Physiological systems such as the cardiovascular system are capable of five kinds of behavior: equilibrium, periodicity, quasi-periodicity, deterministic chaos and random behavior. Systems adopt one or more these behaviors depending on the function they have evolved to perform. The emerging mathematical concepts of fractal mathematics and chaos theory are extending our ability to study physiological behavior. Fractal geometry is observed in the physical structure of pathways, networks and macroscopic structures such the vasculature and the His-Purkinje network of the heart. Fractal structure is also observed in processes in time, such as heart rate variability. Chaos theory describes the underlying dynamics of the system, and chaotic behavior is also observed at many levels, from effector molecules in the cell to heart function and blood pressure. This review discusses the role of fractal structure and chaos in the cardiovascular system at the level of the heart and blood vessels, and at the cellular level. Key functional consequences of these phenomena are highlighted, and a perspective provided on the possible evolutionary origins of chaotic behavior and fractal structure. The discussion is non-mathematical with an emphasis on the key underlying concepts.
Pedersen, Susanne S.; von Känel, Roland; Tully, Phillip J
Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients' psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress. Co......-morbid depression and/or anxiety is prevalent in 20% of patients with cardiovascular disease, which may be either transient or chronic. Distress, such as depression, reduces adherence, serves as a barrier to behaviour change and the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, and increases the risk that patients drop out...
Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.
This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…
Pedersen, S.S.; von Kaenel, R.; Tully, P.J.; Denollet, J.
Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients’ psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress.
Over the last several decades, there has been an explosion of articles on acupuncture, including studies that have begun to explore mechanisms underlying its analgesic and cardiovascular actions. Modulation of cardiovascular function is most effective during manual and low-frequency, low-intensity electroacupuncture (EA) at a select set of acupoints situated along meridians located over deep somatic nerves on the upper and lower extremities. Stimulation at these acupoints activates underlying...
The development of obesity, as well as resultant type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, is causing concern in South Africa. Following the discovery of leptin in 1994, hopes were raised that the manipulation of the leptin axis might yield successful therapy for obesity. Although hope still remains, the role of ...
Over the last several decades, there has been an explosion of articles on acupuncture, including studies that have begun to explore mechanisms underlying its analgesic and cardiovascular actions. Modulation of cardiovascular function is most effective during manual and low-frequency, low-intensity electroacupuncture (EA) at a select set of acupoints situated along meridians located over deep somatic nerves on the upper and lower extremities. Stimulation at these acupoints activates underlying sensory neural pathways that project to a number of regions in the central nervous system (CNS) that ultimately regulate autonomic outflow and hence cardiovascular function. A long-loop pathway involving the hypothalamus, midbrain, and medulla underlies EA modulation of reflex increases in blood pressure (BP). Actions of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the supraspinal CNS underlie processing of the somatic input and adjustment of autonomic outflow during EA. Acupuncture also decreases elevated blood pressure through actions in the thoracic spinal cord. Reflexes that lower BP likewise are modulated by EA through its actions on sympathetic and parasympathetic nuclei in the medulla. The autonomic influence of acupuncture is slow in onset but prolonged in duration, typically lasting beyond the period of stimulation. Clinical studies suggest that acupuncture can be used to treat cardiac diseases, such as myocardial ischemia and hypertension, associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system.
Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources.
Versteeg, H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, M H
-implantation, other check-ups are performed remotely. Patients are asked to complete questionnaires at five time points during the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The REMOTE-CIED study will provide insight into the patient perspective on remote monitoring in ICD patients, which could help to support patient......BACKGROUND: Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The primary...
Vamadevan, Ajay S; Shah, Bimal R; Califf, Robert M; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
With cardiovascular disease (CVD) emerging as a major cause of mortality in India, clinical research in CVD is becoming increasingly important. There are several favorable factors that offer robust growth of clinical research infrastructure in India: well-established system of governance, a large investment in medical education infrastructure, growing interest in building capacity in clinical research, the presence of regulatory mechanisms governing clinical research, a large pharmaceutical industry, and a highly developed information technology and data processing infrastructure. However, the lack of trained research manpower, inadequate public spending on health, uneven distribution of health infrastructure, and the large prevalence of pretransitional diseases are major weakness in undertaking high-quality clinical research in CVD. Analysis of the contemporary scenario reveals that there are 3 important opportunities for clinical research in India: the need to identify low cost but cutting edge and context-specific interventions to address the health needs of India's large population, the potential for high-quality research, and the high degree of interest (domestically and internationally) in investing in clinical research education and infrastructure. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.
A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...
Full Text Available Nasrin Sharifi,1 Reza Amani2 1Department of Nutrition, 2Health Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death not only in industrialized and developed countries but also in developing societies. Changes in lifestyle of the population living in developing countries, which is due to the socioeconomic and cultural transition, are important reasons for increase in the rate of CVD. This observation has led to extensive body of researches on CVD prevention. In Iran, as a developing country in the Middle East, the increasing incidence of CVD has prompted the health policy-makers to emphasize on nutritional interventions as a part of the main strategies to alleviate the condition. Hence, in this article, we aimed to review the nutritional interventions on preventing CVDs from the perspectives of Iranian lifestyles and dietary patterns using data search sources such as Medline, Google scholar, and Iran doc. Keywords: nutrition, intervention, cardiovascular disease, Iran
Li, Jian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bosma, Hans; Angerer, Peter
Individuals in employment experience stress at work, and numerous epidemiological studies have documented its negative health effects, particularly on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although evidence on the various interrelationships between work stress and CVD has been accumulated, those observations have not yet been conceptualized in terms of a life course perspective. Using the chain of risk model, we would like to propose a theoretical model incorporating six steps: (1) work stress increases the risk of incident CVD in healthy workers. (2) Among those whose work ability is not fully and permanently damaged, work stress acts as a determinant of the process of return to work after CVD onset. (3) CVD patients experience higher work stress after return to work. (4) Work stress increases the risk of recurrent CVD in workers with prior CVD. (5) CVD patients who fully lose their work ability transit to disability retirement. (6) Disability retirees due to CVD have an elevated risk of CVD mortality. The life course perspective might facilitate an in-depth understanding of the diverse interrelationships between work stress and CVD, thereby leading to work stress management interventions at each period of the lifespan and three-level prevention of CVD.
Pineda Tovar, M. A.; Ortega Ramirez, A.
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in Mexico and Western world. Symptoms in women are more subtle. Women usually feel general tiredness and lack of energy, in contrast to men having chest pain. This implies that women do not receive a timely and early diagnosis. According to the National Health Information System, 20 of 100 Mexican women die of cardiovascular disease, 68.5% of Mexicans have problems of obesity, overweight, diabetes, high blood pressure, conditions that increase the risk of CAD. SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is currently appropriate for diagnosis, risk assessment, stratification, myocardial viability, evaluation of left ventricular function. The Objective of this investigation is to show that SPECT MPS is a noninvasive diagnostic test that identify women with increased CAD risk. Method: A 60 years old female patient with diabetes, high blood pressure and overweight was referred for a cardiac scan, for suspicion of ischemia. Her symptoms were general tiredness, lack of energy and occasionally light chest pain. A SPECT-gated myocardial perfusion test was done. The images where acquired with a gamma camera after the injection of 10 mCi (stress) and 20 mCi (Rest) of "9"9mTc-Tetrofosmin. Images were reconstructed using Emory toolbox. Results: The images showed light hypoperfusion septal and inferior walls, and a small left ventricular chamber size with thickened walls. Angiography showed significant diffuse coronary stenosis in the three vessels. Conclusion: Women suffering CAD constitute a high-risk group that potentially poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Cardiac SPECT MPS is a noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic test that identify women with high CAD risk and establish timely and early the therapeutic interventions. (author)
Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.
Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated
Roose, S P
It is becoming clear that the comorbidity of depression and cardiovascular disease does not occur by chance but rather is an inevitable consequence of the relationship between the conditions. Depression in patients with cardiovascular disease is a significant risk factor for developing symptomatic and fatal ischemic heart disease. Moreover, depressed patients have a higher than expected rate of sudden cardiovascular death. Therefore, appropriate treatment of patients with depression and cardiovascular disease cannot be restricted to considerations of either depression or cardiovascular disease in isolation. The tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have various effects on the cardiovascular system, including Type IA antiarrhythmic activity that has been associated with an increased risk of mortality in post-myocardial infarction patients. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not associated with adverse cardiac effects. The SSRI paroxetine was compared with a therapeutic level of the TCA nortriptyline in a randomized, controlled study and demonstrated a benign cardiovascular profile, while the TCA induced a significantly higher rate of serious adverse cardiovascular events. On the basis of this favorable cardiovascular profile, the SSRIs should therefore be the preferred choice for the treatment of most patients with comorbid depression and cardiovascular disease. Investigation of putative pathophysiologic mechanisms linking depression and cardiovascular mortality, such as the role of platelet activation, will form the basis for further investigation of antidepressant treatments in order to establish if the antidepressants have a beneficial effect on the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases.
Logan A. Berg; Kathleen E. Darbor; Heather C. Lench
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that pre...
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This booklet is a technical assistance sampler addressing the issues of student misbehavior, discipline problems, and behavioral initiatives. The term behavioral initiative is defined, disciplining children with disabilities is discussed, and a cautionary note concerning ignoring students' reasons for misbehavior is presented. A brief entitled…
Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John
A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…
Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar
Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize
The field of victimology has become an area of serious scientific enquiry only recently and now attracts a wide range of theories from within multiple disciplines. In this paper the contribution that the science of behavior analysis can make to the conceptualization of the field is explored by investigating what makes people vulnerable to becoming victims or indeed perpetrators of violence and by examining why some people who have experienced violent incidents become victims while others grow...
Logan A. Berg
Full Text Available This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1 are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2 how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Lench, Heather C; Darbor, Kathleen E; Berg, Logan A
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear) versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Chaudhry, Swantika; Jaiswal, Ritika; Sachdeva, Surender
Cardiovascular disease trends, complications, and associated therapeutics impact the dental health and treatment. Such patients require special consideration with regard to when and which dental treatment is appropriate and what precautions are required. Alertness to potential oral adverse drug reactions enables referral of patient's to his physician or cardiologist. Cardiovascular drugs are also known to have mild to potentially fatal drug interactions. Dental professionals may be the first ...
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease trends, complications, and associated therapeutics impact the dental health and treatment. Such patients require special consideration with regard to when and which dental treatment is appropriate and what precautions are required. Alertness to potential oral adverse drug reactions enables referral of patient's to his physician or cardiologist. Cardiovascular drugs are also known to have mild to potentially fatal drug interactions. Dental professionals may be the first line of defense in the detection and referral of a patient suspected of having cardiovascular disease, an uncontrolled disease status, or oral adverse drug reactions, and they have a key role to play in oral and systemic disease prevention and treatment, in partnership with the patient and his physician.
Full Text Available Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavioral economics combines insights of psychology, sociology and economics in trying to better understand and predict human decision-making. At the intersection of economic studies with social sciences, behavioral economics succeeds to demonstrate, using laboratory tests and experiments, that on a shorter term people are quite capable to perform profitable economic computations and adopt rational behaviors, but on a long term run they easily become fallible in performing rational mental accounting and are vulnerable to several factors such as emotions, certain mass-manipulation techniques, lack of self control or procrastination, etc. Extended research in the field of behavioral economics reports many other various behavioral anomalies that may have the ability to explain seemingly irrational and unpredictable responses of individuals, in general, and entrepreneurs, in particular – especially when finding themselves in conditions of risk, uncertainty or incomplete information. Furthermore, the elevated consistency of these abnormalities suggests that they are divergent only to our traditional models, but that they could otherwise be the norm. The present article seeks to explain how such insights from behavioral economics may help us better understand and enhance our perspective on entrepreneurship, what are some of the most frequent biases characteristic to entrepreneurial behavior and decision-making, accounting as most notable for the field of
Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam
This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thang S Han
Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m 2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.
Sheps, D S; Sheffield, D
Up to one fifth of patients with cardiovascular disease, including those who have experienced a myocardial infarction, may have concomitant major depression. Studies have suggested that the relative risk of major depression with cardiovascular disease ranges from 1.5 to 4.5. Further information is required to establish a dose-response relationship between depression and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, such a relationship has been shown between anxiety and CAD. Development of a conceptual model of the pathophysiologic actions of stress in CAD will assist in the understanding of this relationship. In patients with angiographic evidence of CAD, the presence of major depressive disorder was the best single predictor of cardiac events during the 12 months following diagnosis. Significantly, 6-month cumulative mortality following diagnosis of myocardial infarction has been shown to be higher in depressed patients than in nondepressed patients. A decrease in heart rate variability may mediate the deleterious effect of depression on post-myocardial infarction prognosis. Other factors such as mental stress and altered platelet function may also predispose depressed patients to a heightened risk of cardiac events. With an increased understanding of the relationship between depression and heightened risk of cardiovascular mortality, it is necessary to assess current overall treatment for cardiac patients.
Full Text Available Noel J Vargas-Pérez, Kanika Bagai, Arthur S Walters Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Introduction: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor neurological disorder associated with poor quality of life. Growing evidence links RLS and periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article reviews the association of RLS and PLMS with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods: PubMed and Medline database (1990 to July 2016 were searched for the terms “restless legs,” “restless legs syndrome,” “periodic limb movements,” “periodic limb movements in sleep” cross-referenced with “cardiovascular disease,” “heart disease,” “coronary artery disease,” “coronary heart disease,” “heart arrhythmia,” “heart failure,” “congestive heart failure,” “echocardiogram,” “echocardiographic,” “hypertension,” “high blood pressure,” “cerebrovascular disease,” “stroke,” “autonomic nervous system,” “heart rate,” “heart rate variability,” “hypoxia,” “microcirculation,” “oxidative stress,” “inflammation,” “chronic kidney disease,” “end-stage renal disease,” “renal disease,” “hemodialysis,” “multiple sclerosis,” “Parkinson,” “Parkinson’s,” “iron deficiency anemia,” and “mortality.” Other relevant articles from the reference list of the above-matched manuscripts were also reviewed. Studies that did not specify the diagnostic criteria for RLS or manuscripts in languages other than English were excluded. Articles with emphasis in RLS secondary to pregnancy were not included in this manuscript.Results: Eighty-six original articles were included in this review. Although mixed results were found regarding the association of RLS and PLMS with CVD, hypertension, stroke and mortality, an informal review of the literature does suggest that the
Arora Chander P.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD in women is the most common cause of death and in 2009 accounted for one third of all deaths. The purpose of this paper is to present what conditions during pregnancy and during the pre-menopause period lead to a greater risk of CVD. The early recognition and the application of interventions may decrease this risk. To emphasize this point we have taken a «Life course-events perspective». Current data suggests that genetic predisposition to disease in conjunction with behavior and environmental factors during fetal life is related to permanent changes in fetalplacental-maternal physiology and function, resulting in fetal programming characterizing the phenotype of the child which may persist into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have identified biological, behavioral and environmental factors related to childhood diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance and mental health disorders. Gender differences have been identified and animal studies have suggested that estrogens in women are protective and when the risk of CVD in men is considered, the risk in women is delayed by 10 years. Thus, a normal pregnancy may be protective and reduce the risk of CVD in women. However, hypertension developing in women before or during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for women and diabetes further increases this risk of CVD, as does smoking. It is very clear that an «intervention action plan» must be developed. It is the current opinion of the authors that this action plan must be implemented early in life to decrease the risk for the development of CVS in women.
Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a
Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:24925084
Georgina E Crichton
Full Text Available Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg.A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off, were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score.Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend, after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both. A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04.Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health.
Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a
Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04). Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health.
Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn H; Walizer, Elaine M; Fuller, Clarie E; Engler, Renata J; Villines, Todd C; Vernalis, Marina N
Background: Self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to carry out behavior to achieve a desired goal, is considered to be a prerequisite for behavior change. Self-efficacy correlates with cardiovascular health although optimal timing to incorporate self-efficacy strategies is not well established. We sought to study the effect of an empowerment approach implemented in the introductory phase of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular health outcomes. Design: Prospe...
Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C
There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process.
Zhang, Caifeng; Shi, Jihong; Huang, Zhe; Li, Huiying; Wei, Xiaoming; Lin, Liming; Xing, Aijun; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling
To explore the relationship between 'ideal' cardiovascular behaviors and factors and the incidence of hypertension. A prospective cohort study including 52 133 workers who had participated in the 2006-2007 Kailuan health examination without history of cerebral infraction, myocardial infarction or hypertension but with complete data, was carried out. All workers were followed on their occurrence of hypertension. According to the AHA definition of 'ideal' cardiovascular health behaviors and factors, the cumulative incidence rates of hypertension in different groups were calculated under the life table method, and compared by Log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard rations and 95% confidence intervals for baseline behaviors and factors. The cumulative incidence rates of hypertension according 0-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-7 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors were 65.72%, 59.14%, 54.59%, 50.24% and 34.22%, respectively in the 0-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-7 groups. Data from the Cox proportional hazards model showed that after adjusting for age, education level and family history of hypertension, the ones who had 2, 3, 4, 5-7 ideal cardiovascular behaviors/factors were 0.75, 0.69, 0.63, 0.36 times more than those who had 0-1 ideal behaviors. The incidence of hypertension and risk reduced along with the increase of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors.
Emmen, Maria J.; Peters, Ellen; Elving, Lammy D.; Bredie, Sebastian J. H.; Wollersheim, Hub; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Schippers, Gerard M.
OBJECTIVE: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle
Emmen, M.J.; Peters, E.; Elving, L.D.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schippers, G.M.
Objective: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle
Emmen, M.J.; Peters, E.; Elving, L.D.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schippers, G.M.
OBJECTIVE: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle
Khoiru Rakhman Abidin
Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so human gets knowledge of language through learning.
Hwang, Won Ju
One of the overriding goals of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the health disparities observed among Americans. Because workers in small businesses tend to have little or no access to health screening or preventive health education programs, they may be unaware of their unique risk factors and are thus more at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, occupational health nurses are more likely to be available in health programs to employees in large rather than small businesses. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how nursing values and philosophy might influence public health nurses' thinking about nursing science and ethical issues relating to the risk of CVD among low-wage workers. The following questions will guide the exploration of health disparities among low-wage workers: (a) What are the health disparities observed among low-wage workers with CVD risk? (b) What are the philosophical and ethical perspectives on the issues presented? (c) Based on these findings, how should limited resources be allocated? and (d) How does this affect nursing? These approaches will provide the foundation for developing a culturally sensitive ethical and philosophical perspective to prevent CVD and promote cardiovascular health among low-wage workers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carpi-Ballester, Amparo; Zurriaga-Llorens, Rosario; Gonzalez-Navarro, Pilar; Marzo-Campos, Juan C.; Buunk, Abraham P.
Different models have been proposed from Health Psychology in order to understand and to predict healthy behaviours. Theory of Planed Behavior is a prevailing model in the study of health. Using this theoretical framework, the objective of this descriptive study is to test the impact of behavioral
Petkus, Ed, Jr.
This article examines the motivation of certain creative behaviors from the perspective of symbolic interactionism. The fundamental tenets of symbolic interactionism are described and the mechanics of symbolic interactionist-based, role-identity theory are explained. Ways that the theory can be applied to the motivation of creative behavior are…
Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.
Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium
Psychological stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis during childhood. Stress promotes atherogenic behaviors in children including snacking of energy dense foods and reduced physical activity; and it also increases adiposity. Stress-induced CV reactivity may also be athe...
Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der
Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the
Goong, Hwasoo; Ryu, Seungmi; Xu, Lijuan
The purpose of the study was to test a structural equation model in which social support, health beliefs, and stage of change predict the health behaviors of patients with cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Using convenience sampling, a survey about social support, health belief, stage of change, and health behavior was completed by 314 adults with cardiovascular disease from outpatient clinics in 2 university hospitals in Korea. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model with the Analysis of Moment program. The participants were aged 53.44±13.19 years (mean±SD), and about 64% of them were male. The proposed model fit the data from the study well, explaining 19% and 60% of the variances in the stage of change and health behavior, respectively. The findings indicate that the performance of health behavior modification among the patients with cardiovascular disease can be explained by social support, health belief, and stage of change based on a health-belief and stage-of-change model. Further studies are warranted to confirm the efficacy of health-promoting strategies in initiating and maintaining the performance of health behaviors by providing social support from family and medical staff and enhancing health belief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Egener, Barry; McDonald, Walter; Rosof, Bernard; Gullen, David
The professionalism behaviors of physicians have been extensively discussed and defined; however, the professionalism behaviors of health care organizations have not been systemically categorized or described. Defining organizational professionalism is important because the behaviors of a health care organization may substantially impact the behaviors of physicians and others within the organization as well as other institutions and the larger community. In this article, the authors discuss the following competencies of organizational professionalism, derived from ethical values: service, respect, fairness, integrity, accountability, mindfulness, and self-motivation. How nonprofit health care organizations can translate these competencies into behaviors is described. For example, incorporating metrics of population health into assessments of corporate success may increase collaboration among regional health care organizations while also benefiting the community. The unique responsibilities of leadership to model these competencies, promote them in the community, and develop relevant organizational strategies are clarified. These obligations elevate the importance of the executive leadership's capacity for self-reflection and the governing boards' responsibility for mapping operational activities to organizational mission. Lastly, the authors consider how medical organizations are currently addressing professionalism challenges. In an environment made turbulent by regulatory change and financial constraints, achieving proficiency in professionalism competencies can assist nonprofit health care organizations to promote population health and the well-being of their workforces.
This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…
Díaz-Zuccarini, V; Narracott, A J; Burriesci, G; Zervides, C; Rafiroiu, D; Jones, D; Hose, D R; Lawford, P V
This paper describes the use of diverse software tools in cardiovascular applications. These tools were primarily developed in the field of engineering and the applications presented push the boundaries of the software to address events related to venous and arterial valve closure, exploration of dynamic boundary conditions or the inclusion of multi-scale boundary conditions from protein to organ levels. The future of cardiovascular research and the challenges that modellers and clinicians face from validation to clinical uptake are discussed from an end-user perspective.
The first purpose of this editorial is to indicate a parallel trend in two disparate areas of research: information processing and cognitive-behavior modification (CBM). The second purpose is to highlight the role that affect plays in intellectual functioning, noting implications following the assessment of intelligence. (Author/RD)
Many interventions are available for treating adolescent depression. This paper attempts to present a summary of cognitive behavioral therapies/techniques that might be useful for treating depression in Asian immigrant adolescents. Articles were selected by conducting a literature search on Psyc-Info. Prevalence ...
Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, J.D.
The paper reviews the characteristic features of the main economic cycles and discusses the behavioral foundation for each mode at the microlevel. The analysis continues to illustrate some of the nonlinear dynamic phenomena that can arise through interaction between the various modes and through...
Barker, Larry L., Ed.; Kibler, Robert J., Ed.
Readings are included on seven topics: 1) theories and models of communication processes, 2) acquisition and performance of communication behaviors, 3) human information processing and diffusion, 4) persuasion and attitude change, 5) psychophysiological approaches to studying communication, 6) interpersonal communication within transracial…
Frydenlund, Gitte; Jørgensen, Torben; Toft, Ulla
Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a populat......Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow...... non-significant in men (ß = 0.9924, [0.9839; 1.0011]) and women (ß = 0.9932, [0.8605; 1.0014]). Conclusion: SLTB appears to be an independent CVD risk factor, regardless of snacking habits and physical activity....
Full Text Available Many potentially valuable drugs, including protein kinase inhibitors (PKI, risk being dropped from further development, without exploration of their clinical benefits, if early studies show these drugs to inhibit hERG channel and therefore, to have a potential for prolonging ventricular repolarisation (QT interval. This QT-phobia results from a perceived possibility of the clinical risks of QT-related ventricular proarrhythmia, further aggravated by uncertainties surrounding the regulatory evaluation of the risk and either approvability or restrictive labelling of the drug concerned. In reality, QT interval prolongation per se is only an imperfect surrogate of the proarrhythmia risk which is much smaller than perceived and compared to their other cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular risks. PKI-induced clinical hepatotoxicity, also evaluated on the basis of surrogate markers (serum transaminases and bilirubin is another risk that far exceeds any risk arising from PKI-induced QT interval prolongation. This review of the currently approved 28 PKIs places the QT-phobia surrounding the development of PKIs in its perspective by juxta-positioning their potential to induce ventricular dysfunction, arterial thrombotic events and hepatotoxicity. Available evidence suggests that hERG channel may prove to be a valuable therapeutic target in oncology. Therefore, the development, approval and labelling of such vital oncology drugs requires careful assessment of their benefits and their risk/benefit generally, without being overtly consumed by their potential QT-liability, in terms of their more direct consequences on clinically relevant endpoints of morbidity, mortality and quality of life.
Lockard, Meghan A; Ebert, Margaret S; Bargmann, Cornelia I
The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships. Finally, we discuss interesting future directions that have recently become experimentally tractable. Studying oxytocin in invertebrates offers precise insights into the activity of neuropeptides on well-defined neural circuits; the principles that emerge may also be represented in the more complex vertebrate brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 128-142, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113
Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.
Full Text Available On a daily basis, people are exposed to numerous stimuli, ranging from colors and smells to sounds and words, that could potentially activate different cognitive constructs and influence their actions. This type of influence on human behavior is referred to as priming. Roughly two decades ago, behavioral priming was hailed as one of the core forces that shape automatic behavior. However, failures to replicate some of the representative findings in this domain soon followed, which posed the following question: “How robust are behavioral priming effects, and to what extent are they actually important in shaping people's actions?” To shed a new light on this question, I revisit behavioral priming through the prism of a dynamical systems perspective (DSP. The DSP is a scientific paradigm that has been developed through a combined effort of many different academic disciplines, ranging from mathematics and physics to biology, economics, psychology, etc., and it deals with behavior of simple and complex systems over time. In the present paper, I use conceptual and methodological tools stemming from the DSP to propose circumstances under which behavioral priming effects are likely to occur. More precisely, I outline three possible types of the influence of priming on human behavior, to which I refer as emergence, readjustment, and attractor switch, and propose experimental designs to examine them. Finally, I discuss relevant implications for behavioral priming effects and their replications.
On a daily basis, people are exposed to numerous stimuli, ranging from colors and smells to sounds and words, that could potentially activate different cognitive constructs and influence their actions. This type of influence on human behavior is referred to as priming. Roughly two decades ago, behavioral priming was hailed as one of the core forces that shape automatic behavior. However, failures to replicate some of the representative findings in this domain soon followed, which posed the following question: “How robust are behavioral priming effects, and to what extent are they actually important in shaping people's actions?” To shed a new light on this question, I revisit behavioral priming through the prism of a dynamical systems perspective (DSP). The DSP is a scientific paradigm that has been developed through a combined effort of many different academic disciplines, ranging from mathematics and physics to biology, economics, psychology, etc., and it deals with behavior of simple and complex systems over time. In the present paper, I use conceptual and methodological tools stemming from the DSP to propose circumstances under which behavioral priming effects are likely to occur. More precisely, I outline three possible types of the influence of priming on human behavior, to which I refer as emergence, readjustment, and attractor switch, and propose experimental designs to examine them. Finally, I discuss relevant implications for behavioral priming effects and their replications. PMID:28769846
Callender, Kevin A
In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians.
Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.
Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular
Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Sfikakis, Petros P; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Koutsogeorgopoulou, Loukia; Katsifis, Gikas; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kitas, George D
Life expectancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) remains lower compared to the general population, due to various comoborbidities. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the main contributor to premature mortality. Conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have considerably improved long-term outcomes in ARDs not only by suppressing systemic inflammation but also by lowering CVD burden. Regarding atherosclerotic disease prevention, EULAR has recommended tight disease control accompanied by regular assessment of traditional CVD risk factors and lifestyle changes. However, this approach, although rational and evidence-based, does not account for important issues such as myocardial inflammation and the long asymptomatic period that usually proceeds clinical manifestations of CVD disease in ARDs before or after the diagnosis of systemic disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can offer reliable, reproducible and operator independent information regarding myocardial inflammation, ischemia and fibrosis. Some studies suggest a role for CMR in the risk stratification of ARDs and demonstrate that oedema/fibrosis visualisation with CMR may have the potential to inform cardiac and rheumatic treatment modification in ARDs with or without abnormal routine cardiac evaluation. In this review, we discuss how CMR findings could influence anti-rheumatic treatment decisions targeting optimal control of both systemic and myocardial inflammation irrespective of clinical manifestations of cardiac disease. CMR can provide a different approach that is very promising for risk stratification and treatment modification; however, further studies are needed before the inclusion of CMR in the routine evaluation and treatment of patients with ARDs.
Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Cattivelli, Roberto; Rossi, Alessandro; Novelli, Margherita; Varallo, Giorgia; Molinari, Enrico
Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways. Evidence-based strategies to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities typically integrate different interventions: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and if necessary, pharmacological and surgical ones. Such treatments are implemented in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of endocrinologists, nutritionists, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sometimes surgeons. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is traditionally recognized as the best established treatment for binge eating disorder and the most preferred intervention for obesity, and could be considered as the first-line treatment among psychological approaches, especially in a long-term perspective; however, it does not necessarily produce a successful weight loss. Traditional CBT for weight loss and other protocols, such as enhanced CBT, enhanced focused CBT, behavioral weight loss treatment, therapeutic education, acceptance and commitment therapy, and sequential binge, are discussed in this review. The issue of long-term weight management of obesity, the real challenge in outpatient settings and in lifestyle modification, is discussed taking into account the possible contribution of mHealth and the stepped-care approach in health care.
Alcántara, Carmela; Klesges, Lisa M; Resnicow, Ken; Stone, Amy; Davidson, Karina W
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) clinical guidelines at present rarely assign the highest grade recommendation to behavioral counseling interventions for chronic disease prevention or risk reduction because of concerns about the certainty and quality of the evidence base. As a result, the broad integration of behavioral counseling interventions in primary care remains elusive. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel perspectives on how to generate the highest-quality and -certainty evidence for primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. As members of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM)--a multidisciplinary scientific organization committed to improving population health through behavior change--we review the USPSTF mandate and current recommendations for behavioral counseling interventions and provide a perspective for the future that calls for concerted and coordinated efforts among SBM, USPSTF, and other organizations invested in the rapid and wider uptake of beneficial, feasible, and referable primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. This perspective highlights five areas for further development, including (1) behavioral counseling-focused practice-based research networks; (2) promotion of USPSTF evidence standards and the increased use of pragmatic RCT design; (3) quality control and improvement procedures for behavioral counseling training; (4) systematic research on effective primary care-based collaborative care models; and (5) methodologic innovations that capitalize on disruptive technologies and healthcare transformation. Collective efforts to improve the health of all Americans in the 21st century and beyond must ensure that effective, feasible, and referable behavioral counseling interventions are embedded in modern primary care practice. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sabzmakan, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seid Saied; Rabiei, Katayoun; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Mirzaei, Masoud
The PRECEDE model is a useful tool for planers to assess health problems, the behavioral and environmental causes of the problems, and their determinants. This study aims to understand the experiences of patients and health care providers about the behavioral causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and their determinants. This qualitative study utilized content analysis approach based on the PRECEDE model. The study was conducted for over 6 months in 2012 at the diabetes units of health centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences, which is located in Karaj, Iran. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 health care providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Stress, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity were the behaviors, which predict the risk factors for CVD. Most of the patients considered stress as the most important underlying cause of their illness. In this study, 110 of the primary codes were categorized into seven subcategories, including knowledge, attitude, perceived susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, which were located in the predisposing category of the PRECEDE model. Among these determinants, perceived barriers and self-efficacy for the mentioned behaviors seemed to be of great importance. Identifying behavioral determinants will help the planners design future programs and select the most appropriate methods and applications to address these determinants in order to reduce risky behaviors.
O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Johnson, C C; Berenson, G S
The primary purposes of this article are to highlight important issues related to cardiovascular risk factors and behavior life-styles in young women and to examine racial (black-white) differences in risk factors that relate to cardiovascular disease. In childhood, some girls show cardiovascular risk factors of higher blood pressure levels, dyslipidemia, and obesity, all of which continue into young adulthood. Factors that contribute to abnormal risk factors are a high-saturated fat diet, excess energy intake related to inactivity, and cigarette smoking. Trends of obesity are documented; and young white girls are continuing to use tobacco, more so than boys and black girls. Although the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease is delayed in women, the stage is set in childhood for the development of early cardiovascular risk.
Sobhani, Mona; Bechara, Antoine
Individuals who engage in corrupt and immoral behavior are in some ways similar to individuals with psychopathy. Normal people refrain from engaging in such behaviors because they tie together the moral value of society and the risk of punishment when they violate social rules. What is it, then, that allows these immoral individuals to behave in this manner, and in some situations even to prosper? When there is a dysfunction of somatic markers, specific disadvantageous impairments in decision-making arise, as in moral judgment, but, paradoxically, under some circumstances, the damage can cause the patient to make optimal financial investment decisions. Interestingly, individuals with psychopathy, a personality disorder, share many of the same behavioral characteristics seen in VMPFC and amygdala lesion patients, suggesting that defective somatic markers may serve as a neural framework for explaining immoral and corrupt behaviors. While these sociopathic behaviors of sometimes famous and powerful individuals have long been discussed, primarily within the realm of social science and psychology, here we offer a neurocognitive perspective on the possible neural roots of immoral and corrupt behaviors.
Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.
During the last quarter century, developmental psychopathology has become increasingly inclusive and now spans disciplines ranging from psychiatric genetics to primary prevention. As a result, developmental psychopathologists have extended traditional diathesis–stress and transactional models to include causal processes at and across all relevant levels of analysis. Such research is embodied in what is known as the multiple levels of analysis perspective. We describe how multiple levels of analysis research has informed our current thinking about antisocial and borderline personality development among trait impulsive and therefore vulnerable individuals. Our approach extends the multiple levels of analysis perspective beyond simple Biology × Environment interactions by evaluating impulsivity across physiological systems (genetic, autonomic, hormonal, neural), psychological constructs (social, affective, motivational), developmental epochs (preschool, middle childhood, adolescence, adulthood), sexes (male, female), and methods of inquiry (self-report, informant report, treatment outcome, cardiovascular, electrophysiological, neuroimaging). By conducting our research using any and all available methods across these levels of analysis, we have arrived at a developmental model of trait impulsivity that we believe confers a greater understanding of this highly heritable trait and captures at least some heterogeneity in key behavioral outcomes, including delinquency and suicide. PMID:22781868
Gellert, Paul; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf
Limitations in perceived lifetime can undermine long-term goal striving. Planning is supposed to translate intentions into health behaviors and to operate as a compensatory strategy to overcome goal striving deficits associated with a limited time perspective. Two longitudinal studies were conducted examining the compensatory role of planning: an online survey on fruit and vegetable consumption (N = 909; 16-78 years; follow-up at 4 months) and a questionnaire study on physical exercise in older adults (N = 289; 60-95 years, over a half-year period). Intentions, planning, and behavior were measured in a behavior-specific, future time perspective in a generic manner. Planning mediated between intentions and both health behaviors. Time perspective operated as a moderator, indicating that in individuals with a more limited time perspective, a stronger effect of planning on health behaviors emerged. Planning as a self-regulatory strategy may compensate for a limited time perspective.
Ku , Gillian; Wang , Cynthia S.; Galinsky , Adam D.
International audience; In contrast to the view that social perception has symmetric effects on judgments and behavior, the current research explored whether perspective-taking leads stereotypes to differentially affect judgments and behavior. Across three studies, perspective-takers consistently used stereotypes more in their own behavior while simultaneously using them less in their judgments of others. After writing about an African American, perspective-taking tendencies were positively c...
Saleh, Zyad T; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Bailey, Alison L; Novak, Michael J; Biddle, Martha; Khalil, Amani A; Darawad, Muhammad; Moser, Debra K
Regular physical activity has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, a decrease in the amount of time spent during the remainder of the day in sedentary behavior may be equally important. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a decrease in sedentary behavior on CVD risk factors among 205 individuals living in rural Appalachia. All participants received a comprehensive CVD risk reduction life-style intervention and measurement of major CVD risk factors and physical activity levels. Participants were divided into: 1) Adopters: those who decreased their sedentary behavior by 30 min or more per day post-intervention and 2) Non-adopters: those who did not. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant group by time interaction showing that Adopters had a greater reduction in body weight and BMI than Non-adopters. These findings demonstrate that decreasing sedentary behavior is important for achieving optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R
The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth.
Full Text Available The effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone, also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, on the cardiovascular system have been intensively researched since its discovery. Moreover, the actions of urocortin (Ucn I on the cardiovascular system have also been intensively scrutinized following the cloning and identification of its receptor, CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2, in peripheral tissues including the heart. Given the cardioprotective actions of CRFR2 ligands, the clinical potential of not only Ucn I but also Ucn II and III, which were later identified as more specific ligands for CRFR2, has received considerable attention from researchers. In addition, recent work has indicated that CRF type 1 receptor may be also involved in cardioprotection against ischemic/reperfusion injury. Here we provide a historical overview of research on Ucn I and related agents, their effects on the cardiovascular system, and the clinical potential of the use of such agents to treat cardiovascular diseases.
Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Gislason, Gunnar H; Fosbøl, Emil L
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the fact that NSAIDs are not recommended among patients with established cardiovascular disease, many patients receive NSAID treatment for a short period of time. However, up until recently, data on the relationship between treatment duration and associated cardiovascular...... furthermore demonstrated that NSAID use among patients with first-time MI was associated with persistently increased risk of all-cause mortality and of a composite of coronary death or nonfatal recurrent MI for at least 5 years thereafter. SUMMARY: The present review indicates that there is no apparent well......-tolerated therapeutic window for associated cardiovascular risk and NSAID use in patients with prior MI. Further randomized studies are warranted to evaluate the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs, but, at this point, the overall evidence suggests advising caution in using NSAIDs at all times after MI. Legislation bodies...
Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne
We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.......We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....
Pryde, Moira McAllister; Kannel, William Bernard
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.
Moira McAllister Pryde
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.
Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; Esposito, Daniela; Accardo, Giacomo; Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Vigorito, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Pasquali, Daniela; Isidori, Andrea M; Cittadini, Antonio
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors' own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
Oztekin, Ceren; Teksöz, Gaye; Pamuk, Savas; Sahin, Elvan; Kilic, Dilek Sultan
This study aimed to assess the role of some socio-psychological attributes in explaining recycling behavior of Turkish university community from a gender perspective within the context of the theory of planned behavior with an additional variable (past experience). The recycling behavior of whole sample, females and males, has been examined in 3 sessions -depending on the arguments that explain gendered pattern of private and public environmental behavior and sticking to the fact why females' stronger environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes do not translate consistently into greater engagement in public behavior. As a result of model runs, different variables shaping intention for behavior have been found, namely perceived behavior control for females and past behavior for males. Due to the low percent of the variance in explaining recycling behavior of females, they have been identified as the ones who do not carry out intentions (non-recyclers). Since intentions alone are capable of identifying recyclers accurately but not non-recyclers, there may be other factors to be considered to understand the reason for females not carrying out the intentions. The results of descriptive statistics supported the identification by attitudes toward recycling. Female attitudes were innate (recycling is good, necessary, useful and sensitive), whereas those of males were learnt (recycling is healthy, valuable and correct). Thus, it has been concluded that males' intention for recycling is shaped by their past behavior and the conclusion is supported by males having learnt attitude toward recycling whereas females' lack of intention for recycling is shaped by their perceived behavior control and is supported by their innate attitude for recycling. All in all, the results of the present study provide further support for the utility of the TPB as a model of behavioral prediction and concur with other studies examining the utility of the TPB in the context of recycling
Cussons, Andrea J; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Watts, Gerald F
The new millennium has brought intense focus of interest on the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women characterised by hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhoea. Most women with PCOS also exhibit features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidaemia. While the association with type 2 diabetes is well established, whether the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increased in women with PCOS remains unclear. Echocardiography, imaging of coronary and carotid arteries, and assessments of both endothelial function and arterial stiffness have recently been employed to address this question. These studies have collectively demonstrated both structural and functional abnormalities of the cardiovascular system in PCOS. These alterations, however, appear to be related to the presence of individual cardiovascular risk factors, particularly insulin resistance, rather than to the presence of PCOS and hyperandrogenaemia per se. However, given the inferential nature of the evidence to date, more rigorous cohort studies of long-term cardiovascular outcomes and clinical trials of risk factor modification are required in women with PCOS.
Kasl, S V
The framework of psychosocial epidemiology is used to examine research developments that characterize the accumulation of knowledge regarding the role of the work environment in cardiovascular health and disease. The discussion of current programs of research focuses on the work of T. Theorell and R. Karasek (1996) and J. Siegrist (1996) as exemplars of European and American studies that have contributed the most to the understanding of occupational cardiovascular health. It is argued that researchers need to maintain and nurture relatively broad conceptual models of etiology because cardiovascular disease involves multiple biomedical risk factors and because specific aspects of the work environment are embedded in a large, complex matrix of other psychosocial influences. At the same time, investigators need to push ahead with focused research strategies to clarify the precise nature of the work environmental risk factors that emerge in the broad, somewhat imprecise epidemiologic study designs.
Full Text Available This study is a conceptual paper and highlights perspectives to understand social marketing as an approach to bring about voluntary and socially desirable consumer behavior. The perspective is considered as an alternative way to comprehend consumer behavior change for good as a multi-factor driven action. Hence, social marketing is also considered as a discipline that can be analyzed from multiple perspectives including a behavioral change perspective and a relationship perspective. Each perspective is elaborated by doing a review of existing literature and research. This study shows that social marketing is not only the application of marketing programs to shape consumer behavior, but also a process involving individual, society, and government to make a better life of society.
Borum, Randy; Gelles, Michael
Al-Qaeda is widely regarded by the military, law enforcement, diplomatic, and intelligence communities as being the foremost threat to U.S. national security and safety. The nature of this threat, however, has changed since al-Qaeda first emerged in the late 1980s. This article describes the emergence of a new form of transnational terrorism and details al-Qaeda's progression from being an organization to an ideological movement. Drawing on a theory of social movements, we analyze its trajectory and the levels of influence. We also offer a behavioral perspective in explaining how al-Qaeda has adapted as a learning organization with new leadership, tactics, and patterns of recruitment and training.
Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Mosca, Lori
To determine whether caregiver burdens are associated with lifestyle behaviors 1 year following the hospitalization of a family member with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prospective follow-up study of National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health participants. Hospital-based recruitment/baseline visit with 1-year follow-up. Family members of hospitalized CVD patients (N = 423; 67% female; 36% racial/ethnic minority; mean age 49 years). Systematic evaluation at 1 year to determine heart-healthy diet (defined as caregiver burdens (five domains: employment, financial, physical, social, and time; Caregiver Strain Questionnaire). Logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Heart-healthy diet was less frequent among caregivers citing feeling overwhelmed (odds ratio [OR] = .50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .26-.97), sleep disturbance (OR = .51; 95% CI = .27-.96), financial strain (OR = .41; 95% CI = .20-.86), upsetting behavior (OR = .48; 95% CI = .25-.92), and/or time demands (OR = .47; 95% CI = .26-.85) as burdens. Physical activity was less frequent among caregivers reporting financial strain (OR = .32; 95% CI = .13-.81) or upsetting patient behavior (OR = .33; 95% CI = .15-.76) as burdens. The most commonly cited caregiver burdens included changes in personal plans (39%), time demands (38%), and sleep disturbance (30%). Caregiver burdens were associated with nonachievement of heart-healthy diet and physical activity behaviors among family caregivers 1 year after patient discharge. When developing heart-health promotion interventions, caregiver burden should be considered as a possible barrier to prevention among family members of CVD patients.
G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); A. Rodriguez (Alfredo Chapin); N. Bruining (Nico); J. Milei (José); J. Aoki (Jiro); K. Tsuchida (Keiichi); R. del Valle-Fernández (Raquel); C.A. Arampatzis (Chourmouzios); A.T.L. Ong (Andrew); P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); R. Ayala (Rosa); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); F. Saia (Francesco); M. Valgimigli (Marco); E.S. Regar (Eveline); E. McFadden (Eugene); G.G. Biondi-Zoccai (Giuseppe); E. Barbenza (Ezequiel); P. Schoenhagen (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)
textabstractAims: We sought to explore whether global and regional scientific output in cardiovascular medicine is associated with economic variables and follows the same trend as medicine and as science overall. Methods and results: We registered the number of documents, number of citations,
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72% and alcohol (61% consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%, and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%, and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%. However, only between 23% (quitting smoking and 49% (diet modification of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD.
Carrère, P; Atallah, A; Kelly-Irving, M; Lang, T; Inamo, J
Recent studies have shown a link between prolonged television viewing and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. We aimed to estimate the relationship between television viewing and CV risk behaviors and in the adult population of the French West Indies. We used data from Consant, a cross-sectional study carried out in 2007 on a representative sample of the adult Guadeloupean population (1005 subjects aged 25-74 years selected by stratified random sampling and interviewed at home by trained investigators working in pairs). Among respondents who reported watching television for 2 hours or more per day, 46.5% stated practicing no leisure time physical activity, compared with 35.6% among those who reported watching television for less than 2 hours per day. Adjusting for age, sex, education, income, family status, and perceived CV benefits of physical activity, the odds ratio of physical inactivity was estimated at 1.75 (Ptelevision for 2 hours or more per day, compared with other subjects. A similar relationship was observed when considering dieting to prevent weight gain. In this representative sample of a French Caribbean population, a strong and very significant relationship was observed between prolonged television viewing and CV risk behaviors. Prolonged television viewing seems common to a lifestyle that is characterized by little physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. This may play a role in social inequalities observed in CV diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Nanda, Nivedita; Amudharaj, Dharmalingam; Adithan, Chandrasekaran
Hypertension (HTN) and prehypertension (pre-HTN) have been identified as independent risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events. Recently, increased psychosocial stress and work stress have contributed to the increased prevalence of HTN and pre-HTN, in addition to the contribution of obesity, diabetes, poor food habits and physical inactivity. Irrespective of the etiology, sympathetic overactivity has been recognized as the main pathophysiologic mechanism in the genesis of HTN and pre-HTN. Sympathovagal imbalance owing to sympathetic overactivity and vagal withdrawal is reported to be the basis of many clinical disorders. However, the role played by vagal withdrawal has been under-reported. In this review, we have analyzed the pathophysiologic involvement of sympathovagal imbalance in the development of HTN and pre-HTN, and the link of sympathovagal imbalance to cardiovascular dysfunctions. We have emphasized that adaptation to a healthier lifestyle will help improve sympathovagal homeostasis and prevent the occurrence of HTN and pre-HTN.
de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Pitra, Soledad; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Tan, Yalun; Nguyen, Dani; Cahill, Karlena M; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival. However, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments. In recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses. Initial studies use neuroanatomical techniques to reveal that angiotensin type-1a receptors are localized predominantly to the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons are almost exclusively glutamatergic and send dense projections to the exterior portion of the median eminence. Furthermore, these neurons largely express corticotrophin-releasing hormone or thyrotropin-releasing hormone and do not express arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. Functionally, optogenetic stimulation of these neurons promotes the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as well as a rise in systolic blood pressure. When these neurons are optogenetically inhibited, the activity of these neuroendocrine axes are suppressed and anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze is dampened. Collectively, these studies implicate this neuronal population in the integration and coordination of the physiological responses to stress and may therefore serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for stress-related pathology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic stress leads to an array of physiological responses that ultimately
Masic, Izet; Dilic, Mirza; Raljevic, Enver; Vulic, Dusko; Mott, Dario
Cardiovascular diseases are still the major cause of death, morbidity, mortality and loss of quality of life in European countries and worldwide. In Bosnia and Herzegovina we have burden of cardiovascular diseases with higher rate of morbidity and mortality than in the countries of EU zone or broader Europe. The cause of mortality is in close relation to multiple risk factors but also with specific conditions in our country; post war situation, transition and overall economic position. The main mission of European Society of Cardiology is to improve quality of life in the European population by reducing the impact of cardiovascular diseases. HeartScore web based program and PS Standalone program are introduce to assesses the overall risk of cardiovascular death for a period of 10 years, based on variables such as age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels in the blood, or total cholesterol/HDL ratio. Standalone PS HeartScore is practical to use, requires no permanent internet connection, the system offers its own database for each patient and the print version of the guidelines to reduce risk factors, based on evidence based medicine Program is tailored to patients, the system provides a graphical representation of the absolute risk of CVD, a version for our country is developed on the principle of high-risk populations and is available in the languages of the peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Program is available for all types of medical practice which is equipped with computers, the laptop, and suitable for community nursing service as well.
Chrubasik, Sigrun A; Chrubasik, Cosima A; Piper, Jörg; Schulte-Moenting, Juergen; Erne, Paul
In models and scores for estimating cardiovascular risk (CVR), the relative weightings given to blood pressure measurements (BPMs), and biometric and laboratory variables are such that even large differences in blood pressure lead to rather low differences in the resulting total risk when compared with other concurrent risk factors. We evaluated this phenomenon based on the PROCAM score, using BPMs made by volunteer subjects at home (HBPMs) and automated ambulatory BPMs (ABPMs) carried out in the same subjects. A total of 153 volunteers provided the data needed to estimate their CVR by means of the PROCAM formula. Differences (deltaCVR) between the risk estimated by entering the ABPM and that estimated with the HBPM were compared with the differences (deltaBPM) between the ABPM and the corresponding HBPM. In addition to the median values (= second quartile), the first and third quartiles of blood pressure profiles were also considered. PROCAM risk values were converted to European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk values and all participants were assigned to the risk groups low, medium and high. Based on the PROCAM score, 132 participants had a low risk for suffering myocardial infarction, 16 a medium risk and 5 a high risk. The calculated ESC scores classified 125 participants into the low-risk group, 26 into the medium- and 2 into the high-risk group for death from a cardiovascular event. Mean ABPM tended to be higher than mean HBPM. Use of mean systolic ABPM or HBPM in the PROCAM formula had no major impact on the risk level. Our observations are in agreement with the rather low weighting of blood pressure as risk determinant in the PROCAM score. BPMs assessed with different methods had relatively little impact on estimation of cardiovascular risk in the given context of other important determinants. The risk calculations in our unselected population reflect the given classification of Switzerland as a so-called cardiovascular "low risk country".
Full Text Available Background: Approaches for investigating health-promoting lifestyle generally focus on physical activity and regular diet. To explore the perspectives of Iranian elders regarding health, healthy eating and physical activity (PA this study was conducted in 2012. Methods: Participants in this qualitative study were selected through purposeful sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted with 60 older adults in 3 elderly centers in Tehran. A moderator’s guideline that consisted of general and specific questions was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. Results: Participants explained their perspectives regarding health, healthy eating and PA in the following 5 categories: meaning of health was represented based on issues such as absence of pain and disorder, complete body wellbeing, staying away from hazards, complete individual satisfaction, experiencing positive events, effective communication, faithfulness and trust in God. The healthy eating category was featured by adequate eating, age balanced diet, refraining from under or over nutrition and sensible consumption of fruits and vegetables. The PA was described - according to the level of performing outdoor activities or household tasks. Expressions about the perceived benefits and barriers of healthy eating and PA were aligned the two remaining categories. Conclusions: Participants have referred to the association between both PA and dietary practices and health. Understanding how older people define physical activity and nutritional behavior and recognition of the most important perceived benefits and barriers that might contribute to have a healthy eating or adequate PA profile could procure insight into the type of interventions that are required to promote healthy lifestyle among Iranian older adults.
Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action
Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.
The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…
Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio
This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...
Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a
Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.
Fatores de risco comportamentais acumulados para doenças cardiovasculares no sul do Brasil Factores de riesgo conductuales acumulados en enfermedades cardiovasculares en el sur de Brasil Accumulated behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Southern Brazil
Ludmila Correa Muniz
de base poblacional con muestra representativa de 2.732 adultos de ambos sexos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, en 2010. Los factores de riesgo conductuales investigados fueron: tabaquismo; inactividad física en las horas de ocio; consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne, e consumo diario de embutidos, carne roja y leche integral. El desenlace del estudio fue el escore de aglomeración de factores de riesgo conductuales, variando de cero a tres: ningún factor de riesgo conductual para enfermedades cardiovasculares o exposición a 1, 2 o > 3 factores de riesgo conductuales. Se realizó regresión logística multinomial para evaluar el efecto ajustado de las características individuales sobre la acumulación de factores de riesgo conductuales, teniendo como categoría de referencia individuos sin alguno de los factores. RESULTADOS: La inactividad física fue el factor de riesgo más prevaleciente (75,6%, seguido del consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne (52,3%. Dos tercios de la población presentaron dos o más factores de riesgo conductuales. La combinación de inactividad física y consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne ocurrió en 17,5% de la muestra; e inactividad física, consumo habitual de grasa aparente de la carne y tabaquismo, en 6,7%. Los odds ratios de acumulación de dos o más factores fueron mayores entre hombres y se asociaron inversamente con el indicador económico nacional. CONCLUSIONES: La acumulación de factores de riesgo conductuales en enfermedades cardiovasculares es elevada en la población estudiada. Son necesarias intervenciones públicas capaces de prevenir la ocurrencia simultánea de tales factores.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, accumulated risky behavior relating to cardiovascular diseases among adults. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 2732 adults of both sexes in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2010. The behavioral
Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Honjo, Kaori; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Akiko
We examined the effect of education level on the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular mortality in the Japanese population. A total of 42,647 community-based men and women aged 40–79 years were enrolled at baseline (1988–1990), followed through 2009. The components of the healthy lifestyle score included the intake of fruits, fish, and milk; body mass index; exercise; avoidance of smoking; moderate alcohol intake; and moderate sleep duration. During the 19.3 years of follow-up, 8,314 all-cause and 2,377 total cardiovascular mortality cases were noted. Inverse associations were observed between healthy lifestyle scores and total cardiovascular disease (CVD) for both the lower and higher education level groups. Multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for CVD mortality from the highest to the lowest healthy lifestyle scores, and the population attributable fraction (95% CIs) without healthy lifestyle scores of 7–8 were 0.51 (0.33–0.52) and 42% (24–58%), and 0.38 (0.27–0.47) and 55% (36–69%) for the higher and lower education levels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the association between higher CVD mortality and lower education level can be explained by the individuals’ lower adherence to a healthy lifestyle; hence, lifestyle modification would be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of the education level. PMID:28057921
Full Text Available Gianluca Castelnuovo,1,2 Giada Pietrabissa,1,2 Gian Mauro Manzoni,1,3 Roberto Cattivelli,1,2 Alessandro Rossi,1 Margherita Novelli,1 Giorgia Varallo,1 Enrico Molinari1,2 1Psychology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, San Giuseppe Hospital, Verbania, 2Department of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, 3Faculty of Psychology, eCampus University, Novedrate, Italy Abstract: Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways. Evidence-based strategies to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities typically integrate different interventions: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and if necessary, pharmacological and surgical ones. Such treatments are implemented in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of endocrinologists, nutritionists, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sometimes surgeons. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is traditionally recognized as the best established treatment for binge eating disorder and the most preferred intervention for obesity, and could be considered as the first-line treatment among psychological approaches, especially in a long-term perspective; however, it does not necessarily produce a successful weight loss. Traditional CBT for weight loss and other protocols, such as enhanced CBT, enhanced focused CBT, behavioral weight loss treatment, therapeutic education, acceptance and commitment therapy
The major public health concern worldwide is coronary heart disease, with dyslipidemia as a major risk factor. Statin drugs are recommended by several guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention. Rosuvastatin has been widely accepted because of its efficacy, potency, and superior safety profile. Inflammation is involved in all phases of atherosclerosis, with the process beginning in early youth and advancing relentlessly for decades throughout life. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-studied, nonspecific marker of inflammation which may reflect general health risk. Considerable evidence suggests CRP is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, but direct involvement in atherosclerosis remains controversial. Rosuvastatin is a synthetic, hydrophilic statin with unique stereochemistry. A large proportion of patients achieve evidence-based lipid targets while using the drug, and it slows progression and induces regression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions. Rosuvastatin lowers CRP levels significantly. The Justification for Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial was designed after the observation that when both low density lipoprotein and CRP were reduced, patients fared better than when only LDL was lowered. Advocates and critics alike acknowledge that the benefits of rosuvastatin in JUPITER were real. After a review, the US Food and Drug Administration extended the indications for rosuvastatin to include asymptomatic JUPITER-eligible individuals with one additional risk factor. The American Heart Association and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention had previously recognized the use of CRP in persons with "intermediate risk" as defined by global risk scores. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines went further and recommended use of statins in persons with low LDL and high CRP levels at intermediate risk. The JUPITER study focused attention on ostensibly healthy individuals with
Full Text Available The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy. From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%.
Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert
The present study examined the relations between different empathic dimensions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Specifically, the indirect effects of empathic concern and perspective taking via empathic anger on defending and passive bystanding were tested in a sample of Italian young adolescents (N = 398; M age = 12 years, 3 months, 47.2% girls). Path analysis confirmed the direct and indirect effects, via empathic anger, of empathic concern and perspective taking on bystanders' behavior, with the exception of the direct association between perspective taking and passive bystanding that was not significant. Our findings suggest that considering empathic anger together with empathic concern and perspective taking could help researchers to better understand the links between empathic dispositions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Oferecer informações descritivas e investigar a extensão com que os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares de natureza comportamental estão associados aos fatores de risco biológicos na população jovem. MÉTODOS: Amostra de 452 adolescentes (246 moças e 206 rapazes com idades entre 15 e 18 anos, selecionados de uma escola de ensino médio da cidade de Londrina, Paraná. Fatores de risco de natureza comportamental foram analisados mediante prática insuficiente de atividade física, ingestão excessiva de gorduras e de colesterol e uso de tabaco. Como indicadores dos fatores de risco biológicos recorreu-se ao sobrepeso, aos níveis elevados de pressão arterial e concentrações não-favoráveis de lipídios-lipoproteínas plasmáticas. RESULTADOS: Por volta de 20% das moças e 16% dos rapazes apresentaram pelo menos um fator de risco biológico para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares. O sobrepeso se associou significativamente com a ingestão excessiva de gorduras, enquanto a pressão arterial elevada se relacionou com o estilo de vida sedentário e o uso de tabaco. A excessiva ingestão de gorduras e de colesterol indicou risco aumentado de concentrações indesejáveis de lipídios-lipoproteínas plasmáticas. Adolescentes fumantes tenderam a demonstrar risco de pressão arterial e de lipídios-lipoproteínas plasmáticas alterados duas vezes maior que não-fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de que intervenções direcionadas à adoção de um estilo de vida saudável, incluindo prática regular de atividade física, padrões dietéticos adequados e abstenção ao uso de tabaco, deverão ser iniciadas em idades jovens.OBJECTIVE: To provide descriptive information and investigate to what extent behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are associated with biological risk factors in the young population. METHODS: The sample included 452 adolescents (246 girls and 206 boys
Johnson, Jennie E; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue; Kouba, Joanne
Evidence indicates that a healthy lifestyle can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, yet many people engage in unhealthy behaviors. New technologies such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening detect atherosclerosis before clinical disease is manifested. Knowledge of an abnormal finding could provide the "teachable moment" to enhance motivation for change. The aim of this study was to examine how knowledge of CAC score affects risk perception, likelihood of taking action, and health-promoting behavior change in persons at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This study used a descriptive prospective design with 174 high-risk adults (≥3 major risk factors) recruited at a radiology center offering CAC scans. Baseline self-report surveys using the Perception of Risk of Heart Disease Scale, the Benefits and Barriers Scale, the Quality of Life Index, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II were completed immediately after a screening CAC scan but before results were known. Follow-up occurred 3 months later using mailed packets. Participants' mean age was 58 years; 62% were men, 89% were white, and most were well educated. There was no significant change in risk perception scores over time or between groups, except for a positive interaction in the moderate-risk group (CAC scores of 101-400) (P = .004). Quality of life remained unchanged. Health-promoting behavior changes increased in all groups over time (P behavior change were perceived barriers (β = -.41; P Knowledge of CAC score does impact risk perception for some at-risk groups. This knowledge does enhance motivation for behavior change. Knowledge of CAC score does not impact quality of life. It is hoped that through improved understanding of the effect of CAC scoring on behavior change, nurses can better assist patients to modify behaviors during teachable moments.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chronic diseases are among the most important causes of mortality. The aim of the current study was to compare the Brain/behavioral systems and Dark personality traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy in cancer, cardiovascular female patients and normal women. Methods: In this study, 60 individuals were selected using available sampling in three groups of 20 cancer patients, cardiovascular patients, and normal subjects. Finally, in order to test the goals and hypotheses of the research, the participants were studied based on Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System, and Dark Triad traits. Data analysis was performed using multivariate ANOVA, univariate ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results: In this study, there was a significant difference among the three groups in Brain/behavioral systems and traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, so that the cancer and cardiovascular patients had higher score in dark triad traits compared to normal individuals. Also, the cancer patients had a higher score in Machiavellianism trait compared to the cardiovascular patients. In the brain/behavioral systems, cardiovascular and cancer patients had higher score in behavioral inhibition system (BIS component compared to the normal individuals in the of behavioral inhibition system (BIS. Also, in the reward seeking subscale of behavioral activation system (BAS-f, cancer patients had a higher score compared to cardiovascular patients, which was significantly different. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cancer and cardiovascular patients, have greater extent of social disgusting personality traits as well as behavioral inhibition system as anxiety-predisposing factor.
Morales Salinas, Alberto; Coca, Antonio; Olsen, Michael H.
Hypertension is a leading risk factor for disease burden globally. An unresolved question is whether grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99. mm. Hg) with low (cardiovascular mortality <1% at 10 years) to moderate (cardiovascular mortality ≥1% and <5% at 10 years) absolute total cardiovascular risk (...
Mawhinney, Thomas C.
Perspectives on job satisfaction and its relations with job performance among members of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology (IOP) and Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) cultures are identified and compared. Comparisons include vantage points of each culture on the roles of theory and data regarding the definitions of behavior, job…
J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)
textabstractThe aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs, and outcome parameters of physical behavior. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity and active lifestyle vs. sedentary behavior and sedentary lifestyle; Amount of
Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne
Background Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development...... and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive...... function, and behavior in healthy children. Methods/design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial with 8- to 9-year-old Danish children, comparing the effect of consuming 300 g/week of oily fish with poultry (control) for 12 weeks between August 2016 and June 2017. The primary outcomes are blood...
White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A
Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs.
The complexity of human behavior challenges our explanatory powers. Yet, in this day and age we desperately try to manage and control the behavior of our corporate citizens through rules, codes, systems and procedures alike. This study is an illustration that true human behavior cannot simply be
The complexity of human behavior challenges our explanatory powers. Yet, in this day and age we desperately try to manage and control the behavior of our corporate citizens through rules, codes, systems and procedures alike. This study is an illustration that true human behavior cannot simply be
Bachmann, Justin M; Goggins, Kathryn M; Nwosu, Samuel K; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Kripalani, Sunil; Wallston, Kenneth A
Evaluate the effect of perceived health competence, a patient's belief in his or her ability to achieve health-related goals, on health behavior and health-related quality of life. We analyzed 2063 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome and/or congestive heart failure at a large academic hospital in the United States. Multivariable linear regression models investigated associations between the two-item perceived health competence scale (PHCS-2) and positive health behaviors such as medication adherence and exercise (Health Behavior Index) as well as health-related quality of life (5-item Patient Reported Outcome Information Measurement System Global Health Scale). After multivariable adjustment, perceived health competence was highly associated with health behaviors (pperceived health competence was associated with a decrease in health-related quality of life between hospitalization and 90days after discharge (pPerceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease as well as change in health-related quality of life after discharge. Patients with low perceived health competence may be at risk for a decline in health-related quality of life after hospitalization and thus a potential target for counseling and other behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y
The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors.
Teresa L. Ju; Szu-Yuan Sun; Pei-Ju Chao; Chang-Yao Wu
This study aims to examine the factors affecting knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge-based electronic communities (e-communities) because quantity and quality of knowledge shared among the members play a critical role in the community-s sustainability. Past research has suggested three perspectives that may affect the quantity and quality of knowledge shared: economics, social psychology, and social ecology. In this study, we strongly believe that an economic perspective ma...
Conley, Samantha; Redeker, Nancy S.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with high levels of morbidity, disability and poor quality of life. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms and diagnosis of insomnia are high among those with CVD. Although insomnia appears to be important to CVD, less is known about the effects of insomnia treatment on important biological, sleep, symptom, quality of life, functional and morbidity or mortality outcomes in people with or at-risk for CVD. The p...
Full Text Available Guntram Schernthaner,1 Sarah Jarvis,2 Chaim Lotan,3 Martin Prázný,4 Christoph Wanner,5 Thomas C Wascher6 1Department of Medicine, Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Vienna, Austria; 2Richford Gate Medical Practice, London, UK; 3Cardiovascular Division, Heart Institute, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 4First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany; 6First Medical Department, Hanusch-Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Diabetes is a global health emergency projected to affect 642 million people by 2040. Type 2 diabetes (T2D represents 90% of diabetes cases and is associated with a range of cardiovascular (CV risk factors that are more than double the incidence of CV disease and significantly increase mortality rates. Diabetes treatments have typically focused on improving glycemic control but their effect on CV outcomes has remained uncertain. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA looked to address this knowledge gap and mandated CV outcome trials (CVOTs for all new antidiabetic therapies. In 2015, EMPA-REG OUTCOME® became the first CVOT to present results for a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2; also known as SLC5A2 inhibitor, empagliflozin. Subsequently, a regional meeting of the Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes (ACROSS T2D brought together a respected faculty of international experts and 150 physicians from 14 countries to discuss the current unmet medical needs of patients with T2D, the results from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study and the implications of these results for clinical practice. This article summarizes the current scientific evidence and the discussions that took place at the ACROSS T2D regional meeting, which was held in Vienna, Austria, on May 30, 2016. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular risk, SGLT2 inhibitor, CVOTs, empagliflozin
White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly
Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…
Notes that the most comforting finding in Mill and Romano- White's study was the high level of affectionate caregiver behaviors in early childhood settings. Suggests that a broader definition of anger might yield different results. Argues that the lack of a relationship between caregivers' self-esteem and angry or affectionate behavior contradicts…
Shields, A. Tamlyn
Obesity prevalence has doubled among adults and overweight has tripled among children since 1980. This article discusses behavioral approaches to the obesity epidemic, focusing on recent environmental changes, the resulting behaviors, and possible solutions. Over the last 4 decades, time spent in sedentary activities, the consumption of fast food,…
Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.
Løvdahl, Sebastian Rosten
In the view of the latest corporate scandals in Norway and increased focus on ethics and anti-corruption, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the roles of Purchasing and Supply Management and Organizational Culture when fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption. More specifically, this research attempts to investigate and theorize how organizations can foster ethical behavior and prevent corruption in their respective activities. The research methodology is qualitative...
Sukhee Ahn, RN, PhD
Conclusions: The findings indicate that self-efficacy, self-care health behaviors, and modifiable risk factors play an important role in QOL in adults with coronary artery disease. Patients could be more confident in performing self-care health behaviors, leading to a better QOL, by more effectively managing their cardiovascular risk factors. Nursing strategies to improve QOL in this population should include motivating them to perform self-care health behaviors.
Katja H. Brunk
This research provides a much needed consumer perspective of corporate ethics. Based on twenty consumer interviews, the study conceptualizes potential sources of ‘consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) of a company/brand by investigating consumers’ ethical perceptions of business behavior. The developed taxonomy delineates six domains and sub-domains of CPE origin, relating to the impact corporate behavior has on: (1) consumers, (2) employees, (3) the environment, (4) the overseas community, (5)...
Full Text Available Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7% was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6% were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students.
Employee engagement has been understood from various academic and practical perspectives, mainly due to its recent popularity. This study explores not only positive movements--positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), and positive organizational behavior (POB)--as a background of engagement but also the conceptualization,…
G. Dominioni (Goran)
textabstractThis thesis contributes to various streams of literature in the behavioral law and economics of tort law and judicial decisionmaking. Each chapter addresses a selected topic in this area from either a theoretical or an empirical perspective. The overarching theme of the thesis is the
Dastpak, Mehdi; Behjat, Fatemeh; Taghinezhad, Ali
This study aimed at investigating the similarities and differences between Vygotsky's perspectives on child language development with nativism and behaviorism. Proposing the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development, Vygotsky emphasized the role of collaborative interaction, scaffolding, and guided participation in language learning. Nativists, on…
Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes
Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…
Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Menon, R. G. Vishnu; Sigurdarson, Johannes Pall; Kristjansson, Jon Skafti; Foxall, Gordon R.
An e-mail marketing experiment based on the behavioral perspective model was conducted to investigate consumer choice. Conversion e-mails were sent to two groups from the same marketing database of registered consumers interested in children's books. The experiment was based on A-B-A-C-A and A-C-A-B-A withdrawal designs and consisted of sending B…
BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Using an African-centered cultural framework
Gwenyth R Wallen
Full Text Available Establishing the validity of health behavior surveys used in community-based participatory research (CBPR in diverse populations is often overlooked. A novel, group-based cognitive interviewing method was used to obtain qualitative data for tailoring a survey instrument designed to identify barriers to improved cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, DC. A focus group–based cognitive interview was conducted to assess item comprehension, recall, and interpretation and to establish the initial content validity of the survey. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts yielded 5 main themes for which participants (n = 8 suggested survey modifications, including survey item improvements, suggestions for additional items, community-specific issues, changes in the skip logic of the survey items, and the identification of typographical errors. Population-specific modifications were made, including the development of more culturally appropriate questions relevant to the community. Group-based cognitive interviewing provided an efficient and effective method for piloting a cardiovascular health survey instrument using CBPR.
Aga, Deribe Assefa
This dissertation sought to examine behavioral-related critical success factors in the context of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector development projects in Ethiopia. The dissertation applied both a cross-sectional survey design and an experimental design in separate settings, and it is
Spain, Seth M; Harms, P D
We critically examine the current biological models of individual organizational behavior, with particular emphasis on the roles of genetics and the brain. We demonstrate how approaches to biology in the organizational sciences assume that biological systems are simultaneously causal and essentially static; that genotypes exert constant effects. In contrast, we present a sociogenomic approach to organizational research, which could provide a meta-theoretical framework for understanding organizational behavior. Sociogenomics is an interactionist approach that derives power from its ability to explain how genes and environment operate. The key insight is that both genes and the environment operate by modifying gene expression. This leads to a conception of genetic and environmental effects that is fundamentally dynamic, rather than the static view of classical biometric approaches. We review biometric research within organizational behavior, and contrast these interpretations with a sociogenomic view. We provide a review of gene expression mechanisms that help explain the dynamism observed in individual organizational behavior, particularly factors associated with gene expression in the brain. Finally, we discuss the ethics of genomic and neuroscientific findings for practicing managers and discuss whether it is possible to practically apply these findings in management.
Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy
Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…
Steen, Julie A.
Although the human rights philosophy has relevance for many segments of the social work curriculum, the latest version of accreditation standards only includes a few behaviors specific to human rights. This deficit can be remedied by incorporating innovations found in the social work literature, which provides a wealth of material for…
Larsen, K.S.; van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Krumov, K.
Organizational behavior as a field of study grew out of the history of industrialization and the need to know how to manage workers. The field was historically largely one-sided serving the interests of management as research focused on increasing productivity and efficiency. This book is a response
Seth Michael Spain
Full Text Available We critically examine the current biological models of individual organizational behavior, with particular emphasis on the roles of genetics and the brain. We demonstrate how approaches to biology in the organizational sciences assume that biological systems are simultaneously causal and essentially static; that genotypes exert constant effects. In contrast, we present a sociogenomic approach to organizational research, which could provide a meta-theoretical framework for understanding organizational behavior. Sociogenomics is an interactionist approach that derives power from its ability to explain how genes and environment operate. The key insight is that both genes and the environment operate by modifying gene expression. This leads to a conception of genetic and environmental effects that is fundamentally dynamic, rather than the static view of classical biometric approaches. We review biometric research within organizational behavior, and contrast these interpretations with a sociogenomic view. We provide a review of gene expression mechanisms that help explain the dynamism observed in individual organizational behavior, particularly factors associated with gene expression in the brain. Finally, we discuss the ethics of genomic and neuroscientific findings for practicing managers and discuss whether it is possible to practically apply these findings in management.
Spain, Seth M.; Harms, P. D.
We critically examine the current biological models of individual organizational behavior, with particular emphasis on the roles of genetics and the brain. We demonstrate how approaches to biology in the organizational sciences assume that biological systems are simultaneously causal and essentially static; that genotypes exert constant effects. In contrast, we present a sociogenomic approach to organizational research, which could provide a meta-theoretical framework for understanding organizational behavior. Sociogenomics is an interactionist approach that derives power from its ability to explain how genes and environment operate. The key insight is that both genes and the environment operate by modifying gene expression. This leads to a conception of genetic and environmental effects that is fundamentally dynamic, rather than the static view of classical biometric approaches. We review biometric research within organizational behavior, and contrast these interpretations with a sociogenomic view. We provide a review of gene expression mechanisms that help explain the dynamism observed in individual organizational behavior, particularly factors associated with gene expression in the brain. Finally, we discuss the ethics of genomic and neuroscientific findings for practicing managers and discuss whether it is possible to practically apply these findings in management. PMID:24616682
Ancarani, Alessandro; Di Mauro, Carmela; Giammanco, Maria D
Safety climate is considered beneficial to the improvement of hospital safety outcomes. Nevertheless, the relations between two of its key constituents, namely those stemming from leader-subordinate relations and coworker support for safety, are still to be fully ascertained. This article uses the theoretical lens of Social Exchange Theory to study the joint impact of leader-member exchange in the safety sphere and coworker support for safety on safety-related behavior at the hospital ward level. Social exchange constructs are further related to the existence of a shame-/blame-free environment, seen as a potential antecedent of safety behavior. A cross-sectional study including 166 inpatients in hospital wards belonging to 10 public hospitals in Italy was undertaken to test the hypotheses developed. Hypothesized relations have been analyzed through a fully mediated multilevel structural equation model. This methodology allows studying behavior at the individual level, while keeping into account the heterogeneity among hospital specialties. Results suggest that the linkage between leader support for safety and individual safety behavior is mediated by coworker support on safety issues and by the creation of a shame-free environment. These findings call for the creation of a safety climate in which managerial efforts should be directed not only to the provision of new safety resources and the enforcement of safety rules but also to the encouragement of teamwork and freedom to report errors as ways to foster the capacity of the staff to communicate, share, and learn from each other.
Mascetti, Gian Gastone
Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).
Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use
Miller, Paul D
To examine data showing associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality. The articles reviewed include those published from 1992-2011 derived from search engines (PubMed, Scopus, Medscape) using the following search terms: vitamin D, calcium, cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, vascular calcification, chronic kidney disease, renal stones, and hypercalciuria. Because these articles were not weighted (graded) on the level of evidence, this review reflects my own perspective on the data and how they should be applied to clinical management. For skeletal health, vitamin D and calcium are both needed to ensure proper skeletal growth (modeling) and repair (remodeling). Nutritional deficiencies of either vitamin D or calcium may lead to a spectrum of metabolic bone disorders. Excessive consumption of either nutrient has been linked to a variety of medical disorders, such as hypercalcemia or renal stones. There have also been associations between vitamin D or calcium intake and cardiovascular disease. However, neither of these associations have established evidence nor known causality for increasing cardiovascular risk or all-cause mortality in patients with creatinine clearances greater than 60 mL/min. In patients with more severe chronic kidney disease, stronger data link excess calcium (or phosphorus) intake and increase in vascular calcification, but not mortality. The safe upper limit for vitamin D intake is at least 4000 IU daily and probably 10 000 IU daily; for calcium, the safe upper limit is between 2000 and 3000 mg daily. While no solid scientific evidence validates that serum vitamin D levels between 15 and 70 ng/mL are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, stronger but inconsistent evidence shows an association between calcium supplementation greater than 500 mg daily and an increase in cardiovascular disease risk. Most professional societies suggest that
Coca, Antonio; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Cifkova, Renata; Manolis, Athanasios J; Redón, Josep; Mancia, Giuseppe
: Antihypertensive, lipid lowering, antidiabetic and antiplatelet treatments all substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbid and fatal events. In real life, however, effective implementation of these treatments is rare, and thus their contribution to cardiovascular prevention is much less than it could be, based on research data. This article reviews the pros and cons of cardiovascular prevention by the polypill approach. It is argued that the high prevalence of individuals with a multifactorial risk profile provides a strong rationale for a therapeutic strategy based on the combination in a single tablet of drugs against different risk factors. It is further argued that other important favourable arguments exist. First, in real-life adherence to all above treatments is very low, leading to a major increase in the incidence and risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Second, although a large number of factors are involved, adherence is adversely affected by the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen and can be considerably improved by treatment simplification. Third, recent studies in patients with a history of manifest cardiovascular disease have documented that different cardiovascular drugs can be combined in a single tablet with no loss of their individual efficacy or unexpected inconveniences and this does favour adherence to treatment and multiple risk factor control, supporting use of the polypill in secondary cardiovascular prevention. It is finally also mentioned, however, that the polypill may have some drawbacks and that at present no evidence is available that this approach reduces cardiovascular outcome to a greater degree than standard treatment strategies. Trials are under way to provide an answer to this question and thus allow the therapeutic value of this approach to be known.
Full Text Available Elizabeth Morghen Sikes,1 Robert W Motl,1 Jayne M Ness2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS accounts for ~5% of all multiple sclerosis cases, and has a prevalence of ~10,000 children in the USA. POMS is associated with a higher relapse rate, and results in irreversible disability on average 10 years earlier than adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Other manifestations of POMS include mental and physical fatigue, cognitive impairment, and depression. We believe that the health behaviors of physical activity, diet, and sleep may have potential benefits in POMS, and present a scoping review of the existing literature. Methods: We identified papers by searching three electronic databases (PubMed, GoogleScholar, and CINAHL. Search terms included: pediatric multiple sclerosis OR pediatric onset multiple sclerosis OR POMS AND health behavior OR physical activity OR sleep OR diet OR nutrition OR obesity. Papers were included in this review if they were published in English, referenced nutrition, diet, obesity, sleep, exercise, or physical activity, and included pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis as a primary population. Results: Twenty papers were identified via the literature search that addressed health-promoting behaviors in POMS, and 11, 8, and 3 papers focused on diet, activity, and sleep, respectively. Health-promoting behaviors were associated with markers of disease burden in POMS. Physical activity participation was associated with reduced relapse rate, disease burden, and sleep/rest fatigue symptoms. Nutritional factors, particularly vitamin D intake, may be associated with relapse rate. Obesity has been associated with increased risk of developing POMS. POMS is associated with better sleep hygiene, and this may benefit fatigue and quality of life
Nowadays, a central theme in the finance and economic theory is market efficiency. After several decades of research, economists have not yet reached a consensus about the existence of efficient financial markets in terms of information. In the problematized approaches regarding the treated subject, one can find the inquiries on the validity of assumptions underlying the informational efficiency theory of the financial market. The emerging discipline of behavioral economics and finance has ch...
FitzGerald, Serena; Cornally, Nicola; Hegarty, Josephine
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the diagnosis of anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Evidence indicates that correct condom use in addition to obtaining the HPV vaccine provides the greatest protection from HPV infections. To explore young men's beliefs and behavioral intention in relation to receiving the HPV vaccine and using a condom correctly and consistently for sexual contact. A cross-sectional study underpinned by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was conducted with male participants (n = 359, 18-28 years) who completed an online survey. Descriptive, correlational, and hierarchical regression analyses were performed on both status variables and variables of the TPB. Subjective norms (β = 0.519, P HPV vaccine, while relationship status (β = -0.215, P HPV vaccine and 44% in intention to use a condom were explained by the TPB model. Results from this study will impact on future sexual health research, education programs, and interventions for both HPV preventative behaviors towards the elimination of HPV-related cancers in men. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tyler, Patrick M; White, Stuart F; Thompson, Ronald W; Blair, R J R
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition. The potential implications for current and future classroom-based assessments and interventions for students with these deficits are discussed.
Cardiovascular Effects of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes: Clinical Perspectives From the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Section Leadership Council and Early Career Councils of the American College of Cardiology.
Morris, Pamela B; Ference, Brian A; Jahangir, Eiman; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Ryan, John J; Bahrami, Hossein; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Bhakta, Shyam; Winchester, David E; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Sanchez Shields, Monica; Deedwania, Prakash; Mehta, Laxmi S; Phan, Binh An P; Benowitz, Neal L
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as a result of inhaled tobacco products continues to be a global healthcare crisis, particularly in low- and middle-income nations lacking the infrastructure to develop and implement effective public health policies limiting tobacco use. Following initiation of public awareness campaigns 50 years ago in the United States, considerable success has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. However, there has been a slowing of cessation rates in the United States during recent years, possibly caused by high residual addiction or fatigue from cessation messaging. Furthermore, tobacco products have continued to evolve faster than the scientific understanding of their biological effects. This review considers selected updates on the genetics and epigenetics of smoking behavior and associated cardiovascular risk, mechanisms of atherogenesis and thrombosis, clinical effects of smoking and benefits of cessation, and potential impact of electronic cigarettes on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Degboe Arnold N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and
Duff, Orlaith Mairead; Walsh, Deirdre MJ; Furlong, Bróna A; O'Connor, Noel E; Woods, Catherine B
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors. Electronic health (eHealth) is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health. This emerging area of health care has the ability to enhance self-management of chronic disease by making health care more accessible, affordable, and available to the public. However, evidence-based information on the use of BCTs in eHealth interventions is limited, and particularly so, for individuals living with CVD. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to assess the application of BCTs in eHealth interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) in CVD populations. Methods A total of 7 electronic databases, including EBSCOhost (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, and CINAHL Complete), Scopus, and Web of Science (Core Collection) were searched. Two authors independently reviewed references using the software package Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). The reviewers met to resolve any discrepancies, with a third independent reviewer acting as an arbitrator when required. Following this, data were extracted from the papers that met the inclusion criteria. Bias assessment of the studies was carried out using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias within Covidence; this was followed by a narrative synthesis. Results Out of the 987 studies that were identified, 14 were included in the review. An additional 9 studies were added following a
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel
Just as with other forms of abuse such as bullying, dating violence is no longer limited to physical spaces. Several forms of dating violence can also be perpetrated by means of technology. Few studies have used a theoretical perspective to investigate cyber dating abuse. This study addresses this gap in the literature by focusing on the perpetration of digital monitoring behaviors-a form of cyber dating abuse-from a social learning perspective. We investigate the extent to which perceived social norms about cyber dating abuse, witnessing controlling behaviors among parents, and endorsing gender stereotypes are linked with adolescents' engagement in digital monitoring behaviors. The study draws on data from 466 secondary school students (71.0% girls, n = 331) aged between 16 and 22 years ( M = 17.99 years, SD = 0.92) in Flanders, Belgium, who were in a romantic relationship. Linear regression analysis indicates that being female, being older, the perceived social norms of peers, the endorsement of gender stereotypes, and having observed intrusive controlling behaviors by the father are significantly and positively related to adolescents' perpetration of digital monitoring behaviors. The findings have implications for practice and underscore the need for prevention efforts to address and lower the influence of these perceived social norms. Further implications include the need for prevention efforts to focus on diminishing the impact of gender stereotypical attitudes and the influence of witnessing controlling behaviors within the family context on cyber dating abuse perpetration.
Full Text Available Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED.This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%. In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%, job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%, quality of care (72%, and errors (70%. Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors.
Eisenberg, N; Zhou, Q; Koller, S
The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States.
Krantz, D S; Durel, L A; Davia, J E; Shaffer, R T; Arabian, J M; Dembroski, T M; MacDougall, J M
The present correlational study compared behavioral and psychophysiological characteristics of coronary patients who were either medicated or not medicated with the beta-adrenergic blocking drug propranolol. Eighty-eight patients were given a structured Type A interview (SI) and a history quiz while heart rate and blood pressure were monitored. Data were analyzed controlling for age, sex, extent of coronary artery disease, and history of angina. Results indicated that patients taking propranolol (n = 65) were significantly lower in intensity of Type A behavior than patients not taking propranolol (n = 23). No effects were obtained for patients medicated or not medicated with diuretics, nitrates, or other CNS active drugs. Propranolol patients also showed lesser heart rate and rate-pressure product responses to the interview, but did not differ in blood pressure responses. Components of Type A which were lower in propranolol patients included speech stylistics (loud/explosive, rapid/accelerated, potential for hostility). Content of responses to the SI and scores on the Jenkins Activity Survey did not differ between the groups. An explanation for these results is offered in terms of the effects of propranolol on peripheral sympathetic responses, and evidence for a physiological substrate for Type A behavior. A conceptualization of the Type A pattern in terms of cognitive and physiological components is advanced, and implications for clinical intervention are discussed.
Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are becoming a mature infrastructure in many organizations. Organizations purchase these systems to integrate, improve internal business processes, serve their customers better and fulfill their needs. The buying process of these systems is more complicated and it requires a lot more consideration as it can have long term effects and consequences for the organization as well as for its stakeholders. Acquisition (purchasing of ERP systems is a complex behavior for organizations and has a lot to consider, from motives all the way to goals being pursued. Buying organizations consider several components that make up its business entity: like vendors, consumers, competitors, and regulations (Harris, 2013. Importance and relevance should be given to each one of these components as they all play key essential roles in sales organizations and their success. Typical organizations treat the purchasing process as a problem solving situation and rely on consultants or sometimes miss out on systematic buying process and the success factors to be considered vary from technicality, price, risk aversion, reputation, all the way to ethical decisions and legal regulations (Bellizzi, 2009. This research paper describe the current acquisition processes, critical success factors literature and propose integrated ERP systems acquisition model for organizations interested in buying similar systems in future.
Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C
We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee's work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers' need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans.
Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.
Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok
Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management. This randomized study aimed to elucidate the effects of a nurse-led theory-based education program in individuals with a first episode of acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The study involved a convenience sample of 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to either the education group or the control group. The goal-attainment-based education program was designed to set the mutually agreed goals of risk management and the behavioral modification strategies for achieving those goals. Those in the control group received routine management only. The participants in both groups were contacted at 6-8 weeks and at 6 months after discharge to measure outcome variables. Repeated measure ANOVA was conducted using SPSSWIN (version 20.0) to determine the significance of differences in outcome variables over 6 months between the groups. Both groups showed significant positive changes in cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The 2-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced in both study groups, but with no significant interaction effect (F=2.01, p=0.142). The performance and maintenance of health behaviors (F=3.75, p=0.029) and the mental component of quality of life (F=4.03, p=0.020) were significantly better in the education group than the control group. Applying a goal-oriented education program at an early stage of hospital management improved and maintained blood glucose, health behaviors, and mental component of the quality of life up to six months in
García-Gutiérrez, Valentín; Jiménez-Velasco, Antonio; Gómez-Casares, M Teresa; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; López-Sendón, Jose Luis; Steegmann Olmedillas, Juan Luis
The second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI, dasatinib and nilotinib) used in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment have shown a benefit compared to imatinib in responses achieved and disease progression. However, both have been related to some cardiovascular toxicity, being more frequent in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Nowadays, due to the lack of recommendations for CML patients, CVRF management is carried out heterogeneously. The aim of this work is to develop recommendations on the prevention and monitoring of cardiovascular events (CVD) in patients with CML treated with TKIs. Experts from the Spanish Group of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia together with experts in cardiovascular risk have elaborated, after a consensus meeting, recommendations for the prevention and follow-up of CVE in patients with CML treated with TKI. Recommendations regarding the necessary information to be collected on clinical history, treatment decisions, as well as treatment and monitoring of CVRFs are shown in this document. TKI treatment requires comprehensive patient management from a multidisciplinary approach, in which both the prevention and management of CVRFs are essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dumontheil, Iroise; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Ferschmann, Lia; Walhovd, Kristine; Tamnes, Christian; Fjell, Anders; Overbye, Knut
Basic perspective taking and mentalising abilities develop in childhood, but recent studies indicate that the use of social perspective taking to guide decisions and actions has a prolonged development that continues throughout adolescence. Here, we aimed to replicate this research and investigate the hypotheses that individual differences in social perspective taking in adolescence are associated with real-life prosocial and antisocial behavior and differences in brain structure. We employed...
Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko
Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahern, Nancy R; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Thacker, Paige
Adolescence is a developmental stage marked by risk-taking and limited comprehension of dangers of risky behaviors. Previous research has focused on adolescents' perspective of risk with little evidence on parents' knowledge regarding risk. This qualitative study examined parental knowledge and perspectives of child/teen risk behaviors associated with salvia, sexting, inhalant use/abuse, and self/participant-assisted choking. A sample of 30 parents of children/teens aged 10-17 completed a self-administered survey based on Flanagan's critical incident technique. Data were analyzed according to Flanagan's guidelines. Two advanced practice nurses determined category reliability with 95% agreement. The survey yielded five categories of parental responses to potential risky behaviors in their child/teen including the following: talking to my children, setting up consequences, confronting the child, seeking help, and talking to others. Although the majority of the parents were aware of newer behaviors, less than one half of the participants reported discussing risks with their child/teen. One third reported that their child knew a friend who was thinking about/tried sexting. One quarter of parents reported that they were not monitoring their child/teen's media use. Study findings provide important implications for developing an evidence-based education intervention to improve parents' awareness, knowledge, and identification of risk behaviors in their children/teens. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Within affluent populations, there are marked socioeconomic gradients in health behavior, with people of lower socioeconomic position smoking more, exercising less, having poorer diets, complying less well with therapy, using medical services less, ignoring health and safety advice more, and being less health-conscious overall, than their more affluent peers. Whilst the proximate mechanisms underlying these behavioral differences have been investigated, the ultimate causes have not.This paper presents a theoretical model of why socioeconomic gradients in health behavior might be found. I conjecture that lower socioeconomic position is associated with greater exposure to extrinsic mortality risks (that is, risks that cannot be mitigated through behavior, and that health behavior competes for people's time and energy against other activities which contribute to their fitness. Under these two assumptions, the model shows that the optimal amount of health behavior to perform is indeed less for people of lower socioeconomic position.The model predicts an exacerbatory dynamic of poverty, whereby the greater exposure of poor people to unavoidable harms engenders a disinvestment in health behavior, resulting in a final inequality in health outcomes which is greater than the initial inequality in material conditions. I discuss the assumptions of the model, and its implications for strategies for the reduction of health inequalities.
Huang, Yuxin; Li, Jihu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Sun, Jiao; Ji, Linong; Hu, Dayi; Pan, Changyu; Tan, Wen; Jiang, Suyuan; Tao, Xiaoming
This subanalysis of a cross-sectional, nationwide study was undertaken to assess the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and multiple cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data collected from 25,454 participants, including demographics, lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular risk profiles, were analyzed. Blood pressure control as well as blood glucose and blood lipid (3Bs) levels were measured as multi-risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle behaviors included regular exercise, nonsmoking status and no alcohol consumption. The relationship between the healthy lifestyle behavior(s) and control of 3B(s) was calculated. Of the 25,454 eligible participants, 4171 (16.4%) were current smokers, 2011 (7.9%) currently consumed alcohol, and 11,174 (43.9%) did not exercise. In total, 654 (2.6%) reported all three unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Most participants (71.1%) had received at least a high school education and were more likely to smoke and drink as compared to those with lower education. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were commonly found in participants with low atherosclerosis risk, such as non-elderly people and those with an above-college education level. Unhealthy lifestyle is associated with poor 3B control and worse medication adherence. Unhealthy lifestyles are common in Chinese people with T2DM, especially in people who are non-elderly and above-college educated. Interventions aimed at changing risky lifestyle behaviors are required for improved outcomes for Chinese patients with T2DM.
D. Yu. Platonov
Full Text Available Aim. To analyze potential determinants of preventive behavior (PB in patients with essential hypertension (HT and chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD, and to establish their significance and hierarchy. Material and methods. Patients with HT (n=285 and CIHD (n=223 were studied. Questioning of all patients was performed to assess the characteristics of their PB. Differentiated multivariate analysis of activity and efficacy of PB determinants was performed in HT and CIHD patients by the method of step-by-step backward logistic regression. Results. Awareness of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD and its prevention (odds ratio [OR] 6.08 as well as high level of general education (OR=2.29 were the most significant determinants of active PB in HT patients. Sufficient social support (OR=3.77, awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR=3.16 were the most significant determinants of active PB in patients with CIHD. Efficacy of PB in patients with HT and CIHD mostly depends on satisfaction of medical service (OR=10.2 and 6.63, respectively, social support (OR=6.25 and 10.5, respectively, adequate awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR, 6.92 and 6.64, respectively. Conclusion. PB activity and efficacy in patients with HT and CIHD depends on many contributing and impeding factors. Disregarding these factors can result in failure in preventive efforts at both individual and population levels.
Vaz, G C; Bahia, A P C O; de Figueiredo Müller-Ribeiro, F C; Xavier, C H; Patel, K P; Santos, R A S; Moreira, F A; Frézard, F; Fontes, M A P
Liposomes are nanosystems that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). We developed a liposomal formulation of GABA for application in long-term CNS functional studies. Two days after liposome-entrapped GABA was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), Wistar rats were submitted to the following evaluations: (1) changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) to ICV injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) in anesthetized rats; (2) changes in cardiovascular reactivity to air jet stress in conscious rats; and (3) anxiety-like behavior in conscious rats. GABA and saline-containing pegylated liposomes were prepared with a mean diameter of 200 nm. Rats with implanted cannulas targeted to lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 5-8/group) received either GABA solution (GS), empty liposomes (EL) or GABA-containing liposomes (GL). Following (48 h) central microinjection (2 μL, 0.09 M and 99 g/L) of liposomes, animals were submitted to the different protocols. Animals that received GL demonstrated attenuated response of RSNA to BMI microinjection (GS 48 ± 9, EL 43 ± 9, GL 11 ± 8%; P nervous system. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was conducted aiming to determine the points of view of cardiac care units′ nursing staff about designing and providing Hospice services in Iran for cardiovascular patients in the final stages of life. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, the perspectives of 16 Cardiac Care Unit (CCU nurses selected purposefully among hospitals of Tabriz-Iran University of Medical Sciences were investigated using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed in content analysis method. Results: 33 themes were finally extracted. Some nurses were for and some were against designing and providing Hospice services in Iran. The main reasons identified for supporting this plan included: Possibility of designing and providing these services consistent with high ethical values of Iranian society; approval of authorities due to increasing the load of chronic diseases and aged population; need of families due to the problems in taking care of patients and life concerns; better pain relief and respectful death; decrease of costs as a result of lower usage of diagnostic-therapeutic services, less use of expensive facilities and drugs, and better usage of hospital beds. Conclusion: Growing load of chronic diseases has made the need for Hospice as a necessary issue in Iran. In order to provide these services, studying the viewpoints of health service providers is inevitable. Therefore using and applying the results of this study in planning and policy making about designing and providing these services in Iran for cardiovascular patients in their final stages of lives could be helpful.
Ng, Martin K C
There are substantial gender differences in the pattern, severity and clinical outcomes of coronary heart disease independent of environmental risk factor exposure. As a consequence, there has been considerable interest in the potential role of sex hormones in atherogenesis, particularly the potential protective effects of oestrogen. However, the failure of the recent clinical randomised trials to show a cardioprotective effect for oestrogen coupled with a growing interest in androgen replacement therapy in elderly men has refocused interest on the role of androgens in cardiovascular biology and disease. Over the last decade, compelling evidence has emerged that sex differences in vascular biology are not only determined by gender-related differences in sex steroid levels but also by gender-specific tissue and cellular characteristics which mediate sex-specific responses to a variety of stimuli. In the vasculature, androgens often act in a gender-specific manner, with differential effects in male and female cells. This gender-dependent regulation may have important implications for understanding the basis of the gender gap in atherosclerosis and may eventually lead to the development of sex-specific treatments for cardiovascular disease. This review will summarise the current data for the role of androgens in gender differences in coronary heart disease and cardiovascular biology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should increase in both these cases, due to a synchronized discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods Seven goats were exposed to a dog for 15 minutes at 12 ± 3 days before, and again at 10 ± 1 days after, parturition. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and activity were registered by telemetry. Behavioral data were collected during 5 minute sessions, followed by blood samples obtained via intrajugular catheters. Plasma cortisol concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Results At the appearance of the dog, the mean arterial blood pressure of the goats increased from 90 ± 8 to 111 ± 8 mmHg (p Conclusions When goats were exposed to a dog during pregnancy, their heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma cortisol increased, in contrast to lactation when only their blood pressure and plasma cortisol increased. However, when they were lactating, goats vocalized more and started to ruminate later compared to when they were pregnant.
Olsson, Kerstin; Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva
Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should increase in both these cases, due to a synchronized discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Seven goats were exposed to a dog for 15 minutes at 12 ± 3 days before, and again at 10 ± 1 days after, parturition. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and activity were registered by telemetry. Behavioral data were collected during 5 minute sessions, followed by blood samples obtained via intrajugular catheters. Plasma cortisol concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. At the appearance of the dog, the mean arterial blood pressure of the goats increased from 90 ± 8 to 111 ± 8 mmHg (p dog exposure during lactation, but increased from 117 ± 6 to 126 ± 10 beats/min (p Dog exposure resulted in plasma cortisol concentration increasing from 17 ± 1 to 43 ± 7 nmol/l (p dog, goats vocalized at a higher frequency and started to ruminate later during lactation compared to pregnancy. When goats were exposed to a dog during pregnancy, their heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma cortisol increased, in contrast to lactation when only their blood pressure and plasma cortisol increased. However, when they were lactating, goats vocalized more and started to ruminate later compared to when they were pregnant.
Khosravi, Yahya; Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Bastani, Hamid; Khavanin, Ali; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher
There can be little doubt that the construction is the most hazardous industry in the worldwide. This study was designed to modeling the factors affecting unsafe behavior from the perspective of safety supervisors. The qualitative research was conducted to extract a conceptual model. A structural model was then developed based on a questionnaire survey (n=266) by two stage Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach. An excellent confirmed 12-factors structure explained about 62% of variances unsafe behavior in the construction industry. A good fit structural model indicated that safety climate factors were positively correlated with safety individual factors (Pconstruction workers' engagement in safe or unsafe behavior. In order to improve construction safety performance, more focus on the workplace condition is required.
Duff, Orlaith Mairead; Walsh, Deirdre Mj; Furlong, Bróna A; O'Connor, Noel E; Moran, Kieran A; Woods, Catherine B
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors. Electronic health (eHealth) is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health. This emerging area of health care has the ability to enhance self-management of chronic disease by making health care more accessible, affordable, and available to the public. However, evidence-based information on the use of BCTs in eHealth interventions is limited, and particularly so, for individuals living with CVD. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the application of BCTs in eHealth interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) in CVD populations. A total of 7 electronic databases, including EBSCOhost (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, and CINAHL Complete), Scopus, and Web of Science (Core Collection) were searched. Two authors independently reviewed references using the software package Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). The reviewers met to resolve any discrepancies, with a third independent reviewer acting as an arbitrator when required. Following this, data were extracted from the papers that met the inclusion criteria. Bias assessment of the studies was carried out using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias within Covidence; this was followed by a narrative synthesis. Out of the 987 studies that were identified, 14 were included in the review. An additional 9 studies were added following a hand search of review paper references
S. Lee Hong
Full Text Available This paper seeks to present a new perspective on the aging brain. Here, we make connections between two key phenomena of brain aging: 1 increased neural noise or random background activity; and 2 slowing of brain activity. Our perspective proposes the possibility that the slowing of neural processing due to decreasing nerve conduction velocities leads to a compensatory speeding of neuron firing rates. These increased firing rates lead to a broader distribution of power in the frequency spectrum of neural oscillations, which we propose, can just as easily be interpreted as neural noise. Compensatory speeding of neural activity, as we present, is constrained by the: A availability of metabolic energy sources; and B competition for frequency bandwidth needed for neural communication. We propose that these constraints lead to the eventual inability to compensate for age-related declines in neural function that are manifested clinically as deficits in cognition, affect, and motor behavior.
Chor, Julie; Oswald, Lora; Briller, Joan; Cowett, Allison; Peacock, Nadine; Harwood, Bryna
Limited research exists exploring contraceptive and pregnancy experiences of women with cardiovascular diseases. We conducted semistructured interviews with reproductive-age women with chronic hypertension or peripartum cardiomyopathy exploring thoughts and behaviors regarding future fertility. Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed identifying salient themes. We interviewed 20 women with chronic hypertension and 10 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Women described a spectrum of perspectives regarding the relationship between disease and fertility: from complete disconnect to full integration of diagnosis and future fertility plans. Integration of reproductive and cardiovascular health was influenced by and reflected in circumstances of diagnosis, pregnancy-related experiences, contraception-related experiences and conceptualization of disease risk related to reproductive health. Providers must better understand how women perceive and consider their reproductive and cardiovascular health in order to optimize contraceptive care of women with cardiovascular disease and help them make safe, informed decisions about future fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piccoli, Beatrice; De Witte, Hans; Reisel, William D
This study examines the relationship between job insecurity and discretionary behaviors, that is, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), with the purpose to extend knowledge on the theoretical explanations for these outcomes. Considering the employment relationship with the organization, two different perspectives are suggested and compared in a multiple mediator model, in order to understand the reasons for discretionary behaviors. We draw upon social exchange theory as the basis of psychological contract perceptions and we rely on the group value model to explain organizational justice evaluations. A total of 570 blue-collar workers in Italy participated in our survey. The results show that job insecurity is indirectly related to OCB and CWB through psychological contract breach and organizational injustice. Both mediational mechanisms have equivalent strength in explaining the relationships, namely, they are complementary processes in accounting for both behaviors. These findings suggest that employees' behaviors in job insecure contexts are driven not only by concerns related to the exchange of resources with the organization, but also by evaluations about their value as important members of the group. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gay, Bernard; Couffinhal, Thierry; Saillour-Glénisson, Florence; Sevin, Floriane; Kret, Marion; Michel, Philippe
To screen and to follow-up the patients with high cardiovascular risk in general practice may amplify the decrease of the cardiovascular morbi-mortality observed since a few years. The objective of this study is to identify the patients with high cardiovascular risk and to describe the management of these patients by general practitioners in Aquitaine. Transversal study of a sample of patients from 18 to 70 years old with high cardiovascular risk (combining at least 3 factors), included by voluntary general practitioners (GP). Forty-seven GP included 102 patients, presenting on average 3.7 risk factors among which 2.6 modifiable. The target values were reached for 59 % of patients with high blood pressure, 56 % of patients with diabetes and 53 % of patients with high cholesterol level. The analysis of care pathways identified the cardiologist as the privileged interlocutor. The doctors thought that seven patients out of 10 could change their risk behaviors. For the patients, the scale of declared importance to change was 6.6 on 10 for tobacco, 6.0 for food habits and 6.2 for physical activity. The confidence in their capacity to change was 3.8 on 10 for the tobacco, 5.2 for the food habits and 4.7 for the physical activity. Although doctors' sample is not representative, these results give an original overview of the management of patients with high cardiovascular risk and their care pathways. Medical treatments were globally in accordance with guidelines. The difficulty to change risk behaviors illustrates the necessity of patient therapeutic education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Miller-Rosales, Chris; Sterling, Stacy A; Wood, Sabrina B; Ross, Thekla; Makki, Mojdeh; Zamudio, Cindy; Kane, Irene M; Richardson, Megan C; Samayoa, Claudia; Charvat-Aguilar, Nancy; Lu, Wendy Y; Vo, Michelle; Whelan, Kimberly; Uratsu, Connie S; Grant, Richard W
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. Many patients do not benefit from traditional disease management approaches to CVD risk reduction. Here we describe the rationale, development, and implementation of a multi-component behavioral intervention targeting patients who have persistently not met goals of CVD risk factor control. Informed by published evidence, relevant theoretical frameworks, stakeholder advice, and patient input, we developed a group-based intervention (Changing Results: Engage and Activate to Enhance Wellness; "CREATE Wellness") to address the complex needs of patients with elevated or unmeasured CVD-related risk factors. We are testing this intervention in a randomized trial among patients with persistent (i.e > 2 years) sub-optimal risk factor control despite being enrolled in an advanced and highly successful CVD disease management program. The CREATE Wellness intervention is designed as a 3 session, group-based intervention combining proven elements of patient activation, health system engagement skills training, shared decision making, care planning, and identification of lifestyle change barriers. Our key learnings in designing the intervention included the value of multi-level stakeholder input and the importance of pragmatic skills training to address barriers to care. The CREATE Wellness intervention represents an evidence-based, patient-centered approach for patients not responding to traditional disease management. The trial is currently underway at three medical facilities within Kaiser Permanente Northern California and next steps include an evaluation of efficacy, adaptation for non-English speaking patient populations, and modification of the curriculum for web- or phone-based versions. NCT02302612.
Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu
Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.
Gempeler Rueda, Juanita
Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Resumen El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar la bibliografía actualizada disponible sobre el tema del trastorno por atracones de la alimentación, que hasta ...
Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.; Salanga, Maria Guadalupe C.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Adams, Nerissa B.
Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on the cross-situational consistency of behavior, and the predictive validity of traits, were tested in a daily process study in the United States (N = 68), an individualistic culture, and the Philippines (N = 80), a collectivistic culture. Participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and a measure of self-monitoring, then reported their daily behaviors and associated situational contexts for approximately 30 days. Consistent with trait perspectives, the Big Five traits predicted daily behaviors in both cultures, and relative (interindividual) consistency was observed across many, although not all, situational contexts. The frequency of various Big Five behaviors varied across relevant situational contexts in both cultures and, consistent with cultural psychology perspectives, there was a tendency for Filipinos to exhibit greater situational variability than Americans. Self-monitoring showed some ability to account for individual differences in situational variability in the American sample, but not the Filipino sample. PMID:22146866
Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R
In this mini-review, we consider an evolutionary biocultural perspective on human aging and sexuality. An evolutionary approach to senescence highlights the energetic trade-offs between fertility and mortality. By comparing humans to other primates, we situate human senescence as an evolutionary process, with shifts in postreproductive sexual behavior in this light. Age-related declines in sexual behavior are typical for humans but also highly contingent on the sociocultural context within which aging individuals express their sexuality. We briefly review some of the most comprehensive studies of aging and sexual behavior, both from the USA and cross-culturally. We frame these patterns with respect to the long-term relationships within which human sexual behavior typically occurs. Because sexuality is typically expressed within pair-bonds, sexual behavior sometimes declines in both members of a couple with age, but also exhibits sex-specific effects that have their roots in evolved sex differences. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the role of biological and behavioral rhythms in typical and atypical development. Recent studies in cognitive and developmental psychology have highlighted the importance of rhythmicity and synchrony of motor, emotional and relational rhythms in early development of social communication. The synchronization of rhythms allows tuning and adaptation to the external environment. The role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of peripheral oscillators suggests that this hormone might be also involved in the synchrony of motor, emotional and relational rhythms. Autism provides a challenging model of physiological and behavioral rhythm disturbances and their possible effects on the development of social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors or interests. This article situates autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms and reviews the recent literature on the role of rhythmicity and synchrony of rhythms in child development. Finally, the hypothesis is developed that an integrated approach focusing on biological, motor, emotional and relational rhythms may open interesting therapeutic perspectives for children with autism. More specifically, promising avenues are discussed for potential therapeutic benefits in autism spectrum disorder of melatonin combined with developmental behavioral interventions that emphasize synchrony such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM.
Tordjman, Sylvie; Davlantis, Katherine S; Georgieff, Nicolas; Geoffray, Marie-Maude; Speranza, Mario; Anderson, George M; Xavier, Jean; Botbol, Michel; Oriol, Cécile; Bellissant, Eric; Vernay-Leconte, Julie; Fougerou, Claire; Hespel, Anne; Tavenard, Aude; Cohen, David; Kermarrec, Solenn; Coulon, Nathalie; Bonnot, Olivier; Dawson, Geraldine
There is a growing interest in the role of biological and behavioral rhythms in typical and atypical development. Recent studies in cognitive and developmental psychology have highlighted the importance of rhythmicity and synchrony of motor, emotional, and interpersonal rhythms in early development of social communication. The synchronization of rhythms allows tuning and adaptation to the external environment. The role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of the circadian clocks network suggests that this hormone might be also involved in the synchrony of motor, emotional, and interpersonal rhythms. Autism provides a challenging model of physiological and behavioral rhythm disturbances and their possible effects on the development of social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors and interests. This article situates autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms and reviews the recent literature on the role of rhythmicity and synchrony of rhythms in child development. Finally, the hypothesis is developed that an integrated approach focusing on biological, motor, emotional, and interpersonal rhythms may open interesting therapeutic perspectives for children with autism. More specifically, promising avenues are discussed for potential therapeutic benefits in autism spectrum disorder of melatonin combined with developmental behavioral interventions that emphasize synchrony, such as the Early Start Denver Model.
Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Didier, Romain; Koifman, Edward; Negi, Smita I
It has become challenging for cardiovascular fellows-in-training (FIT) to determine which national cardiovascular conference (NCC) to attend given the broad range of meetings and the breadth of information offered. The aim of this study was to report our own experiences of the utility and individual strengths of the NCCs and to further understand the interventional cardiology (IC) FITs' viewpoint regarding the benefits of the individual NCCs. A survey was formulated with questions and scenarios regarding topics deemed to be of highest importance for an IC-FIT. The survey emphasized experiences regarding the utility and benefits of the NCCs, time management, optimization of acquired education, and specific interests in clinical and research topics. The completely anonymous survey was sent via an email format to a total of 234, majority of IC (fourth and fifth years) and a minority of general (third year), FITs. A completed survey response was received from 131 of the fellows (56%). The results demonstrated that the IC-FITs endorsed that the small, focused sub-specialty interventional meetings vs. the large society general meetings were more beneficial in regard to the didactic education offered. In addition, the IC-FITs indicated that pre-planning for the meetings is the most beneficial approach in optimizing one's education and that the caliber of expert faculty, case-based and live-case presentations are among the most important aspects of the meetings. Interventional cardiology FITs prefer the small sub-specialty interventional meetings over the large society general NCCs in regard to the benefits of didactic learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Building Energy Management System (BEMS, a well-known system that has been implemented in some energy corporations, has become attractive to many companies seeking to better monitor their energy consumption efficiency. This study investigated the external factors that influence acceptance of the BEMS from managerial perspectives. An extended model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was created to evaluate the implementation of the BEMS in the manufacturing industries. A structural equation modeling (SEM approach was used to analyze the model by adopting compatibility, features, technology complexity, and perceived risk as the external variables, and integrating the five dimensions of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, user satisfaction, and behavioral intention. The analysis results indicated that the external factors positively influenced users’ behavioral intention to use the BEMS through expected satisfaction, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness. Suggestions for BEMS developers are provided as well.
Full Text Available The process of internationalization of companies has proceeded in different ways and contexts. Among the models that guide and explain the moves made by companies into the international market, this study is on the behavioral perspective of internationalization theories The main objective of this paper is to analyze, in the light of the theoretical assumptions of the behavioral approach, the process of internationalization of IBQ Britanite, leader in the Brazilian civil explosives and providing services in blasting rocks . Therefore, the study is characterized by bias qualitative study using a single case study that answers the five questions of the internationalization process: why, what, when, where and how companies internationalize their activities. The results show that the process of internationalization of the company came to advantages gained both domestically and restrictions growth. Throughout his international career, the company gradually progressed in export activities, and also for stages greater commitment to the foreign market through joint ventures and production subsidiary.
Sharar, David A; Huff, Stan; Ackerson, Barry
Managed behavioral health care (MBHC) is frequently criticized on ethical grounds for the way it undermines classical ideals of professionalism in mental health and addiction treatment. There is an implied assumption that practitioners who are executives and leaders in MBHC companies have moved away from clinical ethics to the adoption of business and financial models. This qualitative study explores perceptions of organizational ethical issues from the point of view of leaders working in MBHC settings and how their perspectives contribute to our current schemas for analyzing the ethical complexities of MBHC. Twenty-seven participants from across the United States were interviewed using an interview guide that relied on open-ended questions and probes. Inquiry findings present four major themes and describe participant material in a way that enhances sensitivity and understanding to organizational ethics in MBHC and behavioral health services and research.
Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Bjornstad, David J [ORNL; Shumpert, Barry L [ORNL; Wang, Stephanie [ORNL; Lenhardt, W Christopher [ORNL; Campa Ayala, Maria F [ORNL
Valley of death describes the metaphorical depths to which promising science and technology too often plunge, never to emerge and reach their full potential. Behavioral and institutional perspectives help in understanding the implications of choices that inadvertently lead into rather than over the valley of death. A workshop conducted among a diverse set of scientists, managers, and technology transfer staff at a U.S. national laboratory is a point of departure for discussing behavioral and institutional elements that promote or impede the pathway from research toward use, and for suggesting actionable measures that can facilitate the flow of information and products from research toward use. In the complex systems that comprise research institutions, where competing pressures can create barriers to information or technology transfer, one recommendation is to re-frame the process as a more active ushering toward use.
Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M
For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
GUSTAVO B.F. OLIVEIRA
Full Text Available Current knowledge and research perspectives on the top ranking causes of mortality worldwide, i.e., ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases have developed rapidly. In fact, until recently, it was considered that only half of the myocardial infarctions were due to traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and diabetes. In addition, most of the available evidence of incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes, if not all of it, was derived from studies conducted in developed countries, which included lower proportion of female individuals and with low ethnic diversity. Recent reports by the WHO have provided striking public health information, i.e., the global burden of cardiovascular mortality for the next decades is expected to predominantly occur among developing countries. Therefore, multi-ethnic population-based research including prospective cohorts and, when appropriate, case-control studies, is warranted. These studies should be specifically designed to ascertain key public health measures such as geographic variations in noncommunicable diseases, diagnosis of traditional and potential newly discovered risk factors, causes of death and disability, and gaps for improvement in healthcare prevention (both primary and secondary and specific treatments. As an example, a multinational, multiethnic population-based cohort study is the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is the largest global initiative of 150,000 adults aged 35-70 yrs, looking at environmental, societal and biological influences on obesity and chronic health conditions such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and cancer among urban and rural communities in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with national, community, household and individual-level data. Implementation of population-based strategies is crucial to optimizing limited health system resources while improving care and cardiovascular morbidity
Lin, XuXun; Yuan, PengCheng
In this research we consider commuters' dynamic learning effect by modeling the trip mode choice behavior from a new perspective of dynamic evolutionary game theory. We explore the behavior pattern of different types of commuters and study the evolution path and equilibrium properties under different traffic conditions. We further establish a dynamic parking charge optimal control (referred to as DPCOC) model to alter commuters' trip mode choice while minimizing the total social cost. Numerical tests show. (1) Under fixed parking fee policy, the evolutionary results are completely decided by the travel time and the only method for public transit induction is to increase the parking charge price. (2) Compared with fixed parking fee policy, DPCOC policy proposed in this research has several advantages. Firstly, it can effectively turn the evolutionary path and evolutionary stable strategy to a better situation while minimizing the total social cost. Secondly, it can reduce the sensitivity of trip mode choice behavior to traffic congestion and improve the ability to resist interferences and emergencies. Thirdly, it is able to control the private car proportion to a stable state and make the trip behavior more predictable for the transportation management department. The research results can provide theoretical basis and decision-making references for commuters' mode choice prediction, dynamic setting of urban parking charge prices and public transit induction.
Full Text Available This paper proposes that role stressors decrease helping behavior by undermining employees’ normative commitment from a cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory. We also propose two competitive assumptions of the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS. In this paper, we first examine these hypotheses in Study 1 and then verify the cognitive dissonance perspective in Study 2. In Study 1, we collected data from 350 employees of two enterprises in China. The results indicated that role stressors had a negative link with helping behavior via the mediating role of normative commitment. The results also showed that POS strengthened the negative relationship between role stressors and normative commitment. In Study 2, we invited 104 employees to participate in a scenario experiment. The results found that role stressors had an impact on normative commitment via dissonance. Our studies verified the combination of cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory to explain the impact of role stressors on helping behavior.
Zhang, Li; Xia, Ying; Liu, Baowei; Han, Lu
This paper proposes that role stressors decrease helping behavior by undermining employees’ normative commitment from a cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory. We also propose two competitive assumptions of the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS). In this paper, we first examine these hypotheses in Study 1 and then verify the cognitive dissonance perspective in Study 2. In Study 1, we collected data from 350 employees of two enterprises in China. The results indicated that role stressors had a negative link with helping behavior via the mediating role of normative commitment. The results also showed that POS strengthened the negative relationship between role stressors and normative commitment. In Study 2, we invited 104 employees to participate in a scenario experiment. The results found that role stressors had an impact on normative commitment via dissonance. Our studies verified the combination of cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory to explain the impact of role stressors on helping behavior. PMID:29416516
Zhang, Li; Xia, Ying; Liu, Baowei; Han, Lu
This paper proposes that role stressors decrease helping behavior by undermining employees' normative commitment from a cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory. We also propose two competitive assumptions of the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS). In this paper, we first examine these hypotheses in Study 1 and then verify the cognitive dissonance perspective in Study 2. In Study 1, we collected data from 350 employees of two enterprises in China. The results indicated that role stressors had a negative link with helping behavior via the mediating role of normative commitment. The results also showed that POS strengthened the negative relationship between role stressors and normative commitment. In Study 2, we invited 104 employees to participate in a scenario experiment. The results found that role stressors had an impact on normative commitment via dissonance. Our studies verified the combination of cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory to explain the impact of role stressors on helping behavior.
Jiang, J.; Lu, D.; Jiang, Y.; Lee, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.
The relevant research on swarm behavior has focused on the facts that when individuals agree with other members in the system globally consistent behaviors are generated and that individual decisions are completely dominated by other members. In fact, when individuals generate their own behavior strategies, they tend to consider not only the influences of other members but also autonomically consider their current environment. For example, in the social foraging of flocks, the behavior strategy of each individual animal is influenced by the food distribution, and individual movement patterns are characterized by a highly efficient search strategy-Lévy walks. To investigate this, this paper proposes using an environment-driven social force perspective to explore the Lévy walks of individuals in a group in patchy food environments. This model adopts the concept of social force to quantify the social effects and the interactions between individuals and food. The coordination between forces is a key in the formation of individual behavior strategies. Our simulation results show a power-law frequency distribution for agent flight lengths that conforms to Lévy walks and verifies the hypothesis of a relationship between food density and the Lévy index. In our model, the flock still exhibits collective consistency and cohesion and yields a high value for the order parameter and population density when moving between food patches. In addition, our model explains the intraspecific cooperation and competition that occurs during foraging as proposed in related work. The simulation also validates the impact of two inducements for individual behaviors compared with several benchmark models.
Bruining, Nico; Caiani, Enrico; Chronaki, Catherine; Guzik, Przemyslaw; van der Velde, Enno
Smartphones, mobile applications ('apps'), social media, analytics, and the cloud are profoundly changing the practice of medicine and the way health decisions are made. With the constant progress of technology, the measurement of vital signals becomes easier, cheaper, and practically a standard approach in clinical practice. The interest in measuring vital signals goes beyond medical professionals to the general public, patients, informal caregivers, and healthy individuals, who frequently lack any formal medical training. On smartphone platforms such as iOS and Android, a proliferation of health or medical 'apps' acquire and analyse a variety of vital signs through embedded sensors, interconnected devices or peripherals utilising on occasion analytics and social media. Smartphone vendors compete with traditional medical device manufacturers in the grey area between health care, wellness, and fitness, as US and EU regulatory bodies are setting and revising rules for these new technologies. On the other hand, in the absence of robust validation results, clinicians are hesitant to trust measurements by apps or recommend specific apps to their patients, partly also due to lack of a cost reimbursement policy. This review focuses on the acquisition and analysis on smartphones of three important vital signs in the cardiovascular and respiratory field as well as in rehabilitation i.e. heart or pulse rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation. The potential, pitfalls, and perspectives on mobile devices and smartphone apps for health management by patients and healthy individuals are discussed. © Authors 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C
This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Smolensky, Michael H
Diagnosis of hypertension-elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-and its management for decades have been based primarily on single time-of-day office BP measurements (OBPM) assumed representative of systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the entire 24-hours span. Around-the-clock ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), however, reveals BP undergoes 24-hours patterning characterized in normotensives and uncomplicated hypertensives by striking morning-time rise, 2 daytime peaks-one ~2-3 hours after awakening and the other early evening, small midafternoon nadir and 10-20% decline (BP dipping) in the asleep BP mean relative to the wake-time BP mean. A growing number of outcome trials substantiate correlation between BP and target organ damage, vascular and other risks is greater for the ABPM-derived asleep BP mean, independent and stronger predictor of CVD risk, than daytime OBPM or ABPM-derived awake BP. Additionally, bedtime hypertension chronotherapy, that is, ingestion of ≥1 conventional hypertension medications at bedtime to achieve efficient attenuation of asleep BP, better reduces total CVD events by 61% and major events (CVD death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke) by 67%-even in more vulnerable chronic kidney disease, diabetes and resistant hypertension patients-than customary on-awaking therapy that targets wake-time BP. Such findings of around-the-clock ABPM and bedtime hypertension outcome trials, consistently indicating greater importance of asleep BP than daytime OBPM or ambulatory awake BP, call for a new definition of true arterial hypertension plus modern approaches for its diagnosis and management. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
There are notable differences between Asians and Westerners regarding hypertension (HTN) and the relationship between HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Asians show greater morning surges in blood pressure (BP) and a steeper slope illustrating the link between higher BP and the risk of CVD events. It is thus particularly important for Asian hypertensives to achieve 24-h BP control, including morning and night-time control. There are three components of 'perfect 24-h BP control:' the 24-h BP level, nocturnal BP dipping, and BP variability (BPV), such as the morning BP surge that can be assessed by ambulatory BP monitoring. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-h BP control, followed by the control of nocturnal HTN. We have been developing new HBPM devices that can measure nocturnal BP. BPV includes different time-phase variability from the shortest beat-by-beat, positional, diurnal, day-by-day, visit-to-visit, seasonal, and yearly changes. The synergistic resonance of each type of BPV would produce a great dynamic BP surge (resonance hypothesis), which triggers a CVD event, especially in the high-risk patients with systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome (SHATS). In the future, the innovative management of HTN based on the simultaneous assessment of the resonance of all of the BPV phenotypes using a beat by beat wearable 'surge' BP monitoring device (WSP) and an information and communication technology (ICT)-based data analysis system will produce a paradigm shift from 'dots' BP management to 'seamless' ultimate individualized 'anticipation medication' for reaching a zero CVD event rate. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine how obesity and cardiovascular fitness are associated with the inhibition aspect of executive function from behavioral and electrophysiological perspectives. One hundred college students, aged 18 to 25 years, were categorized into four groups of equal size on the basis of body mass index and cardiovascular fitness: a normal-weight and high-fitness (NH group, an obese-weight and high-fitness (OH group, a normal-weight and low-fitness (NL group, and an obese-weight and low-fitness (OL group. Behavioral measures of response time and number of errors, as well as event-related potential (ERP measures of P3 and N1, were assessed during the Stroop Task. The results revealed that, in general, the NH group exhibited shorter response times and larger P3 amplitudes relative to the OH, NL, and OL groups, wherein the OL group exhibited the longest response time in the incongruent condition. No group differences in N1 indices were also revealed. These findings suggest that the status of being both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness is associated with better behavioral and later stages of electrophysiological indices of inhibition. However, these benefits in inhibition function would be lost in an individual who is obese or has low cardiovascular fitness, reflecting the importance keeping both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness.
Duijts, Saskia F A; van Egmond, Martine P; Gits, Maxime; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M
Supportive interventions to enhance return to work (RTW) in cancer survivors hardly showed positive effects so far. Behavioral determinants might have to be considered in the development of interventions to achieve sustained employability. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of RTW and continuation of work. In this qualitative study, semi-structured telephone interviews were held with 28 cancer survivors. All participants were at working age, 1-2 years after diagnosis and employed at time of diagnosis. Thematic content analysis was performed. Work turned out to be a meaningful aspect of cancer survivors' life, and most participants reported a positive attitude towards their job. Social support to RTW or to continue working was mainly received from family and friends, but pressure to RTW from the occupational physician was also experienced. Changes in expectations regarding work ability from negative to positive during the treatment process were observed. Those who applied active coping mechanisms felt equipped to deal with difficulties regarding work. Behavioral determinants should be taken into account in the development of future interventions to support cancer survivors' RTW. However, the causal relationship still has to be determined. Implications for rehabilitation Factors influencing occupational motivation among cancer survivors need to be understood in more detail. Previous studies in non-cancer populations have demonstrated that behavioral determinants, such as a positive attitude towards work, high social support and self-efficacy may increase return to work rates or shorten the time to return to work. Addressing behavioral determinants in future development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors is essential in achieving sustained employability.
Van Damme, Stefaan; Kindermans, Hanne
Behavioral factors such as avoidance and persistence have received massive theoretical and empirical attention in the attempts to explain chronic pain and disability. The determinants of these pain behaviors remain, however, poorly understood. We propose a self-regulation perspective to increase our understanding of pain-related avoidance and persistence. A narrative review. We identified several theoretical views that may help explaining avoidance and persistence behavior, and organized these views around 4 concepts central in self-regulation theories: (1) identity, (2) affective-motivational orientation, (3) goal cognitions, and (4) coping. The review shows that each of these self-regulation perspectives allows for a broadened view in which pain behaviors are not simply considered passive consequences of fear, but proactive strategies to regulate the self when challenged by pain. Several implications and challenges arising from this review are discussed. In particular, a self-regulation perspective does not consider avoidance and persistence behavior to be intrinsically adaptive or maladaptive, but argues that their effects on disability and well-being rather depend on the goals underlying these behaviors. Such view would require a shift in how avoidance and persistence behavior are assessed and approached in clinical interventions.
Webber, Larry S.; Rice, Janet C.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rose, Donald; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.
Background: Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing during adulthood, there have been few assessments of obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, and levels of physical activity among adult elementary school staff. Methods: Data were collected from 745 African-American and White female school personnel in a suburban school district in…
W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Peeters (Anna); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBackground. Non-smoking, having a normal weight and increased levels of physical activity are perhaps the three key factors for preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relative effects of these factors on healthy longevity have not been well described. We aimed to calculate
Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios
The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.
Amaechi D. Okonkwo
Full Text Available Despite the HIV/AIDS pandemic and over two decades of safe-sex communication and condom social marketing in Nigeria, unmarried people continue to engage in unprotected sex. Understanding their perspectives of unprotected sex will be imperative for sustainable policy and intervention design. To realize this objective, the author synthesized Giddens’s structuration theory and Rob Stones’s structurationist project research brackets to develop a long interview guide used to elicit unmarried university students’ perspectives of influences on unprotected sex, and the feasibility of sustainable behavior change in Nigeria. Participants’ constructed unprotected sex as prescripted, and the cumulative outcome of complex institutional (structural, interpersonal, and agential influences. Their narratives challenge the popular but narrow loss of control, sensation-seeking, and ignorance theses of unprotected sex. Instead, participants’ narratives implicate an interrelated web of persuasive and insidious institutional and agential influences, in a manner that privilege neither structure nor agency. To promote safer sexual practices therefore, stakeholders must concurrently engage with institutional and agential influences on unprotected sex—and not focus on unmarried people’s sexual agencies alone, as current interventions do in Nigeria.
Wangsiriwech, Tawatchai; Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Jarukasemthawee, Somboon
With its high prevalence and debilitating impact on students, math anxiety is well studied within the educational context. However, the problem has yet to be examined from the psychological perspective, which is necessary in order to produce a more comprehensive perspective and to pave the way for therapeutic intervention. The current study, therefore, was conducted to identify cognitive and behavioral factors relevant to the occurrence and maintenance of math anxiety. Data were collected from 300 grade 9 students (150 females and 150 males) from public and private schools in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants responded to the measures of math anxiety, negative math beliefs, negative math appraisals and math avoidance. Structural equation modeling was conducted. Model fit indices obtained consistently suggested the good fitness of the model to the data [e.g. χ2/df = 0.42, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.00]. Negative math beliefs, negative math appraisals and math avoidance had a significant direct effect on math anxiety. Additionally, the indirect effect of negative math appraisal was observed between negative math beliefs and math anxiety. In summary, the proposed model accounted for 84.5% of the variance in the anxiety. The findings are discussed with particular focus on implications for therapeutic intervention for math anxiety.
Wang, Chuangshi; Li, Wei; Yin, Lu; Bo, Jian; Peng, Yaguang; Wang, Yang
The study aimed to explore the gap of prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors including smoking cessation, quitting drinking, physical activity and healthy eating between Chinese adults with and without cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is a cross-sectional component of Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE)-China study, which recruited ~46,000 participants from 70 rural and 45 urban communities between 2005 and 2009. Participants were divided into disease (with CVDs) and control (without any diseases) groups. The adjusted rates were estimated for different strata by the generalized, linear mixed-effects model, including community as a random effect with additional adjustment for age, sex, education and income. Among 40,490 participants, healthy lifestyle behaviors (disease group versus control group: urban areas: 7.8% versus 8.1%; rural areas: 3.4% versus 3.2%). The rates of smoking cessation and quitting drinking were significantly higher in disease group for both urban and rural residents (Phealthy lifestyle behaviors except physical activity in low-income regions (Phealthy eating among rural residents from low-income regions (Phealthy lifestyle behaviors, but it still indicated a large gap between the actual and ideal adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which called for the promotion of population-wide strategies to modify lifestyle behaviors in addition to individual health-care intervention strategies.
Yang, T.-R.; Cheng, Y.-N.; Yang, K.-M.
Brooding, parental care, and polygamy represent three different stages in bird's reproduction. The oringin of these behaviors is still in debate. Several samples excavated from China strengthen the phylogenetic relationship between birds and dinosaurs, for example, feathered dinosaurs, paired-eggs in pelvic region of an oviraptorid dinosaur, and small theropod fossils. Previous studies in past two decades, including an oviraptor sitting on a clutch and comparison of the ratio of clutch-volume to adult-body-size between Aves and Mesozoic dinosaurs, proposed that these behaviors had appeared on some Cretaceous theropods (e.g., oviraptor and troodon). These researches also indicate the possibility of endothermy and male care first. In conclusion, this reproduction strategy might support females having more remnant energy to build a larger clutch contributed eggs from multiple females, and brooded by males only. From our cluster analysis through paleoecological perspectives, the eggs in Cretaceous oviraptor's nest should not be corporately laid by multiple females. In morphological observation, the fossilized clutches from Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Mainland China, are 2-layered interbeded with matrix of reddish-brown siltstone or clays. The inner-layer eggs are hampered from directly contacting with adult dinosaurs body. Furthermore, the blunt ends of the eggs point to the center, and incline away forming a mound-shape nest, which is completely different from those of precocial and male-caring megapode. The ornamentation of eggshell surface and microstructures from thin sections of eggs from oviraptors and ostrich (Struthioniformes) are totally different. Comparison of thickness in different part of oviraptor's egg also reveal possible physiological structure in the egg and ecological behaviors. The detailed comparison implies that the Mesozoic oviraptoroid dinosaurs hold absolutely different incubation and caring behaviors from extant birds. We propose an alternative
Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum
This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…
Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G
This study tested the hypothesis that deletion of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1a) from the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) attenuates anxiety-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and cardiovascular reactivity. We used the Cre/LoxP system to generate male mice with AT1a specifically deleted from the PVN. Deletion of the AT1a from the PVN reduced anxiety-like behavior as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In contrast, PVN AT1a deletion had no effect on HPA axis activation subsequent to an acute restraint challenge but did reduce hypothalamic mRNA expression for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To determine whether PVN AT1a deletion inhibits cardiovascular reactivity, we measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) using telemetry and found that PVN AT1a deletion attenuated restraint-induced elevations in systolic blood pressure and elicited changes in HRV indicative of reduced sympathetic nervous activity. Consistent with the decreased HRV, PVN AT1a deletion also decreased adrenal weight, suggestive of decreased adrenal sympathetic outflow. Interestingly, the altered stress responsivity of mice with AT1a deleted from the PVN was associated with decreased hypothalamic microglia and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Collectively, these results suggest that deletion of AT1a from the PVN attenuates anxiety, CRH gene transcription, and cardiovascular reactivity and reduced brain inflammation may contribute to these effects. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is measuring a patient’s experience of his health status and represents an outcome of medical interventions. Existing data proves that a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with HRQoL in all age groups. Patients with a high risk for cardiovascular disease typically led an unhealthy lifestyle combined with risk diseases. We aimed to analyse these characteristics and their reflection in HRQoL.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the link between imagine-self perspective-taking and rational self-interested behavior in experimental normal-form games. Drawing on the concept of sympathy developed by Adam Smith and further literature on perspective-taking in games, we hypothesize that introduction of imagine-self perspective-taking by decision-makers promotes rational self-interested behavior in a simple experimental normal-form game. In our study, we examined behavior of 404 undergraduate students in the two-person game, in which the participant can suffer a monetary loss only if she plays her Nash equilibrium strategy and the opponent plays her dominated strategy. Results suggest that the threat of suffering monetary losses effectively discourages the participants from choosing Nash equilibrium strategy. In general, players may take into account that opponents choose dominated strategies due to specific not self-interested motivations or errors. However, adopting imagine-self perspective by the participants leads to more Nash equilibrium choices, perhaps by alleviating participants’ attributions of susceptibility to errors or non-self-interested motivation to the opponents.
Karbowski, Adam; Ramsza, Michał
The purpose of this study is to explore the link between imagine-self perspective-taking and rational self-interested behavior in experimental normal-form games. Drawing on the concept of sympathy developed by Adam Smith and further literature on perspective-taking in games, we hypothesize that introduction of imagine-self perspective-taking by decision-makers promotes rational self-interested behavior in a simple experimental normal-form game. In our study, we examined behavior of 404 undergraduate students in the two-person game, in which the participant can suffer a monetary loss only if she plays her Nash equilibrium strategy and the opponent plays her dominated strategy. Results suggest that the threat of suffering monetary losses effectively discourages the participants from choosing Nash equilibrium strategy. In general, players may take into account that opponents choose dominated strategies due to specific not self-interested motivations or errors. However, adopting imagine-self perspective by the participants leads to more Nash equilibrium choices, perhaps by alleviating participants' attributions of susceptibility to errors or non-self-interested motivation to the opponents.
Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg
We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-smoking, having a normal weight and increased levels of physical activity are perhaps the three key factors for preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relative effects of these factors on healthy longevity have not been well described. We aimed to calculate and compare the effects of non-smoking, normal weight and physical activity in middle-aged populations on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Methods Using multi-state life tables and data from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 4634 we calculated the effects of three heart healthy behaviours among populations aged 50 years and over on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. For the life table calculations, we used hazard ratios for 3 transitions (No CVD to CVD, no CVD to death, and CVD to death by health behaviour category, and adjusted for age, sex, and potential confounders. Results High levels of physical activity, never smoking (men, and normal weight were each associated with 20-40% lower risks of developing CVD as compared to low physical activity, current smoking and obesity, respectively. Never smoking and high levels of physical activity reduced the risks of dying in those with and without a history of CVD, but normal weight did not. Never-smoking was associated with the largest gains in total life expectancy (4.3 years, men, 4.1 years, women and CVD-free life expectancy (3.8 and 3.4 years, respectively. High levels of physical activity and normal weight were associated with lesser gains in total life expectancy (3.5 years, men and 3.4 years, women, and 1.3 years, men and 1.0 year women, respectively, and slightly lesser gains in CVD-free life expectancy (3.0 years, men and 3.1 years, women, and 3.1 years men and 2.9 years women, respectively. Normal weight was the only behaviour associated with a reduction in the number of years lived with CVD (1.8 years, men and 1.9 years, women. Conclusions Achieving high
Full Text Available Guntram Schernthaner,1 Kamlesh Khunti,2 Chaim Lotan,3 Michel Burnier,4 Heinz Drexel,5 Martin Prázný61Department of Medicine I, Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Vienna, Austria; 2Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK; 3Cardiovascular Division, Hadassah Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel; 4Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Consultation, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 5Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment, Feldkirch, Austria; 6Charles University, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D imposes a substantial disease burden, predominantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD, which accounts for >50% of deaths in this population and leads to a 12-year reduction in the life expectancy of a 60-year-old male patient with T2D and CVD compared with the general population. The results from mandatory cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs are therefore of great interest in the field. The Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes meeting program aims to bring together experts from several associated disciplines to provide fair and balanced resources for those involved in the management of patients with T2D. This publication represents the opinions of the faculty on the key learnings from the meeting held in Vienna in the spring of 2017. In particular, we detail how data from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® [cardiovascular outcomes trial of empagliflozin] and Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER® (liraglutide CVOTs can be practically interpreted across clinical specialities. It is hoped that this translation of CVOT data will achieve a dual treatment paradigm for the management of both raised glucose levels and CV risk in patients with T2D. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, CVOT, SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease impose substantial clinical and economic burdens for seniors (age 65 and above and the Medicare program. Intensive Behavioral Counseling (IBC interventions like the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP, have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excess body weight and lowering or delaying morbidity onset. This paper estimated the potential health implications and medical savings of a digital version of IBC modeled after the NDPP.Participants in this digital IBC intervention, the Omada program, include 1,121 overweight or obese seniors with additional risk factors for diabetes or heart disease. Weight changes were objectively measured via participant use of a networked weight scale. Participants averaged 6.8% reduction in body weight within 26 weeks, and 89% of participants completed 9 or more of the 16 core phase lessons. We used a Markov-based microsimulation model to simulate the impact of weight loss on future health states and medical expenditures over 10 years. Cumulative per capita medical expenditure savings over 3, 5 and 10 years ranged from $1,720 to 1,770 (3 years, $3,840 to $4,240 (5 years and $11,550 to $14,200 (10 years. The range reflects assumptions of weight re-gain similar to that seen in the DPP clinical trial (lower bound or minimal weight re-gain aligned with age-adjusted national averages (upper bound. The estimated net economic benefit after IBC costs is $10,250 to $12,840 cumulative over 10 years. Simulation outcomes suggest reduced incidence of diabetes by 27-41% for participants with prediabetes, and stroke by approximately 15% over 5 years.A digital, remotely-delivered IBC program can help seniors at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease achieve significant weight loss, reduces risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and achieve meaningful medical cost savings. These findings affirm recommendations for IBC coverage by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
Waseem, Muhammad; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Robbins, Laura; Gonzalez, Rita; Vargas, Steven; Peterson, Janey C.
The problem of bullying is an increasing public health threat encountered by emergency physicians especially in inner city emergency departments (EDs). Bullying may result in emotional disturbances and psychological trauma in children. Many children sent to the ED because of behavioral misconduct require immediate stabilization and treatment. The emergency physician performs an initial assessment and stabilization. Emergency departments are increasingly on the frontline of the bullying problem. Objectives Our objective was to explore children's perspective of bullying and their views of potential solutions. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a cohort of 50 children (age, 8–17 years),who were referred to the ED from school because of their behavioral misconduct. An interview survey tool about bullying was administered. It focused on what bullying meant to them and what advice they have for a child who is bullied. They were also asked what advice they would have for adults who try to help. We used grounded theory to analyze the data. Similar concepts were grouped, and the categories with similar properties and dimensions were defined. Common themes were then identified. Results We interviewed 50 children, of whom 27 were boys and 23 were girls. Their mean (SD) age was 12.5 (2.12) years (range, 8–17 years). Bullying was identified by children as including physical, verbal, and emotional actions. Several themes emerged. First, a power imbalance between a bully and victim may render an individual vulnerable to bullying. Being different and weak also increases the risk of being bullied. Second, bullying is wrong, and the bully should be punished. Third, children should learn how to handle bullying situations and develop resilience against bullying. Finally, adults need to be more proactive to prevent or stop bullying. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the perceptions of children regarding bullying. We have garnered a better understanding of what
Chaves, J F
For most of the past 50 years, hypnosis research has been driven by a debate about whether hypnotic phenomena can be best described and understood as the product of an altered state of consciousness. The meanings of some of the pivotal concepts in this debate and the nature of the phenomena that gave rise to them were ambiguous at the outset and led to misconceptions and surplus meanings that have obscured the debate through most of its history. The nature of the posited hypnotic state and its assumed consequences have changed during this period, reflecting the abandonment of untenable versions of hypnotic state theory. Carefully conducted studies in laboratories around the world have refined our understanding of hypnotic phenomena and helped identify the critical variables that interact to elicit them. With the maturation of the cognitive-behavioral perspective and the growing refinement of state conceptions of hypnosis, questions arise whether the state debate is still the axis about which hypnosis research and theory pivots. Although heuristic value of this debate has been enormous, we must guard against the cognitive constraints of our own metaphors and conceptual frameworks.
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel E; Lauharatanahirun, Nina; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bickel, Warren K; Chiu, Pearl H; King-Casas, Brooks
The current review is guided by the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the regulating role of executive functioning (Carver et al., 2009) and presents studies that elucidate the ways that executive functioning (inhibition and working memory) explain individual differences in adolescent substance use independently or by regulating the reactive system (reward and punishment sensitivity). Behavioral studies indicate that main effects of executive functioning on adolescent substance use are often nonsignificant or weak in effect sizes. In contrast, emerging evidence suggests consistent and stronger regulating effects of executive functioning over reward and punishment sensitivity. Functional neuroimaging studies reveal significant associations between executive functioning task-related hemodynamic responses and substance use with strong effect sizes. There is also direct evidence from studies testing statistical interactions of the regulating effects of EF-related brain activation, and indirect evidence in studies examining functional connectivity, temporal discounting, and reinforced control. We note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available E-government is conceived as a tool to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the provision of public services. However, in spite of the efforts to achieve a widespread adoption of e-government, it has lower usage rates than expected. Although this fact has been studied from different viewpoints, in the present work the behavioral perspective is presented as an approach that may answer to this challenge. To get it, the relationship between different cognitive biases linked to the SQB (habit, inertia and resistance with the intention (of use for users and continuation for users is analyzed. The data were collected after a qualitative (two group sessions and a quantitative work (923 questionnaires, aimed at two different samples of citizens (non-users and users of e-government. The results confirm the presence of the trend towards the status quo in the use of e-government. Besides, while in the case of non-users of e-government the cognitive biases analyzed are present, leading to delay its use, among the users of e-government habit lacks relevance, so they remain in use as a channel of access to public services.
Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.
This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skilful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart
Pope, William R.; Forsyth, Donelson R.
In analyzing various moral and legal philosophies, two perspectives emerge, absolute moral rules/higher law, and situationally-specific moral rules/legal positivism. From these two perspectives, four types of individuals emerge in accordance with their degree of adherence to ideological tenets: (1) situationists (high on idealism and relativism);…
VanAman, M.; Mueller, C.F.
Soon after Roentgen documented the uses of x-rays in 1895, fluoroscopic and film evaluation of the heart began. Even today the chest roentgenogram remains one of the first and most frequently used studies for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal heart and great vessels. This chapter gives an overview of plain film evaluation of the cardiovascular system and follow up with comments on the newer imaging modalities of computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography, in the cardiovascular disease workup. The authors present an evaluation of plain films of the chest, which remains their most cost effective, available, simple, and reliable initial screening tool in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease
Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta
The purpose of this study was to determine how well time perspective and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicted physical activity among adolescents residing in the central Appalachian region of the United States. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The setting was a rural high school in central Appalachia. The sample included 185 students in grades 9 through 12. Data were collected in school. Variables included components of the TPB, time perspective, and various levels of exercise. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The TPB was a moderate predictor of exercise frequency among central Appalachian adolescents, accounting for 42% of the variance. Time perspective did not add to the predictive ability of the TPB to predict exercise frequency in this sample. This study provides support for the TPB for predicting frequency of exercise among central Appalachian adolescents. By understanding the role of the TPB in predicting physical activity among adolescents, nurse practitioners will be able to adapt intervention strategies to improve the physical activity behaviors of this population. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mooijman, Marlon; Stern, Chadly
Taking another person's perspective has generally been found to foster positive attitudes. We propose that perspective taking can lead to more negative attitudes when people imagine an experience that threatens their current motivations and goals. We test this idea by examining how taking the perspective of a male same-sex couple influences political conservatives' attitudes. Across four studies, we demonstrate that (a) the extent to which conservatives (but not liberals) imagine same-sex sexual behavior predicts more anti-gay attitudes, (b) this effect is in part attributable to conservatives experiencing greater disgust, and (c) having conservatives reappraise disgust as not necessarily signaling the threat of disease eliminates this effect. These findings indicate that perspective taking can foster negative attitudes when the content of perspective taking threatens current motivations. The proposed ideas provide unique insights toward developing a more comprehensive framework of how perspective taking shapes attitudes. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available Following Chan and coworkers’ (2008 research, the current study integrated Hunt and Vitell’s (1986 ethics perspective and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to present a model that explains consumers’ intention to “Bring Your Own Shopping Bags” (BYOB with grocery shopping. The proposed model is empirically validated in Taiwan. Based on a survey of 601 respondents, the findings suggest that consumers’ deontological evaluation is positively related to their attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, while teleological evaluation is positively related to perceived behavioral control only. In addition, the results also indicate that consumers’ attitude and perceived behavioral control has a positive relationship with BYOB intention, while subjective norm does not have a signification relationship with BYOB intention. In sum, this study contributes to the literature by providing insights for applying general ethics and theory of planned behavior to explain consumers’ BYOB behavior. The results also provide policy makers guidelines regarding BYOB. Managerial implications and research limitations are discussed at the end of this paper.
Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume
There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS.
Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume
There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS. PMID:27574507
Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Bouwman, L.I.
In this paper, we aim to add a new perspective to supporting health-related behavior. We use the everyday-life view to point at the need to focus on the social and practical organization of the concerned behavior. Where most current approaches act disjointedly on clients and the social and physical
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about coronary heart disease (CHD and its risk factors is an important pre-requisite for an individual to implement behavioral changes leading towards CHD prevention. There is scant data on the status of knowledge about CHD in the general population of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge of CHD in a broad Pakistani population and identify the factors associated with knowledge. Methods Cross sectional study was carried out at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan using convenience sampling. Standard questionnaire was used to interview 792 patient attendants (persons accompanying patients. Knowledge was computed as a continuous variable based on correct answers to fifteen questions. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with knowledge. Results The mean age was 38.1 (±13 years. 27.1% had received no formal education. The median knowledge score was 3.0 out of a possible maximum of 15. Only 14% were able to correctly describe CHD as a condition involving limitation in blood flow to the heart. Majority of respondents could identify only up to two risk factors for CHD. Most commonly identified risk factors were stress (43.4%, dietary fat (39.1%, smoking (31.9% and lack of exercise (17.4%. About 20% were not able to identify even a single risk factor for CHD. Factors significantly associated with knowledge included age (p = 0.023, income (p Conclusion This is the first study assessing the state of CHD knowledge in a relatively diverse non-patient population in Pakistan. There are striking gaps in knowledge about CHD, its risk factors and symptoms. These translate to inadequate preventive behavior patterns. Educational programs are urgently required to improve the level of understanding of CHD in the Pakistani population.
Ligthart, Suzanne A.; van den Eerenbeemt, Karin D. M.; Pols, Jeanette; van Bussel, Emma F.; Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.
Cardiovascular prevention programmes are increasingly being offered to older people. To achieve the proposed benefits, adherence is crucial. Understanding the reasons for adherence and non-adherence can improve preventive care. To gain insight into what motivates older people living in the community
Ligthart, S.A.; Eerenbeemt, K.D. van den; Pols, J.; Bussel, E.F. van; Richard, E.; Moll van Charante, E.P.
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular prevention programmes are increasingly being offered to older people. To achieve the proposed benefits, adherence is crucial. Understanding the reasons for adherence and non-adherence can improve preventive care. AIM: To gain insight into what motivates older people living
The Undesirable Behaviors of Students in Academic Classrooms, and the Discipline Strategies Used by Faculty Members to Control Such Behaviors from the Perspective of the College of Education Students in King Saud University
Al Qahtani, Norah Saad Sultan
This study aimed to identify the undesirable students' behaviors in academic classrooms, and the disciplinary, preventive and therapeutic strategies that will be used by faculty members to control those behaviors from the perspective of the College of Education's students in King Saud University. The results of the study has shown that the…
Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...
Hsieh, Hui-Lung; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Chuang, Bi-Kun; Tsai, Chung-Hung
The personal health record (PHR) is a system that enables borderless medical care services by combining technological innovation and human consideration. This study explored factors affecting the adoption of PHR from technical, medical, and social perspectives according to the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. A survey using a structured questionnaire was subsequently conducted, which produced the following results: (1) The PMT and UTAUT were effective at predicting PHR usage behaviors; (2) Perceived ease-of-use was the most decisive factor influencing the use of PHR, followed by self-efficacy and perceived usefulness; and (3) Behavioral intention for PHR was significantly and positively correlated with usage behavior. From the obtained results, this study recommends that health authorities and medical institutions promote self-efficacy in the use of PHR to improve the levels of behavioral intention and usage behavior among the people. Additionally, medical care institutions are recommended to promote health management and preventive healthcare concepts to help improve public acceptance of the PHR system as a means to self-manage their health. Finally, community centers, medical institutions, and health authorities are urged to work together to enhance public medical knowledge and pool resources for the PHR system, both of which are essential for improving the popularity of the PHR, public quality of life, and the effectiveness of health management.
Full Text Available The personal health record (PHR is a system that enables borderless medical care services by combining technological innovation and human consideration. This study explored factors affecting the adoption of PHR from technical, medical, and social perspectives according to the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT model. A survey using a structured questionnaire was subsequently conducted, which produced the following results: (1 The PMT and UTAUT were effective at predicting PHR usage behaviors; (2 Perceived ease-of-use was the most decisive factor influencing the use of PHR, followed by self-efficacy and perceived usefulness; and (3 Behavioral intention for PHR was significantly and positively correlated with usage behavior. From the obtained results, this study recommends that health authorities and medical institutions promote self-efficacy in the use of PHR to improve the levels of behavioral intention and usage behavior among the people. Additionally, medical care institutions are recommended to promote health management and preventive healthcare concepts to help improve public acceptance of the PHR system as a means to self-manage their health. Finally, community centers, medical institutions, and health authorities are urged to work together to enhance public medical knowledge and pool resources for the PHR system, both of which are essential for improving the popularity of the PHR, public quality of life, and the effectiveness of health management.
Hsieh, Hui-Lung; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Chuang, Bi-Kun; Tsai, Chung-Hung
The personal health record (PHR) is a system that enables borderless medical care services by combining technological innovation and human consideration. This study explored factors affecting the adoption of PHR from technical, medical, and social perspectives according to the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. A survey using a structured questionnaire was subsequently conducted, which produced the following results: (1) The PMT and UTAUT were effective at predicting PHR usage behaviors; (2) Perceived ease-of-use was the most decisive factor influencing the use of PHR, followed by self-efficacy and perceived usefulness; and (3) Behavioral intention for PHR was significantly and positively correlated with usage behavior. From the obtained results, this study recommends that health authorities and medical institutions promote self-efficacy in the use of PHR to improve the levels of behavioral intention and usage behavior among the people. Additionally, medical care institutions are recommended to promote health management and preventive healthcare concepts to help improve public acceptance of the PHR system as a means to self-manage their health. Finally, community centers, medical institutions, and health authorities are urged to work together to enhance public medical knowledge and pool resources for the PHR system, both of which are essential for improving the popularity of the PHR, public quality of life, and the effectiveness of health management. PMID:28025557
Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.
The book contains five papers presented at a 1979 topical conference on the definition of emotional disturbance and behavioral disorders in educational settings. The first paper, by F. Wood, is titled "Defining Disturbing, Disordered, and Disturbed Behavior." Topics covered include ambivalence about defining deviant behavior by special educators,…
Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Lira, Ernesto N.; Li-Barber, Kirsten T.; Gallo, Frank J.; Brei, Natalie G.
Problem behavior of 52 children with Williams syndrome ages 6 to 17 years old was examined based on both parent and teacher report. Generally good inter-rater agreement was found. Common areas of problem behavior based both on parent and teacher report included attention problems, anxiety difficulties, repetitive behaviors (e.g., obsessions,…
Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.
Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure--the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely…
Dhar, Sohini; Gor, Beverly; Banerjee, Deborah; Krishnan, Sunil; Dorai, V K; Jones, Lovell; Kabad, Kanchan; Naik, Lakshmi Rai; Legha, Sewa S; Pande, Mala
Identify health perspectives among Asian Indians in greater Houston area, to guide a tailored community wide survey. Four focus groups of different ages, gender, and nativity were conducted at which participants were asked for their opinions about specific health topics. Key informant interviews were conducted with ten community leaders to validate focus group responses. Recordings from focus groups and key informant interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Diabetes, cancer, and hypertension were primary health concerns. Common themes were sedentary lifestyle and poor health literacy. Older participants were more accepting of having familial hypertension and high cholesterol. Women were more concerned about health of family members and dietary habits. Perspectives differed on eating habits, physical activity, use of Western medicine, and smoking based on nativity. Responses from key informant interviews validated focus group findings. Perspectives on health may differ among Asian Indians depending on gender, age, and nativity.
Qazi, Atika; Waheed, Mahwish; Abraham, Ajith
Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users' perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N = 400) and designers (N = 106), current research work studies three review types, A (regular), B (comparative), and C (suggestive), which are related to perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. The study reveals that positive perception of the use of suggestive reviews improves users' decision making in business intelligence. The results also depict that type C (suggestive reviews) could be considered a new useful review type in addition to other types, A and B. PMID:24711739
The purpose of this quantitative study is to understand the global security perspective on the effects of executive cognitive function (ECF) on Complex Behavioral Screening Intervention and HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is as much a social, political, economic, and cultural problem as a biomedical one. HIV/AIDS is associated centrally with the collapse not just of communities and families but potentially of states, with some of the largest public health interventions ever and enormous questions about governance, a huge population of orphans, and deep questions about intergenerational relations and cultural transmission. This study also is to develop a screening instrument that improves quality of life for individuals with executive cognitive impairments and behavior problems in our communities and the global society.
Huang, Hui-Ru; Chen, Chi-Wen; Chen, Chin-Mi; Yang, Hsiao-Ling; Su, Wen-Jen; Wang, Jou-Kou; Tsai, Pei-Kwei
Health-promoting behaviors could serve as a major strategy to optimize long-term outcomes for adolescents with congenital heart disease. The associations assessed from a positive perspective of knowledge, attitudes, and practice model would potentially cultivate health-promoting behaviors during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between disease knowledge, resilience, family functioning, and health-promoting behaviors in adolescents with congenital heart disease. A total of 320 adolescents with congenital heart disease who were aged 12-18 years were recruited from pediatric cardiology outpatient departments, and participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participants completed the Leuven Knowledge Questionnaire for Congenital Heart Disease; Haase Adolescent Resilience in Illness Scale; Family Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve; and Adolescent Health Promotion scales. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and three multiple regression models. Greater knowledge of prevention of complications and higher resilience had a more powerful effect in enhancing health-promoting behaviors. Having symptoms and moderate or severe family dysfunction were significantly more negatively predictive of health-promoting behaviors than not having symptoms and positive family function. The third model explained 40% of the variance in engaging in health-promoting behaviors among adolescents with congenital heart disease. The findings of this study provide new insights into the role of disease knowledge, resilience, and family functioning in the health-promoting behavior of adolescents with congenital heart disease. Continued efforts are required to plan family care programs that promote the acquisition of sufficient disease knowledge and the development of resilience for adolescents with congenital heart disease.
Bissonnette, M M; Contento, I R
The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches.
Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P; Carrasco, Miguel Á
This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children's behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children's (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother-father or child-father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children's behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance.
Weretecki, Patrick; Greve, Goetz; Henseler, Jörg
Understanding how the personal interaction between customers and salespersons influences value creation is important for any business. From research it is known that customers’ participation is essential for successful value co-creation. Whereas research has already surveyed the perspective of the
Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.
This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs
Borgo, S.; Carrara, M.; Garbacz, P.; Vermaas, P.E.
In this paper we present a formal characterization of the engineering concepts of behavior and function of technical artifacts. We capture the meanings that engineers attach to these concepts by formalizing, within the formal ontology DOLCE, the five meanings of artifact behavior and the two
Newland, Jessica Marie
Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…
Smith, Terry L
B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert
A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.
... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition of professional and unprofessional behaviors is the most important and fundamental factor which affects the relationships between the doctors and patients. Therefore, in order to progress in their professional life, doctors are supposed to understand and follow these behaviors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study. All students in teaching hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were eligible to participate (374 individuals with census method. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing 29 questions about the concept of medical professionalism. Here, participation of medical students in unprofessional behaviors and the relevance of this participation with the perception of these behaviors were considered. Data were analyzed through SPSS version 15, using descriptive statistics, t-test and Pearson correlation test. Results: According to the obtained data, despite the fact that all students (140 students in the junior and 234 in the senior years as interns had passed the course of professionalism (95.7%, the perception of unprofessional behaviors between the two groups was significantly different (p<0.001 and the mean of the perception among junior students was higher than the interns. No significant difference was observed in participation in unprofessional behavior rates of the two groups (p=0.451. Moreover, the data did not reveal a strong relationship between participation in unprofessional behavior and what is taught in the curriculum (p=0.079. Conclusion: Medical students’ perception of unprofessional behaviors as acceptable may increase their participation in these behaviors. Thus, medical policy makers should consider approaches beyond simply providing ethical and professional guidelines or policies, and students should be regularly evaluated for their activities; their professional behaviors should be evaluated in order to temper them, when appropriate.
Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun
of mind may be a permanent tool for moral judgment development but a temporary tool for prosocial behavior development. Thus, the present study enriches the rationalistic theories of morality from a developmental perspective. Different relationships between theory of mind and morality from middle childhood to late adulthood are discussed.
Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun
of mind may be a permanent tool for moral judgment development but a temporary tool for prosocial behavior development. Thus, the present study enriches the rationalistic theories of morality from a developmental perspective. Different relationships between theory of mind and morality from middle childhood to late adulthood are discussed. PMID:27602011
Simon, G E; Hoar, B R; Tucker, C B
Assessment programs are one way beef producers communicate information about animal welfare to retailers and the public. Programs that monitor cattle through the production cycle (e.g., the Global Animal Partnership) or at individual stages (e.g., slaughter; the North American Meat Institute) exist, but to date, there is no assessment program addressing welfare specifically in the cow-calf sector. The objectives of this study were to measure cow-calf health and handling welfare outcomes and gather management, facility, and producer perspective information to 1) describe current practices and 2) inform assessment design. A welfare assessment, designed using features of similar beef and dairy programs, was conducted on 30 California ranches that varied in size (mean 1,051 cows [SD 1,849], range 28 to 10,000 cows) and location within the state. Cattle health and behavior and stockperson handling were measured during a routine procedure (e.g., pregnancy checks) on breeding females ( = 3,065). Management and producer perspectives were evaluated through an interview, and facility features were recorded at the chute and water access points. Cattle health problems were rare and seen only on specific ranches (e.g., prevalence of lame cattle: mean 1.3% [SD 1.5], range 0 to 7.1%). Cattle behavior and stockperson handling varied between ranches (e.g., cattle balking: mean 22.0% [SD 21.9], range 1.6 to 78.3%; electric prod use: mean 23.5 [SD 21.5], range 0 to 73.0%). Although some management and facility characteristics were shared by most (e.g., all ranches castrated bull calves; 86% used alleyways with an anti-back gate), other aspects varied (e.g., weaning age: mean 8.2 mo [SD 1.4], range 6 to 11 mo; 43% used shade cover over chute). Most producers shared similar perspectives toward their herd health management plan, but their responses varied when asked to evaluate an animal's pain experience. In terms of assessment design, there were challenges with feasibility (e
Hsu, Sheng-Hsun; Hsiao, Cheng-Fu; Tsai, Sang-Bing
Numerous factors affect how people choose a fine dining restaurant, including food quality, service quality, food safety, and hedonic value. A conceptual framework for evaluating restaurant selection behavior has not yet been developed. This study surveyed 150 individuals with fine dining experience and proposed the use of mental accounting and axiomatic design to construct a consumer economic behavior model. Linear and logistic regressions were employed to determine model correlations and the probability of each factor affecting behavior. The most crucial factor was food quality, followed by service and dining motivation, particularly regarding family dining. Safe ingredients, high cooking standards, and menu innovation all increased the likelihood of consumers choosing fine dining restaurants.
Setiawan Assegaff; Jasmir Jasmir; Dodo Zaenal Abidin; Sharipuddin Sharipuddin
The aim of ours research is to explore the relation between the elements of trust and risk and their impact on consumer behavior in the intention of use of mobile commerce services based on sales. The final goal of this research is to understand consumer behavior in the use of mobile commerce application services in Indonesia by considering the elements of trust and risk in consumer behavior. Finding from previous research have revealed that trust and risk is one of the critical aspects in th...
Ahmad Kalateh Sadati
Full Text Available Background: Murder is a violent social behavior, which stems from various reasons. The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the reasons for murder from the perspective of killers. Methods: The present research is a qualitative study which involves 23 male killers sampled purposefully from Adel Abad prison in Shiraz. After conducting a semi-structured interview, data was analysed through qualitative content analysis. Results: The results showed that three reasons including Honor (fear of prolongation of trial, recognition of the legitimacy of murder, unintentional (mental stress, consumption of alcohol and psychotropic substances, availability of weapons, and subcultural values (considering crime to be a normal event are the major reasons for emergence of murder among these people. Results of the research indicate that murder occurs based on interpretive structures of actors; which form their values and behaviors and potentially can lead to murder. Conclusion: In order to decline violent behavior especially murder; policies of the judicial system in the country should ensure security for citizens. This security can be achieved through non-prolonged trials, timeliness of law especially in matters of Honor, banning weapons in civil society and ultimately reducing the influence of anti-social and subcultural values in various social contexts.
It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. PMID:25540603
Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G
We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students' behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Supran Kumar Sharma
Full Text Available With the help of binary logistic regression model present attempt examines the impact of business organization’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices on buying behavior of the consumers. By taking the responses of 197 consumers in the Jammu and Kashmir province of India, the study highlights that how different dimensions of CSR practices and selected demographics of the organizations are significantly associated with the buying behavior of consumers. The study finds negative relationship between both legal responsibilities and environment friendly practices of companies with the consumer buying behavior. The results have implications for marketing practitioners and strategic management professionals who would like to use their organisation’s CSR practices as a tool to positively influence consumer behavior. Findings suggest that business organizations should be more transparent on their legal aspects and philanthropic activities.
Elena Ana Iancu(Nechita
Full Text Available Present paper tackles several research paradigms regarding tax compliance behavior that have been used to understand tax evasion phenomenon and tax avoidance behavior of the taxpayer. These notions have been studied by numerous researchers all over the world as phenomenon of tax evasion has a debating issue on every state agenda for several decades. First economic model of tax compliance behavior was developed in the early 1970s and since then researchers improved the model adding new elements from sociology, psychology, legal studies, finance, game theory, neurosciences, econophysics and others. This paper presents the most important developments of current theories regarding tax compliance behavior starting from the economics-of-crime model,till the 'slippery slope framework ', and more. It creates the premises for a Romanian model of tax compliance behavior according to national characteristics regarding taxpayers attitude towards tax avoidance, risk appetite or aversion upon enforcement of law through punishment and penalty, taxpayers’ trust in authority’s efficient spending of tax collected revenue to public budget and personal beliefs regarding notions like morality, cheating, honesty, social responsibility, loyalty, patriotism, civic duty, guilt, fairness, reciprocity or financial incentives. Recent models of tax compliance behavior underline the importance of the dynamics between all the actors involved in the fiscal system such as government, tax authorities, tax consultants and accountants and the behavior of all other taxpayers as a whole. Current research trends believe that these are mutually related. Another important aspect regarding taxpayer’s attitude towards tax avoidance is its own motivation to voluntarily pay taxes driven by intrinsic beliefs or by fear of penalty coming from enforcement of laws. On the contrary, other taxpayers choose to assume an extra share of risk and decide to avoid taxes hiding in anonymity of
Lim Yi Jin; Abdullah Bin Osman; Mohd Suberi Bin AB.Halim
In this globalization era, the Internet has become an important tool for web browsing, social networking and even making online purchases. In Malaysia, few studies have examined the influence of perceived usefulness and trust on the online shopping behavior of consumers. Thus, the current study intends to investigate whether perceived usefulness and trust influence the online shopping behavior of consumers in northern Malaysia which comprises Kedah, Perlis, Penang and Perak. The relationship ...
Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this pur...
Full Text Available The last decades have seen an increasing interest in modeling collective animal behavior. Some studies try to reproduce as accurately as possible the collective dynamics and patterns observed in several animal groups with biologically plausible, individual behavioral rules. The objective is then essentially to demonstrate that the observed collective features may be the result of self-organizing processes involving quite simple individual behaviors. Other studies concentrate on the objective of establishing or enriching links between collective behavior researches and cognitive or physiological ones, which then requires that each individual rule be carefully validated. Here we discuss the methodological consequences of this additional requirement. Using the example of corpse clustering in ants, we first illustrate that it may be impossible to discriminate among alternative individual rules by considering only observational data collected at the group level. Six individual behavioral models are described: They are clearly distinct in terms of individual behaviors, they all reproduce satisfactorily the collective dynamics and distribution patterns observed in experiments, and we show theoretically that it is strictly impossible to discriminate two of these models even in the limit of an infinite amount of data whatever the accuracy level. A set of methodological steps are then listed and discussed as practical ways to partially overcome this problem. They involve complementary experimental protocols specifically designed to address the behavioral rules successively, conserving group-level data for the overall model validation. In this context, we highlight the importance of maintaining a sharp distinction between model enunciation, with explicit references to validated biological concepts, and formal translation of these concepts in terms of quantitative state variables and fittable functional dependences. Illustrative examples are provided of the
Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.
Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow
Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan
Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Story, Giles W.; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J.
The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards) are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a “model-based” (or goal-directed) system and a “model-free” (or habitual) system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes. PMID:24659960
Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle
Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Background Behavior change theories can identify people’s main motivations to engage in recommended health practices and thus provide better tools to design interventions, particularly human centered design interventions. Objectives This study had two objectives: (a) to identify salient beliefs about walking three times a week for 30 minutes nonstop among patients with hypertension in a low-resource setting and, (b) to measure the relationships among intentions, attitudes, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control about this behavior. Methods Face-to-face interviews with 34 people living with hypertension were conducted in September-October 2011 in Lima, Peru, and data analysis was performed in 2015. The Reasoned Action Approach was used to study the people’s decisions to walk. We elicited people’s salient beliefs and measured the theoretical constructs associated with this behavior. Results Results pointed at salient key behavioral, normative and control beliefs. In particular, perceived behavioral control appeared as an important determinant of walking and a small set of control beliefs were identified as potential targets of health communication campaigns, including (not) having someone to walk with, having work or responsibilities, or having no time. Conclusions This theory-based study with a focus on end-users provides elements to inform the design of an intervention that would motivate people living with hypertension to walk on a regular basis in low-resource settings. PMID:29451917
Full Text Available One of the paths chosen by businesses to increase their competitiveness through innovation is by encouraging employees to adopt a more entrepreneurial attitude. Although studies on Entrepreneurial Orientation have brought important contributions, anecdotal evidences of entrepreneurial employees not affected by corporate initiatives drive attention to managers’ roles in developing entrepreneurial behavior. We found good possible explanations in the theory Induced vs. Autonomous Entrepreneurial Behavior. Thus, the objective of this study is to empirically analyze the factors that inhibit or encourage entrepreneurial behavior. These factors arose from empirical research and were consolidated based on a literature review. This is a qualitative study whose data were collected in interviews carried out with 15 executives from different businesses in Brazil. The results showed that, while some Entrepreneurially Oriented practices can induce employees to adopt entrepreneurial behavior, autonomous behavior intrapreneurs are mostly stimulated by manager attitude. Managers use different approaches depending on the type of intrapreneur whose entrepreneurial behavior is intended to be stimulated, leading to the conclusion that managers, in some cases, play an important role in promoting Corporate Entrepreneurship.
Young, Sera L; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chantry, Caroline J; Geubbels, Eveline P; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Cohan, Deborah; Vosti, Stephen A; Latham, Michael C
In 2008, between 129,000 and 194,000 of the 430,000 pediatric HIV infections worldwide were attributable to breastfeeding. Yet in many settings, the health, economic, and social consequences of not breastfeeding would have dire consequences for many more children. In the first part of this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about infant feeding in the context of HIV. Namely, we describe the benefits and risks of breastmilk, the evolution of recommended infant feeding modalities in high-income and low-income countries in the last two decades, and contextualize the recently revised guidelines for infant feeding in the context of HIV current knowledge. In the second section, we suggest areas for future research on the postnatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in developing and industrialized countries. We suggest two shifts in perspective. The first is to evaluate PMTCT interventions more holistically, to include the psychosocial and economic consequences as well as the biomedical ones. The second shift in perspective should be one that contextualizes postnatal PMTCT efforts in the cascade of maternal health services. We conclude by discussing basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic research questions pertaining to a number of PMTCT efforts, including extended postnatal ARV prophylaxis, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, counseling, breast milk pasteurization, breast milk banking, novel techniques for making breast milk safer, and optimal breastfeeding practices. We believe the research efforts outlined here will maximize the number of healthy, thriving, HIV-free children around the world.
Young, Sera L.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chantry, Caroline J.; Geubbels, Eveline P.; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Cohan, Deborah; Vosti, Stephen A.; Latham, Michael C.
In 2008, between 129,000 and 194,000 of the 430,000 pediatric HIV infections worldwide were attributable to breastfeeding. Yet in many settings, the health, economic, and social consequences of not breastfeeding would have dire consequences for many more children. In the first part of this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about infant feeding in the context of HIV. Namely, we describe the benefits and risks of breastmilk, the evolution of recommended infant feeding modalities in high-income and low-income countries in the last two decades, and contextualize the recently revised guidelines for infant feeding in the context of HIV current knowledge. In the second section, we suggest areas for future research on the postnatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in developing and industrialized countries. We suggest two shifts in perspective. The first is to evaluate PMTCT interventions more holistically, to include the psychosocial and economic consequences as well as the biomedical ones. The second shift in perspective should be one that contextualizes postnatal PMTCT efforts in the cascade of maternal health services. We conclude by discussing basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic research questions pertaining to a number of PMTCT efforts, including extended postnatal ARV prophylaxis, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, counseling, breast milk pasteurization, breast milk banking, novel techniques for making breast milk safer, and optimal breastfeeding practices. We believe the research efforts outlined here will maximize the number of healthy, thriving, HIV-free children around the world. PMID:22332055
Yelland, Erin L; Cless, Adam W; Mallory, Allen B; Cless, Jessica D
This study examines public perspectives toward sexual behavior within a heterosexually married couple in which one individual has dementia and resides in a long-term care facility. Respondents included 318 adults in the Southern United States. Paired sample t tests were used to understand how the diagnosis of dementia statistically influenced participants' responses, and a logistic regression model was used to understand how a vignette character's sex and respondent characteristics influenced attitudes. Fifty-eight percent of respondents believed that a sexual relationship should be permitted for an adult with dementia, and t tests revealed that dementia had a statistical effect on participants' responses. Sex of the vignette character was not a predictor of attitudes. Participant's qualitative rationales are offered for additional insight. Respondents who felt that a couple should not engage in a sexual relationship commonly cited consent-related issues as their primary concern. Implications for policy development are discussed.
Full Text Available Following the high profile financial scandals of 2007-2008, corporate management has been faced with strong pressures resulting from more regulatory requirements, as well as the increasing expectations of various groups of stakeholders. The responsibility acquired a big importance in front of this financial crisis. This responsibility requires more transparency and communication, inside the company with the collaborators and outside of the company with the society, while companies try to improve the degree of control and to authorize managers to realize the objectives of the company. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of the responsibility generally and the various types of manager’s responsibility in private individual within the company, as well as the explanatory theories of this responsibility through the various perspectives such as: economic, political, social and behavioral. This study should have academic and practical contributions particularly for regulators seeking to improve the companies’ practices and organizational functioning within capital market economy.
Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Maziade, Michel; Molteni, Massimo; D'Amato, Francesca
It has been observed that 'No aspect of human behavioral genetics has caused more confusion and generated more obscurantism than the analysis and interpretation of various types of non-additivity and non-independence of gene and environmental action and interaction' (Eaves LJ et al 1977 Br J Math Stat Psychol 30:1-42). On the other hand, a bulk of newly published studies appear to speak in favour of common and frequent interplay--and possibly interaction--between identified genetic polymorphisms and specified environmental variables in shaping behavior and behavioral disorders. Considerable interest has arisen from the introduction of putative functional 'endophenotypes' which would represent a more proximate biological link to genes, as well as an obligatory intermediate of behavior. While explicit criteria to identify valid endophenotypes have been offered, a number of new 'alternative phenotypes' are now being proposed as possible 'endophenotypes' for behavioral and psychiatric genetics research, sometimes with less than optimal stringency. Nonetheless, we suggest that some endophenotypes can be helpful in investigating several instances of gene-environment interactions and be employed as additional tools to reduce the risk for spurious results in this controversial area.
Liu, Da-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke; Ai, Wen-Huan
In this paper, a new car-following model considering effect of the driver’s forecast behavior is proposed based on the full velocity difference model (FVDM). Using the new model, we investigate the starting process of the vehicle motion under a traffic signal and find that the delay time of vehicle motion is reduced. Then the stability condition of the new model is derived and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is constructed to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point. Numerical simulation is compatible with the analysis of theory such as density wave, hysteresis loop, which shows that the new model is reasonable. The results show that considering the effect of driver’s forecast behavior can help to enhance the stability of traffic flow.
Numerous factors affect how people choose a fine dining restaurant, including food quality, service quality, food safety, and hedonic value. A conceptual framework for evaluating restaurant selection behavior has not yet been developed. This study surveyed 150 individuals with fine dining experience and proposed the use of mental accounting and axiomatic design to construct a consumer economic behavior model. Linear and logistic regressions were employed to determine model correlations and the probability of each factor affecting behavior. The most crucial factor was food quality, followed by service and dining motivation, particularly regarding family dining. Safe ingredients, high cooking standards, and menu innovation all increased the likelihood of consumers choosing fine dining restaurants. PMID:29641554
Li, Ning; Liang, Jian; Crant, J Michael
Drawing from a relational approach, the authors conceptualize the quality of leader-member exchange as a mediator and procedural justice climate as a contextual moderator for understanding the role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Data from a sample of 200 Chinese employees within 54 work groups were used to examine the hypothesized models. Results show that having a proactive personality was associated with employees establishing a high-quality exchange relationship with their supervisors; in turn, the quality of leader-member exchange was associated with greater job satisfaction and more organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, the relationship between proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior was positively moderated by procedural justice climate within the group. Implications for management theory and practice are discussed. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Wachira, Juddy; Middlestadt, Susan; Reece, Michael; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Braitstein, Paula
We describe perceived physician communication behaviors and its association with adherence to care, among HIV patients in Kenya. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2011. The study was conducted in three adult HIV clinics within the Academic Model Providing Healthcare program in western Kenya. HIV adult patients. Patient's predisposition to attend clinic, missed appointment and missed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) medication. A total of 400 patients were enrolled and participated in the study; the median age was 38 years (IQR = 33-44) and 56.5% were female. Patients perceived physicians engaged in a high number of communication behaviors (mean = 3.80, range 1-5). A higher perceived general health status (P = 0.01), shorter distance to the health facility (P = 0.03) and lesser time spent at the health facility (P = 0.02) were associated with a higher number of perceived physician communication behaviors. Physician-patient relationship factors were not associated with physician communication behaviors. In addition, a higher number of perceived physician communication behaviors was associated with a very high likelihood of patients' attending the next HIV clinic [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-2.40], a lower likelihood of patients' missing an appointment (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92) and missing cART medication (AOR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87). Patients' perception of physician communication behaviors was found to be associated with their adherence to HIV care.
Kuther, Tara L
Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.
Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…
Comportamiento de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños y adolescentes con hipertensión arterial esencial Behavior of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with essential hypertension
René Llapur Milián
Full Text Available Es conocido que la hipertensión arterial del adulto está relacionada con la presencia de factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y que comienza en la niñez, muchas veces de manera asintomática, por lo que es importante diagnosticar los factores de riesgo que más se relacionan con la hipertensión en el niño, motivo por el cual realizamos esta investigación. Se estudiaron 100 hipertensos esenciales, de uno y otro sexo, cuyas edades oscilaban entre los 5 y los 18 años. Los pacientes fueron atendidos en la Consulta de Referencia del Hospital Pediátrico de Centro Habana, de enero de 2003 a mayo de 2004. Se utilizaron variables como: edad, sexo, color de la piel, peso, talla, peso al nacer, ejercicio físico, tabaquismo activo y pasivo, y además los antecedentes personales y familiares de hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, hipercolesterolemia y obesidad. El objetivo fundamental consistió en establecer la relación de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular con la hipertensión arterial. Encontramos una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino (55 %, el color de piel blanco (71 %, así como en el grupo etáreo de 10 a 18 años (85 %. Con relación a los antecedentes familiares, aparece la hipertensión arterial (94 % como el factor de riesgo cardiovascular más frecuente. Se encontró la presencia de tres o más factores de riesgo en el 80 % de los familiares de los pacientes. El sobrepeso corporal y el sedentarismo fueron los factores de riesgo personales que predominaron. El 89 % de los pacientes tenían 3 o más factores de riesgo personales.
Abu Al Rub, Majedah Fawzy; Rababaeh, Ebtesam Qasim; Mustafa, Intisar Ghazy
This study investigated whether Jordanian mothers' self-reported parenting practices were associated with their kindergarten children's prosocial or anti-social behavior based on three parental patterns: nurturance, respect, and power assertion. The participants were 95 mothers with children in the kindergarten level in Jordan. Additionally, 13…
Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, A.; Tan, Maurice; Peters, O.
This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data
Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.
Schalkwijk, A.A.H.; Bot, S.D.M.; de Vries, L.; Westerman, M.J.; Nijpels, G.; Elders, P.J.M.
Background: In order to improve and optimize future behavioral family lifestyle intervention programs, more information on the perceptions of obese children and their parents of these programs is needed. As such, the aim of this qualitative study is 1) to explore the expectations of obese children
Brandt-Kreutz, Richard L; Ferguson, Kyle E; Sawyer, Devin
The family medicine residency behavioral science curriculum is more effective if prioritized to match what is needed in practice after graduation. Two prior studies (Kendall, Marvel, & Cruickshank, 2003; Marvel & Major, 1999) identified physician priorities for behavioral science education. The present study extends this research to include topics from more recent curriculum guidelines and examines the extent to which size of community and perceived competence correlate with prioritization of Washington state family physicians. Practicing family physicians in Washington state (N = 2,270) were invited to complete the survey. Respondents provided demographic and practice information. Respondents then rated, on a scale from 1 to 4, 35 behavioral science topics on 2 different scales including (a) priority to be given in residency education and (b) perceived level of competence. A total of 486 responded and 430 completed both priority and competence scales for a response rate of 19%. The top half of 35 topics of the present study included the top 13 topics found in the 2 prior studies. Priority and competence scales were moderately correlated (r = .48, n = 430, p = .001). There was a small significant correlation with size of community and priority ratings (r = .13, n = 435, p = .006). Family physicians in Washington state prioritize behavioral science topics in residency education similar to Colorado and Mississippi. The results of this study support recent ACGME guidelines, in that training should focus on common psychiatric illnesses, including depression and anxiety, and interpersonal processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Notten, N.J.W.R.; Becker, B.
Online reading behavior can be regarded as a 'new' form of cultural capital in today's digital world. However, it is unclear whether 'traditional' mechanisms of cultural and social reproduction are also found in this domain, and whether they manifest uniformly across countries at different stages of
Shaver, P.R.; Mikulincer, M.; Gross, J.T.; Stern, J.A.; Cassidy, J.A.; Cassidy, J.; Shaver, P.R.
Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980) is, at its core, a theory of prosocial behavior. It explains how, in early childhood, interactions with mindful, caring, and supportive parental figures ("attachment figures") create and solidify children's positive mental representations of others
Ellinger, Andrea D.; Ellinger, Alexander E.; Keller, Scott B.
Coaching has received considerable attention in recent years as the responsibility for employees' learning and development has been increasingly devolved to line managers. Yet there exists little published empirical research that measures specific coaching behaviors of line managers or examines the linkages between line managers' coaching behavior…
Beddingfield, David H.; Lafleur, Adrienne M.
Advanced fuel-cycle developments around the world currently under development are exploring the possibility of disposing of 241 Am from spent fuel recycle processes by burning this material in fast reactors. For safeguards practitioners, this approach could potentially complicate both fresh- and spent-fuel safeguards measurements. The increased (α,n) production in oxide fuels from the 241 Am increases the uncertainty in coincidence assay of Pu in MOX assemblies and will require additional information to make use of totals-based neutron assay of these assemblies. We have studied the behavior of 241 Am-bearing MOX fuel in the fast reactor system and the effect on neutron and gamma-ray source-terms for safeguards measurements. In this paper, we will present the results of simulations of the behavior of 241 Am in a fast breeder reactor system. Because of the increased use of MOX fuel in thermal reactors and advances in fuel-cycle designs aimed at americium disposal in fast reactors, we have undertaken a brief study of the behavior of americium in these systems to better understand the safeguards impacts of these new approaches. In this paper we will examine the behavior of 241 Am in a variety of nuclear systems to provide insight into the safeguards implications of proposed Am disposition schemes.
Bath, Debra M.
Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…
Saunders, Laura; Kurbanoglu, Serap; Boustany, Joumana; Dogan, Guleda; Becker, Peter; Blumer, Eliane; Chowdhury, Sudatta; Dobreva, Milena; Gendina, Natalia; Grgic, Ivana Hebrang; Haddow, Gaby; Koltay, Tibor; Kortelainen, Terttu; Krakowska, Monika; Majid, Shaheen; Mezhova, Marina; Repanovici, Angela; Rudžioniene, Jurgita; Schneider, Rene; Terra, Ana Lucia; Todorova, Tania Y.
Librarians are expected to be expert searchers, and developing information literacy skills to navigate the vast world of information is a focus of most library and information science (LIS) programs. It is important to understand the information literacy and behaviors of LIS students to see if they are employing the skills they will need to assist…
Sheldon, Kennon M.
Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel…
Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang
Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…
Ackerman, Cheryl M.; Cooksy, Leslie J.; Murphy, Aideen; Rubright, Jonathan; Bear, George; Fifield, Steve
In Spring 2010, the Delaware Education Research and Development Center conducted an evaluation of Delaware's PBS project, an initiative focused on developing a school-wide system of strategies to reduce behavior problems and foster a positive school climate. The study focused on facilitators and barriers to PBS implementation, and also included…
J. P. Roccaforte; P. Z. Fule
(Please note, this is an abstract only) We modeled crown fire behavior and assessed changes in canopy fuels before and after the implementation of restoration treatments in a ponderosa pine landscape at Mt. Trumbull, Arizona. We measured 117 permanent plots before (1996/1997) and after (2003) thinning and burning treatments. The plots are evenly distributed across the...
Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun
This study examined how classroom management practices--care and behavioral control--were differentially associated with students' engagement, misbehavior, and satisfaction with school, using a large representative sample of 3196 Grade 9 students from 117 classes in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential relations.…
Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga
Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…
Ona Duarte Venslauskas
Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of spot prices in the Colombian wholesale power market, using a series of models derived from industrial organization theory. We first create a Cournot-based model that simulates the strategic behavior of the market-leader power generators, which we use to estimate two industrial organization variables, the Index of Residual Demand and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI. We use these variables to create VAR models that estimate spot prices and power market impulse-response relationships. The results from these models show that hydroelectric generators can use their water storage capability strategically to affect off-peak prices primarily, while the thermal generators can manage their capacity strategically to affect on-peak prices. In addition, shocks to the Index of Residual Capacity and to the HHI cause spot price fluctuations, which can be interpreted as the generators´ strategic response to these shocks.
Dental caries is not just the most common chronic childhood disease, with not insignificant burden of disease during childhood, but also lifelong impact. Traditional models that focus on the "mouth in the chair" have been helpful but insufficient to identify structural root causes for its high incidence, thus having a limited ability to prevent the disease. The addition of social and behavioral determinants to strictly biologic models provides the full context of care, enabling providers to better tailor their guidance and improve health outcomes. In-office behavioral management involves understanding these determinants and applying appropriate techniques; these not only can help reset family and patient expectations but can actually increase compliance. Lastly, children with multiple medical issues require additional focus, as they can carry greater burden of disease, making it even more critical during office visits to offer multifactorial compliance strategies for these patients and their parents.
Musculoskeltal pain is the most common diagnosis for being on sick leave two months or longer in Sweden. The societal costs have been estimated at almost 30 billion Swedish kronor per year. Research aimed at improving occupational rehabilitation is therefore crucial. In Study I a multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioral in-patient program conducted at a rehabilitation clinic was empirically evaluated. A randomized controlled trial with 36 chronic pain patients showed a difference in favor of th...
Hanopia B.L.; Surasni N.K.; Hidayati S.A.
This research was conducted using behavioral finance theories. The objectives of this research was to analyze influencing factors of investment deposits decision-making for the depositor, and to analyze the most dominant factor of investment deposits decision-making in Bank NTB of Pejanggik Principle Branches. The instrument of this research was questionnaire with the total sample of 90 respondents who were the deposit customers. The research results show that deposits’ interest, gain and cos...
Labie, Marc; Laureti, Carolina; Szafarz, Ariane
The success of both microcredit and micro-savings products rests upon simplicity and standardization in order to stimulate client discipline. Meanwhile, these products lack flexibility. This paper attempts to make sense of behavioral product design in microfinance. We focus on the potential trade-offs between discipline and flexibility. While discipline devices encourage clients make payments duly on time, flexibility improves clients’ day-to-day money management and helps them cope with shoc...
Full Text Available Purpose. While some aspects of what makes for an effective portfolio program are known, little is published about what students value in the faculty-student-portfolio relationship. Lack of student buy-in and faculty engagement can be significant challenges. The purpose of this study was to identify behaviors and types of engagement that students value in their relationships with portfolio-associated faculty. Methods. Medical students (174 participating in the Ohio State University College of Medicine Portfolio Program described behaviors observed in their portfolio-associated faculty in a survey completed at the end of the first year of their four-year program. Narrative responses were coded and categorized into themes, followed by member checking. Results. A total of 324 comments from 169 students were analyzed. Four themes were identified: (1 creating a supportive environment; (2 inspiring academic and professional growth; (3 investing time in students; and (4 providing advice and direction. Conclusions. The themes identified suggest that students value certain types of coaching and mentoring behaviors from their portfolio-associated faculty. The themes and their specific subcategories may be useful in making decisions regarding program development and guiding recruitment and training of these faculty coaches.
Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students’ 1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, 2) voting behaviors, and 3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. PARTICIPANTS College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May–September 2013 METHODS Participants completed phone interviews assessing marijuana attitudes, intentions, behaviors, voting behaviors or intentions, and perceptions of the impact of legislation. RESULTS A total of 283 participants completed the interview (83.7% retention rate): 56.8% were female, 57.2% were from Wisconsin, and 74.6% were Caucasian. Almost half of Washington participants (46.3%) indicated that they voted for marijuana legalization. Participants most commonly responded that the legislation did not change their attitudes towards marijuana, though some participants discussed perceived safety of the product because legislation passed. CONCLUSIONS Findings indicate similarities in views and experiences among college students from states affected and unaffected by legalization; legalization may increase perceptions of safety. PMID:26182234
Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan
of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....
Full Text Available Hybrid societies are self-organizing, collective systems composed of different components, for example, natural and artificial parts (bio-hybrid or human beings interacting with and through technical systems (socio-technical. Many different disciplines investigate methods and systems closely related to the design of hybrid societies. A~stronger collaboration between these disciplines could allow for re-use of methods and create significant synergies. We identify three main areas of challenges in the design of self-organizing hybrid societies. First, we identify the formalization challenge. There is an urgent need for a generic model that allows a description and comparison of collective hybrid societies. Second, we identify the system design challenge. Starting from the formal specification of the system, we need to develop an integrated design process. Third, we identify the challenge of interdisciplinarity. Current research on self-organizing hybrid societies stretches over many different fields and hence requires the re-use and synthesis of methods at intersections between disciplines. We then conclude by presenting our perspective for future approaches with high potential in this area.
Chua, Sook Ning; Koestner, Richard
People are often seen as social creatures and, consequently, solitary behaviors are often cast in a negative light. However, the authors hypothesized that the act of spending time alone is not necessarily related to negative outcomes; rather, individuals' motivation for doing so plays a key role. On the basis of self-determination theory (E. L Deci & R. M. Ryan, 2000; R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000), the authors predicted and found that when individuals spend time alone in a volitional and autonomous manner, they counterintuitively report lower levels of loneliness and higher levels of well-being.
Henriques, Jorge F; Almeida, Ana Rita; Andrade, Thayres; Koba, Olga; Golovko, Oksana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Oliveira, Miguel; Domingues, Inês
Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants as their worldwide consumption increases. Fibrates such as gemfibrozil (GEM) are used in human medicine to reduce blood concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol and also are some of the most frequently reported pharmaceuticals in waste waters and surface waters. Despite some studies have already demonstrated the negative impact in physiological and/or reproductive endpoints in adult fish, data on survival and behavioral effects in fish larvae are lacking. This study aimed to assess the effects of GEM on zebrafish eleutheroembryo development and locomotor behavior. A fish embryo toxicity (FET) test was undertaken to evaluate GEM acute toxicity by exposing embryos to 0, 6.58, 9.87, 14.81, 22.22, 33.33 and 50mg/L. Developmental endpoints such as hatching success, edemas and malformations were recorded. A second test was undertaken by exposing embryos to 0, 1.5, 3 and 6mg/L in order to evaluate the effects of GEM on 120 and 144h post fertilization (hpf) larvae locomotor activity by video tracking, using a Zebrabox(®) (Viewpoint, France) device. From the data recorded, several parameters such as total swimming distance (TSD) and total swimming time (TST) in each 120s integration time were calculated. Data showed that this compound has a moderate toxic effect on fish embryo development, affecting both survival and hatching success with a calculated 96h LC50 of 11.01mg/L and no effects at the developmental level at 6mg/L. GEM seems to impair locomotor activity, even at concentrations where developmental abnormalities were unperceived, at concentrations as low as 1.5mg/L. Both TSD and TST were sensitive to GEM exposure. These effects do not seem to be independent of the developmental stage as 120hpf larvae seem to present a development bias with repercussions in locomotor behavior. This study highlights the need to include behavioral endpoints in ecotoxicological assays as this seems to be a more sensitive endpoint often
Zipperer, A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Aloise-Young, P. A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Suryanarayanan, S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Zimmerle, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Roche, R. [Univ. of Technology, Belfort-Montebeliard (France); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bauleo, P. [Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States)
Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.
Zipperer, Adam; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Roche, Robin; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Dane; Bauleo, Pablo; Zimmerle, Daniel
Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.
Special series on "The meaning of behavioral medicine in the psychosomatic field" establishment of a core curriculum for behavioral science in Japan: The importance of such a curriculum from the perspective of psychology.
Shimazu, Akihito; Nakao, Mutsuhiro
This article discusses the core curriculum for behavioral science, from the perspective of psychology, recommended by the Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine and seeks to explain how the curriculum can be effectively implemented in medical and health-related departments. First, the content of the core curriculum is reviewed from the perspective of psychology. We show that the curriculum features both basic and applied components and that the basic components are closely related to various aspects of psychology. Next, we emphasize two points to aid the effective delivery of the curriculum: 1) It is necessary to explain the purpose and significance of basic components of behavioral science to improve student motivation; and 2) it is important to encourage student self-efficacy to facilitate application of the acquired knowledge and skills in clinical practice.
Budgetary Impact Analysis of Reimbursement Varenicline for the Smoking-Cessation Treatment in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: A National Health System Perspective.
Cedillo, Sergio; Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier
The study aimed to assess the budgetary impact (BI) of reimbursing varenicline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (t2-DM) or cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The BI was estimated comparing the current non-reimbursed scenario versus a projected reimbursed scenario using the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) perspective. A hybrid model was developed using epidemiological data and Markov chains to estimate smoking cessation rates with varenicline during a 5-year horizon. Costs of cessation were considered in the reimbursement scenario only. Efficacy, expressed as a 1-year continuous abstinence rate, was derived from clinical trials. Cost savings due to smoking cessation were extracted from local cost-of-illness studies. Results are shown as incremental cost savings. Univariate sensitivity analysis was also applied. A total of 68,684 patients stopped smoking in the reimbursed scenario compared with 15,208 without reimbursement. In the reimbursed scenario, total savings accounted for €36.3 million, showing 14.6 million accumulated additional savings compared with the scenario without reimbursement. Sensitivity analyses showed results to be robust with monetary savings starting in the third year of modeling. Reimbursement of varenicline in smoking cessation is a cost-effective health policy in the SNHS in COPD, t2-DM or CVD, and could produce cost savings starting in the third year of implementation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The growing field of behavioral economics (BE has revolutionized the way we look at economic behavior at micro and macro levels. Importance of foreign direct investment (FDI appeals for analysis of decisions made regarding it to be assessed from expanding view of BE. This research provides overview of previous studies and focuses on the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H as representative of emerging markets to investigate motivations for investing into this country by temporarily present foreign companies. Empirical analysis was based on the questionnaire that was disseminated among foreign investors to B&H. Questionnaire contained motivations for investing in B&H, where examined motivation factors were divided in two groups; namely irrational and rational ones. Choice of methodology was narrowed due to moderate sample size, but consisting of quality the sample members. In order to analyze data, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis were used. By regressing two groups of predictors on annual amount of foreign investments to B&H, it was shown that the highest motivation for investing was business instinct.
VICTOR, ELIZABETH C.; HARIRI, AHMAD R.
Late adolescence and emerging adulthood (specifically ages 15–24) represent a period of heightened sexual risk taking resulting in the greatest annual rates of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies in the US population. Ongoing efforts to prevent such negative consequences are likely to benefit from a deepening of our understanding of biological mechanisms through which sexual risk taking emerges and biases decision making during this critical window. Here we present a neuroscience framework from which a mechanistic examination of sexual risk taking can be advanced. Specifically, we adapt the neurodevelopmental triadic model, which outlines how motivated behavior is governed by three systems: approach, avoidance, and regulation, to sexual decision making and subsequent risk behavior. We further propose a testable hypothesis of the triadic model, wherein relatively decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity and increased reward-related ventral striatum reactivity leads to sexual risk taking, which is particularly exaggerated during adolescence and young adulthood when there is an overexpression of dopaminergic neurons coupled with immature top-down prefrontal cortex regulation. We conclude by discussing how future research based on our adapted triadic model can inform ongoing efforts to improve intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:26611719
Schulz, Armin W
I argue for differences in the cognitive efficiency of different psychologies underlying helping behavior, and present an account of the adaptive pressures that result from these differences. Specifically, I argue that organisms often face pressure to move away from only being egoistically motivated to help: non-egoistic organisms are often able to determine how to help other organisms more quickly and with less recourse to costly cognitive resources like concentration and attention. Furthermore, I also argue that, while these pressures away from pure egoism can lead to the evolution of altruists, they can also lead to the evolution of reciprocation-focused behaviorist helpers or even of reflex-driven helpers (who are neither altruists nor egoists). In this way, I seek to broaden the set of considerations typically taken into account when assessing the evolution of the psychology of helping behavior-which tend to be restricted to matters of reliability-and also try to make clearer the role of evolutionary biological considerations in the discussion of this apparently straightforwardly psychological phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila
Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.
Full Text Available Louise Mewton, Jessica Smith, Pieter Rossouw, Gavin Andrews Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years, as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of
Olufowote, James Olumide
Although the multidisciplinary research on physician socialization has focused on areas such as developments in learners' ideological commitments and ethics knowledge and skills, the literature on physician virtues has been anecdotal. To contribute empirical knowledge of virtue development during socialization, I performed constant comparisons on interviews with 20 directors of preclinical behavioral science courses. In discussing their courses, participants revealed foci on virtues involved in making intimate connections with patients (e.g., empathy) and "being professional" with colleagues (e.g., trustworthiness). To cultivate virtues for intimate connections, participants used the strategies of learner engagement with patients' narratives of illness, service in underserved communities, and shadowing and observing role models. To develop virtues for being professional, participants used the strategy of small learner groups, which consisted of discussions, project collaborations, and group evaluations. I conclude with implications for training students of various health sciences and managing health care teams.
Full Text Available This research was conducted using behavioral finance theories. The objectives of this research was to analyze influencing factors of investment deposits decision-making for the depositor, and to analyze the most dominant factor of investment deposits decision-making in Bank NTB of Pejanggik Principle Branches. The instrument of this research was questionnaire with the total sample of 90 respondents who were the deposit customers. The research results show that deposits’ interest, gain and cost, feelings of disappointment and satisfaction, worries, reluctances, good companies, budget allocation, self-control, net interest income, belief in net interest income, overestimate and underestimate are factors influencing investment deposits decision-making in Bank NTB of Pejanggik Principle Branches. Dominant factors determining investment deposits decision-making are deposits cost, interest and feelings of satisfaction, budget allocation, overestimate and self-control. Those factors are included in the factor group of deposits cost.
Muhammad Imran Qureshi
Full Text Available The study of culture, gender and leadership behavior has received much interest from researchers during the last three decades. This paper attempts to propose a conceptual framework consisting three human resource management (HRM practices (culture, gender and leadership styles and to explain the relationship among these variables. Culture plays an important role to adopt different leadership styles because it influences the way in which individuals, groups and teams interact with each other and cooperate to achieve organizational goals. The seven cultural elements are measured in the current study i.e., i member identity ii rewards criteria iii team emphasis iv means-end orientation v control vi unit integration and vii risk/ conflict tolerance. Results show that the culture has a significant influence on male leaders to adopt different leadership styles, but female leaders likely participative in their leadership positions and try to adopt democratic leadership in different cultures.
Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Hall, Gareth
We examined relationships between drive for leanness and perceived media pressure to change appearance, internalization of an ideal physique, exercise frequency, and dieting. Men and women (N=353) completed the Drive for Leanness Scale, the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, the Eating Attitudes Test-26, and a demographic inventory. Drive for leanness was significantly correlated with athletic internalization (.52), pressure to attain an ideal physique (.25), exercise frequency (.36), and dieting (.25). Structural equation modeling revealed a good fitting model (χ(2)=2.85, pdrive for leanness, which in turn predicted dieting and exercise. Results reveal social/cultural theory helps enhance the understanding of the drive for leanness and its relationship with health-related behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan
Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues.
Eduardo Roque Mangini
Full Text Available Services show differences related to conception, production form, how they are consumed and how they are evaluated. These differences or characteristics influence directly on the evaluation of quality offered in the service. It is possible to observe certain consumer’s behavior with the evaluation of quality offered in a service, which could cause total rejection in future purchases. On the other hand, with the satisfaction of results, the consumer has a greater willingness to purchase, develop loyalty and make profit for the service operation. In order to understand the dynamic involving service quality and the formation of consumer’s loyalty, this theoretical article sought in literature the basis to create proposals that could increase the edges of knowledge frontiers in service marketing. As result, eight proposals were developed which entails future researches so that the empirical results could turn the theoretical findings into real results.
Iuliana Petronela Gârdan
Full Text Available In case of dental care consumption, a very special influence will have the social factors. This influence, from the level of consumers’ behavior can be analyzed on two distinct levels – that of normatives impose by the social organization particular for the community that the individual live and that of the influences of the social groups that individual are interacting with. Dental healthcare services consumption is conditioned at the level of consumption motivations by complex needs which are not confined only to the physiological needs of removing pain caused by a certain dental condition, but are going towards the need of self-image improvement, increasing the appreciation offered by the others group members, the congruence with other consumers decisions within the group (family members, friends, colleagues etc. It is important to note in this context the fact that the influence exerted by consumers exogenous factors (external influences in which we can integrate those from the social groups also will be combined with the one exerted by endogenous factors (personality, learning process, perceptions, attitudes, motivations etc, representing a continuum that shape consumers and allows in the same time the society shaping by them. The present article proposes a research conducted on dental healthcare services consumers. Results revealed the importance that a series of variables like the importance given to image in the workplace, family, friends and colleagues perception towards dental aesthetic, social class has in the context of consumer behavior. It is also noted that the influence of variables is mediated by the importance given to self-image, dental healthcare services consumption being determined by complex needs, consumption motivations being physiological – specific to some medical conditions and psychological – aesthetic or induced by the pressure corresponding to the need to comply with social norms.
van Woerkum, Cees; Bouwman, Laura
In this paper, we aim to add a new perspective to supporting health-related behavior. We use the everyday-life view to point at the need to focus on the social and practical organization of the concerned behavior. Where most current approaches act disjointedly on clients and the social and physical context, we take the clients' own behavior within the dynamics of everyday context as the point of departure. From this point, healthy behavior is not a distinguishable action, but a chain of activities, often embedded in other social practices. Therefore, changing behavior means changing the social system in which one lives, changing a shared lifestyle or changing the dominant values or existing norms. Often, clients experience that this is not that easy. From the everyday-life perspective, the basic strategy is to support the client, who already has a positive intention, to 'get things done'. This strategy might be applied to those cases, where a gap is found between good intentions and bad behavior.
Waseem, Muhammad; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Robbins, Laura; Gonzalez, Rita; Vargas, Steven; Peterson, Janey C
The problem of bullying is an increasing public health threat encountered by emergency physicians especially in inner city emergency departments (EDs). Bullying may result in emotional disturbances and psychological trauma in children. Many children sent to the ED because of behavioral misconduct require immediate stabilization and treatment. The emergency physician performs an initial assessment and stabilization. Emergency departments are increasingly on the frontline of the bullying problem. Our objective was to explore children's perspective of bullying and their views of potential solutions. A qualitative study was conducted in a cohort of 50 children (age, 8-17 years), who were referred to the ED from school because of their behavioral misconduct. An interview survey tool about bullying was administered. It focused on what bullying meant to them and what advice they have for a child who is bullied. They were also asked what advice they would have for adults who try to help. We used grounded theory to analyze the data. Similar concepts were grouped, and the categories with similar properties and dimensions were defined. Common themes were then identified. We interviewed 50 children, of whom 27 were boys and 23 were girls. Their mean (SD) age was 12.5 (2.12) years (range, 8-17 years). Bullying was identified by children as including physical, verbal, and emotional actions. Several themes emerged. First, a power imbalance between a bully and victim may render an individual vulnerable to bullying. Being different and weak also increases the risk of being bullied. Second, bullying is wrong, and the bully should be punished. Third, children should learn how to handle bullying situations and develop resilience against bullying. Finally, adults need to be more proactive to prevent or stop bullying. Our results provide insights into the perceptions of children regarding bullying. We have garnered a better understanding of what these children feel adults should do to
Newman, Charles; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Srinivas, Ravi; Bhalla, Sandeep; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Banerjee, Amitava
India shoulders the greatest global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Drugs are the bedrock of treatment and prevention of CVD. India's pharmaceutical industry is the third largest, by volume, globally, but access to CVD drugs in India is poor. There is a lack of qualitative data from government and pharmaceutical sectors regarding CVD drug development and access in India. By purposive sampling, we recruited either Indian government officials, or pharmaceutical company executives. We conducted a stakeholder analysis via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews in India. Topic guides allow for the exploration of key issues across multiple interviews, along with affording the interviewer the flexibility to examine matters arising from the discussions themselves. After transcription, interviews underwent inductive thematic analysis. Ten participants were interviewed (Government Officials: n = 5, and Pharmaceutical Executives: n = 5). Two themes emerged: i) 'Policy-derived Factors'; ii) 'Patient- derived Factors' with three findings. First, both government and pharmaceutical participants felt that the focus of Indian pharma is shifting to more complex, high-quality generics and to new drug development, but production of generic drugs rather than new molecular entities will remain a major activity. Second, current trial regulations in India may restrict India's potential role in the future development of CVD drugs. Third, it is likely that the Indian government will tighten its intellectual property regime in future, with potentially far-reaching implications on CVD drug development and access. Our stakeholder analysis provides some support for present patent regulations, whilst suggesting areas for further research in order to inform future policy decisions regarding CVD drug development and availability. Whilst interviewees suggested government policy plays an important role in shaping the industry, a
Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged areas are hard to reach for interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. We conducted a participatory needs assessment, in which researchers collaborated with a community in a disadvantaged area in Amsterdam to gain an understanding of the health-related issues of children within this community. Qualitative data was collected through: three to four participatory group meetings with three groups of 9–12-year-old children (n = 5–9 per group; nine interviews with professionals working with youth; two interviews with parents and their children; and informal meetings including 31 parents. All transcriptions or summaries were coded and analyzed. Childhood overweight/obesity was indicated as the main health issue. A lack of physical activity and unhealthy dietary behavior were identified as the main risk factors, with underlying determinants such as culture, habits, finances, and social norms. Identified needs included more supervised, low-priced sports activities at a nearby location and more education on adopting a healthy diet. Our participatory health needs assessment resulted in a comprehensive overview of the most relevant risk factors and determinants of childhood overweight/obesity and needs from the community’s perspective. This knowledge aids in the development of better tailored, and thereby potentially more effective, interventions.
Zion Golumbic, Elana M.; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.
The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the ‘Cocktail Party’ effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line speech decoding and attentional stream selection are not well understood. We review findings from behavioral and neurophysiological investigations that underscore the importance of the temporal structure of speech for achieving these perceptual feats. We discuss the hypothesis that entrainment of ambient neuronal oscillations to speech’s temporal structure, across multiple time-scales, serves to facilitate its decoding and underlies the selection of an attended speech stream over other competing input. In this regard, speech decoding and attentional stream selection are examples of ‘active sensing’, emphasizing an interaction between proactive and predictive top-down modulation of neuronal dynamics and bottom-up sensory input. PMID:22285024
Wang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanxin; He, Hongqing; Zhang, Jinglai
In commonly studied gold(I) complexes with oligo (o-, p-, or m-phenyleneethynylene) (PE) ligands, an intriguing photophysical behavior is dual emission composed of fluorescence from S1 and phosphorescence from T1 which is dictated by effective intersystem crossing (ISC) process. In order to explore the salient photodynamics of such oligo-PE gold(I) complexes effectively, we have deliberately chosen three model complexes, namely, Ph-C≡C-Au(PMe3) (1a') and Ph-C≡C-(1,m)C6H4-C≡C-Au(PMe3) (m=4, 2a'; m=3, 3a') in place of the real system. Firstly, electronic structure methods based on DFT and TD-DFT are utilized to perform optimization calculations for the ground- and lowest-lying excited states, respectively. Next, basic photophysical properties including absorption and emission spectra are investigated by TD-DFT under the optimized geometries. Besides, on the basis of the electronic spectra herein, we succeed in searching for surface intersections as the minima on the seam of singlet-triplet surface crossings (SCs) at the CASSCF level of theory. By integration of the results available, the process of delayed fluorescence of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) and phosphorescence was displayed in detail with SCs playing the lead in monitoring the ISC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thiago Rocha Silva
Full Text Available In a user-centered development process, artifacts evolve in iterative cycles until they meet users’ requirements and then become the final product. Every cycle gives the opportunity to revise the design and to introduce new requirements which might affect the specification of artifacts that have been set in former development phases. Testing the consistency of multiple artifacts used to develop interactive systems every time that new requirements are introduced is a cumbersome activity, especially if it is done manually. This paper proposes an approach based on Behavior-Driven Development (BDD to support the automated assessment of artifacts along the development process of interactive systems. The paper uses an ontology for specifying tests that can run over multiple artifacts sharing similar concepts. A case study testing Task Models, Prototypes, and Final User Interfaces is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach from the early phases of the design process, providing a continuous quality assurance of requirements, and helping clients and development teams to identify potential problems and inconsistencies before commitments with software implementation are made.
Rosales, Francisco J; Zeisel, Steven H
This symposium examined current trends in neuroscience and developmental psychology as they apply to assessing the effects of nutrients on brain and behavioral development of 0-6-year-olds. Although the spectrum of nutrients with brain effects has not changed much in the last 25 years, there has been an explosion in new knowledge about the genetics, structure and function of the brain. This has helped to link the brain mechanistic pathway by which these nutrients act with cognitive functions. A clear example of this is linking of brain structural changes due to hypoglycemia versus hyperglycemia with cognitive functions by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess changes in brain-region volumes in combination with cognitive test of intelligence, memory and processing speed. Another example is the use of event-related potential (ERP) studies to show that infants of diabetic mothers have impairments in memory from birth through 8 months of age that are consistent with alterations in mechanistic pathways of memory observed in animal models of perinatal iron deficiency. However, gaps remain in the understanding of how nutrients and neurotrophic factors interact with each other in optimizing brain development and function.
Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin
Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766
Rodziński, Paweł; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Ostachowska, Anna
In clinical practice suicidal ideation (SI) is one of the most commonly encountered symptoms in patients with mental disorders. Such encounter calls for diligent evaluation of suicidal risk. Although the risk factors are widely known, accurate estimation of suicidal risk remains one of the most difficult and most important tasks that clinicians face - especially considering recently collected data showing increase in suicide prevalence in Poland. More thorough estimation of suicidal risk in patients with SI requires taking under consideration not only suicidal risk factors but also factors that are more specific for progression of SI to suicidal behaviors (SB). The review presented in this paper consists of a range of suicidological theories that allow to select a number of groups of factors and mechanisms that are most specific for progression of SI to SB. These groups include: (1) transgression of fear of causing harm and pain to oneself, as well as disintegration of other protective barriers such as (2) decline of social integration with others, feeling of being alienated or abandoned, decline of sense of belongingness, lack of social support, (3) resignation from family and social obligations, (4) dismissing cultural or religious norms, (5) rejection of life goals, values and aspirations that were appreciated earlier, (6) narrowing down in perceived alternatives for suicide, i.e., "tunnel vision", feelings of helplessness and powerlessness, (7) devising in details and accepting simple suicidal plan, especially when such plan is being consolidated through rehearsals and as if "automatized", (8) impulsiveness, (9) accumulation of aggression that may be vented out as suicide, and finally (10) accessibility of means to commit suicide.
Parks, Elizabeth P; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K
Objective In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child's eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful
Garland, Theodore; Albuquerque, Ralph L
average for both lineages, the ECT is surprisingly low, somewhat higher for lizards, and positively allometric. If a lizard and mammal of 100 g body mass were both to move their entire DMD at their MAS, they could do so in ∼21 and 17 min, respectively, thus de-emphasizing the possible importance of time constraints. We conclude that ecological-energetic constraints related to locomotion are relatively more likely to occur in large, carnivorous lizards. Overall, our comparisons support the idea that the (gradual) evolution of mammalian endothermy did not necessarily require major changes in locomotor energetics, performance, or associated behaviors. Instead, we speculate that the evolution of thermoregulatory responses to low temperatures (e.g., shivering) may have been a key and "difficult" step in this transition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Zhao, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Min; Xiang, Bing-Ren
The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The 'better than the Beatles' problem, the 'cautious regulator' problem, the 'throw money at it' tendency and the 'basic researchbrute force' bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.
Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study Examining Health Behaviors and Health Care Interventions
Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
Mange mennesker rammes af depression efter en blodprop i hjertet (AMI), og denne kombination er forbundet med en dårligere prognose. Dette studie er det første, der viser, at depression udgør en selv-stændig risikofaktor for tidlig død hos patienter med blodprop i hjertet. Undersøgelsen tyder dog...... bruges til at skærpe opmærksomheden over for denne patientgruppe hos de praktiserende læger, hvor op mod 90 % af alle patienter med depression bliver diagnosticeret og behandlet. Background: Depressive symptoms is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI......), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear and it remains unknown whether subgroups of patients are at a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the risk of new cardiovascular events and/or death in patients with depressive symptoms following first-time MI taking into account other secondary...
Walsh, Deirdre Mj; Moran, Kieran; Cornelissen, Véronique; Buys, Roselien; Cornelis, Nils; Woods, Catherine
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of premature death worldwide. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of all phases of cardiac rehabilitation. Uptake of traditional cardiac rehabilitation remains suboptimal, as attendance at formal hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation programs is low, with community-based cardiac rehabilitation rates and individual long-term exercise maintenance even lower. Home-based cardiac rehabilitation programs have been shown to be equally effective in clinical and health-related quality of life outcomes and yet are not readily available. Given the potential that home-based cardiac rehabilitation programs have, it is important to explore how to appropriately design any such intervention in conjunction with key stakeholders. The aim of this study was to engage with individuals with cardiovascular disease and other professionals within the health ecosystem to (1) understand the personal, social, and physical factors that inhibit or promote their capacity to engage with physical activity and (2) explore their technology competencies, needs, and wants in relation to an eHealth intervention. Fifty-four semistructured interviews were conducted across two countries. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Barriers to the implementation of PATHway were also explored specifically in relation to physical capability and safety as well as technology readiness and further mapped onto the COM-B model for future intervention design. Key recommendations included collection of patient data and use of measurements, harnessing hospital based social connections, and advice to utilize a patient-centered approach with personalization and tailoring to facilitate optimal engagement. In summary, a multifaceted, personalizable intervention with an inclusively designed interface was deemed desirable for use among cardiovascular disease patients both by end users and key stakeholders. In
Carrillo-Álvarez, Elena; Riera-Romaní, Jordi; Canet-Vélez, Olga
Adolescence has been referred to as the last best chance to prevent adult non-communicable diseases. Gaining further evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health behaviors, particularly the impact of peers, social networks and media on diet, is necessary to develop appropriate preventive strategies. Based on a multiple-cases study, our aim was to discuss the social influences on adolescents' dietary behavior from a social capital perspective. Participants were reached through four high-schools in different Catalan rural-urban and socioeconomic contexts. Our results confirm the different layout of social capital in the community, school, peers and family. In our sample, family and peers are the most influent sources of social capital in relation to dietary behaviors, inducing both protective and damaging effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...
... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...
Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A
Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chinapaw Marijke J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people with cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM is growing rapidly. To a large extend, this increase is due to lifestyle-dependent risk factors, such as overweight, reduced physical activity, and an unhealthy diet. Changing these risk factors has the potential to postpone or prevent the development of T2DM and CVD. It is hypothesized that a cognitive behavioral program (CBP, focused in particular on motivation and self-management in persons who are at high risk for CVD and/or T2DM, will improve their lifestyle behavior and, as a result, will reduce their risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Methods 12,000 inhabitants, 30-50 years of age living in several municipalities in the semi-rural region of West-Friesland will receive an invitation from their general practitioner (n = 13 to measure their own waist circumference with a tape measure. People with abdominal obesity (male waist ≥ 102 cm, female waist ≥ 88 cm will be invited to participate in the second step of the screening which includes blood pressure, a blood sample and anthropometric measurements. T2DM and CVD risk scores will then be calculated according to the ARIC and the SCORE formulae, respectively. People with a score that indicates a high risk of developing T2DM and/or CVD will then be randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 300 or the control group (n = 300. Participants in the intervention group will follow a CBP aimed at modifying their dietary behavior, physical activity, and smoking behavior. The counseling methods that will be used are motivational interviewing (MI and problem solving treatment (PST, which focus in particular on intrinsic motivation for change and self-management of problems of the participants. The CBP will be provided by trained nurse practitioners in the participant's general practice, and will consists of a maximum of six individual sessions of 30 minutes, followed by 3-monthly booster
Midboe, Amanda M; Lewis, Eleanor T; Cronkite, Ruth C; Chambers, Dallas; Goldstein, Mary K; Kerns, Robert D; Trafton, Jodie A
Development of clinical decision support systems (CDSs) has tended to focus on facilitating medication management. An understanding of behavioral medicine perspectives on the usefulness of a CDS for patient care can expand CDSs to improve management of chronic disease. The purpose of this study is to explore feedback from behavioral medicine providers regarding the potential for CDSs to improve decision-making, care coordination, and guideline adherence in pain management. Qualitative methods were used to analyze semi-structured interview responses from behavioral medicine stakeholders following demonstration of an existing CDS for opioid prescribing, ATHENA-OT. Participants suggested that a CDS could assist with decision-making by educating providers, providing recommendations about behavioral therapy, facilitating risk assessment, and improving referral decisions. They suggested that a CDS could improve care coordination by facilitating division of workload, improving patient education, and increasing consideration and knowledge of options in other disciplines. Clinical decision support systems are promising tools for improving behavioral medicine care for chronic pain.
Pereira, Hernane Borges de Barros; Pérez Vidal, Lluís; Lozada, Eleazar G. Madrid
Behavioral impedance domain consists of a theory on route planning for pedestrians, within which constraint management is considered. The goal of this paper is to present the k-shortest path model using the behavioral impedance approach. After the mathematical model building, optimization problem and resolution problem by a behavioral impedance algorithm, it is discussed how behavioral impedance cost function is embedded in the k-shortest path model. From the pedestrian's route planning persp...
Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia
Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…
Animosa, Lydia Honesty; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Cheng, Tina L.
Public health practice involving adolescents is largely focused on preventing or delaying the initiation of risk behavior. However, given the experimental and exploratory nature of this developmental period, this is often impractical. This article focuses on behavioral transitions and the ways in which youth involved in risk behaviors shift to…
Full Text Available This study aims to assess the factors which influence taxpayer behavior in utilizing e-filling tax system. This study combines Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The data was collected through a survey method. It took 100 respondents of the personal taxpayers of the Pratama Gresik Utara tax office's employee in utilizing the e-filing to submit their tax return. In order to assess the data, the researchers used Partial Least Square statistical method. The finding shows that the intention construct has a positive influence over the e-filling utilization behavior. Behavioral control has a positive influence over the behavior through the e-filing utilization intention. Easy of use, purpose, attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control have a positive influence over the e-filing utilization intention. Credibility has a negative influence over the e-filing utilization intention. This study involved the Application Service Provider, Directorate General of Taxes, and KPP Pratama which have to more pay attention the behavior, intention, easy of use, purpose, attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control of the taxpayer.
Lai Yeung, Wai-ling Theresa
Objective: This research aimed to investigate the eating attitudes and behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong, with a specific focus on possible gender differences. Design: A survey was conducted in 2005 to solicit data about participants' food knowledge, eating attitudes and behavior, perceptions of cooking skills and body weight,…
Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N
We take advantage of the challenging comments to the modeling approach we proposed in  to look ahead at a number of applications of the methods to the alternative questions these comments raise. In turn, our effort results in a number of interesting and valuable research perspectives. The presentation goes along three main lines. In the first line, we summarize briefly the aims and results in . In the second section we give a technical the issues raised and, finally, the focus moves to the above mentioned research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vincent L. Mendy
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Mississippi. However, the prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults and the change of prevalence in the past 9 years have not been described. We assess changes in prevalence of no known CVD risk factors during 2001 and 2009. Methods Prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity were investigated. Survey respondents who reported having none of these factors were defined as having no known CVD risk factors. Differences in prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were determined using t-test analysis. Results Overall, age-standardized prevalence of having no known CVD risk factors significantly decreased from 17.3% in 2001 to 14.5% in 2009 (p = 0.0091. The age-standardized prevalence of no known CVD risk factors were significantly lower in 2009 than in 2001 among blacks (8.9% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.008; males (13.5% vs. 17.9%, p = 0.0073; individuals with a college degree (25.2%, vs. 30.8%, p = 0.0483; and those with an annual household income of $20,000–$34,999 (11.6% vs. 16.9%, p = 0.0147; and $35,000–$49,999 (15.2% vs. 23.3%, p = 0.0135. Conclusion The prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 with observed differences by race, age group, sex, and annual household income.
Docherty, Sharron L; Robb, Sheri L; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Donovan Stickler, Molly; Haase, Joan
This article describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes of resilience and quality of life. A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents' perspectives. A maximum-variation purposive sampling technique was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semistructured open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days after the AYA's transplant. Results were grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during the acute phase of transplant. Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted behavioral intervention. Thus, parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy, and identify approaches for future study. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joffe, Victoria L; Black, Emma
Adolescence is a time of transition when young people with language difficulties are at increased risk of experiencing social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). Most studies of social, emotional, and behavioral functioning (SEBF) in individuals with language difficulties focus on children with a clinical diagnosis of language impairment. This study explores SEBF in a nonclinical group of 12-year-old students with low educational and language performance from their own perspectives and those of their parents and teachers. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( Goodman, 1997) was given to 352 mainstream secondary school students who were underperforming academically and had poor language performance. Two hundred and twenty-five of their parents and 230 of their teachers also completed the questionnaire. Students with low educational attainment and poor language showed significantly greater SEBD than a normative sample as reported by themselves, their parents, and their teachers. Significant differences were found across informants, with students identifying more overall difficulties than parents or teachers. Secondary school students with low academic and language performance are more vulnerable to experiencing SEBD compared to typically developing peers. The extent of their difficulties varied depending on the informant, emphasizing the importance of gaining views from multiple perspectives.
Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan
Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481
Badir, Aysel; Tekkas, Kader; Topcu, Serpil
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. However, there is not enough data exploring student nurses' understanding, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease. To investigate knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among undergraduate nursing students, with an emphasis on understanding of cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of mortality and morbidity, both in Turkey and worldwide. This cross-sectional survey assessed 1138 nursing students enrolled in nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Data were collected using the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Knowledge Level (CARRF-KL) scale and questions from the Individual Characteristics Form about students' gender, age, level of education, and family cardiovascular health history, as well as smoking and exercise habits. Respondents demonstrated a high level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease, with years of education (p healthy, they could improve their practice of health-promoting behaviors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
Frank, T D
Using a nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective we re-formulate the linear discrepancy model proposed by Boster and colleagues that describes the emergence of risky shifts during group decision making. Analytical expressions for the stationary case are derived and risky shifts are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Striking similarities with the Kuramoto model for group synchronization are pointed out
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.
Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna
with the increasing opportunities and challenges in multidisciplinary research, the Science Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professionals (CCNAP) recognised the need for a position statement to guide researchers, policymakers and funding bodies to contribute to the advancement...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....
Gola, M.; Wordecha, M.; Marchewka, A.; Sescousse, G.T.
There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain
Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzhenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Hathaway, Zac [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Susan [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Clock, Joe Van [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Peters, Jane [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Smith, Rebecca [Earth Advantage Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Heslam, David [Earth Advantage Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Diamond, Richard C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Our study focused on the perspective of homeowner decision-making in response to home energy audits, combined with attention to the quality of the recommendations that homeowners receive, as well as the perspectives of some key industry actors on auditing and home energy labels. Unlike a program evaluation, the research was not designed to answer detailed questions about program effectiveness in terms of costs, savings, or process, nor was it designed to provide direct answers to questions of how to get people to do more audits or more retrofits. Rather it “steps back” toward a better understanding of more basic questions about what audits provide and what homeowners seem to want, for the case of one particular program that we expect has parallels to many others.
Bengi-Arslan, L; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Erol, N
Parents' reports of problem behaviors in 2,081 Dutch children, 3,127 Turkish children in Ankara and 833 Turkish immigrant children living in The Netherlands, aged 4-18 years, were compared. Dutch and Turkish versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used. Immigrant children were scored higher than Dutch children on 6 of the 11 CBCL scales, most markedly on the Anxious/Depressed scale. Immigrant children were scored higher than Ankara children on five CBCL scales. However, these differences were much smaller than those found between immigrant and Dutch children. Furthermore, immigrant children's Total Problem scores did not differ from those for Ankara children. Turkish immigrant children have very similar patterns of parent-reported problem behaviors to children living in Turkey, although both groups of Turkish children showed higher levels of parent-reported problem behaviors than Dutch children. The higher scores for Turkish children on the Anxious/Depressed scale compared with their Dutch peers may be explained by cultural differences in parental perception of children's problem behaviors, as well as the threshold for reporting them, or by cultural differences in the prevalence of problems, for instance as the result of cross-cultural differences in child-rearing practice. More research is needed to test the degree to which Turkish immigrant parents tend to preserve their cultural characteristics and child-rearing practices in Dutch society.
Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Habitual physical activity can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review evaluates recent publications that have assessed the impact of the dose of physical (in)activity on cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Sedentary behavior,
Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia
In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures.
Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia
In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094
Jul 25, 2011 ... The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pressure rate product (PRP) ... Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been shown to be ... and functional evaluation of patients with cardiovascular ... excursion of the mitral valve leaflets. ..... blood flow reflecting diastolic behavior of the left ventricle in health and.
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interact...
Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.
Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals
J.O. Younge (John)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most
Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette
cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...
Full Text Available Scott Wilson,1,2 Andrea Bowyer,3 Stephen B Harrap4 1Department of Renal Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI, Melbourne, 3Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Melbourne Hospital, 4University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information. Keywords: continuous monitoring, blood pressure
Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B
The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information.
Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin
Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reynolds, Tania; Meltzer, Andrea L
The relationship between women's objective physical attractiveness and their dieting motivations and behaviors may depend upon their social environment-specifically, their romantic partners' attractiveness-such that less attractive women with more attractive partners may be particularly motivated to diet. Theoretically, men's dieting motivations should not depend on their partners' attractiveness. We tested this possibility using a sample of 223 U.S. newlywed spouses. After completing measures assessing dieting motivations, each participant was photographed; we used those photographs to code spouses' objective facial and body attractiveness. Results demonstrated that own and partner attractiveness interacted to predict only women's dieting motivations and behaviors. Less attractive wives married to more (versus less) attractive husbands reported more dieting motivations and behaviors. In contrast, men's dieting motivations were not significantly associated with their own and their partners' attractiveness. These findings highlight the value of adopting a dyadic approach to understanding dieting motivations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper explores the behavior choice of large shareholders in the related party transactions which occur between the large shareholders and listed companies by using the data of shares from 2007 to 2010. Design/methodology/appraoch: Based on the classical research paradigm (that is, LLSV, we analysis controlling shareholders’ propping and tunneling behaviors aiming to make sure their impacts to the medium and small shareholders in theory. Findings: We get the following findings: After our capital market entering the era of full circulation, we find that the relationship between the ratio of controlling shareholders and the related party transactions present (RPTs an inverted “U” shape curve, which means that it exits a typical “Grab-synergy” effect. we should take different measures to the transactions occurred between the large shareholders and listed companies according to the property nature of the large shareholders. State-owned shareholders choose to realize their private benefits by means of RPTs, while the non state-owned shareholders conduct RPTs with an expectation of reducing costs.Practical implications: Since Guo Shuqing, the Chairman of China Securities Regulatory Commission, took office, he has taken a lot measures to curb the related party transactions harshly. Under this circumstance, it is just the right time to have a research on large shareholders’ behavior. It has important significance both in theory and practice. Originality/value: Considering the Chinese special national conditions, this paper added lots of comprehensive facts to study large shareholders’ behavior including the rate of the share held by indirect controller, the probability of thievish behaviors have been discovered, and the strict punishment regulations. The discussions in this paper help to bring into focus a highly topical issue within the context of the large shareholders’ behavior after Non-tradable Shares Reform.
Dávila, Ma Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a prosocial activity with similarities to volunteerism. The purpose of this work is to contribute new evidence about the relevance to OCB of two models of sustained volunteerism, functional analysis and role identity theory. A total of 983 Spanish employees at49 organizations completed surveys measuring amount of OCB, motives for engaging in citizenship behavior, and the degree to which respondents developed an organizational citizen role identity. The results showed that both motives and role identity were significant predictors of OCB, with motive partially mediating the role identity-OCB relationship. The findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved in sustaining volunteerism and OCB.
Zieve, Garret G; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Whitehouse, Sandy; McCarty, Carolyn A
Electronic health screening tools for primary care present an opportunity to go beyond data collection to provide education and feedback to adolescents in order to motivate behavior change. However, there is limited research to guide feedback message development. The aim of this study was to explore youth perceptions of and preferences for receiving personalized feedback for multiple health risk behaviors and reinforcement for health promoting behaviors from an electronic health screening tool for primary care settings, using qualitative methodology. In total, 31 adolescents aged 13-18 years completed the screening tool, received the electronic feedback, and subsequently participated in individual, semistructured, qualitative interviews lasting approximately 60 min. Participants were queried about their overall impressions of the tool, perceptions regarding various types of feedback messages, and additional features that would help motivate health behavior change. Using thematic analysis, interview transcripts were coded to identify common themes expressed across participants. Overall, the tool was well-received by participants who perceived it as a way to enhance-but not replace-their interactions with providers. They appreciated receiving nonjudgmental feedback from the tool and responded positively to information regarding the consequences of behaviors, comparisons with peer norms and health guidelines, tips for behavior change, and reinforcement of healthy choices. A small but noteworthy minority of participants dismissed the peer norms as not real or relevant and national guidelines as not valid or reasonable. When prompted for possible adaptations to the tool, adolescents expressed interest in receiving follow-up information, setting health-related goals, tracking their behaviors over time, and communicating with providers electronically between appointments. Adolescents in this qualitative study desired feedback that validates their healthy behavior choices
Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah
This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Notten, N.J.W.R.; Nikken, P.
This study explores gender differences in the relationship between adolescents' risky online behavior and their social context, as in family factors and the prevalence of Internet use in a country. Using the EU Kids Online dataset, including information on 8554, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents in 25
Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Oh, Hyun Joo; Wong, Serena; Nguyen, Hongmai
This study investigates cognitive, cultural, and contextual factors that influence HIV-related risk behaviors among Asian women who engage in sex work at massage parlors in San Francisco. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted for Vietnamese and Thai masseuses and massage parlor owners/managers. Economic pressure as well as…
Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan
The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical
Griffin, Christine T
The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are widely used for the biological control of insect pests and are gaining importance as model organisms for studying parasitism and symbiosis. In this paper recent advances in the understanding of EPN behavior are reviewed. The "foraging strategy" paradigm (distinction between species with ambush and cruise strategies) as applied to EPN is being challenged and alternative paradigms proposed. Infection decisions are based on condition of the potential host, and it is becoming clear that already-infected and even long-dead hosts may be invaded, as well as healthy live hosts. The state of the infective juvenile (IJ) also influences infection, and evidence for a phased increase in infectivity of EPN species is mounting. The possibility of social behavior - adaptive interactions between IJs outside the host - is discussed. EPNs' symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) are important for killing the host and rendering it suitable for nematode reproduction, but may reduce survival of IJs, resulting in a trade-off between survival and reproduction. The symbiont also contributes to defence of the cadaver by affecting food-choice decisions of insect and avian scavengers. I review EPN reproductive behavior (including sperm competition, copulation and evidence for attractive and organizational effects of pheromones), and consider the role of endotokia matricida as parental behavior exploited by the symbiont for transmission.
Chhangur, R.R.; Weeland, J.; Matthys, W.; Overbeek, G.
The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G × E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical
Shaqrah, Amin A.
The purpose of this study is to explain the behavior intention to use e-learning technologies. In order to achieve a better view and validate the study, researcher attempts to give details of how technology acceptance models help Jordanian trainees firms in accepting e-learning technology, and how if applied will result more attention to usage…
Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.
Background: The present study is the first to examine predictors and consequences of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescence using parent-reported data in a longitudinal design. Across three time points, we examined the reciprocal effects of parent-reported parenting behaviors as they are
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.
This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child…
Mazzone, Angela; Camodeca, Marina; Salmivalli, Christina
We analyzed developmental changes in outsider behavior, testing whether the likelihood that it turns into bullying or defending over time depends on the individual proneness to feel shame or guilt. Participants were 155 preadolescents (72 boys and 83 girls; [X-bar][subscript age] at T1 = 10.74 years). Bullying, defending, and outsider behaviors…
Diederichsen, Louise P
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....
Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl
Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....
Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Zhang, HongJu Janet; Aydar, Mehmet; Wang, Zhen; Sun, Tao
The competition for public cardiovascular research grants has recently increased. Independent researchers are facing increasing competition for public research grant support and ultimately may need to seek alternative funding sources. Crowdfunding, a financing method of raising funds online by pooling together small donations from the online community to support a specific initiative, seems to have significant potential. However, the feasibility of crowdfunding for cardiovascular research remains unknown. Here, we performed exploratory data analysis of the feasibility of online crowdfunding in cardiovascular research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)
F. Marijn Stok
Full Text Available Introduction: Eating behavior often becomes unhealthier during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, but not much is known about the factors that drive this change. We assess the available evidence on this topic through a literature review and pay special attention to the research designs employed in the studies available as well as the modifiability of the factors investigated in previous research. Method: We systematically conducted a scoping review by searching literature published in or after 2000 in three databases that described one or more factors associated with eating behavior or changes in eating behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood in the general population. Our search identified eighteen articles meeting these inclusion criteria. The socio-ecological DONE (Determinants of Nutrition and Eating framework, a recently developed dynamic framework of factors shaping dietary behavior, was used to structure and categorize the factors identified. Results: Most factors identified in the literature were individual-level factors (67% such as food beliefs, time constraints, and taste preferences; on the other hand, interpersonal-level factors (e.g., social support, environmental-level factors (e.g., product characteristics and policy-level factors (e.g., market regulations have been reported on less extensively. Furthermore, most factors discussed in the literature have been classified in the DONE framework as not easily modifiable. Moreover, previous studies largely used static research designs and focused primarily on one specific population (US freshmen. Discussion: This systematic scoping review identified several gaps in the available literature that hinder insight into the drivers of eating behavior (change during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. There is an urgent need for research on broader populations, employing dynamic repeated-measures designs, and taking modifiability of
Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.
Yan, Zhengyu; Yan, Kun; He, Xingliang; Liu, Yanhua; Zhang, Jie; Lopez Torres, Oscar; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu
The anticancer drugs are getting increasing attention as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environments. In the present study, feeding behavior of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under the impact of anticancer drug imatinib was evaluated. Traditional toxicological studies usually focus on dose-effect relationship at a given exposure time, while ignore the possible impact after the exposure. Thus, how the impact varied in the post-exposure and re-exposure was also considered in the present study. The feeding depression of the rotifers was attributed to the increased concentration of imatinib. Although the filtration and ingestion rate of the rotifers recovered to a certain extent after the exposure, the significant feeding inhibition still persisted even if the exposure was ended. In the re-exposure period, the feeding behavior was less depressed than those of the exposure period, which implied that rotifers might develop a tolerance to the same toxics. The activities of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rotifers were also detected. Imatinib inhibited the activities of AchE in the exposure and re-exposure while ROS levels increased significantly in the re-exposure period. Our present study provided an integrated assessment the potential environmental risks of imatinib at a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skodlar, Borut; Henriksen, Mads Gram; Sass, Louis
Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has played an increasingly important role in psychotherapy for schizophrenia since the 1990s, but it has also encountered many theoretical and practical limitations. For example, methodologically rigorous meta-analyses have recently found only modest...... and self-awareness frequently reported by schizophrenia patients and systematically studied in phenomenological psychopathology from the beginning of the 20th century. Results: We argue that a strong theoretical emphasis on cognitive appraisals with only subsidiary attention devoted to affective...... and behavioral processes - as is characteristic of many forms of CBT - cannot satisfactorily account for the complex subjective experiences of schizophrenia patients. We further argue that certain theoretical strategies widely employed in CBT to explore and explain mental disorders, which involve atomization and...
Yingcong Xu; Lu Long; Lingying Zhang; Wojie Tan
In this study, firstly, based on related researches about consumer online purchasing behavior before, we proposed that there were some perceived factors that influence perceived value which has a direct impact on consumer’s online purchasing decision-making. Secondly, on the analysis for the antecedent of consumer perceived factors with online shopping, we proposed the definition of online shopping capability of consumer and try to explore what factors would affect consumers’ perceived value ...
The objective of this research was to study the variables affecting the consumer attitude to buy organic food that in turn affects the purchasing intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to explain this. The study variables include health consciousness, environmental consciousness, organic food price, attitude, subjective norm, intentions to purchase organic food and gender. Survey method was used, with the sample containing 200 respondents intending to purchase organic food in Su...
Weibel, Antoinette; Wiemann, Meike; Osterloh, Margit
In the last two decades, economic motivation research has undergone a paradigm shift when it comes to the effect of incentive schemes on individual performance and motivation. Inspired by self-determination theory, a new branch in economics evolved called behavioral economics. Especially by evidencing the negative effect of “pay-for-performance” on intrinsic motivation, called the “crowding-out” or “overjustification” effect, it challenges the economic paradigm of the relative price-effect an...
Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Essén, Birgitta
Nicaragua's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. Nevertheless, the increasing number of HIV cases among heterosexuals, high levels of poverty and migration rates, and incomplete epidemiological data suggest the need to improve the understanding of the epidemic. To examine the prevalence of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual risk-taking behaviors, and their predictors among the adult population. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 520 participants ages 15-49 from an ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Nicaragua. Bivariate analysis and adjusted prevalence ratios were use to examine factors associated with HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior. Contributing factors for risk-taking behaviors included cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional elements. Insufficient knowledge affecting the accurate assessment of HIV risk were low educational level, poverty, and rural origin, especially among females. Recognizing risk was not sufficient to promote safer sex: 90% of the females and 70% of the males who reported being sexually active in the past year did not use condoms during their last sexual encounter. Inconsistent condom use among men was associated with older age, long-term relationships, and lack of awareness about acquiring HIV infection. Interventions to reduce social-structural contextual factors in Nicaragua are needed so that individuals may adopt and maintain HIV risk reduction strategies. Increased gender-specific HIV education and skills-building programs need to be implemented. Sensitive mass media messages may also increase the knowledge of HIV and AIDS, and serve to encourage protective attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E
We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.
Ana Paula Kogake Claudio
Full Text Available In view of the fact that one of the key indicators of scientific production is the number of papers published in international journals, and of the apparent growing interest in the area of motor behavior, we conducted a survey of articles published by Brazilian researchers in this area over the last 10 years (1999-2008 in international journals rated “Qualis International-A” and “Qualis International-B” by CAPES. This quantification was performed to provide a qualified viewpoint regarding the profile of Brazilian scientific production of international repercussion in the area of motor behavior. Articles were identified using the Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Scopus search systems, with the search being restricted to characteristic terms involving motor behavior and to researchers associated with Brazilian universities. The results showed an increase in production over the last 5 years of the period studied, with the peak in 2006. In addition, Brazilian scientific production was concentrated in four public universities. These results suggest that in order to keep growing, the new groups should work in collaboration with productive laboratories, decentralizing the scientific production.
Sharma, Morali D; Nguyen, Anh V; Brown, Spandana; Robbins, Richard J
In patients with acromegaly, chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) leads to the development of acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Its main features are biventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and in later stages, systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Surgical and/or pharmacological treatment of acromegaly and control of cardiovascular risk factors help reverse some of these pathophysiologic changes and decrease the high risk of cardiovascular complications.
Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to identify important attributes associated with the triad of symptoms (cognition, emotional–behavioral, and motor of Huntington's disease (HD from patient, caregiver, and medical provider perspectives to facilitate development of a new disease‐specific, health‐related quality of life (HRQOL instrument. Methods: We conducted a targeted literature review of HD and HRQOL instruments, expert surveys, and patient and caregiver phone‐based interviews to extract information on the symptoms and issues most relevant to the HD symptom triad (HD triad. The data collected from these sources were used to generate themes and subdomains and to develop an integrated schema that highlights the key dimensions of the triad. Results: The search identified the following areas: emotional functioning/behavioral changes (e.g., positive emotions, sadness/depression; cognitive functioning (e.g., memory/learning, attention/comprehension; physical functioning (e.g., motor functioning, medication; social functioning (e.g., leisure, interpersonal relationships; end‐of‐life concerns/planning; and gene testing. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with HD and 16 HD caregivers, recruited from several Huntington's Disease Society of America support group networks, completed phone interviews. Nineteen US medical providers who specialize in HD completed the online survey. Twenty‐six subdomains of the HD symptom triad (seven cognition, 12 emotional–behavioral, and seven motor emerged relatively consistently across patient, caregiver, and provider samples. These included movements/chorea, memory impairment, depression, and anxiety. Discussion: Based on an integrated, mixed‐methods approach, important HD triad symptom were identified and organized into a guiding schema. These patient‐, caregiver‐, and provider‐triangulated data served as the basis for development of a HD‐specific HRQOL instrument, the HD‐PRO‐TRIAD™.
Veliz-Rojas, Lizet; Mendoza-Parra, Sara; Barriga, Omar A
To analyze therapeutic adherence in users of a cardiovascular health program in primary care in the community of San Pedro de la Paz in the region of Bío Bío, Chile. Cross-sectional and correlational study with a sample of 257 people aged 18-60 years. A questionnaire that included the Miller´s health behavior scale to measure adherence, and review of medical records was performed. Descriptive univariate and bivariate analyses supported in SPSS were performed. Of the total participants, 157 (61.1%) were women. The health behavior scale reflected non-adherence of participants, as only 4 (1.5%) indicated that they always followed the instructions provided by the health team. The subscale monitoring stress management had the highest average, indicating that in this aspect there was greater adherence of the participants. Associations between therapeutic adherence and doing paid work (p=0.025) and with participation in social activities (p=0.005) were found. Therapeutic adherence in users of the cardiovascular health program was low. It is important to develop strategies that favor therapeutic adherence from the perspective of equity and social determinants of health.
Yu, Zheng; Krause, Sascha M B; Beck, David A C; Chistoserdova, Ludmila
In this perspective article, we question how well model organisms, the ones that are easy to cultivate in the laboratory and that show robust growth and biomass accumulation, reflect the dynamics and interactions of microbial communities observed in nature. Today's -omics toolbox allows assessing the genomic potential of microbes in natural environments in a high-throughput fashion and at a strain-level resolution. However, understanding of the details of microbial activities and of the mechanistic bases of community function still requires experimental validation in simplified and fully controlled systems such as synthetic communities. We have studied methane utilization in Lake Washington sediment for a few decades and have identified a number of species genetically equipped for this activity. We have also identified co-occurring satellite species that appear to form functional communities together with the methanotrophs. Here, we compare experimental findings from manipulation of natural communities involved in metabolism of methane in this niche with findings from manipulation of synthetic communities assembled in the laboratory of species originating from the same study site, from very simple (two-species) to rather complex (50-species) synthetic communities. We observe some common trends in community dynamics between the two types of communities, toward representation of specific functional guilds. However, we also identify strong discrepancies between the dominant methane oxidizers in synthetic communities compared to natural communities, under similar incubation conditions. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in using the synthetic community approach to modeling dynamics and species interactions in natural communities.
Wild, R A; Taylor, E L; Knehans, A; Cleaver, V
Family patterns of cardiovascular risk behavior are well documented. Significant correlation exists between spouse-spouse, parent-child, and sibling-sibling for cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein, diet, physical activity, and smoking. Family/environmental influences are important in how/if risk and/or preventive behavior is learned. The family matriarch commonly functions as gatekeeper, controlling eating behavior, access to health care, and other patterns. She often acts as menu planner, shopper, and preparer of meals for all family members. She provides information and verbal reinforcement about food and is a powerful model concerning dietary practices. In fact, the mother, as head of household in most single-parent families, may be the only adult model for many children. Because relevance and credibility are the most important characteristics of a behavioral model, parents (especially mothers) are strong models for observational learning by children. Risk factor information and risk reduction activities adopted by the matriarch can be generalized to the entire family if she learns the skills to act as a change agent. Initiation of this process of education and training the matriarch lies with primary care providers for women (Ob-Gyns see most women). By teaching risk reduction to the matriarch as a component of primary care, physician interaction can have a rippling effect.
Full Text Available We followed two aims: testing the effects of databases' user interface interactivity (UII on Scientific Behavior (SB and exploring the flow experience (FE as mediator between interface interactivity and SB, as well as self-efficacy (SE role as an interferer. We used mixed method in this research. We made a SB questionnaire via a comparative literature study, FE and user UII through literature review. Faculty members and PhD students participated as scholars. Structural Equation Modeling was used for quantitative data analysis and interpretative approach to analyze qualitative data. The role of typological variables, such as gender, area of study, academic degree and English language skill level on SE, UII, FE and SB means are investigated. Finally, we tested the effects of databases' UII on SB and mediator role of FE and interfering role of SE. We found that the more self-efficient participants, the more they experience user interface interactivity and scientific behavior changes/adaptations. In other words, self-efficacy is an important characteristic to establish interactive search session and to upgrade scientific behavior in scholars. Also, we found those participants who experience more flow, have more chance to experience SB changes and adaptation in UII environment. So UII may have effect on researchers' SB. Results may be used in: 1 distance education or researcher training, since these areas are interested in developing, changing and adapting SB; 2 Human-Computer Interaction field, because SB seems to be a new aspect of computer interaction effect on human; 3 The Flow theory will be supported by this new implementation. We proposed a new theoretical framework for research
Gu, Xiangli; Keller, M Jean; Weiller-Abels, Karen H; Zhang, Tao
Motor competence (MC) has been recognized as the foundation for life-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as well as an influential factor in reducing sedentary behavior during childhood. Guided by Blair et al.'s health model, the purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral mechanism of mental health including physical, psychosocial, and cognitive health among Hispanic children related to MC and MVPA. A prospective research design was used with two-wave assessments across one academic year. A total of 141 Hispanic kindergarteners (Mean age = 5.37, SD = 0.48) were recruited in Texas. Nearly all (94.3%) of the participants were from low-income families based on the Income Eligibility Guidelines. The study was approved by the University Research Review Board, and informed consent was obtained from parents/guardians prior to starting the study. Multiple regressions indicated that manipulative skill was a significant predictor of physical and psychosocial health (β = 0.21, β = 0.26, p health (β = 0.22, p mental health outcomes through MVPA (95% CI [0.031, 0.119]) and sedentary behavior (95% CI [0.054, 0.235]), respectively. The results suggest that skill-based activities/games, with instructions, should be encouraged during school-based physical activity and health promotion programs in childhood education. Better understanding of the early effects of MC may contribute to designing strategies to promote Hispanic children's well-being.
Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and compulsive repetition. Animal models of OCD are important tools that have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the condition. Although there is consensus that pre-clinical models are valuable in elucidating the underlying neurobiology in psychiatric disorders, the current paper attempts to prompt ideas on how interpretation of animal behavior can be expanded upon to more effectively converge with the human disorder. Successful outcomes in psychopharmacology involves rational design and synthesis of novel compounds and their testing in well-designed animal models. As part of a special journal issue on OCD, this paper will 1) review the psycho-behavioral aspects of OCD that are of importance on how the above ideas can be articulated, 2) briefly elaborate on general issues that are important for the development of animal models of OCD, with a particular focus on the role and importance of context, 3) propose why translational progress may often be less than ideal, 4) highlight some of the significant contributions afforded by animal models to advance understanding, and 5) conclude by identifying novel behavioral constructs for future investigations that may contribute to the face, predictive and construct validity of OCD animal models. We base these targets on an integrative approach to face and construct validity, and note that the issue of treatment-resistance in the clinical context should receive attention in current animal models of OCD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally
Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Gómez, Rodolfo; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; González, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste
Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications. PMID:22910888
Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI, arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD.
Adlakha, I.; Solanki, K. N.
A crack tip in α-Fe presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen, and sufficient concentration of hydrogen can change the incipient crack tip deformation response, causing a transition from a ductile to a brittle failure mechanism for inherently ductile alloys. In this work, the effect of hydrogen segregation around the crack tip on deformation in α-Fe was examined using atomistic simulations and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion for various modes of fracture (I, II, and III). The presence of a hydrogen rich region ahead of the crack tip was found to cause a decrease in the critical stress intensity factor required for incipient deformation for various crack orientations and modes of fracture examined here. Furthermore, the triaxial stress state ahead of the crack tip was found to play a crucial role in determining the effect of hydrogen on the deformation behavior. Overall, the segregation of hydrogen atoms around the crack tip enhanced both dislocation emission and cleavage behavior suggesting that hydrogen has a dual role during the deformation in α-Fe.
Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia
Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group.
Yang, Chao-Chin; Chiou, Wen-Bin
Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages by undergraduates is closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, making investigations of the substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages imperative. According to the concept of price elasticity in behavioral economics, the choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is facilitated by increasing the cost of less-healthy alternatives or reducing the cost of healthier alternatives. Furthermore, evoking health concerns by using health claims may induce substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages. A total of 108 18-22-year-old undergraduates participated in a laboratory experiment and were given a certain amount of money and allowed to purchase a healthy beverage and a less-healthy beverage with or without receiving health claims. Increasing the price of a type of beverage was shown to reduce purchases of that beverage type and lead to substitution with the alternative type. Moreover, the effect of price elasticity on healthy beverage substitution was more pronounced when participants' health concerns were evoked. The results suggest that lowering the cost of alternative commodities and evoking health concerns by health-related claims would foster the substitution of healthier for unhealthy beverages among college students. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sagah Zadeh, Rana; Shepley, Mardelle; Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Owora, Arthur Hamie; Krieger, Ana C
This study aims to identify the behavioral and environmental strategies that healthcare workers view as helpful for managing sleepiness, improving alertness, and therefore optimizing workplace safety. Reduced alertness is a common issue in healthcare work environments and is associated with impaired cognitive performance and decision-making ability as well as increased errors and injuries. We surveyed 136 healthcare professionals at a primary care clinic, an acute care hospital, and a mental health clinic. Nonstructured, semistructured, and structured questionnaires were used to elicit relevant information which was analyzed using qualitative content analysis and logistic regression models, respectively. In order by frequency of endorsement: dietary intervention; physical mobility; cognitive, sensory, or social stimulation; personal lifestyle strategies; and rest/nap opportunities were reported as behavioral strategies used to address workplace alertness. Compared to other environmental features, daylight and thermal comfort were perceived to be more important to addressing workplace alertness ( p based guidelines is needed to address sleepiness and alertness to improve workplace safety in healthcare facilities.
Tudiver, F; Talbot, Y
Men tend to underuse primary care health services despite their susceptibility to particular types of illness. The purpose of this study was to report the family physician's perspective on why men do not access the health care system for medical problems. We used focus group interviews to identify major themes. The participants were family physicians in active practice randomly selected from a list of 500 full- and part-time teachers. Four focus groups were formed from 18 participants (12 men, 6 women), in practice an average of 17 years. Eleven of the physicians were in community practice. Three key themes were identified: (1) Support: Men appear to get most of their support for health concerns from their female partners, little from their male friends. Their pattern of seeking support tends to be indirect rather than straightforward. (2) Help Seeking: Perceived vulnerability, fear, and denial are important influences on whether men seek help. They look for help for specific problems rather than for more general health concerns. (3) Barriers: Personal barriers involved factors related to a man's traditional social role characteristics: a sense of immunity and immortality; difficulty relinquishing control; a belief that seeking help is unacceptable; and believing men are not interested in prevention. Systematic barriers had to do with time and access; having to state the reason for a visit; and the lack of a male care provider. Many of these findings are supported by psychological theories. Future research should apply these theories in more transferable populations and settings. However, an in-depth understanding of the patterns of men's use of primary care services is needed before we can determine if a regular source of primary care would have a positive impact on their health.
José M Ocampo
Full Text Available El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inotropismo y lusitropismo mediados por estímulo b-adrenérgico. A nivel vascular, hay incremento en la rigidez de la pared de las arterias, con aumento en la velocidad de la onda de pulso, disfunción endotelial y disminución de la vasodilatación mediada por estímulo b-adrenérgico. Durante el reposo el sistema cardiovascular es capaz de desarrollar mecanismos adaptativos eficientes, pero en situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio, los cambios asociados con el envejecimiento se hacen evidentes ya que está disminuida la capacidad para obtener la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, está incrementada la postcarga y hay disminución de la contractilidad intrínseca. Por lo anterior, los ancianos deben utilizar al máximo el mecanismo de Frank-Starling para mantener el gasto cardiaco. Los cambios estructurales y funcionales asociados con el envejecimiento cardiovascular, disminuyen de forma significativa el umbral en el cual las enfermedades cardiacas llegan a ser evidentes, y deben ser conocidos por el personal de salud encargado de cuidar a los ancianos.Cardiovascular aging is associated with characteristic biochemical, histological and morphological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are not necessarily associated to a deterioration in its function. Among the cardiac changes found, there is a reduction in the number of myocytes and of the cardiac conduction system cells, development of fibrosis, changes in the trans-membrane calcium transport and a
Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea
Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.
Levenson, Steven A; Desai, Abhilash K
Despite much attention including national initiatives, concerns remain about the approaches to managing behavior symptoms and psychiatric conditions across all settings, including in long-term care settings such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities. One key reason why problems persist is because most efforts to "reform" and "correct" the situation have failed to explore or address root causes and instead have promoted inadequate piecemeal "solutions." Further improvement requires jumping off the bandwagon and rethinking the entire issue, including recognizing and applying key concepts of clinical reasoning and the care delivery process to every situation. The huge negative impact of cognitive biases and rote approaches on related clinical problem solving and decision making and patient outcomes also must be addressed. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Wu; Gong, Yaping; Liu, Jun
Drawing upon the notion of managerial discretion from upper echelons theory, we theorize which external contingencies moderate the relationship between collective organizational citizenship behavior (COCB) and unit performance. Focusing on business unit (BU) management teams, we hypothesize that COCB of BU management teams enhances BU performance and that this impact depends on environmental uncertainty and BU management-team decision latitude, 2 determinants of managerial discretion. In particular, the positive effect of COCB is stronger when environmental uncertainty or the BU management-team decision latitude is greater. Time-lagged data from 109 BUs of a telecommunications company support the hypotheses. Additional exploratory analysis shows that the positive moderating effect of environmental uncertainty is further amplified at higher levels of BU management-team decision latitude. Overall, this study extends the internally focused view in the micro OCB literature by introducing external contingencies for the COCB-unit-performance relationship. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Ji Cheol Bae
Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.
Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.
There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653
Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E
Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents' personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = -0.25, p = .03) and women (β = -.24, p motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective attitudes and PBC are critical antecedents of intentions and eating behaviour. Interventions should target affective attitudes and PBC to motivate healthy eating and may need to be intensified during parenthood.
Background Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents’ personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Methods Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Results Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p < .001) and women (β = 0.38, p < .01). PBC predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = −0.25, p = .03) and women (β = −.24, p < .05), regardless of parent status. Conclusion The transition to parenthood for new and established parents may impact motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to figure out whether managerial risk taking behaviourand firm financial performance is effected by stock option compensation.Inliterature stock optioncompensationismentionedasa meansto solve agencyproblems. It is analysed how stock option compensation aligns theshareholders’andmanagers’ interestsand its effects on firm financialperformance. Additionally, it isinvestigatedwhether this effecthas a link to theglobal financial crisis which hasobviously related to the managers’extreme riskseeking behaviourespecially in financial sector. Inthis study, 189 firms fromS P index are analysedutilizingthe panel dataanalysismethod between years1998-2009. Additionally, regression method is used to measureeach year. Thedata set is grouped as financial and non financial sector tobetterpresent theeffects of global financial crisis.According to the results of this study, stockoption compensation is positively related to investment magnitudes which aretaken as indicators of risk taking behavior.On the other hand, it is negativelyrelated to firm financial performance.According to the results of yearlycomparison, in financial sector the invesment magnitudes are bigger than the nonfinancial sector just two years before the financial crisis and net cash flow fromthe investing activities is significantly negative when compared with non financialsector.Therefore,it is aimed to findoutthe relation between the extreme riskseeking behaviorbefore the global financial crisisand the incentive compensationstructures.
Full Text Available Elizabeth B Stuyt,1 Claudia A Voyles2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Pueblo, CO, 2Department of Clinical Studies, AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA-standardized 3- to 5-point ear acupuncture protocol, born of a community-minded response to turbulent times not unlike today, has evolved into the most widely implemented acupuncture-assisted protocol, not only for substance abuse, but also for broad behavioral health applications. This evolution happened despite inconsistent research support. This review highlights the history of the protocol and the research that followed its development. Promising, early randomized-controlled trials were followed by a mixed field of positive and negative studies that may serve as a whole to prove that NADA, despite its apparent simplicity, is neither a reductive nor an independent treatment, and the need to refine the research approaches. Particularly focusing on the last decade and its array of trials that elucidate aspects of NADA application and effects, the authors recommend that, going forward, research continues to explore the comparison of the NADA protocol added to accepted treatments to those treatments alone, recognizing that it is not a stand-alone procedure but a psychosocial intervention that affects the whole person and can augment outcomes from other treatment modalities. Keywords: National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA, ear acupuncture, acudetox, addiction, mental health, trauma
Shew, Chwen-Yang; Do, Changwoo; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Smith, Gregory S; Chen, Wei-Ren
We present small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) solutions of linear and star sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (NaPSS) as a function of polyelectrolyte concentration. Emphasis is on understanding the dependence of their SANS coherent scattering cross section I(Q) on the molecular architecture of single polyelectrolyte. The key finding is that for a given concentration, star polyelectrolytes exhibit more pronounced characteristic peaks in I(Q), and the position of the first peak occurs at a smaller Q compared to their linear counterparts. Based on a model of integral equation theory, we first compare the SANS experimental I(Q) of salt-free polyelectrolyte solutions with that predicted theoretically. Having seen their satisfactory qualitative agreement, the dependence of counterion association behavior on polyelectrolyte geometry and concentration is further explored. Our predictions reveal that the ionic environment of polyelectrolyte exhibits a strong dependence on polyelectrolyte geometry at lower polyelectrolyte concentration. However, when both linear and star polyelectrolytes exceed their overlap concentrations, the spatial distribution of counterion is found to be essentially insensitive to polyelectrolyte geometry due to the steric effect.
Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M
Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...
Green, A.; Sortso, C.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup
We present an investigation of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes in Denmark 2000 through 2011. The Diabetes Impact Study 2013 is based on all registrants in the Danish National Diabetes Register as of July 3rd 2013 (n=497,232). Record linkage with the Danish...... National Patient Register was used to defining the first date of experiencing a cardiovascular event by means of a discharge diagnosis and/or having performed a coronary bypass operation or revascularization of the coronary arteries. The proportion of patients with already established CVD at the diagnosis...
Religion, spirituality and cardiovascular disease: research, clinical implications, and opportunities in Brazil Religião, espiritualidade e doença cardiovascular: pesquisa, implicações clínicas e oportunidades no Brasil
Fernando A. Lucchese
Full Text Available In this paper we comprehensively review published quantitative research on the relationship between religion, spirituality (R/S, and cardiovascular (CV disease, discuss mechanisms that help explain the associations reported, examine the clinical implications of those findings, and explore future research needed in Brazil on this topic. First, we define the terms religion, spirituality, and secular humanism. Next, we review research examining the relationships between R/S and CV risk factors (smoking, alcohol/drug use, physical inactivity, poor diet, cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, and psychosocial stress. We then review research on R/S, cardiovascular functions (CV reactivity, heart rate variability, etc., and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IFN-γ, CRP, fibrinogen, IL-4, IL-10. Next we examine research on R/S and coronary artery disease, hypertension, stroke, dementia, cardiac surgery outcomes, and mortality (CV mortality in particular. We then discuss mechanisms that help explain these relationships (focusing on psychological, social, and behavioral pathways and present a theoretical causal model based on a Western religious perspective. Next we discuss the clinical applications of the research, and make practical suggestions on how cardiologists and cardiac surgeons can sensitively and sensibly address spiritual issues in clinical practice. Finally, we explore opportunities for future research. No research on R/S and cardiovascular disease has yet been published from Brazil, despite the tremendous interest and involvement of the population in R/S, making this an area of almost unlimited possibilities for researchers in Brazil.
Struthers, Roxanne; Savik, Kay; Hodge, Felicia Schanche
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the number one killer of American women. Consequently, CVD is a concern for all women, including ethnic women. However, little is known about CVD behaviors and responses to CVD symptomology among minority women, especially American Indian women. Response behaviors to chest pain require important actions. This article examines response behaviors to chest pain in a group of American Indian women participants of the Inter-Tribal Heart Project. In 1992 to 1994, 866 American Indian women, aged 22 years and older, participated in face-to-face interviews to answer survey questions on multiple areas related to cardiovascular disease on 3 rural reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin. A secondary data analysis was conducted on selected variables including demographic characteristics, healthcare access, rating of health status, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease, and action in response to crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. Research findings report that 68% of women would actively seek healthcare immediately if experiencing crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. However, 264 women (32%) would take a passive action to crushing chest pain, with 23% reporting they would sit down and wait until it passed. Analysis revealed women reporting a passive response were younger in age (under age 45) and had less education (less than a high school education). These findings have implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working in rural, geographically isolated Indian reservations. How to present CVD education in a culturally appropriate manner remains a challenge. PMID:15191257
Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C
Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in
James A. Ker
Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...
Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard
More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the
Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse
Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...
Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...
Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L.; Narula, J.
Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)
Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)
Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)
In this thesis, a methodology for the detection of anomalies in the cardiovascular system is presented. The cardiovascular system is one of the most fascinating and complex physiological systems. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. For instance, an estimate of 17.3 million people died in 2008 from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to modeling the cardiovascular system in order to better understand its behavior and find new reliable diagnosis techniques. The lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system proposed in  is restructured using a hybrid systems approach in order to include a discrete input vector that represents the influence of the mitral and aortic valves in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Parting from this model, a Taylor expansion around the nominal values of a vector of parameters is conducted. This expansion serves as the foundation for a component fault detection process to detect changes in the physiological parameters of the cardiovascular system which could be associated with cardiovascular anomalies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm, high blood pressure, etc. An Extended Kalman Filter is used in order to achieve a joint estimation of the state vector and the changes in the considered parameters. Finally, a bank of filters is, as in , used in order to detect the appearance of heart valve diseases, particularly stenosis and regurgitation. The first numerical results obtained are presented.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...
Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana H
Although acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare occurrences in athletics, cardiovascular accidents do occur. This manuscript presents information on the cardiovascular risks in athletics. In addition, information is provided on screening for cardiovascular risk - including history taking, chart review, physical examination - and the appropriate guidelines on the treatment of athletes found to be at risk. For the purpose of this article, the sport of ice hockey is used to illustrate the subject matter and highlight the behaviors in sport that carry cardiovascular risk. Physical therapists have ethical and legal responsibility to undertake the necessary screening procedures to recognize and respond to any signs of cardiovascular risk in their clients.
Berciano, Silvia; Ordovás, José M
A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A
Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629
Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole
An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy...... considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and secondary CVD...
Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J
, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....
... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...
Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle
Sarah L. Chellappa
Full Text Available Light impinging on the retina fulfils a dual function: it serves for vision and it is required for proper entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system to the 24-h day, thus influencing behaviors that promote health and optimal quality of life but are independent of image formation. The circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei modulates the cardiovascular system with an intrinsic ability to anticipate morning solar time and with a circadian nature of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we infer that light exposure might affect cardiovascular function and provide evidence from existing research. Findings show a time-of-day dependent increase in relative sympathetic tone associated with bright light in the morning but not in the evening hours. Furthermore, dynamic light in the early morning hours can reduce the deleterious sleep-to-wake evoked transition on cardiac modulation. On the contrary, effects of numerous light parameters, such as illuminance level and wavelength of monochromatic light, on cardiac function are mixed. Therefore, in future research studies, light modalities, such as timing, duration, and its wavelength composition, should be taken in to account when testing the potential of light as a non-invasive countermeasure for adverse cardiovascular events.
Perez, Adriana; Fleury, Julie; Shearer, Nelma
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanic women has been substantiated across studies. While many studies have focused on the impact of these risk factors, few qualitative studies have addressed cultural and contextual meanings of cardiovascular health promotion in this population. This research explored cultural resources for cardiovascular health promotion among older Hispanic women. A qualitative descriptive methodological design using focus groups with 7 Hispanic women was used. Culture provided an overarching perspective, guiding identification and choice of resources and supports in order to promote cardiovascular health. Themes included Living Tradition, Caring for Family, Connecting with Friends, Having Faith, and Moving as Life. Data provide an initial step toward generating a more complete understanding of perceived cultural resources for cardiovascular health in older Hispanic women. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing that individuals, families and communities uniquely define cultural and contextual meaning of cardiovascular health promotion.
Facing with various kinds of'starvation marketing'retail strategy,customers usually need to trade off between buying product immediately and waiting for the sale.Most of the customers tend to make decisions of'risk-averse',showing the bounded rationality of strategic consumer behavior.This behavior has a significant impact on the supply chain operations management and optimization decisions.Studying the bounded rational behavior of strategic consumers and its impacts on the supply chain optimization decisions has an important theoretical and practical value.Rational expectation utility theory,prospect theory,strategic consumer behavior theory and contract theory are comprehensively applied to study this issue in the paper.The centralized decision and contract coordination model of the short-fife-cycle product supply chain considering the strategic consumers are respectively built under the perspective of rational expectation utility theory(RET) and prospect theory(PT),and the corresponding numerical comparing analysis with the empirical parameters from Kahneman & Tversky is conducted in this paper.The results show that:(1) Given the same promotion price,the optimal retail price under the perspective of PT is higher than that under the perspective of RET,the optimal ordering quantity under the perspective of PT is lower than that under the perspective of RET,the optimal profit of the whole supply chain and its members under the perspective of PT are higher than that under the perspective of RET,and the strategic consumers' optimal net utility under the perspective of PT are lower than that under the perspective of RET.(2) Under the perspective of RET,as the promotion price increases,the optimal retail price decreases,the optimal ordering quantity increases,the supply chain's and its member's optimal profit decrease,and the strategic consumer's optimal net utility increases.(3) Under the perspective of PT,when the promotional price is lower than cost,as the promotion
Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David
Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.
Toward a panoramic perspective of the association between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease: An environment-wide association study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014.
Zhuang, Xiaodong; Guo, Yue; Ni, Ao; Yang, Daya; Liao, Lizhen; Zhang, Shaozhao; Zhou, Huimin; Sun, Xiuting; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Xueqin; Liao, Xinxue
An environment-wide association study (EWAS) may be useful to comprehensively test and validate associations between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an unbiased manner. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2014) were randomly 50:50 spilt into training set and testing set. CVD was ascertained by a self-reported diagnosis of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease or stroke. We performed multiple linear regression analyses associating 203 environmental factors and 132 clinical phenotypes with CVD in training set (false discovery rate multicollinearity elimination and variable importance ranking. Discriminative power of factors for CVD was calculated by area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Overall, 43,568 participants with 4084 (9.4%) CVD were included. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, blood pressure and socio-economic level, we identified 5 environmental variables and 19 clinical phenotypes associated with CVD in training and testing dataset. Top five factors in RF importance ranking were: waist, glucose, uric acid, and red cell distribution width and glycated hemoglobin. AUROC of the RF model was 0.816 (top 5 factors) and 0.819 (full model). Sensitivity analyses reveal no specific moderators of the associations. Our systematic evaluation provides new knowledge on the complex array of environmental correlates of CVD. These identified correlates may serve as a complementary approach to CVD risk assessment. Our findings need to be probed in further observational and interventional studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)
Pettit, Stephen J; Fisher, Michael; Gallagher, James A; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R
The cardiovascular manifestations of alkaptonuria relate to deposition of ochronotic pigment within heart valves, endocardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. We assessed 16 individuals with alkaptonuria for cardiovascular disease, including full electrocardiographic and echocardiographic assessment. The self reported prevalence of valvular heart disease and coronary artery disease was low. There was a significant burden of previously undiagnosed aortic valve disease, reaching a prevalence of over 40% by the fifth decade of life. The aortic valve disease was found to increase in both prevalence and severity with advancing age. In contrast to previous reports, we did not find a significant burden of mitral valve disease or coronary artery disease. These findings are important for the clinical follow-up of patients with alkaptonuria and suggest a role for echocardiographic surveillance of patients above 40 years old.
Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.
Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova
Full Text Available Meticulous attention is paid to the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the so-called selective cyclooxy-genase 2 (COX-2 inhibitors in particular. The author considers precisely this matter in case of Russia's recent NSAID etoricoxib that has been tested along with other most studied medications from this group, by applying one of the latest meta-analyses. The EULAR recommendations to use NSAIDs are given.
Sampaio, Hélia; Capitão, Sandra; Ferro-Lebres, Vera
An elevated predominance of the risk factors associated to the illnesses of the circulatory system, particurily hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension aim for a special attention to its prevention. This way, the composition of the digested food daily can influence the sprouting of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), which has shown association between the risk factors and the things we consume. The present study had an objective to identify the influential factors of social economics...
Corti, R; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F
Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...
Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek
In this study three problems concerning interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular system are discussed. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pleural effusion, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension may be consequences of thyroid disorders leading to inappropriate hormone secretion. During such illnesses as heart failure, myocardial infarction and in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery profound changes may occur in thyroid hormone metabolism known as sick euthyroid syndrome. Treatment with amiodarone may lead to changes in thyroid tests results and to development of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis.
Lee, Kyung Han
Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field
Raaby, Line; Ahlehoff, Ole; de Thurah, Annette
So far, systematic reviews have suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in psoriatic patients, though some results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to update the current level of evidence through a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central...... Register databases. In total, 13 high-quality observational studies estimating the incidence of CVD were included. Patients with mild psoriasis had an increased risk of stroke [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.0-1.19] and myocardial infarction (MI) (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.35), but not cardiovascular...... death. The risks of both stroke (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.60), MI (HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.18-2.43) and cardiovascular death (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67) were increased in patients with severe psoriasis. In conclusion, this updated meta-analysis confirmed that patients with psoriasis have an increased...
Mellova Amir Masrizal
Full Text Available Obesity is performed by genetic, environmental, and complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Fatness levels in obese children are indicative of increased risk for elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, and lipoprotein ratios children and adolescents. Serum cholesterol and blood pressure are related to raise atherosclerotic lesion. Certain cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese children are related to the earliest stages of atherosclerosis disease. Obese children have the high risk factors of certain cardiovascular disease. Genetic factors affecting metabolic rate can be successfully managed by the introduction of environmental factors such as decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity. The treatment of obesity and of atherosclerotic patients should include dietary restriction (protein sparing modified fast and hypocaloric balanced diet, nutrition education, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and familial support. Success fully management of obesity can improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity.
Galinsky, Adam D; Wang, Cynthia S; Ku, Gillian
Nine studies demonstrated that perspective-takers are particularly likely to adopt a target's positive and negative stereotypical traits and behaviors. Perspective-takers rated both positive and negative stereotypic traits of targets as more self-descriptive. As a result, taking the perspective of a professor led to improved performance on an analytic task, whereas taking the perspective of a cheerleader led to decreased performance, in line with the respective stereotypes of professors and cheerleaders. Similarly, perspective-takers of an elderly target competed less compared to perspective-takers of an African American target. Including the stereotype in the self (but not liking of the target) mediated the effects of perspective-taking on behavior, suggesting that cognitive and not affective processes drove the behavioral effects. These effects occurred using a measure and multiple manipulations of perspective-taking, as well as a panoply of stereotypes, establishing the robustness of the link between perspective-taking and stereotypical behavior. The findings support theorizing (A. D. Galinsky, G. Ku, & C. S. Wang, 2005) that perspective-takers utilize information, including stereotypes, to coordinate their behavior with others and provide key theoretical insights into the processes of both perspective-taking and behavioral priming. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Cima, R F F
Tinnitus is not traceable to a single disease or pathology, but merely a symptom, which is distressing to some but not all individuals able to perceive it. The experience of tinnitus does not equate to tinnitus distress. Tinnitus suffering might be understood as a function of tinnitus-related
Yedururi, Sireesha; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Gladish, Gregory W. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Vallabhaneni, Srilakshmi [Medstar Harbor Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Anderson, Peter M. [Levine Children' s Hospital/Levine Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatrics Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Carolinas Healthcare System, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hughes, Dennis; Daw, Najat C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Wei-Lien [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States)
Although hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. The enhanced resolution of modern CT and MRI scanners may lead to better detection of cardiovascular involvement. To describe the key imaging findings and clinical behavior of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings and clinical characteristics of 20 patients with cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma identified by two pediatric radiologists from a review of imaging studies at our institution from 2007 to 2013. At initial diagnosis, the median age of the patients was 15.1 years (range 4.8-24.6 years), and 7 (35%) patients had detectable metastases. Median time to detection of cardiovascular metastases was 1.8 years (range 0-7.3 years). Sixteen patients died of disease; 4 have survived a median of 7.4 years since initial diagnosis. The sites of cardiovascular involvement were the systemic veins draining the primary and metastatic osteosarcoma, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins draining the pulmonary metastases, and heart. A dilated and mineralized terminal pulmonary arteriole is an early sign of metastatic osteosarcoma in the lung. Unfamiliarity with the imaging features resulted in under-recognition and misinterpretation of intravascular tumor thrombus as bland thrombus. Knowledge of imaging findings in the era of modern imaging modalities has enhanced our ability to detect cardiovascular involvement and lung metastases early and avoid misinterpreting tumor thrombus in draining systemic veins or pulmonary arteries as bland thrombus. (orig.)
Yedururi, Sireesha; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Gladish, Gregory W.; Vallabhaneni, Srilakshmi; Anderson, Peter M.; Hughes, Dennis; Daw, Najat C.; Wang, Wei-Lien
Although hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. The enhanced resolution of modern CT and MRI scanners may lead to better detection of cardiovascular involvement. To describe the key imaging findings and clinical behavior of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings and clinical characteristics of 20 patients with cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma identified by two pediatric radiologists from a review of imaging studies at our institution from 2007 to 2013. At initial diagnosis, the median age of the patients was 15.1 years (range 4.8-24.6 years), and 7 (35%) patients had detectable metastases. Median time to detection of cardiovascular metastases was 1.8 years (range 0-7.3 years). Sixteen patients died of disease; 4 have survived a median of 7.4 years since initial diagnosis. The sites of cardiovascular involvement were the systemic veins draining the primary and metastatic osteosarcoma, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins draining the pulmonary metastases, and heart. A dilated and mineralized terminal pulmonary arteriole is an early sign of metastatic osteosarcoma in the lung. Unfamiliarity with the imaging features resulted in under-recognition and misinterpretation of intravascular tumor thrombus as bland thrombus. Knowledge of imaging findings in the era of modern imaging modalities has enhanced our ability to detect cardiovascular involvement and lung metastases early and avoid misinterpreting tumor thrombus in draining systemic veins or pulmonary arteries as bland thrombus. (orig.)
Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Allen, P.A. [Life Link, Richland, WA (United States)
A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.
von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.
Ocampo, José M; Gutiérrez, Javier
El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inot...
Seymour, Roger S
Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head? ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.
Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.
Foxall, Gordon R.
This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…
Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.
Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833
Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health
Maria Carolina Gongora
Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.
Seymour, R A; Preshaw, P M; Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Steele, J G
Cardiovascular diseases represent a widespread heterogeneous group of conditions that have significant morbidity and mortality. The various diseases and their treatments can have an impact upon the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. In this paper we consider three main topics and explore their relationship to the periodontist and the provision of periodontal treatment. The areas reviewed include the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the periodontium and management of patients with periodontal diseases; the risk of infective endocarditis arising from periodontal procedures; the inter-relationship between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers cause gingival overgrowth and tooth demineralisation, respectively. Evidence suggests that stopping anticoagulant therapy prior to periodontal procedures is putting patients at a greater risk of thromboembolic disorders compared to the risk of prolonged bleeding. The relationship between dentistry and infective endocarditis remains a controversial issue. It would appear that spontaneous bacteraemia arising from a patient's oral hygiene practices is more likely to be the cause of endocarditis than one-off periodontal procedures. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis is uncertain (and unlikely to be proven), and the risk of death from penicillin appears to be greater than the risk of death arising from infective endocarditis. Finally, the association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease has been explored and there seem to be many issues with respect to data handling interpretation. Many putative mechanisms have been suggested; however, these only further highlight the need for intervention studies.
Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda
Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Eman M. Alissa
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.
Dusi, Veronica; Ghidoni, Alice; Ravera, Alice; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Calvillo, Laura
Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the autonomic nervous system. In this paper we will describe the single chemokines more involved in heart diseases; then we will present a comprehensive perspective of them as a complex network connecting the cardiovascular system to both the immune and the autonomic nervous systems. Finally, some recent evidences indicating chemokines as a possible new tool to predict cardiovascular risk will be described. PMID:27242392
Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine
Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...
Kjøllesdal, M. K. R.; Ariansen, I.; Mortensen, L. H.
Aims: To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974–2003) were linked...
Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J
cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes....