that can run over multiple artifacts sharing similar concepts. A case study testing Task Models, Prototypes, and Final User Interfaces is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach from the early phases of the design process, providing a continuous quality assurance of requirements, and helping clients and development teams to identify potential problems and inconsistencies before commitments with software implementation are made.

  11. Validation of a rat behavioral avoidance model from a drug delivery perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Meenakshi G; Jordt, Raymond M; Khan, M Amin; Foley, Christine E; Gilbertson, Timothy A

    2005-10-13

    Conventional taste-masking strategies are used to overcome the bitter taste perception of pharmaceuticals by coating the drug particles and/or adding flavoring agents. However, for certain product categories such as rapid dissolve sublingual tablets, taste-masking is challenging. Programs exploring such formulation strategies in the LO-CS phase or post CS phase possess very little toxicological information available in order to conduct human taste panel studies. The potential of a bitter taste perception can present a significant business risk. The objective of the study was to validate a rat behavioral avoidance model that identifies bitter-tasting compounds. Most classic bitter substances elicit a response in the micromolar concentration range while most drugs elicit a response in the millimolar range, hence a validation exercise was conducted to examine if the existing biological model was sensitive enough to identify known bitter tasting drugs as such. Five compounds: ergotamine tartrate, fluoxetine, sucrose, sumatriptan and povidone were chosen to represent a spectrum of compounds. The bitter tasting compounds were identified as such in the model. Based on these results, the assay may serve as a useful surrogate test to identify compounds that may have bitter taste issues. PMID:16125347

  12. Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2006-07-01

    Thorpe et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179-199, 1999) quantified chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) muscle architecture and joint moment arms to determine whether they functionally compensated for structural differences between chimpanzees and humans. They observed enough distinction to conclude that musculoskeletal properties were not compensatory and suggested that chimpanzees and humans do not exhibit dynamically similar movements. These investigators based their assessment on unilateral limb musculatures from three male chimpanzees, of which they called one non-adult representative. Factors such as age, sex, and behavioral lateralization may be responsible for variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture, but this is presently unknown. While the full extent of variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture due to such factors cannot be evaluated with data presently available, the present study expands the chimpanzee dataset and provides a preliminary glimpse of the potential relevance of these factors. Thirty-seven forelimb and 36 hind limb muscles were assessed in two chimpanzee cadavers: one unilaterally (right limbs), and one bilaterally. Mass, fiber length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are reported for individual muscles and muscle groups. The musculature of an adult female is more similar in architectural patterns to a young male chimpanzee than to humans, particularly when comparing muscle groups. Age- and sex-related intraspecific differences do not obscure chimpanzee-human interspecific differences. Side asymmetry in one chimpanzee, despite consistent forelimb directional asymmetry, also does not exceed the magnitude of chimpanzee-human differences. Left forelimb muscles, on average, usually had higher masses and longer fiber lengths than right, while right forelimb muscles, on average, usually had greater PCSAs than left. Most muscle groups from the left forelimb exhibited greater masses than right groups, but group asymmetry was significant

  13. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  14. Ethanol Disrupts Reactivated Contextual Conditioned Fear Memory: Behavioral and Histological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Goudarzi

    2012-01-01

    between our behavioral and histological results.

  15. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  16. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases using a cognitive behavior program aimed at lifestyle changes in people at risk: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinapaw Marijke J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people with cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM is growing rapidly. To a large extend, this increase is due to lifestyle-dependent risk factors, such as overweight, reduced physical activity, and an unhealthy diet. Changing these risk factors has the potential to postpone or prevent the development of T2DM and CVD. It is hypothesized that a cognitive behavioral program (CBP, focused in particular on motivation and self-management in persons who are at high risk for CVD and/or T2DM, will improve their lifestyle behavior and, as a result, will reduce their risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Methods 12,000 inhabitants, 30-50 years of age living in several municipalities in the semi-rural region of West-Friesland will receive an invitation from their general practitioner (n = 13 to measure their own waist circumference with a tape measure. People with abdominal obesity (male waist ≥ 102 cm, female waist ≥ 88 cm will be invited to participate in the second step of the screening which includes blood pressure, a blood sample and anthropometric measurements. T2DM and CVD risk scores will then be calculated according to the ARIC and the SCORE formulae, respectively. People with a score that indicates a high risk of developing T2DM and/or CVD will then be randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 300 or the control group (n = 300. Participants in the intervention group will follow a CBP aimed at modifying their dietary behavior, physical activity, and smoking behavior. The counseling methods that will be used are motivational interviewing (MI and problem solving treatment (PST, which focus in particular on intrinsic motivation for change and self-management of problems of the participants. The CBP will be provided by trained nurse practitioners in the participant's general practice, and will consists of a maximum of six individual sessions of 30 minutes, followed by 3-monthly booster

  17. New perspectives on dairy and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Hobbs, Ditte A

    2016-08-01

    CVD are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. One of the key dietary recommendations for CVD prevention is reduction of saturated fat intake. Yet, despite milk and dairy foods contributing on average 27 % of saturated fat intake in the UK diet, evidence from prospective cohort studies does not support a detrimental effect of milk and dairy foods on risk of CVD. The present paper provides a brief overview of the role of milk and dairy products in the diets of UK adults, and will summarise the evidence in relation to the effects of milk and dairy consumption on CVD risk factors and mortality. The majority of prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the relationship between milk and dairy product consumption and risk of CVD show that milk and dairy products, excluding butter, are not associated with detrimental effects on CVD mortality or risk biomarkers that include serum LDL-cholesterol. In addition, there is increasing evidence that milk and dairy products are associated with lower blood pressure and arterial stiffness. These apparent benefits of milk and dairy foods have been attributed to their unique nutritional composition, and suggest that the elimination of milk and dairy may not be the optimum strategy for CVD risk reduction. PMID:26907978

  18. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the mai...

  19. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  20. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  1. Pervasive roles of microRNAs in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Eric M.; Olson, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    First recognized as regulators of development in worms and fruitflies, microRNAs are emerging as pivotal modulators of mammalian cardiovascular development and disease. Individual microRNAs modulate the expression of collections of messenger RNA targets that often have related functions, thereby governing complex biological processes. The wide-ranging functions of microRNAs in the cardiovascular system have provided new perspectives on disease mechanisms and have revealed intriguing therapeut...

  2. THE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR INTENTION IN INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FROM MIS PROFESSIONALS' PERSPECTIVE: A STUDY BASED ON THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTINA LING-HSING CHANG

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the major variables influencing the political behavior of MIS professionals in information system development (ISD). The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is used to create the research model. We found that (1) Attitude, subjective norm, perceived political behavior control and perceived political efficacy have different effects on MIS professionals' intention with regard to political behavior in four scenarios; (2) Machiavellism significantly affects MI...

  3. 代际划分视角下矿工不安全行为研究%Research on Miners'Unsafe Behaviors from the Perspective of Intergeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程恋军; 仲维清

    2016-01-01

    Based on the theory of planned behavior ( TPB) and the health action process approach ( HAPA) , this study constructs an integrated model of miners'unsafe behaviors to explore the new-generation miners'unsafe behavior from the per-spective of intergeneration.Findings from the survey of 468 miners's unsafe behaviors are as follows:first, there are significant differences between the new-generation miners'unsafe behaviors and those of other groups of miners;second, the unsafe behav-ior attitudes have a less significant effect on new-generation miners'behavioral intention, and the mediated effect of response plan is lower too;thirs, the risk perception of unsafe behaviors and subjective norms can directly affect the new-generation minors'unsafe behavior intention.%本文在计划行为理论(TPB)和健康行动过程取向理论(HAPA)的基础上构建矿工不安全行为整合理论模型, 从代际的视角探讨新生代矿工不安全行为产生的特点. 通过对468名矿工不安全行为的问卷调查发现, 与其他矿工群体相比, 新生代矿工在不安全行为产生路径上存在显著差异; 新生代矿工不安全行为态度对行为意向的影响较低, 应对计划的中介效应较低; 不安全行为的风险知觉和主观规范能直接影响新生代矿工不安全行为意向.

  4. Wnt signaling in cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, K; Christodoulides, C; Antoniades, C; Koutsilieris, M

    2012-12-01

    Wnt signaling pathways play a key role in cardiac development, angiogenesis, and cardiac hypertrophy; emerging evidence suggests that they are also involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Specifically, an important role for Wnts has been described in the regulation of endothelial inflammation, vascular calcification, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Wnt signaling also induces monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and is crucial for the regulation of vascular smooth-muscle cell (VSMC) behavior. We discuss how the Wnt pathways are implicated in vascular biology and outline the role of Wnt signaling in atherosclerosis. Dissecting Wnt pathways involved in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease may provide crucial insights into novel mechanisms with therapeutic potential for atherosclerosis.

  5. Arsenic and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of epidemiologic, experimental and clinical evidence shows that arsenic may exert relevant cardiovascular effects with early damage such as endothelial dysfunction. Early biomarkers of cardiovascular damage together with markers of exposure, genetic and epigenetic effects, DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress remain unexplored and a study is ongoing in Italy.

  6. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Vairamani Kandan; Sathyamurthy P; Rajkumar M; Lavanya Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that thyroid hormone directly affects the heart and peripheral vascular system. In hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular manifestations are frequent findings. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure were reported to occur more common in older patients as a result of hyperthyroidism. Cardiovascular signs of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, marked increase in cardiac output with impaired cardiovascula...

  7. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  8. Perspective of Library Reader's Complaint Behavior%透视图书馆读者抱怨行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志慧

    2012-01-01

    Library user complaint management is an important part of library services.This paper discusses library readers complain behavior in perspective,with the hope to improve library service quality.%图书馆读者抱怨管理是图书馆服务工作的一项重要内容。对图书馆读者抱怨行为进行了透视,希望能对提高图书馆服务质量有所帮助。

  9. Religion, spirituality and cardiovascular disease: research, clinical implications, and opportunities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, Fernando A; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we comprehensively review published quantitative research on the relationship between religion, spirituality (R/S), and cardiovascular (CV) disease, discuss mechanisms that help explain the associations reported, examine the clinical implications of those findings, and explore future research needed in Brazil on this topic. First, we define the terms religion, spirituality, and secular humanism. Next, we review research examining the relationships between R/S and CV risk factors (smoking, alcohol/drug use, physical inactivity, poor diet, cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, and psychosocial stress). We then review research on R/S, cardiovascular functions (CV reactivity, heart rate variability, etc.), and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IFN-γ, CRP, fibrinogen, IL-4, IL-10). Next we examine research on R/S and coronary artery disease, hypertension, stroke, dementia, cardiac surgery outcomes, and mortality (CV mortality in particular). We then discuss mechanisms that help explain these relationships (focusing on psychological, social, and behavioral pathways) and present a theoretical causal model based on a Western religious perspective. Next we discuss the clinical applications of the research, and make practical suggestions on how cardiologists and cardiac surgeons can sensitively and sensibly address spiritual issues in clinical practice. Finally, we explore opportunities for future research. No research on R/S and cardiovascular disease has yet been published from Brazil, despite the tremendous interest and involvement of the population in R/S, making this an area of almost unlimited possibilities for researchers in Brazil.

  10. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information.

  11. The Cardiovascular Health Impact of an Incentive Worksite Health Promotion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatello, Linda S.; Murphy, Donna; Vollono, Jeannine; Lynch, Elizabeth; Bernene, James; Costanzo, Dino

    2001-01-01

    Examined the cardiovascular health profiles of hospital employees participating in an incentive screening program for 4 years. The program involved cardiovascular screenings, results counseling, and encouragement to participate in education and behavioral support programs. Cardiovascular health improvements related to long-term program…

  12. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  13. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity. PMID:25462217

  14. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity.

  15. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

    2014-09-01

    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  16. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  17. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  18. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  19. Alone against the group: A unanimously disagreeing group leads to conformity, but cardiovascular threat depends on one's goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Mark D; Gabriel, Shira; Lupien, Shannon P; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2016-08-01

    A long history of research in psychology has studied the consequences of when individuals face a group that unanimously disagrees with them. However, relatively little research has attempted to understand individuals' internal reactions to such disagreement while it is experienced. Psychophysiological measures are particularly well suited for this purpose. We used the perspective of the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat to test whether and under what circumstances expressing one's political opinion to a disagreeing group led to a cardiovascular threat response (high total peripheral resistance, low cardiac output). We hypothesized that, when participants were provided with a goal to fit in with the group, a disagreeing group would elicit cardiovascular responses consistent with greater threat than an agreeing group, but that this effect would disappear if not reverse when participants were provided with a goal to express their individuality. Results supported hypotheses and further revealed a divergence between cardiovascular responses and conformity behavior, such that a disagreeing group fostered conformity regardless of goal condition. These findings suggest that (a) facing the prospect of a disagreeing group need not necessarily result in the negative experience of threat (reflecting evaluating low resources/high demands), and (b) conformity behavior can mask a range of internal states.

  20. [Cardiovascular prevention - 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, András; Szabados, Eszter

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of premature death worldwide despite the fact that cardiovascular mortality decreased significantly in the last few decades in financially developed countries. This reduction is partly due to the modern medical and revascularisation treatments, and partly because of the effectiveness of prevention strategies such as lowering blood pressure and cholesterol level, as well as successful strategies against smoking. However, this positive trend is undermined by the striking growth in obesity and in type 2 diabetes mellitus, which could also be successfully controlled by lifestyle changes. This summary is based on an overview of the recent (2016) European Guideline for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Here the authors describe preventive strategies and goals to be achieved, the most important lifestyle suggestions, and the secondary prevention medical treatment for patients with already established cardiovascular disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(38), 1526-1531. PMID:27640620

  1. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  2. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  3. Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Leonardo Romero-Quintero; Silvia Sosa-Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Soci...

  4. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  5. 比较法视野下的自助行为制度研究%Perspective of Comparative Law Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玉超

    2012-01-01

    Self acts as the civil rights of private relief one way, as confirmed by modem civ- il law countries, its function is to compensate for the inadequacy of public relief. Based on the two countries, namely China and Japan, a typical case of the analysis, the perspective of the self- help behavior of the constituent elements, then this article from the perspective of comparative law self-help behavior and violations, the last article in the draft civil law and civil law self-help behavior the state's code, such as "German Civil Code" ," Thai civil Code" in the conduct of a self-analysis of comparative law, and involve the civil law and common law countries, acts of self-comparison.%自助行为作为民事权利私力救济的方式之一。为近现代各回民法所确认,其功能在于弥补公力救济之不足。文章通过时两个固家即中回和日本典型素例的分析。透视了自助行为的构成要件.然后从比较法的角度分析自助行为与使权行为。最后将民法革素中的自助行为与大陆法系圈謇的法兵如《德国民法典》、《泰国民法典》中的自助行为进行了比较法分析,并涉及了大陆法系和英芙法系圈謇自助行为的比较。

  6. The Andersen–Newman Behavioral Model of Health Service Use as a conceptual basis for understanding patient behavior within the patient–physician dyad: The influence of trust on adherence to statins in older people living with HIV and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Petrovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The observation that “(drugs don’t work in patients who don’t take them” seems obvious; however, for older people living with HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD, the potential for taking large numbers of medications on a regular basis may present as an overwhelming task, particularly as HIV and CVD progress and worsen over time. The extent to which older people living with HIV and CVD follow medication schedules for the treatment of these chronic health conditions is not understood well, and myriad questions exist with regard to medication adherence and older people living with HIV and CVD. For instance, do older people living with HIV and CVD take all medications as prescribed? Does this group prioritize which medications to take, perhaps demonstrating a preference for taking antiretroviral medications for the treatment of HIV as opposed to statins for the treatment of CVD? In the process of answering these and other questions, recognizing the individual and his or her attitudes and behaviors within the context of the dyadic relationship shared between patient and physician is paramount. Developing a more thorough understanding of this dyadic relationship allows for a better grasp of the context within which medication adherence occurs for older people living with HIV and CVD. That said, because of the ability to lend itself to an understanding of human behavior, human development, and psychology, the Andersen and Newman Behavioral Model of Health Service Use provides a worthwhile conceptual basis for beginning to answer these questions.

  7. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Scotece

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications.

  8. Cardiovascular outcome trials for anti-diabetes medication: A holy grail of drug development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mathew; Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Ambika; Kalra, Sanjay; Nair, Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Since the time questions arose on cardiovascular safety of Rosiglitazone, FDA has suggested guidelines on conduct of studies on anti-diabetic drugs so as to prove that the cardiovascular risk is acceptable. Based on the cardiovascular risks of pre-approval clinical trials, guidelines have been made to conduct cardiovascular safety outcome trials (CVSOTs) prior to the drug approval or after the drug has been approved. Unlike the trials comparing the efficacy of antidiabetic agents, the CVSOTs examine the cardiovascular safety of a drug in comparison to standard of care. These trials are expensive aspects of drug development and are associated with various technical and operational challenges. More cost effective models of assessing cardiovascular safety like use of biomarkers, electronic medical records, pragmatic and factorial designs can be adopted. This article critically looks at the antidiabetic drug approval from a cardiovascular perspective by asking a few questions and arriving at answers. PMID:27543483

  9. Understanding Adherence to 5 Servings of Fruits and Vegetables per Day: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Chris M.; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Shanks, Tiffany Hunt; Nehl, Eric; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining the 5-A-Day intentions and behavior of college students. A secondary purpose was to determine whether any of the TPB relationships were moderated by gender or ethnicity. Design: A prospective design that asked…

  10. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A; Lewis, O; Kumar, R; Yeruva, S L H; Curry, B H

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  11. 循证矫正视域下的认知行为疗法%Cognitive Behavioral Therapy from the Perspective of Evidence-based Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄义权; 陈大国; 原园

    2014-01-01

    In the practical activities of evidence-based correction , it is fundamental to seek and decide the best evidence .The cognitive behavior therapy which is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy has had a good effect on criminal correction .Therefore , it is improtant that we should analyze the value of the cognitive behavior therapy from the perspective of the best evidence , discusse the mechanism of effective correction and intro-duce some relevant applications in foreign criminal correction .%在开展循证矫正实践活动中,寻找和确立最佳证据成为该活动的基础性工作。作为行为治疗和认知治疗融合而成的认知行为疗法在罪犯矫正中取得了良好的效果。从最佳证据确立的角度来分析这种疗法,探讨其矫正机制,了解其在国外罪犯矫正中一些应用项目,对推动我国罪犯矫正工作将有重要作用。

  12. Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: A social-cognitive theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Lucianetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of innovative behavior (the generation, dissemination, and implementation of new ideas) have generally overlooked the agency perspective on this important type of performance behavior. Guided by social-cognitive theory, we propose a moderated mediation relationship to explain why and how employees become motivated to make things happen through their innovative endeavors. First, we propose that within-individual increases in organizational trust and perceived respect by colleagues promote within-individual increases in creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time. Second, we propose that within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs promote within-individual increases in idea generation, dissemination, and implementation over time. Finally, we propose that psychological collectivism (a between-individual variable) is a moderator, and that a higher level of psychological collectivism weakens the positive relationship between within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs and within-individual increases in innovative behavior. Repeated measures collected from 267 employees in Italy at 3 time points over an 8-month period generally support our proposed dynamic moderated mediation relationship. PMID:26052714

  13. Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: A social-cognitive theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Lucianetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of innovative behavior (the generation, dissemination, and implementation of new ideas) have generally overlooked the agency perspective on this important type of performance behavior. Guided by social-cognitive theory, we propose a moderated mediation relationship to explain why and how employees become motivated to make things happen through their innovative endeavors. First, we propose that within-individual increases in organizational trust and perceived respect by colleagues promote within-individual increases in creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time. Second, we propose that within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs promote within-individual increases in idea generation, dissemination, and implementation over time. Finally, we propose that psychological collectivism (a between-individual variable) is a moderator, and that a higher level of psychological collectivism weakens the positive relationship between within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs and within-individual increases in innovative behavior. Repeated measures collected from 267 employees in Italy at 3 time points over an 8-month period generally support our proposed dynamic moderated mediation relationship.

  14. Review of Pedestrian Violating Behavior:A Theoretical Perspective%行人违规行为研究:一个理论综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧娟; 古仁华; 姚舒仪

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the study in the area of pedestrians ’ irregularities from different theoretical perspectives , in-cluding Theory of Planned Behavior , Game Theory , Motivation Theory and Threshold Model .The review evaluates and com-pares these theories applied to pedestrians ’ violating behavior about each advantages and deficiencies .Results indicate that Theory of Planned Behavior is the most widely used .Finally, this paper also discusses their further researches .%拟就几大主要理论在行人交通违规行为领域的运用作一个梳理和评述。从不同的理论视角对已有的研究进行了较为深入的综述,包括计划行为理论视角、博弈论视角、激励理论视角、阈值模型视角,并比较和评估了上述的行人违规行为理论模型,分析了各个视角的优势与不足,同时对深入研究进行了展望。

  15. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  16. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Effects and potential mechanisms of exercise training on cancer progression: A translational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Review of the extant epidemiological evidence examining the association between exercise behavior, function capacity/exercise capacity, and cancer-specific recurrence and mortality as well as all-cause mortality individuals following a cancer diagnosis.

  17. Study of large shareholders’ behavior after non-tradable shares reform: A perspective of related party transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hongbo Zhang; Qing Xia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the behavior choice of large shareholders in the related party transactions which occur between the large shareholders and listed companies by using the data of shares from 2007 to 2010. Design/methodology/appraoch: Based on the classical research paradigm (that is, LLSV), we analysis controlling shareholders’ propping and tunneling behaviors aiming to make sure their impacts to the medium and small shareholders in theory. Findings: We get the following findings: ...

  18. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  19. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL...... cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...

  20. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  1. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  2. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  3. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  4. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  5. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  6. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna;

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  7. 理想心血管健康行为和因素与非酒精性脂肪肝的相关性研究%Relationship between ideal cardiovascular behaviors/factors and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢爱君; 季春鹏; 施继红; 杜鑫; 黄喆; 林黎明; 熊海亮; 吴寿岭

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨理想心血管健康行为和因素与非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)的关系.方法 以参加2006-2007年度健康体检的101 510名开滦集团公司职工为研究对象,排除饮酒者、心肌梗死、脑卒中、恶性肿瘤以及资料不全者,最终纳入54 303例,观察研究人群中NAFLD的患病情况.根据美国心脏协会定义的理想心血管健康行为和因素,采用多因素logistic回归模型分析理想心血管健康行为和因素与NAFLD的关系.结果 具备0~1、2、3、4、5~7个理想心血管健康行为和因素组的NAFLD患病率分别为62.6%、48.9%、33.3%、16.1%和7.5% (P<0.000 1).校正年龄、性别、经济收入水平、文化程度等混杂因素后,理想心血管健康行为和因素与NAFLD有关,且随着健康行为和因素个数的增多(0~1、2、3、4、5~7),OR值(95%CI)逐渐降低,分别为1、0.61(0.56~0.66)、0.37(0.34~0.40)、0.17(0.15 ~0.18)和0.08(0.07 ~0.09).结论 理想心血管健康行为和因素与NAFLD相关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between ideal cardiovascular behaviors/ factors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Methods In our study,54 303 workers who had participated in the 2006-2007 Kailuan health examination with complete data and without history of drinking,myocardial infarction,stroke or cancer,were recruited.All workers were under observation and their prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease recorded.According to the American Heart Association defmition of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors,multiple logistic regression method was used to calculate the OR and 95% CI for baseline behaviors and factors.Results The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease according to 0-1,2,3,4,5-7 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors/factors were 62.6%,48.9%,33.3%,16.1% and 7.5%,respectively.Results from the logistic model showed that after adjustment for age,gender,income,education level and other

  8. Study of large shareholders’ behavior after non-tradable shares reform: A perspective of related party transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper explores the behavior choice of large shareholders in the related party transactions which occur between the large shareholders and listed companies by using the data of shares from 2007 to 2010. Design/methodology/appraoch: Based on the classical research paradigm (that is, LLSV, we analysis controlling shareholders’ propping and tunneling behaviors aiming to make sure their impacts to the medium and small shareholders in theory. Findings: We get the following findings: After our capital market entering the era of full circulation, we find that the relationship between the ratio of controlling shareholders and the related party transactions present (RPTs an inverted “U” shape curve, which means that it exits a typical “Grab-synergy” effect. we should take different measures to the transactions occurred between the large shareholders and listed companies according to the property nature of the large shareholders. State-owned shareholders choose to realize their private benefits by means of RPTs, while the non state-owned shareholders conduct RPTs with an expectation of reducing costs.Practical implications: Since Guo Shuqing, the Chairman of China Securities Regulatory Commission, took office, he has taken a lot measures to curb the related party transactions harshly. Under this circumstance, it is just the right time to have a research on large shareholders’ behavior. It has important significance both in theory and practice. Originality/value: Considering the Chinese special national conditions, this paper added lots of comprehensive facts to study large shareholders’ behavior including the rate of the share held by indirect controller, the probability of thievish behaviors have been discovered, and the strict punishment regulations. The discussions in this paper help to bring into focus a highly topical issue within the context of the large shareholders’ behavior after Non-tradable Shares Reform.

  9. Predicting organizational citizenship behavior from the functional analysis and role identity perspectives: further evidence in Spanish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A

    2010-05-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a prosocial activity with similarities to volunteerism. The purpose of this work is to contribute new evidence about the relevance to OCB of two models of sustained volunteerism, functional analysis and role identity theory. A total of 983 Spanish employees at49 organizations completed surveys measuring amount of OCB, motives for engaging in citizenship behavior, and the degree to which respondents developed an organizational citizen role identity. The results showed that both motives and role identity were significant predictors of OCB, with motive partially mediating the role identity-OCB relationship. The findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved in sustaining volunteerism and OCB.

  10. Religion, spirituality and cardiovascular disease: research, clinical implications, and opportunities in Brazil Religião, espiritualidade e doença cardiovascular: pesquisa, implicações clínicas e oportunidades no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Lucchese

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we comprehensively review published quantitative research on the relationship between religion, spirituality (R/S, and cardiovascular (CV disease, discuss mechanisms that help explain the associations reported, examine the clinical implications of those findings, and explore future research needed in Brazil on this topic. First, we define the terms religion, spirituality, and secular humanism. Next, we review research examining the relationships between R/S and CV risk factors (smoking, alcohol/drug use, physical inactivity, poor diet, cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, and psychosocial stress. We then review research on R/S, cardiovascular functions (CV reactivity, heart rate variability, etc., and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IFN-γ, CRP, fibrinogen, IL-4, IL-10. Next we examine research on R/S and coronary artery disease, hypertension, stroke, dementia, cardiac surgery outcomes, and mortality (CV mortality in particular. We then discuss mechanisms that help explain these relationships (focusing on psychological, social, and behavioral pathways and present a theoretical causal model based on a Western religious perspective. Next we discuss the clinical applications of the research, and make practical suggestions on how cardiologists and cardiac surgeons can sensitively and sensibly address spiritual issues in clinical practice. Finally, we explore opportunities for future research. No research on R/S and cardiovascular disease has yet been published from Brazil, despite the tremendous interest and involvement of the population in R/S, making this an area of almost unlimited possibilities for researchers in Brazil.

  11. Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Jeffrey B; Bury, David C; Richardson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. One-third of these deaths may be preventable through healthy lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, whereas the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, although exogenous supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not improve cardiovascular outcomes. There is an association between increased sodium intake and cardiovascular risk, but reducing dietary sodium has not consistently shown a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Physical activity recommendations for adults are at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination. Increases in physical activity by any level are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Introducing muscle-strengthening activities at least twice per week in previously inactive adults is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Inactive adults without known CVD can gradually increase activity to a moderate-intensity level without consulting a physician. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends behavioral counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD. Evidence of benefit for counseling patients at average risk is less established. PMID:27281836

  12. Detection of Cardiovascular Anomalies: An Observer-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, a methodology for the detection of anomalies in the cardiovascular system is presented. The cardiovascular system is one of the most fascinating and complex physiological systems. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. For instance, an estimate of 17.3 million people died in 2008 from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to modeling the cardiovascular system in order to better understand its behavior and find new reliable diagnosis techniques. The lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system proposed in [1] is restructured using a hybrid systems approach in order to include a discrete input vector that represents the influence of the mitral and aortic valves in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Parting from this model, a Taylor expansion around the nominal values of a vector of parameters is conducted. This expansion serves as the foundation for a component fault detection process to detect changes in the physiological parameters of the cardiovascular system which could be associated with cardiovascular anomalies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm, high blood pressure, etc. An Extended Kalman Filter is used in order to achieve a joint estimation of the state vector and the changes in the considered parameters. Finally, a bank of filters is, as in [2], used in order to detect the appearance of heart valve diseases, particularly stenosis and regurgitation. The first numerical results obtained are presented.

  13. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  14. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the underestimat

  15. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  16. Neuropeptides in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1984-12-01

    Neuropeptides can affect cardiovascular function in various ways. They can serve as cotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system; for example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released with acetylcholine and neuropeptide Y with norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons. Substance P and, presumably, other peptides can can affect cardiovascular function when released near blood vessels by antidromically conducted impulses in branches of stimulated sensory neurons. In the central nervous system, many different neuropeptides appear to function as transmitters or contransmittes in the neural pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system. In addition neuropeptides such as vasopressin and angiotensin II also circulate as hormones that are involved in cardiovascular control. Large doses of exogenous vasopressin are required to increase blood pressure in normal animals because the increase in total peripheral resistance produced by the hormones is accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output. However, studies with synthetic peptides that selectively antagonize the vasopressor action of vasopressin indicate that circulating vasopressin is important in maintaining blood pressure when animals are hypovolemic due to dehydration, haemorrhage or adrenocortical insufficiency. VIP dilates blood vessels and stimulates renin secretion by a direct action on the juxtaglomerular cells. Renin secretion is stimulated when the concentration of VIP in plasma exceeds 75 pmol/litre, and higher values are seen in a number of conditions. Neostigmine, a drug which increases the secretion of endogenous VIP, also increases renin secretion, and this increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Thus, VIP may be a physiologically significant renin stimulating hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  18. Evolution and diversity in avian vocal system: an Evo-Devo model from the morphological and behavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    Birds use various vocalizations to mark their territory and attract mates. Three groups of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds) learn their vocalizations through imitation. In the brain of such vocal learners, there is a neural network called the song system specialized for vocal learning and production. In contrast, birds such as chickens and pigeons do not have such a neural network and can only produce innate sounds. Since each avian species shows distinct, genetically inherited vocal learning abilities that are related to its morphology, the avian vocal system is a good model for studying the evolution of functional neural circuits. Nevertheless, studies on avian vocalization from an evolutionary developmental-biological (Evo-Devo) perspective are scant. In the present review, we summarize the results of songbird studies and our recent work that used the Evo-Devo approach to understand the evolution of the avian vocal system.

  19. Improving the quality of cardiovascular preventive care in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis we target cardiovascular preventive care from a continuous quality improvement point of view in a project called CARPE (CArdiovascular Risk reduction in Primary carE). We created a multifaceted intervention based on a ·quality cycle· and used outreach visitors for its implementation, since this approach has proven successful in modifying professional behavior. 13 In addressing prevention we considered Donebedian's model 14 to assess quality of care: i.e. we distingu...

  20. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical ques

  1. You are what you eat : A neuroscience perspective on consumers' personality characteristics as determinants of eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for a link between personality characteristics and eating behavior is mounting. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review and meta-analysis we summarize the current knowledge on personality characteristics in relation to food-induced brain responses a

  2. A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Parental Influence on Female Adolescents' Achievement Beliefs and Behaviors in Sport and School Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…

  3. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  4. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Stephen J Nicholls; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  5. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  6. Salud de Corazon: Cultural Resources for Cardiovascular Health among Older Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adriana; Fleury, Julie; Shearer, Nelma

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanic women has been substantiated across studies. While many studies have focused on the impact of these risk factors, few qualitative studies have addressed cultural and contextual meanings of cardiovascular health promotion in this population. This research explored cultural resources for cardiovascular health promotion among older Hispanic women. A qualitative descriptive methodological design using focus groups with 7 Hispanic women was used. Culture provided an overarching perspective, guiding identification and choice of resources and supports in order to promote cardiovascular health. Themes included Living Tradition, Caring for Family, Connecting with Friends, Having Faith, and Moving as Life. Data provide an initial step toward generating a more complete understanding of perceived cultural resources for cardiovascular health in older Hispanic women. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing that individuals, families and communities uniquely define cultural and contextual meaning of cardiovascular health promotion.

  7. A Regulatory Focus Perspective on Eating Behavior: How Prevention and Promotion Focus Relates to Emotional, External, and Restrained Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ePfattheicher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230, it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to emotional eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to external and restrained eating. Individual differences in promotion focus are positively related to external eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to emotional and restrained eating. In relating RFT to different eating styles we were able to document significant relations of basic self-regulatory orientations with regard to essential daily behavior associated with health and well-being. The implications for changing eating styles are discussed.

  8. A regulatory focus perspective on eating behavior: how prevention and promotion focus relates to emotional, external, and restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Sassenrath, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT) to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230), it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to emotional eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to external and restrained eating. Individual differences in promotion focus are positively related to external eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to emotional and restrained eating. In relating RFT to different eating styles we were able to document significant relations of basic self-regulatory orientations with regard to essential daily behavior associated with health and well-being. The implications for changing eating styles are discussed.

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: a critical evaluation of its theoretical framework from a clinical-phenomenological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Henriksen, Mads Gram; Sass, Louis;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has played an increasingly important role in psychotherapy for schizophrenia since the 1990s, but it has also encountered many theoretical and practical limitations. For example, methodologically rigorous meta-analyses have recently found only modest...... of schizophrenia. Conclusion: We suggest that further advancement of CBT theory and practice can benefit from a dialogue with phenomenological psychiatry in the search for effective psychotherapeutic strategies for schizophrenia patients....

  10. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2013-01-01

    Background Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents’ personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (T...

  11. The Influences of Perceived Factors on Consumer Purchasing Behavior: In the Perspective of Online Shopping Capability of Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Yingcong Xu; Lu Long; Lingying Zhang; Wojie Tan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, firstly, based on related researches about consumer online purchasing behavior before, we proposed that there were some perceived factors that influence perceived value which has a direct impact on consumer’s online purchasing decision-making. Secondly, on the analysis for the antecedent of consumer perceived factors with online shopping, we proposed the definition of online shopping capability of consumer and try to explore what factors would affect consumers’ perceived value ...

  12. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement. PMID:26168010

  13. A Synthetic Ecology Perspective: How Well Does Behavior of Model Organisms in the Laboratory Predict Microbial Activities in Natural Habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng; Krause, Sascha M B; Beck, David A C; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective article, we question how well model organisms, the ones that are easy to cultivate in the laboratory and that show robust growth and biomass accumulation, reflect the dynamics and interactions of microbial communities observed in nature. Today's -omics toolbox allows assessing the genomic potential of microbes in natural environments in a high-throughput fashion and at a strain-level resolution. However, understanding of the details of microbial activities and of the mechanistic bases of community function still requires experimental validation in simplified and fully controlled systems such as synthetic communities. We have studied methane utilization in Lake Washington sediment for a few decades and have identified a number of species genetically equipped for this activity. We have also identified co-occurring satellite species that appear to form functional communities together with the methanotrophs. Here, we compare experimental findings from manipulation of natural communities involved in metabolism of methane in this niche with findings from manipulation of synthetic communities assembled in the laboratory of species originating from the same study site, from very simple (two-species) to rather complex (50-species) synthetic communities. We observe some common trends in community dynamics between the two types of communities, toward representation of specific functional guilds. However, we also identify strong discrepancies between the dominant methane oxidizers in synthetic communities compared to natural communities, under similar incubation conditions. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in using the synthetic community approach to modeling dynamics and species interactions in natural communities. PMID:27379075

  14. Using Action Research and Peer Perspectives to Develop Technology That Facilitates Behavioral Change and Self-Management in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McCabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Behavioural change and self-management in patients with chronic illness may help to control symptoms, avoid rehospitalization, enhance quality of life, and decrease mortality and morbidity. Objective. Guided by action research principles and using mixed methods, the aim of this project was to develop peer based educational, motivational, and health-promoting peer based videos, using behavioural change principles, to support self-management in patients with COPD. Methods. Individuals (n=32 living with COPD at home and involved in two community based COPD support groups were invited to participate in this project. Focus group/individual interviews and a demographic questionnaire were used to collect data. Results. Analysis revealed 6 categories relevant to behavioural change which included self-management, support, symptoms, knowledge, rehabilitation, and technology. Participants commented that content needed to be specific, and videos needed to be shorter, to be tailored to severity of condition, to demonstrate “normal” activities, to be positive, and to ensure that content is culturally relevant. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that detailed analysis of patient perspectives and needs for self-management is essential and should underpin the development of any framework, materials, and technology. The action research design principles provided an effective framework for eliciting the data and applying it to technology and testing its relevance to the user.

  15. Therapeutic potential of p38 MAP kinase inhibition in the management of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Marie; Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Mäki-Petäjä, Kaisa M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Cheriyan, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPKs) are key signalling molecules that regulate cellular behavior in response to environmental stresses. They regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore p38 MAPKs are implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-driven conditions, including atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of p38 MAPKs to attenuate inflammation has been the focus of comprehensive research in the last 2 decades, following the discovery of p38α as the molecular target of pyrindinyl imidazole compounds, which suppress the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1. The potential of p38 MAPK inhibitors was initially explored within archetypal inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, but early studies demonstrated poor clinical efficacy and unacceptable side effects. Subsequent clinical trials evaluating different p38 MAPK inhibitor compounds in disease models such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atherosclerosis have shown potential clinical efficacy. This review aims to provide succinct background information regarding the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, a focus of p38 MAPKs in disease, and a brief summary of relevant pre-clinical studies. An update of human clinical trial experience encompassing a clinically orientated approach, dedicated to cardiovascular disease follows. It provides a current perspective of the therapeutic potential of p38 MAPK inhibitors in the cardiovascular domain, including safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics.

  16. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  17. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  18. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  19. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  20. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  1. The Influence of Interactivity Features of Databases on Scientific Behavior: A user perspective survey based on the Flow theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Fatthai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We followed two aims: testing the effects of databases' user interface interactivity (UII on Scientific Behavior (SB and exploring the flow experience (FE as mediator between interface interactivity and SB, as well as self-efficacy (SE role as an interferer. We used mixed method in this research. We made a SB questionnaire via a comparative literature study, FE and user UII through literature review. Faculty members and PhD students participated as scholars. Structural Equation Modeling was used for quantitative data analysis and interpretative approach to analyze qualitative data. The role of typological variables, such as gender, area of study, academic degree and English language skill level on SE, UII, FE and SB means are investigated. Finally, we tested the effects of databases' UII on SB and mediator role of FE and interfering role of SE. We found that the more self-efficient participants, the more they experience user interface interactivity and scientific behavior changes/adaptations. In other words, self-efficacy is an important characteristic to establish interactive search session and to upgrade scientific behavior in scholars. Also, we found those participants who experience more flow, have more chance to experience SB changes and adaptation in UII environment. So UII may have effect on researchers' SB. Results may be used in: 1 distance education or researcher training, since these areas are interested in developing, changing and adapting SB; 2 Human-Computer Interaction field, because SB seems to be a new aspect of computer interaction effect on human; 3 The Flow theory will be supported by this new implementation. We proposed a new theoretical framework for research

  2. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  3. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    R. Corti; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  4. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alimadad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  5. A synthetic ecology perspective: how well does behavior of model organisms in the laboratory predict microbial activities in natural habitats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eYu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article we question how well model organisms, the ones that are easy to cultivate in the laboratory and that show robust growth and biomass accumulation, reflect the dynamics and interactions of microbial communities observed in nature. Today’s -omics toolbox allows assessing the genomic potential of microbes in natural environments in a high throughput fashion, and at a strain-level resolution. However, understanding of the details of microbial activities and of the mechanistic bases of community function still requires experimental validation in simplified and fully controlled systems such as synthetic communities. We have studied methane utilization in Lake Washington sediment for a few decades and have identified a number of species genetically equipped for this activity. We have also identified co-occurring satellite species that appear to form functional communities together with the methanotrophs. Here we compare experimental findings from manipulation of natural communities involved in metabolism of methane in this niche with findings from manipulation of synthetic communities assembled in the laboratory of species originating from the same study site, from very simple (two-species to rather complex (50-species synthetic communities. We observe some common trends in community dynamics between the two types of communities, toward representation of specific functional guilds. However, we also identify strong discrepancies between the dominant methane oxidizers in synthetic communities compared to natural communities, under similar incubation conditions. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in using the synthetic community approach to modeling dynamics and species interactions in natural communities.

  6. A Synthetic Ecology Perspective: How Well Does Behavior of Model Organisms in the Laboratory Predict Microbial Activities in Natural Habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng; Krause, Sascha M. B.; Beck, David A. C.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective article, we question how well model organisms, the ones that are easy to cultivate in the laboratory and that show robust growth and biomass accumulation, reflect the dynamics and interactions of microbial communities observed in nature. Today’s -omics toolbox allows assessing the genomic potential of microbes in natural environments in a high-throughput fashion and at a strain-level resolution. However, understanding of the details of microbial activities and of the mechanistic bases of community function still requires experimental validation in simplified and fully controlled systems such as synthetic communities. We have studied methane utilization in Lake Washington sediment for a few decades and have identified a number of species genetically equipped for this activity. We have also identified co-occurring satellite species that appear to form functional communities together with the methanotrophs. Here, we compare experimental findings from manipulation of natural communities involved in metabolism of methane in this niche with findings from manipulation of synthetic communities assembled in the laboratory of species originating from the same study site, from very simple (two-species) to rather complex (50-species) synthetic communities. We observe some common trends in community dynamics between the two types of communities, toward representation of specific functional guilds. However, we also identify strong discrepancies between the dominant methane oxidizers in synthetic communities compared to natural communities, under similar incubation conditions. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in using the synthetic community approach to modeling dynamics and species interactions in natural communities. PMID:27379075

  7. Analysis on Consumption Behavior of Zhejiang Province’s Farmers from the Perspective of Their Income Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin; YU

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development of industrialization in Zhejiang Province, surplus rural labor forces move to the secondary and tertiary industries. Farmers of Zhejiang Province are no exception. They turn to industrial workers and their income source has great changes. Wage income becomes their major source of income. Accordingly, farmers’ consumption behavior has great changes. Apart from satisfying basic production and living demands, farmers start to pursue living quality and their life style tends to urbanization. Nevertheless, under the influence of rural physical environment, policies and systems, the existing consumption environment fails to follow farmers’ urban lifestyle any more. In line with how to optimize rural consumption environment, improve farmers’ consuming capacity, continue to expand farmers’ consumption and promote urbanization development of rural areas, this paper presents pertinent countermeasures and recommendations.

  8. Cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma: an analysis of 20 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedururi, Sireesha; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Gladish, Gregory W. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Vallabhaneni, Srilakshmi [Medstar Harbor Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Anderson, Peter M. [Levine Children' s Hospital/Levine Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatrics Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Carolinas Healthcare System, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hughes, Dennis; Daw, Najat C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Wei-Lien [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Although hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. The enhanced resolution of modern CT and MRI scanners may lead to better detection of cardiovascular involvement. To describe the key imaging findings and clinical behavior of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings and clinical characteristics of 20 patients with cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma identified by two pediatric radiologists from a review of imaging studies at our institution from 2007 to 2013. At initial diagnosis, the median age of the patients was 15.1 years (range 4.8-24.6 years), and 7 (35%) patients had detectable metastases. Median time to detection of cardiovascular metastases was 1.8 years (range 0-7.3 years). Sixteen patients died of disease; 4 have survived a median of 7.4 years since initial diagnosis. The sites of cardiovascular involvement were the systemic veins draining the primary and metastatic osteosarcoma, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins draining the pulmonary metastases, and heart. A dilated and mineralized terminal pulmonary arteriole is an early sign of metastatic osteosarcoma in the lung. Unfamiliarity with the imaging features resulted in under-recognition and misinterpretation of intravascular tumor thrombus as bland thrombus. Knowledge of imaging findings in the era of modern imaging modalities has enhanced our ability to detect cardiovascular involvement and lung metastases early and avoid misinterpreting tumor thrombus in draining systemic veins or pulmonary arteries as bland thrombus. (orig.)

  9. Cardiovascular genetics: technological advancements and applicability for dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummeling, G J M; Baas, A F; Harakalova, M; van der Smagt, J J; Asselbergs, F W

    2015-07-01

    Genetics plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, and is increasingly being integrated into clinical practice. Since 2008, both capacity and cost-efficiency of mutation screening of DNA have been increased magnificently due to the technological advancement obtained by next-generation sequencing. Hence, the discovery rate of genetic defects in cardiovascular genetics has grown rapidly and the financial threshold for gene diagnostics has been lowered, making large-scale DNA sequencing broadly accessible. In this review, the genetic variants, mutations and inheritance models are briefly introduced, after which an overview is provided of current clinical and technological applications in gene diagnostics and research for cardiovascular disease and in particular, dilated cardiomyopathy. Finally, a reflection on the future perspectives in cardiogenetics is given.

  10. Is Sex Good for Your Health? A National Study on Partnered Sexuality and Cardiovascular Risk Among Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon; Wang, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Working from a social relationship and life course perspective, we provide generalizable population-based evidence on partnered sexuality linked to cardiovascular risk in later life using national longitudinal data from the NSHAP (N=2204). We consider characteristics of partnered sexuality of older men and women, particularly sexual activity and sexual quality, as they affect cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk is defined as hypertension, rapid heart rate, elevated CRP, and general cardiovascular events. We find that older men are more likely to report being sexually active, report having sex more often and more enjoyably than are older women. Results from cross-lagged models suggest that high frequency of sex is positively related to later risk of cardiovascular events for men but not women, whereas good sexual quality seems to protect women but not men from cardiovascular risk in later life. We find no evidence that poor cardiovascular health interferes with later sexuality for either gender. PMID:27601406

  11. A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Allen, P.A. [Life Link, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  12. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  13. YOGA IMPROVES CARDIOVASCULAR PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod P. Kadu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yoga in ancient technique practices by sage for a desirable and healthy life. Yogic exercise and Pranayam may modulate cardiovascular function. To assess the cardiovascular parameter in control and study group. We selected 90 healthy volunteers between age group 35 – 50 years and divided into two groups. i Study group – 45 ii Control group – 45. Control group was not doing any type of exercise or yoga during 1 yr of period whereas yoga group did yogic exercise for 1 yr under supervision of yoga expert. In both the group heart rate SBP and DBP evaluate at 0, 6 and 12 month period. In control group heart rate, SBP, and DBP showed no significant change at 0, 6, and 12 month reading, whereas study group (yoga 81.96±5.65 showed significant decreased heart rate From 81.96 ±5.65 to 75.60 ± 3.44 at 6 month and 73.75 ± 11.36 at 12 month (p<0.001 SBP decreased from 128 ± 7.66 to 120.97 ± 4.21 at 6 month and 120.48± 3.86 at 12 months (p<0.001. DBP showed significant decreased from 88.44 ± 5.25 to 80.53 ± 3.44 at 6 months and 80.53 ± 2.53 at 12months (p<0.001. Yogic exercise and Pranayam done regularly at long term improve cardiovascular efficiency.

  14. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  15. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  16. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  17. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  18. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  19. 股权集中度与企业自主创新行为:基于行为动机视角%Ownership Concentration and Corporation Indigenous Innovation Behavior:From the Perspective of Behavior Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建君; 王婷; 刘林波

    2015-01-01

    以公司治理困境为切入点,讨论如何配置公司股权结构既能发挥股东的支持行为,又能增强经理人的主动性,最终促进企业自主创新行为。整合代理理论与行为动机理论,引入经理人创新动力作为中介变量,并将市场竞争程度和创新空间作为调节变量加入模型,探讨股权集中度对自主创新行为的作用路径,利用182家企业的调研数据进行模型检验。研究结果表明,股权集中度与经理人创新动力、自主创新行为之间都存在倒U形关系,股权集中度通过经理人创新动力间接影响自主创新行为,创新空间正向调节经理人创新动力与自主创新行为间的关系,且这一调节效应不影响经理人创新动力中介作用的发挥,市场竞争程度的调节作用并不显著。%Extant study exploring how corporate governance influences innovation mainly focuses on the perspective of owners ormanagers in an agent relationship, which may yield governance dilemma paid inadequate attention to previously .Thus, there existsa necessity to explore how to configure corporate ownership structure to stimulate owner ′s incentive effect as well as enhancemanager′s initiative so as to further facilitate corporation indigenous innovation behavior .Accordingly, it is deserved in-depth analysisof the internal influence mechanism of ownership concentration regarding managers as the breakthrough point .Inspired bythe aforementioned discussions, integrating agency theory, behavior-motivation theory, and innovation theory, this paper introducesmanager′s innovation motivation as mediating variable to link ownership concentration and corporation indigenous innova -tion behavior.Meanwhile, as it is held better to match inside enterprise environmental factors with the outside ones , this studyfurther introduces market competition and innovation space to analyze the moderated effect in the relationship of manager

  20. Optimization in Cardiovascular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid mechanics plays a key role in the development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Advances in imaging methods and patient-specific modeling now reveal increasingly detailed information about blood flow patterns in health and disease. Building on these tools, there is now an opportunity to couple blood flow simulation with optimization algorithms to improve the design of surgeries and devices, incorporating more information about the flow physics in the design process to augment current medical knowledge. In doing so, a major challenge is the need for efficient optimization tools that are appropriate for unsteady fluid mechanics problems, particularly for the optimization of complex patient-specific models in the presence of uncertainty. This article reviews the state of the art in optimization tools for virtual surgery, device design, and model parameter identification in cardiovascular flow and mechanobiology applications. In particular, it reviews trade-offs between traditional gradient-based methods and derivative-free approaches, as well as the need to incorporate uncertainties. Key future challenges are outlined, which extend to the incorporation of biological response and the customization of surgeries and devices for individual patients.

  1. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  2. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  3. Medication effectiveness may not be the major reason for accepting cardiovascular preventive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Støvring, Henrik; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg;

    2012-01-01

    of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is prevalent. A better understanding of patients' medication-taking behavior is needed and may be reached by studying the reasons why people accept or decline medication recommendations. The aim of this paper was to identify factors that may influence people's decisions...... and reasoning for accepting or declining a cardiovascular preventive medication offer....

  4. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  5. Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health.

  6. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD.

  7. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD. PMID:27604540

  8. Study on Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors under the Perspective of Social Stratification%社会分层视野下青少年健康危险行为探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓丽

    2011-01-01

    当前国内有关青少年健康危险行为的研究逐渐增多.然而多数研究是关于各种健康危险行为流行率调查,存在着重复研究的现象。通过对青少年健康危险行为和社会分层的相关理论的研究.发现社会分层对青少年健康危险行为具有一定的影响,不同阶层的青少年在生理和心理上也表现出差异。从社会分层视角来考虑青少年健康危险行为,是研究的新视角,从这点出发制定出监测和干预方案也具有重要的实践意义。%The paper first introduces the related theories and the existing achievements on adolescent health risk behaviors and social stratification,analyses the interactive relationship and the dynamic research between them,finding out that the relevant current domestic researches on adolescent health risk behaviors gradually increases,most of which is about the various health risk behaviors prevalence rate investigation with repeated studies.After the analysis,it is considered that social stratification has certain influence on adolescent health risk behaviors and also shows differences both physiologically and mentally in different groups of teenagers.At last,it points out that from the perspective of social stratification to study adolescent health risk behaviors is a new perspective,and from this perspective to formulate monitoring and intervention scheme also has important practical significance.

  9. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  10. Predicting health behaviors with time perspective among undergraduate of a comprehensive university in Beijing%北京某高校本科生饮食运动行为与时间观念关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 钮文异

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市某综合大学在校本科生饮食和运动相关行为及其与时间观念的关系,为促使大学生健康行为习惯的养成提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的饮食和运动行为调查问卷和津巴多时间观念量表,对北京某高校选修《健康的生活方式与健康传播》通选课的194名在校本科生进行调查.结果 健康行为与未来时间观念得分正相关,如吃早餐频率、吃水果与蔬菜的频率,参加体育锻炼频率及运动开销比例等,而健康危险行为则与其呈负相关关系,部分健康危险行为与享乐主义时间观和宿命主义的现在时间观得分呈正相关,健康行为与其呈正相关.而改变不良饮食/运动行为的意愿与现在时间观念得分呈负相关,与未来时间观念得分呈正相关.结论 时间观念在预测健康行为方面有着一定的意义;采取适当的影响时间观念的心理干预及健康教育措施来促进本科生形成和保持良好的饮食和运动行为习惯是很有必要的.%Objective To analyze the relation between dietary and sports behaviors and time perspective among undergraduate of a comprehensive university in Beijing, and to supply information to further promote healthy behaviors and healthy lifestyles among undergraduate students. Methods Totally 194 students who took the Healthy Lifestyle and Health Communication as elec-tives answered a self-administered questionnaire as well as Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Afterwards, descriptive and uni-variate analysis were used to determine the current situation among the undergraduate from this university and the relation between time perspective and behaviors. Results A majority of undergraduate students involved in this investigation were implementing unhealthy behaviors and taking insufficient amount of exercise in their daily life. There was a significant correlation between some healthy behaviors and time perspective, and so does sports

  11. Individual differences in cardiovascular response to social challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, A; Costoli, T; Meerlo, P; Buwalda, B; Pico'Alfonso, MA; De Boer, S; Musso, E; Koolhaas, J

    2005-01-01

    An important determinant of cardiovascular stress reactivity and morbidity is the individual behavioral strategy of coping with social challenge. This review summarizes the results of a number of studies that we performed in rats, aimed at investigating the relationship between aggression and cardio

  12. Cardiovascular complications in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, G; Pivonello, R; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2004-09-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in acromegaly. In fact, GH and IGF-I excess induces a specific cardiomyopathy. The early stage of acromegaly is characterized by the hyperkinetic syndrome (high heart rate and increased systolic output). Frequently, concentric biventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction occur in acromegaly, leading to an impaired systolic function ending in heart failure if the disease is untreated or unsuccessfully untreated. Besides, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and of valves have been also described in acromegaly. The coexistence of other complications, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes, aggravates the acromegalic cardiomyopathy. The suppression of GH/IGF-I following an efficacious therapy could decrease left ventricular mass and improve cardiac function. In conclusion, a careful evaluation of cardiac function, morphology and activity seems to be mandatory in acromegaly.

  13. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  14. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... of CVD compared to butter intake with an equal fat content. It was found that cheese intake lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and increased glucose concentrations when compared to butter. Additionally, butter intake resulted in higher...... total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol when compared to habitual diet whereas no difference was observed between cheese intake and habitual diet. Calcium has been suggested to increase fecal fat and bile acid excretions which could explain the lower cholesterol concentrations with cheese intake. Although...

  15. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  16. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  17. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  18. Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Monika; Gulati, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease requires involvement of an extended health care team. Obstetricians and gynecologists are uniquely positioned within the health care system because they are often the primary or only contact women have with the system. This review article discusses initial assessment, treatment recommendations, and practical tips regarding primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with a focus on coronary heart disease; discussion includes peripheral and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27212092

  19. Prevalence of Cardiovascular disease risk among Medical Students in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Biswajit Paul; Vidhyaa Nayaaki; Mousumi Sen; Rita Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are global epidemic and contribute to double burden in developing countries. Individual’s dietary habits and risk behavior influence the onset and progression of CVDs. Medical students are future role models of the society and their knowledge, habits and behavior can influence their practice in prevention of CVDs in general population. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors among a sample of medical stud...

  20. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on "change cycle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understanding it as a "true human derive" and its consecutive "behaviors". Most people are unaware of their real needs, and even if they know all of their cardiovascular needs, this knowledge is not projected in their behaviors. In the present paper, I try to outline the Herzberg two-factor hypothesis and Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

  1. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on “change cycle”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understanding it as a "true human derive" and its consecutive "behaviors". Most people are unaware of their real needs, and even if they know all of their cardiovascular needs, this knowledge is not projected in their behaviors. In the present paper, I try to outline the Herzberg two-factor hypothesis and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. PMID:24963317

  2. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  3. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  4. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  7. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  8. Obscenity: Historical and Behavioral Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, W. Barnett; Teeter, Dwight L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the origins of the current state of regulation of sexually explicit materials and to suggest one plausible and practicable solution which should find its way into law. (Author)

  9. Simulations of the Cardiovascular System Using the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-León, Gabriela; Vílchez-Monge, Marta; Montero-Rodríguez, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present document, six mathematical models of the cardiovascular system are studied and implemented in MATLAB R2013a using an updated version of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox proposed by O. Barnea at the Tel-Aviv University. All the mathematical models are based on electrical lumped-parameter analogies. The results of the simulations are compared with a list of expected hemodynamic parameters and contrasted with laboratory values.

  10. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  11. Liposomes for cardiovascular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Tatyana S; Hartner, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-04-01

    Liposome-based pharmaceuticals used within the cardiovascular system are reviewed in this article. The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by plain liposomes and liposomes with surface-attached targeting antibodies or polyethylene glycol to prolong their circulation time and accumulation at vascular injuries, ischemic zones or sites of thrombi are also discussed. An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of liposome-mediated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo targeting is presented, including discussion of the targeting of liposomes to pathological sites on the blood vessel wall and a description of liposomes that can be internalized by endothelial cells. Diagnostic liposomes used to target myocardial infarction and the relative importance of liposome size, targetability of immunoliposomes and prolonged circulation time on the efficiency of sealing hypoxia-induced plasma membrane damage to cardiocytes are discussed as a promising approach for therapy. The progress in the use of targeted liposomal plasmids for the transfection of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and myocardium is presented. Stent-mediated liposomal-based drug delivery is also reviewed briefly. PMID:22834079

  12. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  13. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  14. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol...

  15. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  16. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  17. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  18. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    OpenAIRE

    Villalón, Carlos; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT receptor classification, the authors reanalyse the cardiovascular responses mediated by 5-HT receptors and discuss the established and potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT ligands in the trea...

  19. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  20. Estrogen Signaling and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms by which estrogen confers these pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular function is under active investigation. Until a decade ago, all estrogen signaling was thought to occur by estrogen binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. Estrogen binding to the receptor alters gene expression thereby altering cell function. In 2000 estrogen w...

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of...

  2. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  3. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  4. Networks: An Economic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Matthew O; Zenou, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss social network analysis from the perspective of economics. We organize the presentaion around the theme of externalities: the effects that one's behavior has on others' well-being. Externalities underlie the interdependencies that make networks interesting. We discuss network formation, as well as interactions between peoples' behaviors within a given network, and the implications in a variety of settings. Finally, we highlight some empirical challenges inherent in the statistical analysis of network-based data.

  5. Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular calcification: expanding current paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Jona B; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification is a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries. New evidence on the mechanisms of mineralization identified calcification-competent extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from smooth muscle cells, valvular interstitial cells and macrophages as the mediators of calcification in diseased heart valves and atherosclerotic plaques. However, the regulation of EV release and the mechanisms of interaction between EVs and the extracellular matrix leading to the formation of destabilizing microcalcifications remain unclear. This review focuses on current limits in our understanding of EVs in cardiovascular disease and opens up new perspectives on calcific EV biogenesis, release and functions within and beyond vascular calcification. We propose that, unlike bone-derived matrix vesicles, a large population of EVs implicated in cardiovascular calcification are of exosomal origin. Moreover, the milieu-dependent loading of EVs with microRNA and calcification inhibitors fetuin-A and matrix Gla protein suggests a novel role for EVs in intercellular communication, adding a new mechanism to the pathogenesis of vascular mineralization. Similarly, the cell type-dependent enrichment of annexins 2, 5 or 6 in calcifying EVs posits one of several emerging factors implicated in the regulation of EV release and calcifying potential. This review aims to emphasize the role of EVs as essential mediators of calcification, a major determinant of cardiovascular mortality. Based on recent findings, we pinpoint potential targets for novel therapies to slow down the progression and promote the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26824781

  6. YKL-40 - an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathcke Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting chemotaxis, cell attachment and migration, reorganization and tissue remodelling as a response to endothelial damage. YKL-40 protein expression is seen in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques with the highest expression seen in macrophages in the early lesion of atherosclerosis. Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes indicating a role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular damage resulting in microvascular disease. This review describes the present knowledge about YKL-40 and discusses its relation to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes and look ahead on future perspectives of YKL-40 research.

  7. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations.

  8. Application of feminist theory in nursing research: the case of women and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Kim M; Bunting, Sheila M

    2002-12-01

    Researchers have provided evidence that women recover from and live with heart disease in very distinct ways from men. The challenge for researchers has been to discuss women in a manner that allows their differences to emerge but does not depict them as inferior to men. Our goal is to review current cardiovascular research on women from a feminist theoretical perspective. We believe that a feminist perspective in cardiovascular research will advance the knowledge and recognition of women's health. We examined nine qualitative research articles in depth and applied a model of feminist research critique to them (Bunting, 1997). Historical androcentric notions in women's health and cardiovascular research are discussed. Also included are recommendations for future research to influence social change in women's cardiac health.

  9. COCATS 4: Securing the Future of Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shashank S; Julien, Howard M; Krim, Selim R; Ijioma, Nkechinyere N; Baron, Suzanne J; Rock, Andrea J; Siehr, Stephanie L; Cullen, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    The latest iteration of the Core Cardiology Training Statement (COCATS 4) [Corrected] provides a potentially transformative advancement in cardiovascular fellowship training intended, ultimately, to improve patient care. This review addressed 3 primary themes of COCATS 4 from the perspective of fellows-in-training: 1) the evolution of training requirements culminating in a competency-based curriculum; 2) the development of novel learning paradigms; and 3) the establishment of task forces in emerging areas of multimodality imaging and critical care cardiology. This document also examined several important challenges presented by COCATS 4. The proposed changes in COCATS 4 should not only enhance the training experience but also improve trainee satisfaction. Because it embraces continual transformation of training requirements to meet evolving clinical needs and public expectations, COCATS 4 will enrich the cardiovascular fellowship training experience for patients, programs, and fellows-in-training.

  10. Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels – or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux – contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future. PMID:21723289

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  12. Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Program in Treatment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Kenneth G.; Schneider, Robert H.; Nidich, Sanford I.; Salerno, John W.; Nordstrom, Cheryl K; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is a nontraditional risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that may respond to behavioral or psychosocial interventions. To date, studies applying such interventions have reported a wide range of success rates in treatment or prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The authors focus on a natural medicine approach that research indicates reduces both psychosocial and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease—the Transcendental Meditation (TM) p...

  13. Experiences and perceptions about cause and prevention of cardiovascular disease among people with cardiometabolic conditions: findings of in-depth interviews from a peri-urban Nepalese community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Oli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nepal currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Earlier studies on health literacy and the behavior dimension of cardiovascular health reported a substantial gap between knowledge and practice. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to deepen understanding of the community perspective on cardiovascular health from the patients’ viewpoint. Design: We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs with 13 individuals with confirmed heart disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus. All participants provided verbal consent. We used an IDI guide to ask respondents about their perception and experiences with CVD, particularly regarding causation and preventability. We manually applied qualitative content analysis to evaluate the data and grouped similar content into categories and subcategories. Results: Respondents perceived dietary factors, particularly consumption of salty, fatty, and oily food, as the main determinants of CVD. Similarly, our respondents unanimously linked smoking, alcohol intake, and high blood pressure with cardiac ailments but reported mixed opinion regarding the causal role of body weight and physical inactivity. Although depressed and stressed at the time of diagnosis, respondents learned to handle their situation better over time. Despite good family support for health care, the financial burden of disease was a major issue. All respondents understood the importance of lifestyle modification and relied upon health professionals for information and motivation. Respondents remarked that community awareness of CVD was inadequate and that medical doctors or trained local people should help increase awareness. Conclusions: This study provided insight into the perceptions of patients regarding CVD. Respondents embraced the importance of lifestyle modification only after receiving their diagnosis. Although better health care is important in terms of aiding patients to better understand and cope with

  14. Experiences and perceptions about cause and prevention of cardiovascular disease among people with cardiometabolic conditions: findings of in-depth interviews from a peri-urban Nepalese community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, Natalia; Vaidya, Abhinav; Subedi, Madhusudan; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Earlier studies on health literacy and the behavior dimension of cardiovascular health reported a substantial gap between knowledge and practice. Objective This qualitative study aimed to deepen understanding of the community perspective on cardiovascular health from the patients’ viewpoint. Design We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 13 individuals with confirmed heart disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus. All participants provided verbal consent. We used an IDI guide to ask respondents about their perception and experiences with CVD, particularly regarding causation and preventability. We manually applied qualitative content analysis to evaluate the data and grouped similar content into categories and subcategories. Results Respondents perceived dietary factors, particularly consumption of salty, fatty, and oily food, as the main determinants of CVD. Similarly, our respondents unanimously linked smoking, alcohol intake, and high blood pressure with cardiac ailments but reported mixed opinion regarding the causal role of body weight and physical inactivity. Although depressed and stressed at the time of diagnosis, respondents learned to handle their situation better over time. Despite good family support for health care, the financial burden of disease was a major issue. All respondents understood the importance of lifestyle modification and relied upon health professionals for information and motivation. Respondents remarked that community awareness of CVD was inadequate and that medical doctors or trained local people should help increase awareness. Conclusions This study provided insight into the perceptions of patients regarding CVD. Respondents embraced the importance of lifestyle modification only after receiving their diagnosis. Although better health care is important in terms of aiding patients to better understand and cope with their disease

  15. The rat - Cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor-Herazo Aristides

    2012-06-01

    locura inducida porlas sustancias, donde la culpa proyectada y la negación campean a la par dela visión del mundo degradado y alucinante como construcción alterna de larealidad del drogadicto.A falta de una vida plena llena de realizaciones, el vacío interno, los sentimientosde soledad, la futilidad mediatizada, la ausencia de un verdadero sentido de lavida, el existir solo por el principio del placer, constituyen modos de vida sinsignificado, donde comanda el cerebro del reptil que llevamos dentro, no digoque el de mamífero porque sería ofender a tan nobles animales.En el desarrollo de esta obra, y en la realidad, vemos como se encuentratrastocado, cuando no ausente, el sentido de lo espiritual. La incapacidad paraexperimentar el dolor del prójimo, posiblemente se deba a una falla del hazde neuronas conocidas como “neuronas espejo” descubiertas por el equipoinvestigador de la Universidad de Parma, liderado por Giacomo Rizzolatti en1996. El sistema de “neuronas espejo” permite hacer propias las acciones, sensaciones y emociones de los demás; sirve paraexplicar las bases neurobiológicas de la empatíay, su ausencia o daño, ayudaría a comprender lasbases del trastorno antisocial de la personalidado psicopatía. Grave patología caracterizadapor la imposibilidad del sujeto para vivenciarlos sentimientos de sus iguales, por lo mismo,son incapaces para sentir culpa o ansiedad, losque los lleva a una ausencia de moralidad y decapacidad para experimentar compasión por elotro, eso los convierte en depredadores de los herdemás.La droga prospera en estos individuosy daña las conexiones lógicas de sus funciones,socio-patizándolos aún más; así nos impresionaArístides, con unos personajes desalmados,afectados por este destructor flagelo. Esta esla saga en la que nos introduce con magistralhabilidad el autor.CHISTIAN AYOLA GÓMEZMédico Especialista en PsiquiatriaFARMACOLOGIA CARDIOVASCULAR:El conocimiento de la farmacología, ciencia vitalen la formaci

  16. Freqüência cardíaca e risco cardiovascular Heart rate and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Machado César

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A freqüência cardíaca (FC também está no centro das determinantes do tempo de vida dos seres vivos animais. Há quase uma constante quando se multiplica a FC pelo número de anos que, em média, vive um animal. O ser humano também tem correlações interessantes de tempo de vida e FC, com estudos epidemiológicos demonstrando maior sobrevivência naqueles com menor FC em repouso, hipertensos, com doença coronariana e na população geral. Neste artigo, revemos estes estudos epidemiológicos e a perspectiva de se, de fato reduzindo a FC, poderemos aumentar o tempo de vida, no caso dos pacientes com doença cardiovascular, de forma independente de outros fatores.Heart rate (HR is known to be one of the factors that in the animal world are related to mortality. When one multiplies resting HR by the average life time, for each animal species, the result is almost the same number, similar to a constant. Apparently, each class of living beings has its "maximal number of heart beats for a life". Herein considerations are made about the relationship between HR and survival in human beings. Some epidemiological studies are reviewed, especially those related to cardiovascular and coronary diseases correlated to deaths and discussions are directed towards the perspective of living longer by lowering the HR.

  17. Osteoporosis y enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarahí Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV y la osteoporosis son causas frecuentes de morbilidad en la población adulta, cuya frecuencia aumenta con la edad, por lo que al aumentar la expectativa de vida, constituyen importantes problemas de salud. El riesgo a padecer ambas patologías depende de factores de riesgo, y la prevención consiste en controlar los modificables. Las ECV y la osteoporosis presentan factores etiológicos comunes que involucran la biosíntesis del colesterol y la oxidación lipídica, cuya dilucidación representa una línea priorizada de investigación. El crecimiento y mantenimiento del esqueleto depende del equilibrio entre la formación y la resorción ósea a través de los procesos de modelado y remodelado óseo, controlados por células óseas (osteoblastos -OB-, osteoclastos -OC- y osteocitos, los OB son responsables de la formación ósea, los OC de la resorción ósea y los osteocitos de la red mecano sensorial. Entre los nexos de las ECV y la osteoporosis se encuentra el papel de la vía del mevalonato en la síntesis de colesterol y en la activación de OC, y el papel de los lípidos oxidados en el desarrollo de la aterosclerosis y en la transformación de las células precursoras de OB en adipocitos, disminuyendo la formación de OB activos y favoreciendo la osteoporosis. Ello justifica que sustancias hipolipemiantes y antioxidantes puedan ejercer efectos protectores sobre el hueso, y que la búsqueda de sustancias que actúen sobre ambos blancos sea un aspecto de interés en la prevención o el manejo de estas enfermedades.

  18. Nanomedicine: Addressing Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchwey, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is becoming an increasingly significant problem. In attempts to overcome many of the traditional hurdles of cardiovascular disease treatment, therapeutic approaches have been gradually moving beyond an exclusive focus on orally delivered drugs towards the development of nanoscale applications. These technologies exploit molecular scale events to improve drug and gene delivery applications, enhance preventative medicine and diagnostic strategies, and create biomimicking substrates for vascular tissue engineering. As nanoscale treatments enter the arena of clinical medicine, new ways of thinking about and routes for applying nanomedicine to cardiovascular health issues are emerging. With focuses on drug delivery, gene therapy, and biomimetics, this article will provide a comprehensive review of various nanomedicine applications for combating atherosclerosis and for improving upon current vascular tissue engineering designs.

  19. SISTEMA ENDOCANABINOIDE: MODIFICANDO LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Endocannabinoid system: modifying cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aumento en la ingesta alimentaria, lo que puede traducirse en tabaquismo u obesidad. La intervención farmacológica sobre el sistema endocanabinoide puede contribuir al manejo de estos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, teniendo en cuenta que a tales beneficios se suman otros independientes de la suspensión del tabaquismo o la reducción de peso, como el aumento del colesterol de alta densidad, la disminución de triglicéridos y la mejoría del control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados adelantados en poblaciones con diferentes características, han evaluado la utilidad de la regulación farmacológica del sistema endocanabinoide; confirmando su eficacia en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos.The need for an optimal treatment for smoking, obesity and their comorbidities, well-known cardiovascular risk factors; has prompted the search for novel therapeutic targets. This is the case of the endocannabinoid system, involved in several physiological phenomena including the reinforcement of certain behaviors and the regulation of appetite.

  20. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  1. [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, I; Magyari, M; Stief, L

    1998-08-30

    The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. 42 patients with cardiovascular disease (mean age 65 +/- 13 yr, 16 males) were investigated if iodine insufficiency can play a role as a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. The patients were divided in 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary disfunction and arrhythmia. Urine iodine concentration (5.29 +/- 4.52 micrograms/dl) was detected with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetric reaction. The most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (4.7 +/- 4.94 micrograms/dl and 4.9 +/- 4.81 micrograms/dl, respectively). An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients (5.3 +/- 1.4 mlU/l). An elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. In conclusion, the occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. Iodine supplementation might prevent the worsing effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease.

  2. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  3. Characteristics of Smokers from a National Sample Who Engaged in Any Physical Activity: Implications for Cardiovascular Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Lenhart, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and current treatments lack long-term efficacy. Promoting physical activity may be a viable population-level approach to improving cardiovascular health among smokers. Purpose: To characterize smokers engaging in any physical activity based on demographics, quitting behaviors, health…

  4. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy;

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and glycaemic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests...

  5. College problem students' anomic behaviors from the perspective of Social Role Theory%社会角色理论视域下高校问题学生行为失范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞

    2012-01-01

    College problem students' anomic behaviors have attracted the universal social attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis introduces the Social Role Theory into the research of this problem from a practical and brand new perspective which redefines "problem students" and "anomic behavior". What's more, this paper incisively analyzes the causes for college problem students' anomic behavior from the following four aspects: role shift, role conflict, role mismatch, and role failure. And it also puts forward the corresponding countermeasures, which develops a new way of thinking for education administrator trying to find solutions to students' anomic behavior.%高校“问题学生”行为失范已得到社会的普遍关注,基于前人研究的基础,立足客观实际,开辟新视角,将社会角色理论引入对这一问题的研究,不仅对“问题学生”和“行为失范”进行了重新界定,从角色转换、角色冲突、角色错位、角色失败四个方面分析了高校“问题学生”行为失范产生的缘由,并提出了相应的对策。

  6. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

  7. Cardiovascular Costs of Emotion Suppression Cross Ethnic Lines1

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole A Roberts; Levenson, Robert W.; Gross, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that inhibiting emotion-expressive behavior (emotion suppression) leads to increased sympathetic activation of the cardiovascular system (Gross & Levenson, 1993). Ethnic differences have been reported in how frequently suppression is used as an emotion regulation strategy (Gross & John, 2003); however, it remains unknown whether there are ethnic differences in the physiological consequences of suppression. To test this, 168 participants from four ethnic groups (Afr...

  8. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2016-06-01

    Whereas primary prevention seeks to forestall development of disease in individuals with elevated risk, primordial prevention seeks to preempt the development of risk factors. Health behaviors-characterized as "lifestyle" factors-are key interventional targets in primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. Appropriate dietary intake, including limiting salt and saturated fat consumption, can reduce the risk of developing hypertension and dyslipidemias. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure and healthier lipid profiles. Diet and exercise are critical to maintaining weight conducive to cardiovascular health. Behavioral factors such as stress management, sleep duration, portion control, and meal timing may play a role in weight management and offer additional routes of intervention. Any smoking elevates cardiovascular risk. Although lifestyle modification programs can be instrumental in reaching public health goals, maintaining cardiovascular health should not be a matter solely of willpower. Ideally, structural and social forces should make healthy lifestyles the default option. PMID:27142061

  9. The psychobiology of strained breathing and its cardiovascular implications : A functional system review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, DS

    1999-01-01

    Strained breathing is a natural respiratory pattern, with cardiovascular implications. It is associated with social factors, attention, expectation, and anxiety and with defense behavior in animals. An inhibition of active behavior is characteristic. Strained breathing is based on the functional het

  10. Social anxiety and cardiovascular responses to active coping conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGIT GRAMER

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of trait social anxiety on cardiovascular, emotional and behavioral responses to active performance situations representing social and cognitive demands. Thirty-six male and thirty-six female students categorized as either high or low in trait social anxiety performed a mental arithmetic task and two interpersonal tasks requiring persuasive behavior: Preparation and Performance of a Speech, Role-played Interpersonal Interactions. The cardiovascular effects of social anxiety varied over experimental stressors and appear to reflect differences in effort or task engagement rather than differential affective experiences. During Role-played Interactions high socially anxious subjects displayed lower increases in systolic blood pressure compared to low anxious participants. This effect was partially mediated by behavioral indicators of social competence and suggests a more inhibited coping approach of socially anxious participants. Findings for Mental Arithmetic were in the opposite direction, high socially anxious subjects displayed greater heart rate effects. In the absence of group differences in state anxiety this effect might result from stronger audience effects on effort or task motivation in socially anxious participants. These findings strengthen the view that active performance situations elicit cardiovascular effects that are largely attributable to differences in task engagement. The data also indicate the importance of considering situational factors in social anxiety research.

  11. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  12. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  13. Culturally-Inclusive Behavior of Filipino Teachers in International Schools in the Philippines: Perspectives of International Education in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Maria Aurora Correa; Malakolunthu, Suseela

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the culturally inclusive behavior of Filipino teachers using information culled from interviews of six Filipino teachers in international schools on their perception of international education, and how it translates into their pedagogy. The findings of the study reveal inherent patterns of behavior the teachers manifest in…

  14. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of card

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  16. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  17. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  18. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  19. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  20. Epac and the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Sand, Carsten; Jakobs, Karl H.; Michel, Martin C.; Weernink, Paschal A. Oude

    2007-01-01

    Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) - a cyclic AMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases - has emerged as a novel mediator of pivotal processes in the cardiovascular system, including cellular calcium handling, hypertrophy, integrin-mediated cell adhesion, est

  1. Hedgehog morphogen in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the basic biology of the important developmental Hedgehog ( Hh) protein family, its general function in development, pathway mechanisms, and gene discovery and nomenclature. Hh function in cardiovascular development and recent findings concerning Hh signaling in ischemia

  2. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  3. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Piette, John D.; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls, short message service (SMS) or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and r...

  4. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul D Morris; Kevin S Channer

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD),men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women,and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality.This 'Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone,the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease,coronary risk factors and mortality.We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone,and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina.We discuss the 'cause' versus 'effect' controversy,regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease,as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men.The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area,including the relative merits of screening for,and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease.

  5. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  6. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  7. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  8. Hydration state controls stress responsiveness and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Eric G.; de Kloet, Annette D.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Smeltzer, Michael D.; Solomon, Matia B.; Evanson, Nathan K.; Woods, Stephen C; Sakai, Randall R.; Herman, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Life stress frequently occurs within the context of homeostatic challenge, requiring integration of physiological and psychological need into appropriate hormonal, cardiovascular and behavioral responses. To test neural mechanisms underlying stress integration within the context of homeostatic adversity, we evaluated the impact of a pronounced physiological (hypernatremia) challenge on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), cardiovascular and behavioral responses to an acute psychogenic stress...

  9. [Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2004-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

  10. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  12. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J;

    2010-01-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes....

  13. “场域-惯习”视角下的群体性“冷漠行为”%The Group Behavior Indifference under the"Field-habitus"Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖飞; 张建

    2013-01-01

    The"Field-habitus"theory is bourdieu’s practical sociology research core ideas, this paper references the theory, from the perspective of group indif erence behavior field, capital, habitus and their relationship, to establish analysis framework of the group indifference behavior, and then, uses the analysis framework to interpret the reason of group behavior indif erence.%  “场域—惯习”理论是布迪厄实践社会学研究的核心思想,借用该理论对群体性冷漠行为发生的场域、资本和惯习进行分析,构建群体性“冷漠行为”的分析框架,然后,应用该分析框架对群体性“冷漠行为”发生的原因进行社会学解读,具有重大的理论指导意义。

  14. Evolutionary perspectives on emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgruber, Dirk; Kreifelts, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    Koelsch and coworkers present a sophisticated neuroanatomical model of emotions comprising four affect-systems and four output-systems, each bound to a specific brain area [1]. Moreover, they suggest the emergence of distinct components of subjective feelings or "emotion percepts" due to integration of the activation across these subsystems. Incorporating numerous neurobiological, psychological and philosophical findings on human emotions, the model reflects an extensive interdisciplinary approach. Considering an evolutionary perspective, however, we would like to address some issues concerning emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior that are not fully covered by the Quartet Model. Charles Darwin pointed out that individuals that are better adapted to their environment have increased chances of survival and reproduction. Therefore, natural selection leads to a rising prevalence of properties offering a survival benefit across generations [2]. To better understand the biological functions of emotions we propose to ask the question: How do emotions provide a benefit for survival and reproduction?

  15. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  16. Research on the Reform of Corporat e Governance Cur-riculum Based on the Perspective of Behavioral Experi-ments%基于行为实验视角的公司治理课程改革探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任广乾

    2014-01-01

    公司治理作为工商管理专业的核心课程,在讲授过程中多以理论探讨和案例分析相结合的模式,而大学本科生对公司治理操作实务缺乏直观感受,这就导致了公司治理课程教学往往收不到理想效果。行为实验教学方法引入到公司治理课程教学之中为破解以上问题提供了新的视角。本文从公司治理课程涉及的核心利益主体的非标准偏好和信念以及非标准决策角度剖析了行为实验视角下的公司治理课程教学模式以及应注意事项。%Corporate governance is the core course of business administration major. The teaching model of the course is mostly the combination of theoretical discussion and case studies, but undergraduates lack an intuitive feel of corporate governance, which leads to the result that the teaching of corporate gover-nance often does not receive the desired effect. The introduction of the behavioral experiment-based teaching method to corporate governance course provides a new perspective of solving the above problems. From the nonstandard preferences and beliefs as well as nonstandard decisions of the core stakeholders involved in the course, this paper analyzes the teaching model and matters needing attention for corporate governance course based on the perspective of behavioral experiments.

  17. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  18. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  19. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    . The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...... reported no association in men but a decreased risk in women. In addition, results from four intervention studies indicated no harmful effect on cholesterol concentrations when comparing fat intake from cheese with fat from butter. The underlying mechanisms for these findings still need to be elucidated.......Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  20. Chiral cardiovascular drugs: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Vasant V; Somberg, John C

    2005-01-01

    Stereochemistry in drug molecules is rapidly becoming an important aspect in drug research, design, and development. Recently, individual stereoisomers of drug molecules with asymmetric centers such as fexofenadine, cetirizine, verapamil, fluoxetine, levalbutarol, and amphetamine, for example, have been separated and developed as individual drugs. These stereoisomers have different therapeutic activity, and each isomer has contributed differently with respect to its formulation's pharmacologic activity, side effects, and toxicity. The present overview discusses chirality among a select group of cardiovascular drugs, their stereochemical synthesis/preparation, isolation techniques using chiral chromatography, methods for confirmation of their enantiomeric purity, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. Chirality has been visualized as an important factor in cardiovascular research. It is also becoming evident in other areas of therapeutics.

  1. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  2. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones......, a progressively increased risk in people with different levels of reduced TSH to a physiologically 'dose-dependent' effect of thyroid hormones on the heart in overt hyperthyroidism. Heart failure represents an intriguing clinical situation in which triiodothyronine treatment might be beneficial. In conclusion...

  3. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciafone, R.A.; Rhodes, A.R.; Audley, M.; Freedberg, I.M.; Abelmann, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed.

  4. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious disorder in today’s society, with the estimates of lifetime prevalence being as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As defined by the American Psychiatric Association, depression is a heterogeneous disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels. Such patients are often reluctant to take synthetic antidepressants in their appropriate doses due to their anticipated side effects including inability to drive a car, dry mouth, constipation, and sexual dysfunction. As a therapeutic alternative, effective herbal drugs may offer advantages in terms of safety and tolerability, possibly also improving patient compliance. The advent of the first antidepressants, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs, in the 1950s and 1960s represented a dramatic leap forward in the clinical management of depression. The subsequent development of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs and the Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine in the past decade and a half has greatly enhanced the treatment of depression by offering patients medications that are as effective as the older agents but are generally more tolerable and safer in an overdose. The introduction of atypical antidepressants, such as bupropion, nefazadone, and mirtazapine, has added substantially to the available pharmacopoeia for depression. Nonetheless, rates of remission tend to be low and the risk of relapse and recurrence remains high. One of the concerns regarding the safety of antidepressant is its potential risk of cardiotoxicity and cardiovascular side effects. In this review, we will focus on the cardiovascular side effects of different types of antidepressants.

  6. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.

  7. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Takehara, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should r...

  8. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James; O'Keefe, James

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Ev...

  9. Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Visca; Marina Aiello; Alfredo Chetta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well...

  10. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio JJ; O’Keefe JH

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perind...

  11. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  12. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  13. Ácidos graxos e doenças cardiovasculares: uma revisão Fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Leite de LIMA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a prevalência de doenças cardiovasculares tem aumentado progressivamente, tornando-se um grave problema de saúde pública. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado haver uma associação positiva entre a ingestão de gordura saturada e a prevalência dessas doenças, bem como uma associação negativa com a ingestão de gorduras insaturadas. Esses conhecimentos motivaram uma evolução nas recomendações dos ácidos graxos, visando melhor utilização destes e respeitando-se uma proporção adequada na dieta, a fim de diminuir a prevalência das doenças cardiovasculares. Este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura médica sobre os estudos desenvolvidos com ácidos graxos e seus possíveis efeitos em doenças cardiovasculares, bem como evolução de suas recomendações através do tempo, tendências de consumo e perspectivas futuras.During the last decades the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has increased progressively, becoming a serious public health problem. Some studies have shown a positive association between saturated fatty acid intake and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, and a negative association with unsaturated fatty acids intake. These studies indicate a need to evaluate the different kinds of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and their effects, aiming at a better utilization and maintaining a suitable proportion in the diet in order to diminish the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to accomplish a review of the medical literature regarding fatty acids and their effects on cardiovascular diseases, as well as the evolution of their requirements through time, consumption trends and future perspectives.

  14. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiNicolantonio JJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA study significantly reduced major cardiovascular events despite a small reduction (approximately 4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure from baseline.2,3 Additionally, the average baseline blood pressure in the EUROPA was just 137/82 mmHg, and in those without hypertension, perindopril still provided a 20% reduction in the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.4,5 In fact, patients receiving perindopril with a baseline systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg had the greatest reduction in the primary event.6 View original paper by Wang and colleagues. 

  15. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  16. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios; K; Andrikopoulos; Dimitrios; K; Alexopoulos; Sotirios; P; Gartaganis

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoexfoliation(PEX) syndrome is a well-recognized late-onset disease caused by a generalized fibrillopathy. It is linked to a broad spectrum of ocular complications including glaucoma and perioperative problems during cataract surgery. Apart from the long-known intraocular manifestations, PEX deposits have been found in a variety of extraocular locations and they appear to represent a systemic process associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, as published results are inconsistent, the clinical significance of the extraocular PEX deposits remains controversial. Identification of PEX deposits in the heart and the vessel wall, epidemiologic studies, as well as, similarities in pathogenetic mechanisms have led to the hypothesis of a possible relation between fibrillar material and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that PEX syndrome is frequently linked to impaired heart and blood vessels function. Systemic and ocular blood flow changes, altered parasympathetic vascular control and baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular resistance and decreased blood flow velocity, arterial endothelial dysfunction, high levels of plasma homocysteine and arterial hypertension have all been demonstrated in PEX subjects. Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process.

  17. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  18. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  19. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  20. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA