WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular applications inherent

  1. A compact, inherently safe liquid metal reactor plant concept for terrestrial defense power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact, inherently safe, liquid metal reactor concept based on the GE PRISM innovative LMR design has been developed for terrestrial defense power applications in the 2-50 MWe range. The concept uses a small, sodium-cooled, U-5%Zr metal fueled reactor contained within two redundant steel vessels. The core is designed to operate at a low power density and temperature (925 F) and can operate 30 years without refueling. One two primary coolant loops, depending upon the plant size, transport heat from the core to sodium-to-air, double-wall heat exchangers. Power is produced by a gas turbine operated in a closed ''bottoming'' cycle that employs intercoolers between the compressor stages and a recuperator. Inherent safety is provided by passive means only; operator action is not required to ensure plant safety even for events normally considered Beyond Design Basis Accidents. In addition to normal shutdown heat removal via the sodium-to-air heat exchangers, the design utilizes an inherently passive radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system similar to that designed for PRISM. The use of an air cycle gas turbine eliminates the cost and complexity of the sodium-water reactor pressure relief system required for a steam cycle sodium-cooled reactor

  2. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design. PMID:18406519

  3. Conceptual design of a passive, inherently safe emergency shutdown rod for high-temperature reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a passive, inherently safe, and fail-safe design for an emergency control rod is presented. The functioning of the rod is based solely on inexorable physical laws. The operation of the rod in its emergency function does not require the intervention of a human operator, nor does it rely on any signal from a monitoring or safety system. Although the concept could be applicable to a variety of reactors (provided a normal temperature range is specified), in this paper, the concept is applied to the emergency shutdown of a pebble-bed reactor. The preliminary study presented here demonstrates that the proposed Electro-Magnetic Optimally Scramming Control Rod (EM-OSCR) naturally operates when needed. The rod is held out of the core region by the force of an electromagnet. The force is generated by a current carried by a conductor, a portion of which passes near or through the reactor core region. When the temperature in the conductor increases because of an increase in temperature in the reactor, the conductor resistivity increases. This, in turn, leads to a current decrease. When the current decreases below the level necessary to hold the rod up, the rod is released and it falls into the core under the effect of gravity. (author)

  4. ECM-based materials in cardiovascular applications: Inherent healing potential and augmentation of native regenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterina, Anna V; Cloonan, Aidan J; Meaney, Claire L; Davis, Laura M; Callanan, Anthony; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M

    2009-10-01

    The in vivo healing process of vascular grafts involves the interaction of many contributing factors. The ability of vascular grafts to provide an environment which allows successful accomplishment of this process is extremely difficult. Poor endothelisation, inflammation, infection, occlusion, thrombosis, hyperplasia and pseudoaneurysms are common issues with synthetic grafts in vivo. Advanced materials composed of decellularised extracellular matrices (ECM) have been shown to promote the healing process via modulation of the host immune response, resistance to bacterial infections, allowing re-innervation and reestablishing homeostasis in the healing region. The physiological balance within the newly developed vascular tissue is maintained via the recreation of correct biorheology and mechanotransduction factors including host immune response, infection control, homing and the attraction of progenitor cells and infiltration by host tissue. Here, we review the progress in this tissue engineering approach, the enhancement potential of ECM materials and future prospects to reach the clinical environment. PMID:20057951

  5. ECM-Based Materials in Cardiovascular Applications: Inherent Healing Potential and Augmentation of Native Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Callanan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo healing process of vascular grafts involves the interaction of many contributing factors. The ability of vascular grafts to provide an environment which allows successful accomplishment of this process is extremely difficult. Poor endothelisation, inflammation, infection, occlusion, thrombosis, hyperplasia and pseudoaneurysms are common issues with synthetic grafts in vivo. Advanced materials composed of decellularised extracellular matrices (ECM have been shown to promote the healing process via modulation of the host immune response, resistance to bacterial infections, allowing re-innervation and reestablishing homeostasis in the healing region. The physiological balance within the newly developed vascular tissue is maintained via the recreation of correct biorheology and mechanotransduction factors including host immune response, infection control, homing and the attraction of progenitor cells and infiltration by host tissue. Here, we review the progress in this tissue engineering approach, the enhancement potential of ECM materials and future prospects to reach the clinical environment.

  6. Plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers – application to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Beck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an unmet need for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite this only few biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of cardiovascular diseases have been implemented in the clinic. Thousands of proteins can be analysed in plasma by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies. Therefore, this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead to the discovery of novel cardiovascular biomarkers.

  7. How to Conduct Research on the Inherent Moral Significance of Teaching: A Phenomenological Elaboration of the Standard Repertory Grid Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kan, Carlos A.; Ponte, Petra; Verloop, Nico

    2010-01-01

    George Kelly's repertory grid application seems a promising method for researching the moral significance of teaching from a "life world" perspective. However, we encountered several challenges employing the repertory grid in its standard form for an inquiry into the inherent moral significance of teachers' everyday classroom interactions. In this…

  8. Plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers - Application to cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Overgaard, Martin; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars

    , this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead......There is an unmet need for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite this only few biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of cardiovascular diseases have been implemented in the clinic. Thousands of proteins can be analysed in plasma by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies. Therefore...

  9. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface. PMID:27379462

  10. Inherent change in MammoSite applicator three-dimensional geometry over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is commonly done with the MammoSite applicator, which requires symmetry to treat the patient. This paper describes three cases that were asymmetric when initially placed and became symmetric over time, without manipulation

  11. Polycaprolactone nanowire surfaces as interfaces for cardiovascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczak, Victoria

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading killer of people worldwide. Current treatments include organ transplants, surgery, metabolic products and mechanical/synthetic implants. Of these, mechanical and synthetic implants are the most promising. However, rejection of cardiovascular implants continues to be a problem, eliciting a need for understanding the mechanisms behind tissue-material interaction. Recently, bioartificial implants, consisting of synthetic tissue engineering scaffolds and cells, have shown great promise for cardiovascular repair. An ideal cardiovascular implant surface must be capable of adhering cells and providing appropriate physiological responses while the native tissue integrates with the scaffold. However, the success of these implants is not only dependent on tissue integration but also hemocompatibility (interaction of material with blood components), a property that depends on the surface of the material. A thorough understanding of the interaction of cardiovascular cells and whole blood and its components with the material surface is essential in order to have a successful application which promotes healing as well as native tissue integration and regeneration. The purpose of this research is to study polymeric nanowire surfaces as potential interfaces for cardiovascular applications by investigating cellular response as well as hemocompatibility.

  12. Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Christof; Klose, Kristin; Choi, Yeong-Hoon

    Regenerative medicine encompasses "tissue engineering" - the in vitro fabrication of tissues and/or organs using scaffold material and viable cells - and "cell therapy" - the transplantation or manipulation of cells in diseased tissue in vivo. In the cardiovascular system, tissue engineering strategies are being pursued for the development of viable replacement blood vessels, heart valves, patch material, cardiac pacemakers and contractile myocardium. Anecdotal clinical applications of such vessels, valves and patches have been described, but information on systematic studies of the performance of such implants is not available, yet. Cell therapy for cardiovascular regeneration, however, has been performed in large series of patients, and numerous clinical studies have produced sometimes conflicting results. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the clinical experience with cell therapy for diseases of the cardiovascular system, and to analyse possible factors that may influence its outcome.

  13. Biomaterials in Cardiovascular Research: Applications and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular biomaterials (CB dominate the category of biomaterials based on the demand and investments in this field. This review article classifies the CB into three major classes, namely, metals, polymers, and biological materials and collates the information about the CB. Blood compatibility is one of the major criteria which limit the use of biomaterials for cardiovascular application. Several key players are associated with blood compatibility and they are discussed in this paper. To enhance the compatibility of the CB, several surface modification strategies were in use currently. Some recent applications of surface modification technology on the materials for cardiovascular devices were also discussed for better understanding. Finally, the current trend of the CB, endothelization of the cardiac implants and utilization of induced human pluripotent stem cells (ihPSCs, is also presented in this review. The field of CB is growing constantly and many new investigators and researchers are developing interest in this domain. This review will serve as a one stop arrangement to quickly grasp the basic research in the field of CB.

  14. Microarray, SAGE and their applications to cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The wealth of DNA data generated by the human genome project coupling with recently invented high-throughput gene expression profiling techniques has dramatically sped up the process for biomedical researchers on elucidating the role of genes in human diseases. One powerful method to reveal insight into gene functions is the systematic analysis of gene expression. Two popular high-throughput gene expression technologies, microarray and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) are capable of producing large amounts of gene expression data with the potential of providing novel insights into fundamental disease processes, especially complex syndromes such as cardiovascular disease, whose etiologies are due to multiple genetic factors and their interplay with the environment. Microarray and SAGE have already been used to examine gene expression patterns of cell-culture, animal and human tissues models of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will first give a brief introduction of microarray and SAGE technologies and point out their limitations. We will then discuss the major discoveries and the new biological insightsthat have emerged from their applications to cardiovascular diseases. Finally we will touch upon potential challenges and future developments in this area.

  15. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma RK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma, Donald J Voelker, Roma Sharma, Hanumanth K ReddyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Medical Center of South Arkansas, El Dorado, AR, USAAbstract: Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: stem cell therapy, stem cell delivery, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy

  16. The inherence heuristic is inherent in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, J A

    2014-01-01

    [Open Peer Commentary] The inherence heuristic is too broad as a theoretical notion. The authors are at risk of applying their own heuristic in supporting itself. Nonetheless the article provides useful insight into the ways in which people overestimate the coherence and completeness of their understanding of the world.

  17. TrueFISP - technical considerations and cardiovascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences was described in the early years of MR imaging. However, due to hardware imperfections, these techniques were not robust enough at the time to play any significant role in clinical MRI. More recently, significant hardware improvements became widely available, and the SSFP sequences such as TrueFISP (true fast imaging with steady-state precession) became very popular for a variety of clinical applications due to the distinct improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The purpose of this article is to give an overview on the basics of TrueFISP imaging and to demonstrate its potential for current clinical applications with a focus on cardiovascular MRI

  18. Biodegradable Metals for Cardiovascular Stent Application: Interests and New Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moravej

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, biodegradable metallic stents have been developed and investigated as alternatives for the currently-used permanent cardiovascular stents. Degradable metallic materials could potentially replace corrosion-resistant metals currently used for stent application as it has been shown that the role of stenting is temporary and limited to a period of 6–12 months after implantation during which arterial remodeling and healing occur. Although corrosion is generally considered as a failure in metallurgy, the corrodibility of certain metals can be an advantage for their application as degradable implants. The candidate materials for such application should have mechanical properties ideally close to those of 316L stainless steel which is the gold standard material for stent application in order to provide mechanical support to diseased arteries. Non-toxicity of the metal itself and its degradation products is another requirement as the material is absorbed by blood and cells. Based on the mentioned requirements, iron-based and magnesium-based alloys have been the investigated candidates for biodegradable stents. This article reviews the recent developments in the design and evaluation of metallic materials for biodegradable stents. It also introduces the new metallurgical processes which could be applied for the production of metallic biodegradable stents and their effect on the properties of the produced metals.

  19. Dextran grafting on PTFE surface for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eléonore C; Montaño-Machado, Vanessa; Chevallier, Pascale; Labbé-Barrère, Amélie; Letourneur, Didier; Mantovani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The modification of biomaterial surfaces with biomolecules influences the biological response. In this work, caboxymethyldextrans (CMD) with different degrees of substitution have been grafted to surfaces by introduction of amino moieties directly onto the substrate surface. Polytetrafluoroethylene was selected as a model substrate for biomaterial as it is already largely used for cardiovascular clinical applications. Firstly, CMD polymers were characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and conductimetric titration. Then, the coatings have been analyzed by XPS to confirm the grafting and determine the composition. Once characterized, biological performances of CMD coatings were investigated. The hemocompatibility was ascertained using the free hemoglobin method. The effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell adhesion were also studied. Results indicated that CMD at a 0.2 substitution degree, significantly influenced the biological property of PTFE by exhibiting non-thrombogenic properties as well as enhancing endothelial cell adhesion along with limiting smooth muscle cell adhesion. This work suggested the creation of versatile pro-active biomaterials suitable for different biomedical applications. PMID:25482414

  20. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  1. Triflate-functionalized calix[6]arenes as versatile building-blocks: application to the synthesis of an inherently chiral Zn(ii) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahim, Sara; Lavendomme, Roy; Reinaud, Olivia; Luhmer, Michel; Evano, Gwilherm; Jabin, Ivan

    2016-02-14

    Cavity-based metal complexes can find many applications notably in the fields of catalysis and biomimicry. In this context, it was shown that metal complexes of calix[6]arenes bearing three aza-coordinating arms at the small rim provide excellent structural models of the poly-imidazole sites found in the active site of many metallo-enzymes. All these N-donor ligands were synthesized from the 1,3,5-tris-methoxy-p-tBu-calix[6]arene platform, which presents some limitations in terms of functionalization. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new calix[6]arene-based building-blocks selectively protected at the small rim. Herein we describe the regioselective one step synthesis of two calix[6]arenes decorated with triflate groups, i.e. X6H4Tf2 and X6H3Tf3, from the parent calix[6]arene X6H6. It is shown that the triflate groups can either act as protecting or deactivating groups, allowing the elaboration of sophisticated calixarene-based systems selectively functionalized at the large and/or at the small rim. In addition, X6H3Tf3 is functionalized on the A, B, and D rings and thus gives access to inherently chiral compounds, as demonstrated by the synthesis of a rare example of inherently chiral cavity-based metal complex. PMID:26751614

  2. Cardiovascular simulator as a tool for remote training application.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof, ZielińSki; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Fresiello, Libera; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Kozarski, Maciej; PałKo, Krzysztof J; G?rczyńSka, Krystyna; Darowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Development of a tool, based on a website interface, for remote training by embedding remote control and visualization abilities in the cardiovascular Simulator (CS) built at IBBE-PAS in the frame of SensorART project. Materials & Methods: A developed CS, physically connectable with a rotary continuous blood pump for left ventricular assistance (LVAD) will be adjusted for training purpose in order to be controlled "locally" as well as "remotely". Variables like Aortic Blood Pressu...

  3. Role and applications of circulatory models in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Gianfranco; Kozarski, Maciej; Lazzari, Claudio,; Gorczynska, Krystyna; Palko, Jakub K.; K Zielinski; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Darowski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Circulatory models are relevant for research, education and prosthetic devices/components testing. Independently of its structure that can be numerical, physical or hybrid, the models can be used in different areas of cardiovascular pathophysiology. However, the models are often used to reproduce specific circulatory conditions instead of being used as "systemic" tools. That is to say, the models are used to evaluate the global effects of external disturbances such as pathologies, therapies, ...

  4. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  5. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear deterrence: Inherent escalation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite 40 years of peace between the super powers, there is increasing clamor to the effect that nuclear war between the super powers is imminent; or could occur through escalation from a minor conflict; or could result from harsh rhetoric (but only on the part of the U.S.) in the super power dialogue. The factor that is ignored is that a massive nuclear attack would be rational ONLY if that attack could inflict such damage that the other super power could not launch a significant retaliatory nuclear attack. ONLY in this circumstance would there be any profit in launching an initial Strategic Nuclear Attack. This First Strike capability is not now possessed nor projected to be developed by either super power. As long as ANY possible Strategic Nuclear Attack against the national territory of one super power would be insufficient to prevent an equally destructive retaliatory attack, then a Strategic Nuclear Attack would inevitably result in the destruction of both and would be profitless, hence, pointless. This situation describes Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), the governing conflict paradigm applicable to both super powers. The only convential attack that would even remotely rival the national-destruction potential of a Strategic Nuclear Attack and could cause the attacked power to consider launching a retaliatory Strategic Nuclear Attack would be a massive land-air invasion/occupation of one super power by the other. Since neither super power can successfully execute such a conventional invasion/occupation, this situation is moot. The geo-political environments of the two super powers are so asymmetrical and their military positions so symmetrical that the probability of ANY forseeable situation resulting in their resorting to a Strategic Nuclear Exchange is vanishingly small. It is possible escape the Chicken-Little syndrome and, instead, devote energy to ensuring the maintenance of this favorable, but fragile, world system

  7. Applications of three-dimensional printing technology in the cardiovascular field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Di; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xin; Liao, Hang; Chen, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology has rapidly developed in the last few decades. Meanwhile, the application of this technology has reached beyond the engineering field and expanded to almost all disciplines, including medicine. There has been much research on the medical applications of 3-D printing in neurosurgery, orthopedics, maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering, as well as other fields. Because of the complexity of the cardiovascular system, the application of this technology is limited and difficult, as compared to other disciplines, and thus there is much room for future development. Many of the difficulties associated with this technology must be overcome. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that 3-D printing technology will benefit patients with cardiovascular diseases in the near future. PMID:26220346

  8. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  9. Direct writing of bio-functional coatings for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica; Hong, Yi; Ye, Sang-Ho; Wagner, William R; Desai, Salil

    2014-12-01

    The surface modification of metallic biomaterials is of critical importance to enhance the biocompatibility of surgical implant materials and devices. This article investigates the use of a direct-write inkjet technique for multilayer coatings of a biodegradable polymer (polyester urethane urea (PEUU)) embedded with an anti-proliferation drug paclitaxel (Taxol). The direct-write inkjet technique provides selective patterning capability for depositing multimaterial coatings on three-dimensional implant devices such as pins, screws, and stents for orthopedic and vascular applications. Drug release profiles were studied to observe the influence of drug loading and coating thickness for obtaining tunable release kinetics. Platelet deposition studies were conducted following ovine blood contact and significant reduction in platelet deposition was observed on the Taxol loaded PEUU substrate compared with the unloaded control. Rat smooth muscle cells were used for cell proliferation studies. Significant reduction in cell growth was observed following the release of anti-proliferative drug from the biopolymer thin film. This research provides a basis for developing anti-proliferative biocompatible coatings for different biomedical device applications. PMID:24497436

  10. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  11. Generation and Assessment of Functional Biomaterial Scaffolds for Applications in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hinderer, Svenja; Brauchle, Eva; Schenke‐Layland, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Current clinically applicable tissue and organ replacement therapies are limited in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine. The available options do not regenerate damaged tissues and organs, and, in the majority of the cases, show insufficient restoration of tissue function. To date, anticoagulant drug‐free heart valve replacements or growing valves for pediatric patients, hemocompatible and thrombus‐free vascular substitutes that are smaller than 6 mm, and stem cell‐recruiting de...

  12. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI Translational Research Network (RTRN Data Coordinating Center (DCC and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Methods: Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha (α were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks. Results: Cronbach’s α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p < 0.0001, fast food restaurants (r = 0.729; p < 0.0001, parks (r = 0.773; p < 0.0001 and sidewalks (r = 0.648; p < 0.0001 within a mile from homes. It was also significantly associated with diversity index (r = 0.138, p = 0.0023, median household incomes (r = −0.181; p < 0.0001, and owner occupied rates (r = −0.440; p < 0.0001. However, its non-significant correlation was found with median age, vulnerability, unemployment rate, labor force, and population growth rate. Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that geospatial data generated by the web-based application were internally consistent and demonstrated satisfactory validity. Therefore, the GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long

  13. Highly accelerated cardiovascular MR imaging using many channel technology: concepts and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niendorf, Thoralf [RWTH Aachen, University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Sodickson, Daniel K. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CVMRI) is of proven clinical value in the non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMRI requires rapid image acquisition, but acquisition speed is fundamentally limited in conventional MRI. Parallel imaging provides a means for increasing acquisition speed and efficiency. However, signal-to-noise (SNR) limitations and the limited number of receiver channels available on most MR systems have in the past imposed practical constraints, which dictated the use of moderate accelerations in CVMRI. High levels of acceleration, which were unattainable previously, have become possible with many-receiver MR systems and many-element, cardiac-optimized RF-coil arrays. The resulting imaging speed improvements can be exploited in a number of ways, ranging from enhancement of spatial and temporal resolution to efficient whole heart coverage to streamlining of CVMRI work flow. In this review, examples of these strategies are provided, following an outline of the fundamentals of the highly accelerated imaging approaches employed in CVMRI. Topics discussed include basic principles of parallel imaging; key requirements for MR systems and RF-coil design; practical considerations of SNR management, supported by multi-dimensional accelerations, 3D noise averaging and high field imaging; highly accelerated clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular imaging applications spanning the range from SNR-rich to SNR-limited; and current trends and future directions. (orig.)

  14. Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mooventhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.

  15. The clinical applications of labelling immunoassay in the cardiovascular disease and its progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disadvantage of radioimmunoassay are radio contamination and can not automate. In the date, the labelling immunoassay (enzyme immunoassay, fluorescent immunoassay, luminescent immunoassay) will eventually replace radioimmunoassay. The author reviews the clinical application of in the cardiovascular disease by labelling immunoassay thyroid hormone (TH), endothelin (ET), cytokine (CK), collagen, amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III pro-collagen (PIII NP), telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), myoglobin (Mb, cytokine isoenzyme cardio-muscle troponin I), growth hormone (GH), c-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125), neuropeptide Y(NPY) and it's progress

  16. Application of the Kalman Filter for Faster Strong Coupling of Cardiovascular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for reducing the computational cost of strong coupling for multiscale cardiovascular simulation models. In such a model, individual model modules of myocardial cell, left ventricular structural dynamics, and circulatory hemodynamics are coupled. The strong coupling method enables stable and accurate calculation, but requires iterative calculations which are computationally expensive. The iterative calculations can be reduced, if accurate initial approximations are made available by predictors. The proposed method uses the Kalman filter to estimate accurate predictions by filtering out noise included in past values. The performance of the proposed method was assessed with an application to a previously published multiscale cardiovascular model. The proposed method reduced the number of iterations by 90% and 62% compared with no prediction and Lagrange extrapolation, respectively. Even when the parameters were varied and number of elements of the left ventricular finite-element model increased, the number of iterations required by the proposed method was significantly lower than that without prediction. These results indicate the robustness, scalability, and validity of the proposed method. PMID:26011898

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeding of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosal Extracellular Matrix for Cardiovascular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Wei; Petrie, Tye; Clark, Alycia; Lin, Xin; Sondergaard, Claus S.; Griffiths, Leigh G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the translational potential of a novel combined construct using an FDA-approved decellularized porcine small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM) seeded with human or porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cardiovascular indications. With the emerging success of individual component in various clinical applications, the combination of SIS-ECM with MSCs could provide additional therapeutic potential compared to individual components alone for cardiovascular repair. We tested the in vitro effects of MSC-seeding on SIS-ECM on resultant construct structure/function properties and MSC phenotypes. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of porcine MSCs to modulate recipient graft-specific response towards SIS-ECM in a porcine cardiac patch in vivo model. Specifically, we determined: 1) in vitro loading-capacity of human MSCs on SIS-ECM, 2) effect of cell seeding on SIS-ECM structure, compositions and mechanical properties, 3) effect of SIS-ECM seeding on human MSC phenotypes and differentiation potential, and 4) optimal orientation and dose of porcine MSCs seeded SIS-ECM for an in vivo cardiac application. In this study, histological structure, biochemical compositions and mechanical properties of the FDA-approved SIS-ECM biomaterial were retained following MSCs repopulation in vitro. Similarly, the cellular phenotypes and differentiation potential of MSCs were preserved following seeding on SIS-ECM. In a porcine in vivo patch study, the presence of porcine MSCs on SIS-ECM significantly reduced adaptive T cell response regardless of cell dose and orientation compared to SIS-ECM alone. These findings substantiate the clinical translational potential of combined SIS-ECM seeded with MSCs as a promising therapeutic candidate for cardiac applications. PMID:27070546

  18. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  19. Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing.

  20. Inherent failure modes of passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    appears also in simulated examples of inherent failures presented in this paper. Those examples were about consequences of foreign material inside the system and functioning of an emergency injection with disturbance in the internal thermodynamic state. The foreign material cases presented show that the cleanliness and maintenance of passive safety systems and their environment is essential and should be cared of during the whole life time of the power plant. Note also that a 'passive system failure' may be more difficult to define than in case of active systems. Inherent failures may result in degraded performance of a passive system instead of a complete failure. Adequacy of degraded performance needs to be evaluated carefully for actual applications. (authors)

  1. Inherent Optical Properties of Natural Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Sathyendranath

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent optical properties of pure seawater and of optically active substances generally present in seawater are briefly reviewed. Interrelationship between inherent properties and some of the important apparent properties are also presented, so that apparent properties can be calculated quite simply, if the inherent properties are known, or vice versa.

  2. Generation and Assessment of Functional Biomaterial Scaffolds for Applications in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Svenja; Brauchle, Eva; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2015-11-18

    Current clinically applicable tissue and organ replacement therapies are limited in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine. The available options do not regenerate damaged tissues and organs, and, in the majority of the cases, show insufficient restoration of tissue function. To date, anticoagulant drug-free heart valve replacements or growing valves for pediatric patients, hemocompatible and thrombus-free vascular substitutes that are smaller than 6 mm, and stem cell-recruiting delivery systems that induce myocardial regeneration are still only visions of researchers and medical professionals worldwide and far from being the standard of clinical treatment. The design of functional off-the-shelf biomaterials as well as automatable and up-scalable biomaterial processing methods are the focus of current research endeavors and of great interest for fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, various approaches that aim to overcome the current limitations are reviewed, focusing on biomaterials design and generation methods for myocardium, heart valves, and blood vessels. Furthermore, novel contact- and marker-free biomaterial and extracellular matrix assessment methods are highlighted. PMID:25778713

  3. Superconducting magnetometry for cardiovascular studies and an application of adaptive filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitive magnetic detectors utilizing Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) have been developed and used for studying the cardiovascular system. The theory of magnetic detection of cardiac currents is discussed, and new experimental data supporting the validity of the theory is presented. Measurements on both humans and dogs, in both health and diseased states, are presented using the new technique, which is termed vector magnetocardiography. In the next section, a new type of superconducting magnetometer with a room temperature pickup is analyzed, and techniques for optimizing its sensitivity to low-frequency sub-microamp currents are presented. Performance of the actual device displays significantly improved sensitivity in this frequency range, and the ability to measure currents in intact, in vivo biological fibers. The final section reviews the theoretical operation of a digital self-optimizing filter, and presents a four-channel software implementation of the system. The application of the adaptive filter to enhancement of geomagnetic signals for earthquake forecasting is discussed, and the adaptive filter is shown to outperform existing techniques in suppressing noise from geomagnetic records.

  4. AFM study of the thrombogenicity of carbon-based coatings for cardiovascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagkiozaki, V. [Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); AHEPA Hospital, 1st Cardiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Logothetidis, S. [Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece)], E-mail: logot@auth.gr; Laskarakis, A. [Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Giannoglou, G. [AHEPA Hospital, 1st Cardiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Lousinian, S. [Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece)

    2008-08-25

    The new nanotechnologies in biomaterials for cardiovascular applications target at surface alterations for prevention of platelets aggregation and subsequent clotting as their usual failure arises from thrombogenicity. Knowledge of structural properties of platelets during their adhesion on nanostructure materials is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their activation and the conventional imaging tools require special preparation of the samples and does not guarantee the viability of the cells. Thus, in this study, the atomic force microscope (AFM) which is a non-destructive and nanoscale precision technique is implemented for the study of platelets' adhesion onto amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) thin films and a methodology is developed. Carbon-based thin films grown by magnetron sputtering under different deposition conditions are considered to meet the requirements for biomedical applications and were selected as well-characterized, case study materials. Platelet rich plasma drawn from healthy donors was used for the study of platelets adhesion onto the a-C:H films. The fourier transform IR phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry (FTIRSE) (900-3500 cm{sup -1}) being a powerful, non-destructive, optical technique was used for the investigation of bonding structure of the adherent platelets onto the a-C:H materials and the contribution of the different vibration bands of the platelet bonding groups was shown and discussed. The effect of nanostructure, surface properties and wettability of the carbon thin films on their thrombogenic potential was verified and it was found that the different deposition conditions determine their structural, surface and biological properties. Thus, the tailoring of surface properties of biomaterials and the informative study of platelets-nanomaterials interactions with AFM and FTIRSE will revolutionize the development of less thrombogenic biomaterials.

  5. Stainless steel surface functionalization for immobilization of antibody fragments for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, A; Hołowacz, I; Sunil Kumar, G B; Anandakumar, S; Wall, J G; Wawrzyńska, M; Paprocka, M; Kantor, A; Kraskiewicz, H; Olsztyńska-Janus, S; Hinder, S J; Bialy, D; Podbielska, H; Kopaczyńska, M

    2016-04-01

    Stainless steel 316 L material is commonly used for the production of coronary and peripheral vessel stents. Effective biofunctionalization is a key to improving the performance and safety of the stents after implantation. This paper reports the method for the immobilization of recombinant antibody fragments (scFv) on stainless steel 316 L to facilitate human endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) growth and thus improve cell viability of the implanted stents for cardiovascular applications. The modification of stent surface was conducted in three steps. First the stent surface was coated with titania based coating to increase the density of hydroxyl groups for successful silanization. Then silanization with 3 aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was performed to provide the surface with amine groups which presence was verified using FTIR, XPS, and fluorescence microscopy. The maximum density of amine groups (4.8*10(-5) mol/cm(2) ) on the surface was reached after reaction taking place in ethanol for 1 h at 60° C and 0.04M APTS. On such prepared surface the glycosylated scFv were subsequently successfully immobilized. The influence of oxidation of scFv glycan moieties and the temperature on scFv coating were investigated. The fluorescence and confocal microscopy study indicated that the densest and most uniformly coated surface with scFv was obtained at 37°C after oxidation of glycan chain. The results demonstrate that the scFv cannot be efficiently immobilized without prior aminosilanization of the surface. The effect of the chemical modification on the cell viability of EPC line 55.1 (HucPEC-55.1) was performed indicating that the modifications to the 316 L stainless steel are non-toxic to EPCs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 821-832, 2016. PMID:26566715

  6. An Energy efficient application specific integrated circuit for electrocardiogram feature detection and its potential for ambulatory cardiovascular disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhaumik, Basabi

    2016-03-01

    A novel algorithm based on forward search is developed for real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing and implemented in application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for QRS complex related cardiovascular disease diagnosis. The authors have evaluated their algorithm using MIT-BIH database and achieve sensitivity of 99.86% and specificity of 99.93% for QRS complex peak detection. In this Letter, Physionet PTB diagnostic ECG database is used for QRS complex related disease detection. An ASIC for cardiovascular disease detection is fabricated using 130-nm CMOS high-speed process technology. The area of the ASIC is 0.5 mm(2). The power dissipation is 1.73 μW at the operating frequency of 1 kHz with a supply voltage of 0.6 V. The output from the ASIC is fed to their Android application that generates diagnostic report and can be sent to a cardiologist through email. Their ASIC result shows average failed detection rate of 0.16% for six leads data of 290 patients in PTB diagnostic ECG database. They also have implemented a low-leakage version of their ASIC. The ASIC dissipates only 45 pJ with a supply voltage of 0.9 V. Their proposed ASIC is most suitable for energy efficient telemetry cardiovascular disease detection system. PMID:27284458

  7. Machine Learning Approach to Extract Diagnostic and Prognostic Thresholds: Application in Prognosis of Cardiovascular Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Luis J.; Orozco, Eber E.; Felix, Vanessa G.; Ostos, Rodolfo; Melgarejo, Jesus; Maestre, Gladys E.

    2012-01-01

    Machine learning has become a powerful tool for analysing medical domains, assessing the importance of clinical parameters, and extracting medical knowledge for outcomes research. In this paper, we present a machine learning method for extracting diagnostic and prognostic thresholds, based on a symbolic classification algorithm called REMED. We evaluated the performance of our method by determining new prognostic thresholds for well-known and potential cardiovascular risk factors that are used to support medical decisions in the prognosis of fatal cardiovascular diseases. Our approach predicted 36% of cardiovascular deaths with 80% specificity and 75% general accuracy. The new method provides an innovative approach that might be useful to support decisions about medical diagnoses and prognoses. PMID:22924062

  8. [Application of nutritional formulare in the dietotherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozheva, A V; Denisova, N N; Derbeneva, S A; Anykina, N V; Kondakova, N M

    2005-01-01

    It was found that the including of nutritional formulae in the dietary therapy for patients with cardiovascular diseases and obesity has been evaluated, had a positive effect on the clinical presentation of disease, lipid metabolism and the dynamic of body composition of patients. PMID:16044839

  9. Biological markers of oxidative stress: Applications to cardiovascular research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common mediator in pathogenicity of established cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, it likely mediates effects of emerging, less well-defined variables that contribute to residual risk not explained by traditional factors. Functional oxidative modifications of cellular proteins, both reversible and irreversible, are a causal step in cellular dysfunction. Identifying markers of oxidative stress has been the focus of many researchers as they have the potential to act as an “integrator” of a multitude of processes that drive cardiovascular pathobiology. One of the major challenges is the accurate quantification of reactive oxygen species with very short half-life. Redox-sensitive proteins with important cellular functions are confined to signalling microdomains in cardiovascular cells and are not readily available for quantification. A popular approach is the measurement of stable by-products modified under conditions of oxidative stress that have entered the circulation. However, these may not accurately reflect redox stress at the cell/tissue level. Many of these modifications are “functionally silent”. Functional significance of the oxidative modifications enhances their validity as a proposed biological marker of cardiovascular disease, and is the strength of the redox cysteine modifications such as glutathionylation. We review selected biomarkers of oxidative stress that show promise in cardiovascular medicine, as well as new methodologies for high-throughput measurement in research and clinical settings. Although associated with disease severity, further studies are required to examine the utility of the most promising oxidative biomarkers to predict prognosis or response to treatment.

  10. The inherent politics of quality in public park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelius; Fors, Hanna; Sullivan, Sidney

    In this paper, we highlight and illustrate the inherent politics embedded in “quality” as a concept for managing public parks. Reflecting more generic quality concepts, contemporary quality models in park management include concepts for both operational, strategic and stakeholder management as well...... managing the park organisation itself. However, quality concepts and their application through various management models include as well as exclude the access, values and worldviews of particular interests. In this way, any particular quality concept and model embeds its own politics by inherent...... can be called upon that offer alternative politics for managing public parks....

  11. Mechanisms of greater cardiomyocyte functions on conductive nanoengineered composites for cardiovascular applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout DA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available David A Stout,1,2 Jennie Yoo,2 Adriana Noemi Santiago-Miranda,3 Thomas J Webster1,41School of Engineering, 2Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagües, PR, 4Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: Recent advances in nanotechnology (materials with at least one dimension between 1 nm and 100 nm have led to the use of nanomaterials in numerous medical device applications. Recently, nanomaterials have been used to create innovative biomaterials for cardiovascular applications. Specifically, carbon nanofibers (CNF embedded in poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA have been shown to promote cardiomyocyte growth compared with conventional polymer substrates, but the mechanisms involved in such events remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the basic mechanism of cell growth on these novel nanocomposites.Methods: CNF were added to biodegradable PLGA (50:50 PGA:PLA weight ratio to increase the conductivity, mechanical and cytocompatibility properties of pure PLGA. For this reason, different PLGA to CNF ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 wt% with different PLGA densities (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 g/mL were used, and their compatibility with cardiomyocytes was assessed.Results: Throughout all the cytocompatibility experiments, cardiomyocytes were viable and expressed important biomarkers, including cardiac troponin T, connexin-43, and alpha-sarcomeric actin (α-SCA. Adhesion and proliferation experiments indicated that a PLGA density of 0.025 g/mL with a PLGA to CNF ratio of 75:25 and 50:50 (wt% promoted the best overall cell growth, ie, a 55% increase in cardiomyocyte density after 120 hours compared with pure PLGA and a 75% increase compared with the control at the same time point for 50:50 (wt%. The PLGA:CNF materials were conductive, and their conductivity increased as greater amounts of CNF

  12. Low drift and high resolution miniature optical fiber combined pressure- and temperature sensor for cardio-vascular and urodynamic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Sannino, Simone; Lupoli, Laura; Ippolito, Juliet; Fusco, Fernando; Mirone, Vincenzo; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-05-01

    The all-glass optical fibre pressure and temperature sensor (OFPTS), present here is a combination of an extrinsic Fabry Perot Interferometer (EFPI) and an fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), which allows a simultaneously measurement of both pressure and temperature. Thermal effects experienced by the EFPI can be compensated by using the FBG. The sensor achieved a pressure measurement resolution of 0.1mmHg with a frame-rate of 100Hz and a low drift rate of sensor has been evaluated using a cardiovascular simulator and additionally has been evaluated in-vivo in a urodynamics application under medical supervision.

  13. Application of Data Mining techniques to relate Cardiovascular Risk and Coronary Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, F. N.; Cymberknop, L. J.; Alfonso, M.; Legnani, W.; Armentano Feijoo, R.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) constitutes a process that allows data sets to be modeled and analyzed in an automated and exploratory manner. In this sense, data mining can be considered the main core of this procedure. Objective: In this study, a classification of clinical subjects (cluster) based on the comparison of parameters associated to cardiovascular risk factors was performed by means of KDD-based algorithms. Materials and Methods: the K-means algorithm, Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering and Kohonen’s Self-organizing Maps were applied to the database in order to obtain relationships based on the dissimilarity of its constitutive fields. Results: Four different clusters were obtained, represented by a group of well-defined clustering rules. Conclusion: KDD can be used to extract relevant data from clinical databases, which are strongly correlated with well-known cardiovascular risk markers.

  14. Cardiovascular changes during induced emotion: an application of lang's theory of emotional imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prkachin, K M; Williams-Avery, R M; Zwaal, C; Mills, D E

    1999-09-01

    Studies of emotion have provided occasional support for physiological differentiation of affective states; however, the evidence has been inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to investigate cardiovascular changes associated with relived experiences of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust and to examine the utility of methods designed to optimize the induction of emotional responses. Thirty-four undergraduates who scored 0.5 sd above the mean on Larsen and Diener's Affect Intensity Measure described their most intense experiences of five emotions. These descriptions were then used to induce those emotions while blood pressure and other hemodynamic measures were monitored. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and stroke volume differentiated among emotions. The results support the suggestion that cardiovascular activity differentiates emotional states and provide some insight into the physiological adjustments subserving such effects. The study demonstrates a method that may be applied to studies of discrete emotions. PMID:10576474

  15. Biological applications of irreversible thermodynamics-human heart and and cardiovascular system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, František; Převorovská, Světlana

    Vol. 2. Gdaňsk : Institute of FluidFlow Machinery PAS, 2001 - (Doerffer, P.), s. 79-102 ISBN 83-88237-35-7. [ISAIF /5./. Gdaňsk (PL), 04.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/99/0625 Grant ostatní: ÚT AV ČR(XC) PP50258 Keywords : thermodynamics * cardiovascular system * numerical simulation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  16. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    OpenAIRE

    Golestani, R.; Wu, C.; Tio, R.A.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Petrov, A.D.; Beekman, F.J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Boersma, H.H.; Slart, R.H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstr...

  17. Potential of Conversion Electron Emitter Tin-117m for Application to Cardiovascular Therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tin-117m has many advantages over other commonly used therapeutic radionuclides, in particular for application to systemic radionuclide therapy of cancer and of cardiovascular diseases. The production of 117mSn labeled molecules is relatively simple and they have high chemical and in-vivo stability. Tin-117m is much less toxic to bone marrow compared to other treatments including chemotherapy, as well as therapy using common beta emitters. It thus offers increased treatment options for patients with chemotherapy- or radiation-induced bone marrow suppression. Tin-117m also shows considerable promise for the non-invasive molecular imaging and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, in particular of occluded coronary arteries and vulnerable plaques through the use of i) coronary stents electroplated with 117mSn, or ii) specific 117mSn labeled molecules systemically targeted to vulnerable plaque components .This paper presents the results of our initial work on the stable electroplating of commonly used stainless steel stents (BMS) with 117mSn, and their use in experimental animal models to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness. Tin-117m has a half-life of 14 days and it emits three major short-range monoenergetic conversion electrons with discrete energies (and discrete ranges in tissue) of 127, 129, and 152 KeV with high linear energy transfer. These conversion electrons deposit their intense energy in discrete ranges in tissue within a distance of between 0.22 mm and 0.29 mm, which closely corresponds with the average thickness of the human coronary arteries. Since inflammatory cells are more radiosensitive than other arterial wall cell types, the conversion electrons may exhibit a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect in diseased coronary arteries, or those that are being treated by revascularization procedures. Since twenty-eight days, corresponding to two half-lives of 117mSn, is believed to be about the optimum period for neoproliferative tissue suppression

  18. Inherent safety and design certification of PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Electric Company has introduced an innovative technological approach to reactor design that, when combined with change in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) practice, will lead to safe and economically competitive fast breeder reactor electric power plants. The key elements in this approach are characteristics in the reactor that will cause it to passively control reactivity and shutdown and passively cool itself without action by the human operators or active devices that require energy supplies external to the reactor module. These characteristics have been called the inherent features or the inherency of the design. They are inherent because they depend on only the material and geometric properties of the reactor module design. Thermal expansion and deflections as well as temperature dependent nuclear properties, such as the Doppler effect, are examples of inherent behavior. Natural convection due to density differences in fluid coolant paths is another example. These characteristics do not depend on active devices that require external energy supplies. PRISM uses natural circulation cooling for safety grade decay heat removal. Negative reactivity feedback with increasing temperature will balance the power generated with the heat removed. The PRISM also incorporates a factory fabricated containment barrier that encloses the reactor and primary coolant. The reactor module design is being developed so that the inherent characteristics of the reactor module can be tested in a full scale prototype. Results from this testing along with other safety and design information will be used to obtain NRC Design Certification

  19. Biological application of irreversible thermodynamics - human cardiovascular system and bone remodeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, František; Převorovská, Světlana

    Plzeň, ČR : Západočeská Universita, Plzeň, 2004 - (Horák, M.), s. 13-31 ISBN 80-7043-315-9. [Biomechanics of Man 2004. hotel Horizont, Šumava (CZ), 16.11.2004-19.11.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/03/1073; GA ČR GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : irreversible thermodynamics * cardiovascular system * bone remodeling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  20. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  1. Venous return curve and its application to assessment of the effect of cardiovascular drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Kenshi; Gotoh, Kohshi; Yagi, Yasuo (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to obtain a venous return curve, occlusion plethysmography with radionuclide was performed in the forearm of 24 patients with various heart diseases. Radionuclide angiocardiography was performed and during the equilibrium phase the region of interest was created over the forearm for repeated venous occlusions. Specific compliance in the vein of the forearm was obtained by drawing the radionuclide count-venous pressure curve from changes in venous pressure and radioactivity of the forearm. Compliance of human systemic veins was then obtained based on some hypotheses. Mean systemic pressure (Pms) was estimated. In addition, right auricular pressure and cardiac output were obtained for drawing part of the venous return curve. In a study of the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the venous return curve, Pms was found to be significantly decreased by the administration of nitroglycerin. Furthermore, systemic venous return curve moved to the leftward. In contrast, nifedipine did not have any influence on Pms in Class I of cardiovascular function; and systemic venous return curve moved clockwise by the administration of the drug. In the case of Class II or III, nifedipine caused the systemic venous return curve to move clockwise with decreasing Pms. (N.K.).

  2. Venous return curve and its application to assessment of the effect of cardiovascular drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to obtain a venous return curve, occlusion plethysmography with radionuclide was performed in the forearm of 24 patients with various heart diseases. Radionuclide angiocardiography was performed and during the equilibrium phase the region of interest was created over the forearm for repeated venous occlusions. Specific compliance in the vein of the forearm was obtained by drawing the radionuclide count-venous pressure curve from changes in venous pressure and radioactivity of the forearm. Compliance of human systemic veins was then obtained based on some hypotheses. Mean systemic pressure (Pms) was estimated. In addition, right auricular pressure and cardiac output were obtained for drawing part of the venous return curve. In a study of the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the venous return curve, Pms was found to be significantly decreased by the administration of nitroglycerin. Furthermore, systemic venous return curve moved to the leftward. In contrast, nifedipine did not have any influence on Pms in Class I of cardiovascular function; and systemic venous return curve moved clockwise by the administration of the drug. In the case of Class II or III, nifedipine caused the systemic venous return curve to move clockwise with decreasing Pms. (N.K.)

  3. Measurement of welding residual stresses of reactor vessel by inherent strain method. Diagnosis of inherent strain distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental objective of this study is to ensure safety of nuclear reactor. A few accidents of leak from welded zones at pipe penetration part of reactor vessel or at coolant pipe are reported at home or abroad. One of the main causes is welding residual stress. Therefore, it is very important to know the welding residual stress in order to maintain high safety of the plant, estimate plant life cycle and design effective maintenance plan. Welded joints of nuclear reactor vessel have complex shapes, and the welding residual stresses also have three-dimensional complex distributions. In this study, inherent strain-based theory and method are applied to measure the welding residual stresses. The inherent strain method is one of analytical method as inverse problem, using least squares method, based on finite element method. So the method gives most probable value and deviation of residual stress. Reliability of estimated result can be discussed. In this method, inherent strains are unknowns. When residual stresses are distributed complexly in 3-dimensional stress-state, the number of unknowns becomes very large. So, inherent strain distribution is expressed with appropriate function to decrease largely the number. A mock-up is idealized for a welded joint at pipe penetration part of actual reactor vessel. The inherent strain method is applied to measure residual stress of the joint. In this paper, applicability of inherent strain distribution function is diagnosed. 10 kinds of functions are applied to estimate the residual stress, and accuracy and reliability of analyzed results are judged from 3 points of view, that is, residuals, unbiased estimate of variance of errors and welding mechanics. Most suitable function is selected, which brings most reliable result. (author)

  4. The inherent politics of quality in public park management

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelius; Fors, Hanna; Sullivan, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight and illustrate the inherent politics embedded in “quality” as a concept for managing public parks. Reflecting more generic quality concepts, contemporary quality models in park management include concepts for both operational, strategic and stakeholder management as well managing the park organisation itself. However, quality concepts and their application through various management models include as well as exclude the access, values and worldviews of particular i...

  5. Inherent safety aspects of metal fuelled FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Inherent safety of metal fuelled FBR is studied by static and dynamic methodology of reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics. ► It is discovered that FBR with metal fuel is inherently safe against ULOFA. ► Sensitive parameters are core radial expansion feedback, sodium void effect and flow halving time. ► Sensitivity analyses are carried out with 20% uncertainty. ► Inherent safety of 1000 MWe with the extended flow coast down is recommended to avoid cliff edge effects. -- Abstract: Static and dynamic studies of metal fuelled fast breeder reactors (MFBR) are carried out to verify the passive shutdown capability and its inherent safety parameters. Static calculations are carried out to determine the vested reactivity feedback parameters from the fuel and coolant temperature rise separately. Power reactivity decrement of metal fuel reactor is found to be small as compared to oxide fuel reactor of same size. ULOF analysis of metal (U–Pu–6% Zr) 1000 MWe pool type MFBR is studied with a flow halving time of 8 s. The study is also made with considering uncertainties on the sensitive feedback parameters such as core radial expansion feedback and sodium void reactivity effect. Inference of the study is, nominal transient behaviour of 1000 MWe core is benign under unprotected loss of flow accident (ULOFA) and the transient power reduces to natural circulation based Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS) capacity before the initiation of boiling. From the study, it is concluded that if the sodium void reactivity is limited (4.6$) then the inherent safety of 1000 MWe design is assured, even with 20% uncertainty on the sensitive parameters and also it is found out higher primary pump flow halving time (15 s instead of 8 s) can avoid cliff edge effects in 1000 MWe MFBR transient behaviour

  6. Application of the IAP cardiovascular fitness test protocol for Austromars candidate screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, E. K.; Goswami, N.; Jantscher, A.; Roessler, A.; Vrecko, K.; Groemer, G.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    2007-10-01

    Rationale: The purpose of our research was to test for cardiovascular stability within 16 Austromars candidates, and to determine hemodynamic variables and hormones in a presyncopal state as evoked by a specific test protocol. Procedures and methods: We used a graded orthostatic stress (GOS) paradigm consisting of head-up tilt (HUT) combined with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to a presyncopal end-point on 15 males and one healthy female. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored and venous blood samples taken. Results: From supine control to presyncope, mean standing time was 12.3 ± 1.2 min, heart rate (HR) increased by 68 ± 12% (p responses under severe stress conditions.

  7. Clinical application of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (resistive type) on cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging in diagnosing cardiovascular disease, 27 subjects were examined using a 0.1-Tesla resistive type (ASAHI MARK-J). In 10 normal subjects, four cardiac chambers, interventricular septum, aorta, pulmonary vessels and vena cava were clearly identified in NMR imaging. In two patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction, anteroseptal wall thinning and left ventricular aneurysm with mural thrombi were demonstrated. In two cases of antrolateral and posterolateral myocardial infarction, however, infarcted areas were not identified in NMR imaging. In one patient with congestive cardiomyopathy, enlarged left ventricle without hypertrophy was recognized. In two patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, NMR imaging disclosed thickened left ventricular wall associated with its narrowed cavity. A mural thrombus in the right ventricle was distinctly visualized in one patient with cardio-vascular Behcet's disease. In two patients with mitral valve stenosis, enlarged left atrium with a mural thrombus was clearly demonstrated in both cross and longitudinal sections. In three patients with thoratic aortic aneurysm, local dilatation of aorta and mural thrombi were recognized. In four patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm, double channels with an intimal flap in the aorta were visualized in NMR imaging. Mean T1 values and standard deviations of left ventricle, left ventricular wall, and thrombi were 593+-89, 341+-20, 316+-84 msec, respectively. Mean T1 values of thrombi were ordinally shorter than those of left ventricule. But some thrombi which might be expected fresh had longer T1 values. (J.P.N.)

  8. Cardiovascular disease risk score prediction models for women and its applicability to Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh LGH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were

  9. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  10. Multiple Antenna Systems with Inherently Decoupled Radiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...... inherently decoupled when integrated on the same handset, while also other parameters such as frequency duplex distance and interaction with the users body influence the mutual coupling....

  11. The inherent ethics and integrity of education

    OpenAIRE

    Godon, Rafal; Hogan, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    The paper begins with some introductory remarks that explain why understanding education as a coherent human practice is necessary for a proper account of ethics in the field of education. The authors take three steps: presenting education as a practice in its own right, discussing the concept of thinking in the context of educational practice and finally revealing some practical consequences of the inherent ethics of education. The paper invites readers to further investigatio...

  12. Radioiodination and Bio evaluation of Some Cardiovascular Drugs for Nuclear Medicine Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine specialists use safe, painless, and cost-effective techniques to image the body and treat disease. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique, because it provides doctors with information about both structure and function. It is a way to gather medical information that would otherwise be unavailable, require surgery, or necessitate more expensive diagnostic tests. Today, nuclear medicine offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialties, from pediatrics to cardiology to psychiatry. Radiopharmacy is the science that deals largely with the preparation, compounding, Quality Control (QC), and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for human use. Radio pharmacists are the personnel who perform these functions at large hospitals or medical centers. They are involved in manufacturing cold kits and in developing new agents and procedures. In this thesis it was studied the labeling of Deltiazem , Nefidipine and Valsartan with iodine -125 via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The biological distribution of these tracers were studied and was found the possibility of their use in cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Inherent safety key performance indicators for hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected inherent safety performance of hydrogen storage technologies was investigated. Reference schemes were defined for alternative processes proposed for hydrogen storage, and several storage potentialities were considered. The expected safety performance of alternative process technologies was explored estimating key performance indicators based on consequence assessment and credit factors of possible loss of containment events. The results indicated that the potential hazard is always lower for the innovative technologies proposed for hydrogen storage, as metal or complex hydrides. This derived mainly from the application of the inherent safety principles of 'substitution' and 'moderation', since in these processes hydrogen is stored as a less hazardous hydride. However, the results also evidenced that in the perspective of an industrial implementation of these technologies, the reliability of the auxiliary equipment will be a critical issue to be addressed

  14. Inherent safety key performance indicators for hydrogen storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-11-30

    The expected inherent safety performance of hydrogen storage technologies was investigated. Reference schemes were defined for alternative processes proposed for hydrogen storage, and several storage potentialities were considered. The expected safety performance of alternative process technologies was explored estimating key performance indicators based on consequence assessment and credit factors of possible loss of containment events. The results indicated that the potential hazard is always lower for the innovative technologies proposed for hydrogen storage, as metal or complex hydrides. This derived mainly from the application of the inherent safety principles of "substitution" and "moderation", since in these processes hydrogen is stored as a less hazardous hydride. However, the results also evidenced that in the perspective of an industrial implementation of these technologies, the reliability of the auxiliary equipment will be a critical issue to be addressed. PMID:18395975

  15. Factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular en aspirantes a una empresa de obras civiles en Yopal - Casanare, 2010 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in applicants to a civil works company in Yopal-Casanare, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A Calderón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en Colombia, según estadísticas recientes, las enfermedades cardiovasculares representan la segunda causa de mortalidad. En tal sentido, para Casanare, en 2009, la mortalidad fue de 54,3%. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y establecer el riesgo coronario a diez años, en aspirantes a ingresar a una empresa de obras civiles atendidos por salud ocupacional/laboral en una Institución Prestadora de Servicios de Salud en Yopal-Casanare, durante 2010. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal a partir del total de historias clínicas de personal masculino con exámenes de laboratorio. Análisis con Epi-Info-3.3.2® y SPSS-15.0® mediante medidas de frecuencia-dispersión-tendencia central, asociación: Χ2, razón de verosimilitudes, odds ratio (OR y riesgo coronario según tabla de Framingham. Resultados: se revisaron 142 historias clínicas, con edad promedio de 34,7 (rango= 19-66 años; factores de riesgo cardiovascular 98,6%, sobrepeso/obesidad 48,6%, hipercolesterolemia 43,7%, hipertrigliceridemia 57,0%, colesterol-HDL 17,6%, hiperglucemia 7,0%, dislipidemia 28,9%, hipertensión 8,5%. Prevalencia de hábito de fumar 9,9%, consumo de alcohol 31,7%, sedentarismo 81,7%. Antecedentes familiares: hipertensión 7,7%, diabetes 5,6%, enfermedad coronaria 1,4%. Relación entre fumar/hipercolesterolemia-OR=3,77 (IC 95%=1,01-15,22, actividad-física/colesterol-HDL-OR=0,3 (IC 95%=0,1-0,88, fumar/riesgo-cardiovascular-OR=34,64 (IC 95%=2,79-947,4. Estimación según Framingham, bajo riesgo coronario Introduction: according to recent statistics, in Colombia cardiovascular diseases represent the second cause of mortality. In Casanare, mortality in 2009 due to cardiovascular disease was 54.3%. Objective: to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and establish coronary risk at ten years in applicants aspiring to join a civil works company cared by an occupational health service institution

  16. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Daniel E; Alexander, Karen; Brindis, Ralph G; Curtis, Anne B; Maurer, Mathew; Rich, Michael W; Sperling, Laurence; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization) and uncertainty of outcomes.  In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed.  Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients. PMID:26918183

  17. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  18. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  19. Predicted Changes in Fatty Acid Intakes, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following Replacement of trans Fatty Acid-Containing Soybean Oil with Application-Appropriate Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)—containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...

  20. Inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 235, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China); Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); E-mail: ygzhg@163.com; Wang Changjiang [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); Zhou Zhong [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)

    2006-04-01

    The inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. The symbolic sequences bear three characteristics. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. By using transfer probability of Markov chain (MC), we obtain analytic expressions of generating functions in four probabilities stochastic wander model, which can be applied to all 4-symbolic systems. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to study some properties of DNA sequences.

  1. Remote ischemic conditioning: from experimental observation to clinical application: report from the 8th Biennial Hatter Cardiovascular Institute Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Jack M J; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Crimi, Gabriele; Davidson, Brian; Davidson, Sean M; Dutka, David; Ferdinandy, Peter; Ganske, Rocky; Garcia-Dorado, David; Giricz, Zoltan; Gourine, Alexander V; Heusch, Gerd; Kharbanda, Rajesh; Kleinbongard, Petra; MacAllister, Raymond; McIntyre, Christopher; Meybohm, Patrick; Prunier, Fabrice; Redington, Andrew; Robertson, Nicola J; Suleiman, M Saadeh; Vanezis, Andrew; Walsh, Stewart; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2015-01-01

    In 1993, Przyklenk and colleagues made the intriguing experimental observation that 'brief ischemia in one vascular bed also protects remote, virgin myocardium from subsequent sustained coronary artery occlusion' and that this effect'... may be mediated by factor(s) activated, produced, or transported throughout the heart during brief ischemia/reperfusion'. This seminal study laid the foundation for the discovery of 'remote ischemic conditioning' (RIC), a phenomenon in which the heart is protected from the detrimental effects of acute ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), by applying cycles of brief ischemia and reperfusion to an organ or tissue remote from the heart. The concept of RIC quickly evolved to extend beyond the heart, encompassing inter-organ protection against acute IRI. The crucial discovery that the protective RIC stimulus could be applied non-invasively, by simply inflating and deflating a blood pressure cuff placed on the upper arm to induce cycles of brief ischemia and reperfusion, has facilitated the translation of RIC into the clinical setting. Despite intensive investigation over the last 20 years, the underlying mechanisms continue to elude researchers. In the 8th Biennial Hatter Cardiovascular Institute Workshop, recent developments in the field of RIC were discussed with a focus on new insights into the underlying mechanisms, the diversity of non-cardiac protection, new clinical applications, and large outcome studies. The scientific advances made in this field of research highlight the journey that RIC has made from being an intriguing experimental observation to a clinical application with patient benefit. PMID:25449895

  2. Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Sayed H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1 Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM, delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE, and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM; and 2 Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, and strain encoding (SENC. Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention

  3. Is human fracture hematoma inherently angiogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J

    2012-02-03

    This study attempts to explain the cellular events characterizing the changes seen in the medullary callus adjacent to the interfragmentary hematoma during the early stages of fracture healing. It also shows that human fracture hematoma contains the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor and has the inherent capability to induce angiogenesis and thus promote revascularization during bone repair. Patients undergoing emergency surgery for isolated bony injury were studied. Raised circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were seen in all injured patients, whereas the fracture hematoma contained significantly higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor than did plasma from these injured patients. However, incubation of endothelial cells in fracture hematoma supernatant significantly inhibited the in vitro angiogenic parameters of endothelial cell proliferation and microtubule formation. These phenomena are dependent on a local biochemical milieu that does not support cytokinesis. The hematoma potassium concentration is cytotoxic to endothelial cells and osteoblasts. Subcutaneous transplantation of the fracture hematoma into a murine wound model resulted in new blood vessel formation after hematoma resorption. This angiogenic effect is mediated by the significant concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor found in the hematoma. This study identifies an angiogenic cytokine involved in human fracture healing and shows that fracture hematoma is inherently angiogenic. The differences between the in vitro and in vivo findings may explain the phenomenon of interfragmentary hematoma organization and resorption that precedes fracture revascularization.

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  5. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  6. A systematic review on the application of cardiovascular risk prediction models in pharmacoeconomics, with a focus on primary prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, Jelena; Postma, Maarten J.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros

    2012-01-01

    Background: Long-term trials on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for primary cardiovascular disease prevention are scant. For that reason risk prediction models are used as a tool to project changes in cardiovascular disease incidence due to changes in risk factor levels observed in sh

  7. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2015. EMS2015-123. [EMS Annual Meeting /15./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /12./. 07.09.2015–11.09.2015, Sofia] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : synoptic classification (SSC) * cardiovascular mortality * cardiovascular morbidity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2015/EMS2015-123.pdf

  8. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept. PMID:24979876

  9. Sensors and actuators inherent in biological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Minoru; Stahlberg, Rainer; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Ying Joyce

    2007-04-01

    This paper addresses examples of sensing and active mechanisms inherent in some biological species where both plants and animals cases are discussed: mechanosensors and actuators in Venus Fly Trap and cucumber tendrils, chemosensors in insects, two cases of interactions between different kingdoms, (i) cotton plant smart defense system and (ii) bird-of-paradise flower and hamming bird interaction. All these cases lead us to recognize how energy-efficient and flexible the biological sensors and actuators are. This review reveals the importance of integration of sensing and actuation functions into an autonomous system if we make biomimetic design of a set of new autonomous systems which can sense and actuate under a number of different stimuli and threats.

  10. Flexible low-cost cardiovascular risk marker biosensor for point-of-care applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, S.

    2015-10-22

    The detection and quantification of protein on a laser written flexible substrate for point-of-care applications are described. A unique way of etching gold on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate is demonstrated by reducing the damage that may be caused on PET sheets otherwise. On the basis of the quantity of the C-reactive protein (CRP) present in the sample, the risk of cardiac disease can be assessed. This hsCRP test is incorporated to detect the presence of CRP on a PET laser patterned biosensor. Concentrations of 1, 2, and 10 mg/l were chosen to assess the risk of cardiac diseases as per the limits set by the American Heart Association.

  11. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kanjilal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available S Kanjilal1, VS Rao1, M Mukherjee1, BK Natesha1, KS Renuka1, K Sibi1, SS Iyengar1, Vijay V Kakkar1,21Tata Proteomics and Coagulation Department, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging ‘novel’ risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian population. Blood samples drawn from the participants were analyzed for various ‘traditional’ and ‘novel’ biomarkers, and their CVD risk factor profiling was also done. The Framingham model defined only 5% of the study cohort to be at high risk, which appears to be an underestimation of CVD risk in this genetically predisposed population. These subjects at high risk had significantly elevated levels of lipid, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and serological markers. It is more relevant to develop risk predictive scores for application to the Indian population. This study substantiates the argument that alternative approaches to risk stratification are required in order to make them more adaptable and applicable to different populations with varying risk factor and disease patterns.Keywords: atherosclerosis, risk factors, risk score, Framingham, plasma biomarkers

  12. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kanjilal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available S Kanjilal1, VS Rao1, M Mukherjee1, BK Natesha1, KS Renuka1, K Sibi1, SS Iyengar1, Vijay V Kakkar1,21Tata Proteomics and Coagulation Department, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging ‘novel’ risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian population. Blood samples drawn from the participants were analyzed for various ‘traditional’ and ‘novel’ biomarkers, and their CVD risk factor profiling was also done. The Framingham model defined only 5% of the study cohort to be at high risk, which appears to be an underestimation of CVD risk in this genetically predisposed population. These subjects at high risk had significantly elevated levels of lipid, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and serological markers. It is more relevant to develop risk predictive scores for application to the Indian population. This study substantiates the argument that alternative approaches to risk stratification are required in order to make them more adaptable and applicable to different populations with varying risk factor and disease patterns.Keywords: atherosclerosis, risk factors, risk score, Framingham, plasma biomarkers

  13. Conceptual design of inherently safe integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, D. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    The design concept of a 300 MWt inherently safe integral reactor(ISIR) for the propulsion of extra large and superhigh speed container ship was developed in this report. The scope and contents of this report are as follows : 1. The state of the art of the technology for ship-mounted reactor 2. Design requirements for ISIR 3. Fuel and core design 4. Conceptual design of fluid system 5. Conceptual design of reactor vessel assembly and primary components 6. Performance analyses and safety analyses. Installation of two ISIRs with total thermal power of 600MWt and efficiency of 21% is capable of generating shaft power of 126,000kW which is sufficient to power a container ship of 8,000TEU with 30knot cruise speed. Larger and speedier ship can be considered by installing 4 ISIRs. Even though the ISIR was developed for ship propulsion, it can be used also for a multi-purpose nuclear power plant for electricity generation, local heating, or seawater desalination by mounting on a movable floating barge. (author)

  14. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  15. In vitro and in vivo corrosion properties of new iron-manganese alloys designed for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drynda, Andreas; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich Wilhelm; Peuster, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    The principle of biodegradation for the production of temporary implant materials (e.g. stents) plays an important role in the treatment of congenital heart defects. In the last decade several attempts have been made with different alloy materials-mainly based on iron and magnesium. None of the currently available materials in this field have demonstrated satisfying results and have therefore not found entry into broad clinical practice. While magnesium or magnesium alloy systems corrode too fast, the corrosion rate of pure iron-stents is too slow for cardiovascular applications. In the last years FeMn alloy systems were developed with the idea that galvanic effects, caused by different electrochemical properties of Fe and Mn, would increase the corrosion rate. In vitro tests with alloys containing up to 30% Mn showed promising results in terms of biocompatibility. This study deals with the development of new FeMn alloy systems with lower Mn concentrations (FeMn 0.5 wt %, FeMn 2.7 wt %, FeMn 6.9 wt %) to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results show, that these alloys exhibit good mechanical features as well as suitable in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion properties. In contrast, the evaluation of these alloys in a mouse model led to unexpected results-even after 9 months no significant corrosion was detectable. Preliminary SEM investigations showed that passivation layers (FeMn phosphates) might be the reason for corrosion resistance. If this can be proved in further experiments, strategies to prevent or dissolve those layers need to be developed to expedite the in vivo corrosion of FeMn alloys. PMID:24976236

  16. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.;

    1998-01-01

    values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human......The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  17. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the refinement of the rate constants used in the kinetic mechanism for mercury oxidation. The possible reactions leading to mercury oxidation are reviewed. Rate constants for these reactions are discussed, using both literature sources and detailed estimates. The resulting mechanism represents the best present picture of the overall chlorine homogeneous oxidation chemistry. Application of this mechanism to the data will be explored in the subsequent reporting period. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of two meeting papers presented during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1998a,b).

  18. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation of bioresorbable copolymers prepared from L-lactide, 1, 3-trimethylene carbonate, and glycolide for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Su, Feng; Dong, Jianting; Fan, Zhongyong; Duan, Yourong; Li, Suming

    2015-01-01

    PLLA-TMC-GA terpolymer was prepared by ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide, 1, 3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC), and glycolide (GA). The biocompatibility of terpolymer was evaluated in comparison with PLLA and PLLA-TMC with the aim of assessing their potential in the development of bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. Various aspects of in vitro biocompatibility were considered, including MTT assay, hemolytic test, dynamic clotting time, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, protein adsorption, plasma recalcification time and release of cytokines. The results revealed that the terpolymer presents good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Moreover, no significant increase in the release of cytokines was detected. It is thus concluded that these polymers, in particular PLLA-TMC-GA terpolymer present good biocompatibility for cardiovascular applications. PMID:25783945

  19. The Inherently Three-Dimensional Nature of Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Gregory G

    2013-01-01

    It is often asserted or implicitly assumed, without justification, that the results of two-dimensional investigations of plasma turbulence are applicable to the three-dimensional plasma environments of interest. A projection method is applied to derive two scalar equations that govern the nonlinear evolution of the Alfvenic and pseudo-Alfvenic components of ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma turbulence. The mathematical form of these equations makes clear the inherently three-dimensional nature of plasma turbulence, enabling an analysis of the nonlinear properties of two-dimensional limits often used to study plasma turbulence. In the anisotropic limit k_perp >>k_parallel that naturally arises in magnetized plasma systems, the perpendicular 2D limit retains the dominant nonlinearities that are mediated only by the Alfvenic fluctuations but lacks the wave physics associated with the linear term that is necessary to capture the anisotropic cascade of turbulent energy. In the in-plane 2D limit...

  20. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    -, - (2016). ISSN 0020-7128 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1985 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : spatial synoptic classification * mortality * morbidity * cardiovascular diseases * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00484-015-1055-1

  1. Cardiovascular risks in prediabetes: Preliminary data on "vasculopathy triad"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel U Nwose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical cardiovascular disease is inherent in complications of diabetes mellitus. It occurs before the obvert manifestation of cardiovascular disease complication in diabetes, and involves vasculopathy triad or three major vascular events comprising stasis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis. Aim: This study was to examine evidence of vasculopathy triad in prediabetes, biomarkers of stasis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis in prediabetes were compared with apparently healthy group. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one participants with results for plasma D-dimer, homocysteine, and whole blood viscosity were selected from a research database. The participants consisted of control (n = 44 and prediabetes (n = 37 based on clinical history and laboratory results. Results: Multivariate analysis shows a significantly higher level of vasculopathy in prediabetes than in the control group (P > 0.0001. Blood viscosity (P < 0.04 and homocysteine (P < 0.03 are significantly higher in prediabetes than in controls. Average levels for plasma D-dimer are also higher in prediabetes than in control, but not statistically significant in this particular analysis. Conclusion: This study suggests a novel application of known idea, vasculopathy triad that could be used for assessment of subclinical cardiovascular disease in prediabetes.

  2. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  3. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  4. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  5. Multi-scale modeling of the human cardiovascular system with applications to aortic valvular and arterial stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyou; Takagi, Shu; Himeno, Ryutaro; Liu, Hao

    2009-07-01

    A computational model of the entire cardiovascular system is established based on multi-scale modeling, where the arterial tree is described by a one-dimensional model coupled with a lumped parameter description of the remainder. The resultant multi-scale model forms a closed loop, thus placing arterial wave propagation into a global hemodynamic environment. The model is applied to study the global hemodynamic influences of aortic valvular and arterial stenoses located in various regions. Obtained results show that the global hemodynamic influences of the stenoses depend strongly on their locations in the arterial system, particularly, the characteristics of hemodynamic changes induced by the aortic valvular and aortic stenoses are pronounced, which imply the possibility of noninvasively detecting the presence of the stenoses from peripheral pressure pulses. The variations in aortic pressure/flow pulses with the stenoses play testimony to the significance of modeling the entire cardiovascular system in the study of arterial diseases. PMID:19198911

  6. Effects of Cold Modality Application With Static and Intermittent Pneumatic Compression on Tissue Temperature and Systemic Cardiovascular Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Holwerda, Seth W.; Trowbridge, Cynthia A.; Womochel, Kathryn S.; Keller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the therapeutic setting, cryotherapy with varying levels of intermittent cyclical compression often replaces an ice bag and elastic wrap. However, little is known about the cardiovascular strain and tissue temperature decreases associated with cooling and intermittent compression. Hypothesis: The authors hypothesized that higher levels of intermittent compression will result in greater reductions of tissue temperature and that all cold modalities will cause acute increases in c...

  7. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  8. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    OpenAIRE

    Villalón, Carlos; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT receptor classification, the authors reanalyse the cardiovascular responses mediated by 5-HT receptors and discuss the established and potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT ligands in the trea...

  9. Polyurethane thermoplastic elastomers with inherent radiopacity for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S; James, Nirmala R; Jayakrishnan, A; Joseph, Roy

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis and characterization of three different radiopaque thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers are reported. Radiopacity was introduced to the polyurethanes by incorporating an iodinated chain extender, namely, 4,4'-isopropylidinedi-(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBPA), into the polymer chain during polyurethane synthesis. Radiopaque polyurethanes (RPUs) were synthesized by reacting 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), IBPA, and three different diols. The polyols used for the synthesis were polypropylene glycol, polycaprolactone diol, and poly(hexamethylene carbonate) diol. RPUs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, thermogravimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-radiography. X-ray images showed that all RPUs prepared using IBPA as the chain extender are highly radiopaque compared with an Aluminum wedge of equivalent thickness. Elemental analysis revealed that the polyurethanes contained 18-19% iodine in the polymer matrix. The RPUs developed have radiopacity equivalent to that of a polymer filled with 20 wt % barium sulfate. Results revealed that RPUs of wide range of properties may be produced by incorporating different diols as the soft chain segment. Cell culture cytotoxicity studies conducted using L929 cells by direct contact test and MTT assay proved that these RPUs are noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:22815186

  10. BOUNDED MINIMUM INHERENT AVAILABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish bounded minimum inherent availability requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) System Description Documents (SDDs). The purpose of the bounded minimum inherent availability is to provide a lower bound on availability which will allow design to meet throughput requirements while not affecting the ability of the items to perform their intended safety function

  11. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

  12. The inherence heuristic as a source of essentialist thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Erika; Cimpian, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    Humans are essentialists: They believe hidden "essences" underlie membership in natural and social kinds. Although essentialism has well-established implications for important societal issues (e.g., discrimination), little is known about its origins. According to a recent proposal, essentialism emerges from a broader inherence heuristic-an intuitive tendency to explain patterns in terms of the inherent properties of their constituents (e.g., we have orange juice for breakfast [pattern] because citrus aromas [inherent feature] wake us up). We tested two predictions of this proposal-that reliance on the inherence heuristic predicts endorsement of essentialist beliefs, even when adjusting for potentially confounding variables (Studies 1 and 2), and that reducing reliance on the inherence heuristic produces a downstream reduction in essentialist thought (Studies 3 and 4). The results were consistent with these predictions and thus provided evidence for a new theoretical perspective on the cognitive underpinnings of psychological essentialism. PMID:25037751

  13. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99/sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  14. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. Methods A multilevel prevalence model for cardiovascular outcomes is proposed that incorporates both survey information on patient risk factors and the effects of geographic location. The model is applied to derive micro area prevalence estimates, specifically estimates of cardiovascular disease for Zip Code Tabulation Areas in the USA. The model incorporates prevalence differentials by age, sex, ethnicity and educational attainment from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Influences of geographic context are modelled at both county and state level, with the county effects relating to poverty and urbanity. State level influences are modelled using a random effects approach that allows both for spatial correlation and spatial isolates. Results To assess the importance of geographic variables, three types of model are compared: a model with person level variables only; a model with geographic effects that do not interact with person attributes; and a full model, allowing for state level random effects that differ by ethnicity. There is clear evidence that geographic effects improve statistical fit. Conclusion Geographic variations in disease prevalence partly reflect the demographic composition of area populations. However, prevalence variations may also show distinct geographic 'contextual' effects. The present study demonstrates by formal modelling methods that improved explanation is obtained by allowing for distinct geographic effects (for counties and states and for

  15. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  16. Application of stem cell transplantation in treating cardiovascular diseases%干细胞移植治疗在心血管疾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光辉; 夏菁; 刘宏斌

    2007-01-01

    决干细胞移植治疗中的重点及难点问题将为更加有效的预防及治疗心血管疾病提供强有力的理论及实践支持.%BACKGROUND: As a group of primary cells, stem cells have the potentials of self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation, and can replace the damaged cardiomyocytes to construct new vessels, and enable the asthenic heart to obtain the blood pumping function again. This study summarized the progress of stem cell transplantation in treating cardiovascular diseasesDATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify English articles published from January 2000 to December 2005, the keywords were "stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular diseases".STUDY SELECTION: The articles were primarily checked, and the references of each literature were looked up. Inclusive criteria: articles correlated with the classification and the transplanted pathways of stem cells, the present status,problems and prospect of its basic and clinical application in treating cardiovascular diseases. Exclusive criteria: repetitive study or Meta analysis.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 50 relative literatures were collected, and 31 of them accorded with the inclusive criteria,and the other 19 were excluded due to the old or repetitive contents. Of the 31 involved literatures, 19 were about the classification of stem cells used in cardiovascular system, 1 about the transplanted pathways of stem cells, 8 about the application of stem cells in treating cardiovascular diseases, and 3 about the existing problems and prospect.DATA SYNTHESIS: With the continuous improvement of living level and aging, cardiovascular diseases have become the main causes for death and disability in modern society. Stem cells have the potentials of multi-directional differentiation, and have become the main seed cells for cell replacement therapy, and provided important investigative and applicating field for the treatment of cardiovascular

  17. Inherent Difference in Saliency for Generators with Different PM Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Eriksson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent differences between salient and nonsalient electrical machines are evaluated for two permanent magnet generators with different configurations. The neodymium based (NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs in a generator are substituted with ferrite magnets and the characteristics of the NdFeB generator and the ferrite generator are compared through FEM simulations. The NdFeB generator is a nonsalient generator, whereas the ferrite machine is a salient-pole generator, with small saliency. The two generators have almost identical properties at rated load operation. However, at overload the behaviour differs between the two generators. The salient-pole, ferrite generator has lower maximum torque than the NdFeB generator and a larger voltage drop at high current. It is concluded that, for applications where overload capability is important, saliency must be considered and the generator design adapted according to the behaviour at overload operation. Furthermore, if the maximum torque is the design criteria, additional PM mass will be required for the salient-pole machine.

  18. Amine-functionalized polypyrrole: Inherently cell adhesive conducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Y; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-06-01

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) have been recognized as novel biomaterials that can electrically communicate with biological systems. For their tissue engineering applications, CPs have been modified to promote cell adhesion for improved interactions between biomaterials and cells/tissues. Conventional approaches to improve cell adhesion involve the surface modification of CPs with biomolecules, such as physical adsorption of cell adhesive proteins and polycationic polymers, or their chemical immobilization; however, these approaches require additional multiple modification steps with expensive biomolecules. In this study, as a simple and effective alternative to such additional biomolecule treatment, we synthesized amine-functionalized polypyrrole (APPy) that inherently presents cell adhesion-supporting positive charges under physiological conditions. The synthesized APPy provides electrical activity in a moderate range and a hydrophilic surface compared to regular polypyrrole (PPy) homopolymers. Under both serum and serum-free conditions, APPy exhibited superior attachment of human dermal fibroblasts and Schwann cells compared to PPy homopolymer controls. Moreover, Schwann cell adhesion onto the APPy copolymer was at least similar to that on poly-l-lysine treated PPy controls. Our results indicate that amine-functionalized CP substrates will be useful to achieve good cell adhesion and potentially electrically stimulate various cells. In addition, amine functionality present on CPs can further serve as a novel and flexible platform to chemically tether various bioactive molecules, such as growth factors, antibodies, and chemical drugs. PMID:25294089

  19. Impurities in Silicon Nanocrystals: The intentional and the inherent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David J.

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) have become an important class of materials in the fields of photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, lighting, and medicine. Impurities within SiNCs dramatically alter the electrical and optical properties of the host material, whether the impurity is intentionally added in an attempt to manipulate properties, or is inherent to the material and its natural state. Despite such remarkable changes, impurity incorporation within SiNCs remains poorly understood, since concepts applied to understanding impurities in bulk materials may not completely translate to nanomaterials. Understanding the effect of SiNC impurities requires new technologies to produce materials suitable for study combined with new insights to expound the differences in the nanoscale physics. Nonthermal plasma-assisted gas-phase synthesis provides an excellent route to producing and investigating impurities within SiNCs due to the unique chemical reaction environment of the plasma. The robustness of such a technique allows for the production of very pure SiNCs or SiNCs with added impurities simply by adding different chemicals to the plasma. The chapters in this document focus on the effect that different impurities have on the properties of SiNCs. Chapter 2 focuses on heavily P-doped SiNCs exhibiting the first known observation of a unique electrical and optical property known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) within free-standing SiNCs. Chapter 3 explains the synthesis of B- and P-doped SiGeNC alloys and their deposition into thin films for thermoelectric applications. Chapter 4 highlights research which uses P-doped SiNCs to form emitter layers for pn-junction type solar cells, including device fabrication and optical characterization. Chapter 5 examines inherent impurities in the form of dangling bond defects which may be responsible for the quenching of SiNC photoluminescence, and their evolution during the process of air-ambient oxidation. Several appendices at

  20. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Ppathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as the suitable evaluation technique which could objectively reflect the whole balance regulation advantage of Chinese medicinal compounds.

  1. Multifunctional Coating Based on Hyaluronic Acid and Dopamine Conjugate for Potential Application on Surface Modification of Cardiovascular Implanted Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Li, Jingan; Zhang, Kun; He, Zikun; Yang, Ping; Zou, Dan; Huang, Nan

    2016-01-13

    Surface modification by conjugating biomolecules has been widely proved to enhance biocompatibility of cardiovascular implanted devices. Here, we aimed at developing a multifunctional surface that not only provides good hemocompatibility but also functions well in inducing desirable vascular cell-material interaction. In the present work, the multicoatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and dopamine (PDA) were prepared onto 316L stainless steel (316L SS) via chemical conjugation (Michael addition, Schiff base reaction, and electrostatic adsorption). The results of platelet adhesion and activation and the whole blood tests indicated that the HA/PDA coatings obtained better hemocompatibility compared with the bare 316L SS and HA or PDA immobilized on 316L SS. The HA/PDA coatings also inhibited the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and adhesion/activation of macrophages effectively, whereas not all the HA/PDA coatings improved surface endothelialization rapidly and the effects of the multifunctional coatings on endothelial cell growth depend on the HA amounts (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/mL, labeled as PDA-HA-1, PDA-HA-2, and PDA-HA-5 respectively). Herein the PDA-HA-1 and PDA-HA-2 coatings were found to improve endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The tissue compatibility of the HA/PDA coatings also depends on the HA amounts, and the PDA-HA-2 coating was proved to cause milder in vivo tissue response. Additionally, the mechanism of the HA molecular weight change and in vivo tissue response was also explored. These results effectively suggested that the HA/PDA coating might be promising when serving as a cardiovascular implanted device coating. PMID:26654689

  2. Plant inherent control testing in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A testing program is being conducted in EBR-II to demonstrate passive, inherent reactor protection and control. Data obtained from tests have indicated that the reactor power can be controlled over a large range by the primary coolant flow, secondary coolant flow, and the turbine/generator load. Reactor safety could then be based on inherent safe characteristics of the plant rather than the complicated reactor shutdown system. A Plant Inherent Control Testing (PICT) program is being developed in EBR-II to investigate inherent control concepts for LMR's. The reactor power will be controlled between 40 and 100% power with the primary coolant pumps, the secondary coolant pumps, and the turbine admission valve. The thermal-hydraulic-neutronic system analysis code NATDEMO was used for the pretest predictions of the EBR-II plant response. This paper presents the results of this analysis

  3. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work concerns the development of a prototype of a Volume Scattering Function (VSF) sensor for measurement of this inherent optical property(IOP) of seawater....

  4. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok K. Singal

    2011-12-01

    We show that a partial coherence due to antenna mechanism can be inherently present in any compact synchrotron source, which resolves many long-standing problems in the spectra and variability of compact extragalactic radio sources.

  5. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light propagation in the sea and the consequent remote sensing signals seen by aircraft and spacecraft is fundamentally governed by the inherent optical properties...

  6. Inherent functionality:-a useful term for consumer information?

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    2006-01-01

    Functional foods are broadly defined as those that offer 'something extra' in terms of health benefits than the basic food item, e.g. probiotic-enriched yoghurt versus ordinary yoghurt. The term functional food, by its very nature, tends to suggest that other foods are not functional and have less health benefit relative to functional foods. This is far from fact as many animal and plant foods are highly beneficial for health 'as consumed' and possess inherent functionality. The term inherent...

  7. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J.; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting–dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension...

  8. Earlier application of loading doses of aspirin and clopidogrel decreases rate of recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fa-kuan; LIN Le-jian; HUA Ning; LU Hong; QI Zhi; TANG Xue-zheng

    2012-01-01

    significantly increased compared with that in the control group,3%,10% and 1%,respectively (P <0.01).In contrast,the occurrence rates in the R+L group (10%,23% and 6%,respectively) were attenuated compared with those in the R+R group (P <0.01 ),although still higher than in the control group (P <0.01).Conclusions Almost all of the cardiovascular ischemic events occurred in the first six months after percutaneous coronary intervention.According to the result of TEG determinations,earlier application of a loading dose of aspirin and clopidogrel can decrease the rate of recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events.

  9. Natural convection in inherently safe passive emergency systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santoli, L.; Moncada Lo Giudice, G. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Tecnica

    2000-07-01

    Since long time passive systems have been adopted in architecture due to their importance for energy saving, utilisation of environmentally friendly component, low costs. The applications of passive techniques to building depend on the availability of design tools and methods for the characterisation of the performance of components. Therefore, in order to develop simplified design tool and increase confidence in numerical simulation through experimental validation, the aim of the paper is to study a passive system able to work in emergency conditions without any conventional energy source, minimising their environmental impact without any decrease of reliability, modularity and economy. The paper deals with the preliminary study of the natural convection in a water heat exchanger during the transient phase of start up. The feasibility study is focused on a simple heat transfer loop based on a single closed vertical circuit, heated in the lower section and cooled in the upper one, on the base of the first important experimental results pointed out in recent years (Department of Fisica Teorica of Genua University). The introduction of simplified design correlations will also lead to simplified calculation guidelines for thermosyphon installations. The evaluation of unsteady behaviour has been carried out characterising a pulsed thermal source at variable frequencies and different heat flow rates, and for the evaluation of the transient duration and the study of instability, fluid velocity and temperature profiles for different circuit sections have been analysed. A simulation of thermal-circulation with a pulsed natural convection has been carried out by means of a numerical CFD code. The comparison of the numerical simulation results with the equations governing the physical phenomena involved may lead to definition of a design correlation for an innovative and inherently safe emergency cooling system able to remove intensive thermal loads rising in a space during

  10. Large Eddy Simulation for an inherent boron dilution transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Large Eddy Simulation is performed for a transient boron dilution scenario in the scaled experimental facility of ROCOM. • Fully conformal polyhedral grid of 14 million is created to capture all details of the domain. • Systematic multi-step validation methodology is followed to assess the accuracy of LES model. • For the presently simulated BDT scenario, the LES results lend support to its reliability in consistently predicting the slug transport in the RPV. -- Abstract: The present paper focuses on the validation and applicability of large eddy simulation (LES) to analyze the transport and mixing in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during an inherent boron dilution transient (BDT) scenario. Extensive validation data comes from relevant integral tests performed in the scaled ROCOM experimental facility. The modeling of sub-grid-scales is based on the WALE model. A fully conformal polyhedral grid of about 15 million cells is constructed to capture all details in the domain, including the complex structures of the lower-plenum. Detailed qualitative and quantitative validations are performed by following a systematic multi-step validation methodology. Qualitative comparisons to the experimental data in the cold legs, downcomer and the core inlet showed good predictions by the LES model. Minor deviations seen in the quantitative comparisons are rigorously quantified. A key parameter which is affecting the core neutron kinetics response is the value of highest deborated slug concentration that occurs at the core inlet during the transient. Detailed analyses are made at the core inlet to evaluate not only the value of the maximum slug concentration, but also the location and the time at which it occurs during the transient. The relative differences between the ensemble averaged experimental data and CFD predictions were within the range of relative differences seen within 10 different experimental realizations. For the studied scenario, the

  11. Biofunctionalization of REDV elastin-like recombinamers improves endothelialization on CoCr alloy surfaces for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Isabel; Zenses, Anne-Sophie; Grau, Anna; Rodríguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Gil, Francisco Javier; Manero, Jose María; Pegueroles, Marta

    2015-03-01

    To improve cardiovascular implant success, metal-based stents are designated to modulate endothelial cells adhesion and migration in order to prevent restenosis and late thrombosis diseases. Biomimetic coatings with extra-cellular matrix adhesive biomolecules onto stents surfaces are a strategy to recover a healthy endothelium. However, the appropriate bioactive sequences to selective promote growth of endothelium and the biomolecules surface immobilization strategy remains to be elucidated. In this study, biofunctionalization of cobalt chromium, CoCr, alloy surfaces with elastin-like recombinamers, ELR, genetically modified with an REDV sequence, was performed to enhance metal surfaces endothelialization. Moreover, physical adsorption and covalent bonding were used as biomolecules binding strategies onto CoCr alloy. Surfaces were activated with plasma and etched with sodium hydroxide previous to silanization with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane and functionalized with the ELR. CoCr alloy surfaces were successfully biofunctionalized and the use of an ELR with an REDV sequence, allows conferring bioactivity to the biomaterials surface, demonstrating a higher cell adhesion and spreading of HUVEC cells on the different CoCr surfaces. This effect is emphasized as increases the amount of immobilized biomolecules and directly related to the immobilization technique, covalent bonding, and the increase of surface charge electronegativity. Our strategy of REDV elastin-like recombinamers immobilization onto CoCr alloy surfaces via covalent bonding through organosilanes provides a bioactive surface that promotes endothelial cell adhesion and spreading. PMID:25637794

  12. β-blockers in Reasonable Application and Limitations of Cardiovascular Disease%β受体阻滞剂在心血管疾病中的合理应用及局限性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨β受体阻滞剂在心血管疾病中的应用情况及其存在的局限性。方法对β受体阻滞剂的主要药物作用机制进行分析,并对该药剂在不同心血管疾病中的应用概况进行分析,总结在不同心血管类型疾病中的应用疗效,同时分析其存在的局限性。结果冠心病、高血压、心肌梗死以及其他的心血管疾病在使用β受体阻滞剂治疗后,病情都能够得到有效缓解。结论β受体阻滞剂在心血管疾病的应用过程中,能够很好的起到预防心血管疾病以及保护人体心血管功能的作用。%Objective Investigate Of β-blockers in cardiovascular disease and its existing limitations.Methods Analysis of the major mechanism of drug action on beta blockers,and the agent in the application of dif erent cardiovascular diseases Profiles analyzed,summary ef icacy in cardiovascular disease,analyzed its existence limitations. Results Coronary heart disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases in the use of beta-blockers after treatment,the condition can be ef ectively al eviated.Conclusion β-blockers in cardiovascular disease process,to play the role of prevention of cardiovascular disease, as wel as the protection of human cardiovascular function.

  13. Cost-competitive, inherently safe LMFBR pool plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.S.; Brunings, J.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Hren, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Cost-Competitive, Inherently Safe LMFBR Pool Plant design was prepared in GFY 1983 as a joint effort by Rockwell International and the Argonne National Laboratory with major contributions from the Bechtel Group, Inc.; Combustion Engineering, Inc.; the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company; and the General Electric Company. Using current LMFBR technology, many innovative features were developed and incorporated into the design to meet the ultimate objectives of the Breeder Program, i.e., energy costs competitive with LWRs and inherent safety features to maintain the plant in a safe condition following assumed accidents without requiring operator action. This paper provides a description of the principal features that were incorporated into the design to achieve low cost and inherent safety.

  14. Inherent limits on optimization and discovery in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topological mapping of a large physical system on a graph, and its decomposition using universal measures are proposed. We find inherent limits to the potential for optimization of a given system and its approximate representations by motifs, and the ability to reconstruct the full system given approximate representations. The approximate representation of the system most suited for optimization may be different from that which most accurately describes the full system. - Highlights: • Graph-based approach to analyze full and partial representations of physical systems. • Direct link between a change in the physical system and complexity of the graph. • Inherent limits to the potential for optimization of a general system. • Inherent limits to the reconstruction of full system from partial representations

  15. On Four Ways against Cooperative Principle& Inherent Conversational Implicatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪松

    2015-01-01

    By using methods of theoretical review,and example analysis,this paper aims at further analyzing Grice’s 4 ways of against the Cooperative Principle and inherent conversational implicatures in order to prove that once the Cooperative Principle is violated,the conversational implicatures arise.This will benefit the communicational practice.This paper finds out that any way against CP must cause conversational implicatures.There are limitations in this paper.It just covers the four ways of Grice introduced by Jiang Wangqi(2000),and inherent conversational implicatures found by the author.It might have other ways and implicatures as well.

  16. Conceptual design of REMISE. Inherently safe modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of a modular nuclear reactor is presented. The neutronic-thermohydraulic calculations for the steady state design of an inherently safe reactor (RE.M.I.SE., REactor Modular Inherentemente SEguro, in Spanish) are shown here. Primary system is subdivided in several modules with individual steam generator and fuel element. Enhanced safety is attained by means of passive safety systems and inherent safety features. The total power proposed (200 Mwe) is divided in a large number of units of reduced power (2 MWth). The main parameters established from conceptual design are shown here, and also lines proposed for future steps in the design. (author)

  17. “Beauty is a Light in the Heart”1: The Transformative Potential of Optogenetics for Clinical Applications in Cardiovascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick M.; Karathanos, Thomas V.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetics is an exciting new technology in which viral gene or cell delivery is used to inscribe light sensitivity in excitable tissue to enable optical control of bioelectric behavior. Initial progress in the fledgling domain of cardiac optogenetics has included in vitro expression of various light-sensitive proteins in cell monolayers and transgenic animals to demonstrate an array of potentially useful applications, including light-based pacing, silencing of spontaneous activity, and spiral wave termination. In parallel to these developments, the cardiac modeling community has developed a versatile computational framework capable of realistically simulating optogenetics in biophysically detailed, patient-specific representations of the human heart, enabling the exploration of potential clinical applications in a predictive virtual platform. Towards the ultimate goal of assessing the feasibility and potential impact of optogenetics-based therapies in cardiovascular medicine, this review provides (1) a detailed synopsis of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico developments in the field and (2) a critical assessment of how existing clinical technology for gene/cell delivery and intra-cardiac illumination could be harnessed to achieve such lofty goals as light-based arrhythmia termination. PMID:25453984

  18. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  19. Contracting for Independent Evaluation: Approaches to an Inherent Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Jacob Alex

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been discussion of whether independent contract evaluation is possible. This article acknowledges the inherent tension in contract evaluation and in response suggests a range of constructive approaches to improving the independence of contract evaluation. In particular, a clear separation between the official evaluation report…

  20. Tactical supply chain planning models with inherent flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmaeilikia, Masoud; Fahimnia, Behnam; Sarkis, Joeseph;

    2016-01-01

    Supply chains (SCs) can be managed at many levels. The use of tactical SC planning models with multiple flexibility options can help manage the usual operations efficiently and effectively, whilst improve the SC resiliency in response to inherent environmental uncertainties. This paper defines...

  1. Attenuated Realities: Pynchon's Trajectory from V. to Inherent Vice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hume

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Part of what established Pynchon as postmodern was his piling up of multiple realities. Hence, the surprise that 'Inherent Vice' retains only the most attenuated forms of such worlds alternative to our own. In earlier fiction, we find a world served by the Tristero postal system, a world inhabited by angels, by thanatoids and other forms of the dead, by Japanese film monsters, by giant vegetables. In Pynchon’s fictive realities, an airship can sail beneath desert sand or through the center of the globe via Symmes’s Hole, and the photograph of a corpse can be run backward in time to show its murderer. Up through 'Against the Day', Pynchon showered us with alternate realities that reached beyond the material world that most of us accept as 'alles, was der Fall ist'. 'Inherent Vice' departs from this vision. Has Pynchon simply grown up? Or grown old? Or is something else operating here? I will provide a brief taxonomy of Pynchon’s multiple worlds as characterized by paranoia, mysticism, religion, and humor and then analyze what remains of these in 'Inherent Vice'. Among the causes for his changed technique may be his choice of genre. The detective story is epistemological rather than ontological in its questions, so Pynchon concerns himself far more with what Doc Sportello can know than with making him navigate through multiple realities. I argue, however, that 'Inherent Vice' is surprisingly a worst-case scenario for Pynchon.

  2. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  3. Cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Schjerning, Ole; Graff, Claus; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    cardiovascular risk factors. Areas covered: This clinical overview summarizes the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics by focusing on the wide range of associated adverse effects. In addition, we also discuss current guidelines regarding routine electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. Expert opinion: As SCD in......, as this may increase risk of Torsades de Pointes and eventually SCD. However, other serious cardiovascular complications of antipsychotics also include Brugada syndrome phenotype, myocardial infarction, and myocarditis. Increased awareness of the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics can allow...

  4. Chemical looping combustion. Fuel conversion with inherent CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvoll, Oeyvind

    2005-07-01

    ONiAl do not rule out CLC as a viable alternative for CO2 capture, but long term durability studies along with realistic testing of the carrier in a continuous rig is needed to firmly conclude. For comparative purposes a perovskite was synthesized and tested in CLC, under similar conditions as NiONiAl. The results indicate that in a moving bed CLC application, perovskites have inherent disadvantages as compared to simpler compounds, by virtue of low relative oxygen content. (Author)

  5. Soluble CD54 induces human endothelial cells ex vivo expansion useful for cardiovascular regeneration and tissue engineering application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Malara

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that sCD54 is an essential factor for the in-vitro expansion of HECs without donor and vessel-source variability. Resulting primary cultures can be useful, for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine (e.g. artificial micro tissue generation, coating artificial heart valve etc. and bio-nanotechnology applications.

  6. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  7. The Wild Wild West: A Framework to Integrate mHealth Software Applications and Wearables to Support Physical Activity Assessment, Counseling and Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Kelli, Heval M; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Pratt, Michael; McConnell, Michael V; Martin, Seth S; Welk, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions constitute a critical component of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction programs. Objective mobile health (mHealth) software applications (apps) and wearable activity monitors (WAMs) can advance both assessment and integration of PA counseling in clinical settings and support community-based PA interventions. The use of mHealth technology for CVD risk reduction is promising, but integration into routine clinical care and population health management has proven challenging. The increasing diversity of available technologies and the lack of a comprehensive guiding framework are key barriers for standardizing data collection and integration. This paper reviews the validity, utility and feasibility of implementing mHealth technology in clinical settings and proposes an organizational framework to support PA assessment, counseling and referrals to community resources for CVD risk reduction interventions. This integration framework can be adapted to different clinical population needs. It should also be refined as technologies and regulations advance under an evolving health care system landscape in the United States and globally. PMID:26923067

  8. Inherent Shear-Dilatation Coexistence in Metallic Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Min-Qiang; JIANG Si-Yue; DAI Lan-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Shear deformation can induce normal stress or hydrostatic stress in metallic glasses [Nature Mater. 2 (2003) 449, Intermetallics 14 (2006) 1033]. We perform the bulk deformation of three-dimensional Cu46Zr54 metallic glass (MG) and Cu single crystal model systems using molecular dynamics simulation. The results indicate that hydrostatic stress can incur shear stress in MG, but not in crystal. The resultant pronounced asymmetry between tension and compression originates from this inherent shear-dilatation coexistence in MG.

  9. Legal problems and powers inherent in ecosystem management

    OpenAIRE

    Coggins, George Cameron

    1995-01-01

    The idea of ecosystem management is elusive, but it is not nearly as novel as many have assumed. There are difficulties inherent both in the lack of semantic precision and the multiple ownerships faced by ecosystem management. There are precedents for regulatory systems that transcend sovereign and ownership boundaries. At the federal level, Congress has adequate constitutional power to ordain ecosystem management. Exercise of that power will rarely if ever constitute a taking. Congress impli...

  10. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  11. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  12. Soluble CD54 induces human endothelial cells ex vivo expansion useful for cardiovascular regeneration and tissue engineering application

    KAUST Repository

    Malara, N.M.

    2015-03-01

    Aim: Consistent expansion of primary human endothelial cells in vitro is critical in the development of engineered tissue. A variety of complex culture media and techniques developed from different basal media have been reported with alternate success. Incongruous results are further confounded by donor-to-donor variability and cellular source of derivation. Our results demonstrate how to overcome these limitations using soluble CD54 (sCD54) as additive to conventional culture medium. Methods and results: Isolated primary fragment of different vessel types was expanded in Ham\\'s F12 DMEM, enriched with growth factors, Fetal Calf Serum and conditioned medium of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) collected at different passages. Cytokine content of culture media was analyzed in order to identify the soluble factors correlating with better proliferation profile. sCD54 was found to induce the in vitro expansion of human endothelial cells (HECs) independently from the vessels source and even in the absence of HUVEC-conditioned medium. The HECs cultivated in the presence of sCD54 (50 ng/ml), resulted positive for the expression of CD146 and negative for CD45, and lower fibroblast contamination. Cells were capable to proliferate with an S phase of 25%, to produce vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, (10 ng/ml) and to give origin to vessel-like tubule in vitro. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that sCD54 is an essential factor for the in-vitro expansion of HECs without donor and vessel-source variability. Resulting primary cultures can be useful, for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine (e.g. artificial micro tissue generation, coating artificial heart valve etc.) and bio-nanotechnology applications. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the mai...

  14. Cardiovascular tissues contain independent circadian clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, A. J.; London, B.; Block, G. D.; Menaker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular events exhibit a circadian rhythm in the frequency of occurrence. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not yet fully understood, but they may be due to rhythmicity inherent in the cardiovascular system. We have begun to characterize rhythmicity of the clock gene mPer1 in the rat cardiovascular system. Luciferase activity driven by the mPer1 gene promoter is rhythmic in vitro in heart tissue explants and a wide variety of veins and arteries cultured from the transgenic Per1-luc rat. The tissues showed between 3 and 12 circadian cycles of gene expression in vitro before damping. Whereas peak per1-driven bioluminescence consistently occurred during the late night in the heart and all arteries sampled, the phases of the rhythms in veins varied significantly by anatomical location. Varying the time of the culture procedure relative to the donor animal's light:dark cycle revealed that, unlike some other rat tissues such as liver, the phases of in vitro rhythms of arteries, veins, and heart explants were affected by culture time. However, phase relationships among tissues were consistent across culture times; this suggests diversity in circadian regulation among components of the cardiovascular system.

  15. Inherently safe nuclear-driven internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family of nuclear driven engines is described in which nuclear energy released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a prompt critical assembly is used to heat a working gas. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled from 100 MW on up. 7 refs., 3 figs

  16. An Inherent Probabilistic Aspect of the Hough Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhanyi; YANG Changjiang; YANG Yi; MA Songde

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a new property of the Hough transform is discovered, namely an inherent probabilistic aspect which is independent of the input image and embedded in the transformation process from the image space to the parameter space. It is shown that such a probabilistic aspect has a wide range of implications concerning the specification of implementation schemes and the performance of Hough transform. In particular, it is shown that in order to make the Hough transform really meaningful, anappropriate curve (surface) density function must be, either explicitlyor implicitly, supplied during its implementation process, and that the widely used approach to uniformly discretizing parameter space in the literature is generally inadequate.

  17. Construction of IMEX methods with inherent Runge-Kutta stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braś, Michał; Izzo, Giuseppe; Jackiewicz, Zdzislaw

    2016-06-01

    We describe construction of implicit-explicit (IMEX) general linear methods (GLMs) with inherent Runge-Kutta stability (IRKS) for differential systems with non-stiff and stiff processes. We will use the extrapolation approach to remove implicitness in the non-stiff terms to compute unknown stage values in terms of stage derivatives at the previous step and those already computed in the current step. Highly stable IMEX GLMs of stage order equal to the order were derived up to the order four. These methods do not suffer from order reduction phenomenon which is confirmed by numerical experiments.

  18. An inherent boron dilution mechanism in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of boric acid during natural circulation together with Small Break LOCA experimental data shows that in present-day pressurized water reactors (PWR) there exists an inherent mechanism which can accumulate boron- free condensate in the cold leg loop seals. During reflux/boiler condensation, the accumulation rate is typically about 1.6 m3/min for a 1300 MWe UTSG plant. This observation, combined with the results of analyses of externally caused boron dilution transients, suggests that SB LOCA could become a reactivity induced accident (RIA) initiator. The severity of the reactivity accident potential is yet to be quantified. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs

  19. Estimation of inherent optical properties from CZMIL lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Feygels, Viktor; Kopilevich, Yuri; Park, Joong Yong

    2014-11-01

    Bathymetric lidar has been widely used for ocean floor mapping. By identifying two distinctive return peaks, one from the water surface and the other from the bottom, the water depth can be estimated. In addition to bathymetry, it is also possible to estimate the optical properties of the water by analyzing the lidar return waveform. Only the few systems (e.g. Optech's SHOALS and CZMIL systems) that have good radiometric calibration demonstrate the capability to product the water's inherent optical properties and bottom reflectance. As the laser pulse propagates through the water, it is scattered by the water constituents. The directional distribution of scattered radiant power is determined by the volume scattering function. Only the backscattering within a very narrow solid angle around the 180° scattering angle travels back to the detector. During the two-way travel it experiences the same optical interaction (absorption and scattering) with the water constituents. Thus, the lidar return waveform between the surface and bottom peak contains information about the vertical distribution of the water attenuation coefficient and the backscattering coefficient in the form of the rate of change of the return power. One challenge is how to estimate the inherent attenuation from the apparent attenuation. In this research we propose a technique to estimate the true water attenuation coefficient from the total system attenuation. We use a lidar waveform simulator that solves the irradiance distribution on the beam cross-section using an analytical Fourier transform of the radiance based on a single-scattering approximation.

  20. The inherent inefficiency of simultaneously feasible financial transmission rights auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empirical evidence from the New York ISO shows that the clearing prices for point-to-point congestion revenue rights, also known as financial transmission rights (FTRs), resulting from centralized auctions conducted by Independent System Operators differ significantly and systematically from the realized congestion revenues that determine the accrued payoffs of these rights. The question addressed by this paper is whether such deviations are due to price discovery errors which will eventually vanish or due to inherent inefficiencies in the auction structure. We show that even with perfect foresight of average congestion rents the clearing prices for the FTRs depend on the bid quantity and therefore may not be priced correctly in the financial transmission right (FTR) auction. In particular, we prove that quantity limits on the FTR bids may cause the auction clearing prices to differ from the bid prices. This phenomenon which is inherent in the theoretical properties of the optimization algorithm used to clear the auction, is further illustrated through numerical simulations with test systems. We conclude that price discovery alone would not remedy the discrepancy between the auction prices and the realized values of the FTRs. Secondary markets or frequent reconfiguration auctions are necessary in order to achieve such convergence. (author)

  1. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  2. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Vairamani Kandan; Sathyamurthy P; Rajkumar M; Lavanya Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that thyroid hormone directly affects the heart and peripheral vascular system. In hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular manifestations are frequent findings. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure were reported to occur more common in older patients as a result of hyperthyroidism. Cardiovascular signs of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, marked increase in cardiac output with impaired cardiovascula...

  3. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  4. The Inherent Politics of Managing the Quality of Urban Green Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Sullivan, Sidney George; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C.;

    2015-01-01

    Although the term ‘quality’ has a universal positive connotation and typically is framed by a focus on improvements, its application includes as well as excludes the access, values and world views of particular actors and interests. In this article, we highlight the relevance and implications...... of such ‘inherent politics’ through a case study of a widespread approach to operationalizing quality in urban green space management. We conclude that adoption of any quality model has both limiting and enabling implications for public participation and decision-making and that a critical stance is needed within...

  5. Making the Most of Tweet-Inherent Features for Social Spam Detection on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Zubiaga, Arkaitz; Liakata, Maria; Procter, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Social spam produces a great amount of noise on social media services such as Twitter, which reduces the signal-to-noise ratio that both end users and data mining applications observe. Existing techniques on social spam detection have focused primarily on the identification of spam accounts by using extensive historical and network-based data. In this paper we focus on the detection of spam tweets, which optimises the amount of data that needs to be gathered by relying only on tweet-inherent ...

  6. Materials chemical compatibility for the fabrication of small inherently safe nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous nuclear fuels offer a unique set of characteristics for homogeneous reactor nuclear applications. Their advantages include high nuclear stability and inherent safety, high power density, high burn-up, simple preparation and reprocessing, easy fuel handling, high neutron economy, and simple control system leading to simple mechanical designs. The major disadvantages are corrosion, limited uranium concentration, and radiation decomposition of water. Likewise, organic coolants offer certain properties that are conducive for small reactor applications. These include reduced corrosion and activation, and low vapour pressures with good heat-transfer capabilities. Their major disadvantages are decomposition, fouling and flammability. A particular organic coolant, HB-40, has been extensively studied in Canada and was used for nineteen years in the 60-MWt organic-cooled WR-1 reactor at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Proper attention to design and coolant chemistry in the nineteen years of operation in the WR-1 reactor kept the coolant aspects related to decomposition, fouling and flammability to acceptable levels. For small reactor applications, organic coolants are potentially superior to heavy water in terms of overall cost. The purpose of this thesis work was, through a literature review, to select the most suitable aqueous fuel and materials of construction for two proposed small inherently safe reactors, the QH-1 reactor and the homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor under design at the Royal Military College of Canada.

  7. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Forman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD, such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization and uncertainty of outcomes.  In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed.  Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients.

  8. A simple graphical method for measuring inherent safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, J P; Edwards, David W

    2003-11-14

    Inherently safer design (ISD) concepts have been with us for over two decades since their elaboration by Kletz [Chem. Ind. 9 (1978) 124]. Interest has really taken off globally since the early nineties after several major mishaps occurred during the eighties (Bhopal, Mexico city, Piper-alfa, Philips Petroleum, to name a few). Academic and industrial research personnel have been actively involved into devising inherently safer ways of production. The regulatory bodies have also shown deep interest since ISD makes the production safer and hence their tasks easier. Research funding has also been forthcoming for new developments as well as for demonstration projects.A natural question that arises is as to how to measure ISD characteristics of a process? Several researchers have worked on this [Trans. IChemE, Process Safety Environ. Protect. B 71 (4) (1993) 252; Inherent safety in process plant design, Ph.D. Thesis, VTT Publication Number 384, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, 1999; Proceedings of the Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center Symposium, 2001, p. 509]. Many of the proposed methods are very elegant, yet too involved for easy adoption by the industry which is scared of yet another safety analysis regime. In a recent survey [Trans. IChemE, Process Safety Environ. Prog. B 80 (2002) 115], companies desired a rather simple method to measure ISD. Simplification is also an important characteristic of ISD. It is therefore desirable to have a simple ISD measurement procedure. The ISD measurement procedure proposed in this paper can be used to differentiate between two or more processes for the same end product. The salient steps are: Consider each of the important parameters affecting the safety (e.g., temperature, pressure, toxicity, flammability, etc.) and the range of possible values these parameters can have for all the process routes under consideration for an end product. Plot these values for each step in each process route and compare. No

  9. Deep seawater inherent optical properties in the Southern Ionian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, G.; Capone, A.; Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Avanzini, C.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Rosa, G.; de Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    2007-02-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration has been carrying out since 1998 an evaluation programme of deep sea sites suitable for the construction of the future Mediterranean km3 Čerenkov neutrino telescope. We investigated the seawater optical and oceanographic properties of several deep sea marine areas close to the Italian Coast. Inherent optical properties (light absorption and attenuation coefficients) have been measured as a function of depth using an experimental apparatus equipped with standard oceanographic probes and the commercial transmissometer AC9 manufactured by WETLabs. This paper reports on the visible light absorption and attenuation coefficients measured in deep seawater of a marine region located in the Southern Ionian Sea, 60 100 km SE of Capo Passero (Sicily). Data show that blue light absorption coefficient is about 0.015 m-1 (corresponding to an absorption length of 67 m) close to the one of optically pure water and it does not show seasonal variation.

  10. Deep seawater inherent optical properties in the Southern Ionian Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Riccobene, G; Ambriola, M; Ameli, F; Amore, I; Anghinolfi, M; Anzalone, A; Avanzini, C; Barbarino, G C; Barbarito, E; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Beverini, N; Bonori, M; Bouhadef, B; Brescia, M; Cacopardo, G; Cafagna, F; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Castorina, E; Ceres, A; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Cocimano, R; Coniglione, R; Cordelli, M; Costa, M; Cuneo, S; D'Amico, A; De Bonis, G; De Marzo, C; De Rosa, G; De Vita, R; Distefano, C; Falchini, E; Fiorello, C; Flaminio, V; Fratini, K; Gabrielli, A; Galeotti, S; Gandolfi, E; Grimaldi, A; Habel, R; Leonora, E; Lo Presti, D; Lonardo, A; Longo, G; Lucarelli, F; Maccioni, E; Margiotta, A; Martini, A; Masullo, R; Megna, R; Migneco, E; Mongelli, M; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Musumeci, M; Nicolau, C A; Orlando, A; Osipenko, M; Osteria, G; Papaleo, R; Pappalardo, V; Petta, C; Piattelli, P; Raffaelli, F; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rovelli, A; Ruppi, M; Russo, G V; Russo, S; Sapienza, P; Schuller, J P; Sedita, M; Shirokov, E; Simeone, F; Sipala, V; Spurio, M; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Trasatti, L; Urso, S; Valente, V; Vicini, P

    2006-01-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration has been carrying out since 1998 an evaluation programme of deep sea sites suitable for the construction of the future Mediterranean km3 Cerenkov neutrino telescope. We investigated the seawater optical and oceanographic properties of several deep sea marine areas close to the Italian Coast. Inherent optical properties (light absorption and attenuation coefficients) have been measured as a function of depth using an experimental apparatus equipped with standard oceanographic probes and the commercial transmissometer AC9 manufactured by WETLabs. This paper reports on the visible light absorption and attenuation coefficients measured in deep seawater of a marine region located in the Southern Ionian Sea, 60-100 km SE of Capo Passero (Sicily). Data show that blue light absorption coefficient is about 0.015 1/m (corresponding to an absorption length of 67 m) close to the one of optically pure water and it doe not show seasonal variation.

  11. Design strategy for control of inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor power plant safety is assured through a combination of engineered barriers to radiation release (e.g., reactor containment) in combination with active reactor safety systems to shut the reactor down and remove decay heat. While not specifically identified as safety systems, the control systems responsible for continuous operation of plant subsystems are the first line of defense for mitigating radiation releases and for plant protection. ''''Inherently safe'' reactors take advantage of passive system features for decay-heat removal and reactor shutdown functions normally ascribed to active reactor safety systems. The advent of these reactors may permit restructuring of the present control system design strategy. This restructuring is based on the fact that authority for protection against unlikely accidents is, as much as practical, placed upon the passive features of the system instead of the traditional placement upon the PPS. Consequently, reactor control may be simplified, allowing the reliability of control systems to be improved and more easily defended

  12. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on testing of the kinetic mechanism reported in the previous semiannual report, and the interpretation of data (both ours and literature). This model yields good qualitative agreement with the data and indicates that mercury oxidation occurs during the thermal quench of the combustion gases. The model also suggests that atomic chlorine is the key oxidizing species. The oxidation is limited to a temperature window between 700-400 C that is defined by the overlap of (1) a region of significant superequilibrium Cl concentration, and (2) a region where oxidized mercury is favored by equilibrium. Above 700 C reverse reactions effectively limit oxidized mercury concentrations. Below 400 C, atomic chlorine concentrations are too low to support further oxidation. The implication of these results are that homogeneous oxidation is governed primarily by (1) HCl concentration, (2) quench rate, and (3) background gas composition. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of one journal paper that was accepted for publication during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1999).

  13. A rationale for fusion economics based on inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the direct capital costs of recent light-water-reactor fission plants and recent magnetic fusion designs indicates that cost reductions by innovation in both the fusion reactor and the fusion balance of the plant (nonreactor part) will be required for fusion direct costs to become competitive. Both future fusion and future fission designs would benefit from modularity, standardization, and inherent safety (passive afterheat removal without damage in loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accidents) to improve their utility and public acceptance and to reduce nonreactor balance-of-plant costs, indirect costs, and time-related costs. If this can be achieved, inherently safe fusion and fission designs should have comparable reactor enclosure power densities, of the order of 1 MW /SUB th/ /m3. With a reduction by a factor of about 2 in the fusion magnet and heating-system cost per watt, such fusion and fission designs should also have comparable direct and total capital costs per watt, provided the fusion plants can be modularly built in somewhat larger units (300 to 600 MW /SUB e/ ) than some of the modular fission units (100 MW /SUB e/ ). With the eventual fusion capital cost per watt thus attaining parity with fission some decades later than the development and deployment of second-generation fission plants, the economic incentive for switching growth to new fusion electric plants would derive from lower fuel-cycle costs (fuel startup, operating, processing, and waste-disposal costs). At the same time, there would also be strong economic incentives to build hybrid fusion plants to supply fissile fuel for the established fission plants

  14. Application of the Spatial Synoptic Classification in Evaluating Links between Heat Stress and Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    Phoenix: American Meteorological Society, 2015. s. 329. [AMS Annual Meeting /95./ and Conference on Climate Variability and Change /27./. 04.01.2015–08.01.2015, Phoenix] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : spatial synoptic classification * cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology https://ams.confex.com/ams/95Annual/webprogram/Paper257805.html

  15. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  16. A non-invasive clinical application of wave intensity analysis based on ultrahigh temporal resolution phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglino Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wave intensity analysis, traditionally derived from pressure and velocity data, can be formulated using velocity and area. Flow-velocity and area can both be derived from high-resolution phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC-CMR. In this study, very high temporal resolution PC-CMR data is processed using an integrated and semi-automatic technique to derive wave intensity. Methods Wave intensity was derived in terms of area and velocity changes. These data were directly derived from PC-CMR using a breath-hold spiral sequence accelerated with sensitivity encoding (SENSE. Image processing was integrated in a plug-in for the DICOM viewer OsiriX, including calculations of wave speed and wave intensity. Ascending and descending aortic data from 15 healthy volunteers (30 ± 6 years data were used to test the method for feasibility, and intra- and inter-observer variability. Ascending aortic data were also compared with results from 15 patients with coronary heart disease (61 ± 13 years to assess the clinical usefulness of the method. Results Rapid image acquisition (11 s breath-hold and image processing was feasible in all volunteers. Wave speed was physiological (5.8 ± 1.3 m/s ascending aorta, 5.0 ± 0.7 m/s descending aorta and the wave intensity pattern was consistent with traditionally formulated wave intensity. Wave speed, peak forward compression wave in early systole and peak forward expansion wave in late systole at both locations exhibited overall good intra- and inter-observer variability. Patients with coronary heart disease had higher wave speed (p Conclusion A non-invasive, semi-automated and reproducible method for performing wave intensity analysis is presented. Its application is facilitated by the use of a very high temporal resolution spiral sequence. A formulation of wave intensity based on area change has also been proposed, involving no assumptions about the cross

  17. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  18. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  19. Inherently flushing piston rod for a reciprocating pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besic, D.; Smith, W.C.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes an inherently flushing piston rod for use in a reciprocating pump. It comprises: a piston portion having an axial bore formed therethrough, the axial bore having a first end and a second end, the first end of the axial bore lying in fluid contact with the external environment of the piston portion; a flexible diaphragm disposed within the axial bore through the piston portion whereby the flexible diaphragm and the piston portion define a reserve flushing zone; a pair of annular wiper elements extending radially from the piston portion, the annular wiper elements and the piston portion defining an annular flushing space therebetween; the piston portion having a radially-extending channel formed therethrough, the radially-extending channel fluidly connecting the axial bore through the piston portion and the annular flushing space; and a means for providing flushing fluid to the second end of the axial bore through the piston portion; a means for preventing flow from the axial bore through the piston portion to the means for supplying flushing fluid.

  20. Inherently analog quantity representations in olive baboons (Papio anubis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaFrancineCantlon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1 a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2 an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment -naive olive baboons (Papio anubis to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4, large (>4, or span (small vs. large numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  1. External noise control in inherently stochastic biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Likun; Chen, Meng; Nie, Qing

    2012-11-01

    Biological systems are often subject to external noise from signal stimuli and environmental perturbations, as well as noises in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. Can different stochastic fluctuations interact to give rise to new emerging behaviors? How can a system reduce noise effects while still being capable of detecting changes in the input signal? Here, we study analytically and computationally the role of nonlinear feedback systems in controlling external noise with the presence of large internal noise. In addition to noise attenuation, we analyze derivatives of Fano factor to study systems' capability of differentiating signal inputs. We find effects of internal noise and external noise may be separated in one slow positive feedback loop system; in particular, the slow loop can decrease external noise and increase robustness of signaling with respect to fluctuations in rate constants, while maintaining the signal output specific to the input. For two feedback loops, we demonstrate that the influence of external noise mainly depends on how the fast loop responds to fluctuations in the input and the slow loop plays a limited role in determining the signal precision. Furthermore, in a dual loop system of one positive feedback and one negative feedback, a slower positive feedback always leads to better noise attenuation; in contrast, a slower negative feedback may not be more beneficial. Our results reveal interesting stochastic effects for systems containing both extrinsic and intrinsic noises, suggesting novel noise filtering strategies in inherently stochastic systems. PMID:23213267

  2. Making appropriation 'stick': stabilizing politics in an 'inherently feminist' tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Katie Ann

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how feminist politics are made to 'stick' to appropriated technologies in the context of a contemporary feminist women's health clinic in the US. Feminist clinics such as 'FemHealth', founded as part of 1970s women's health movements, put medical tools and knowledge into lay women's hands, making the appropriation of medical technologies a centerpiece of their political project. In the process, they rejected the authority of physicians and gave new politicized meanings to the tools they claimed as their own. As lay healthworkers at FemHealth continued the project of appropriation, they also continued to negotiate their dependence on physicians to perform tasks that required a medical license. Drawing on participant observation and interviews with healthworkers, I argue that struggles over the role and authority of physicians in this clinic play out through debates over two similar and competing tools used in the abortion procedure: the single-tooth tenaculum and the cervical stabilizer. Many healthworkers invested in the stabilizer as 'inherently feminist' in hopes that it would maintain its politics even when passed into physicians' hands. While appropriation depends on the ability of users to alter a technology's meanings, actors may feel invested in the new politics taken on by appropriated tools and work towards making those meanings persist, or 'stick'. PMID:23189608

  3. Energy storage inherent in large tidal turbine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennell, Ross; Adcock, Thomas A A

    2014-06-01

    While wind farms have no inherent storage to supply power in calm conditions, this paper demonstrates that large tidal turbine farms in channels have short-term energy storage. This storage lies in the inertia of the oscillating flow and can be used to exceed the previously published upper limit for power production by currents in a tidal channel, while simultaneously maintaining stronger currents. Inertial storage exploits the ability of large farms to manipulate the phase of the oscillating currents by varying the farm's drag coefficient. This work shows that by optimizing how a large farm's drag coefficient varies during the tidal cycle it is possible to have some flexibility about when power is produced. This flexibility can be used in many ways, e.g. producing more power, or to better meet short predictable peaks in demand. This flexibility also allows trading total power production off against meeting peak demand, or mitigating the flow speed reduction owing to power extraction. The effectiveness of inertial storage is governed by the frictional time scale relative to either the duration of a half tidal cycle or the duration of a peak in power demand, thus has greater benefits in larger channels. PMID:24910516

  4. Inherent safety features in balance-of-plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear units must be more economical to construct and operate, and, at the same time, clearly incorporate advances in safety over the current generation of light water reactors. To achieve these goals, the root causes of safety issues must be addressed. In this way, global, cost-effective solutions can be implemented. With simple, direct design approaches, the licensing risk is minimized and configuration control is enhanced. With proper planning in the early stages of plant design, postulated accidents and events can often be mitigated by passive features inherent in the basic structure and layout, eliminating expensive added protective structures and components often found in current designs. Korea Electric Power Corporation's Yonggwang (YGN) Units 3 and 4, shown in an artist's rendering in Figure 1, are now under construction in Korea. Engineering is more than 85% complete, and Unit 3 construction is more than 50% complete. Significant steps toward design simplification and safety enhancement have been made by addressing safety concerns very early in the design effort. The tools used to achieve this were improved symmetry and separation, isolation of potential hazards, and an improved design process

  5. Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences Using Inherent Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety challenges associated with sodium-cooled fast reactors have been recognized since the beginning of nuclear power and include the high power density in the core, the need for a reactor coolant and heat transfer system with high heat removal capability, the variation of power across the core requiring the use of ducted assemblies, and the condition that the fuel is not in the most neutronically reactive configuration during normal operation such that relocation can result in positive reactivity excursions, even possibly exceeding prompt critical conditions and energetic events. The potential for accidents with such severe consequences has been a negative factor with respect to the use of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. With the development of inherent safety principles, including favorable reactivity feedback, natural circulation cooling, and design choices resulting in favorable dispersive characteristics for failed fuel, it is possible to greatly increase the level of safety, to the point where it is highly unlikely, or perhaps even not possible, for accidents to result in releases of hghly radioactive materials to the containment or the surrounding environment. (author)

  6. Dualheap Selection Algorithm: Efficient, Inherently Parallel and Somewhat Mysterious

    CERN Document Server

    Sepesi, Greg

    2007-01-01

    An inherently parallel algorithm is proposed that efficiently performs selection: finding the K-th largest member of a set of N members. Selection is a common component of many more complex algorithms and therefore is a widely studied problem. Not much is new in the proposed dualheap selection algorithm: the heap data structure is from J.W.J.Williams, the bottom-up heap construction is from R.W. Floyd, and the concept of a two heap data structure is from J.W.J. Williams and D.E. Knuth. The algorithm's novelty is limited to a few relatively minor implementation twists: 1) the two heaps are oriented with their roots at the partition values rather than at the minimum and maximum values, 2)the coding of one of the heaps (the heap of smaller values) employs negative indexing, and 3) the exchange phase of the algorithm is similar to a bottom-up heap construction, but navigates the heap with a post-order tree traversal. When run on a single processor, the dualheap selection algorithm's performance is competitive wit...

  7. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  8. An inherently parallel method for solving discretized diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo approach to solving linear systems of equations is being investigated in the context of the solution of discretized diffusion equations. While the technique was originally devised decades ago, changes in computer architectures (namely, massively parallel machines) have driven the authors to revisit this technique. There are a number of potential advantages to this approach: (1) Analog Monte Carlo techniques are inherently parallel; this is not necessarily true to today's more advanced linear equation solvers (multigrid, conjugate gradient, etc.); (2) Some forms of this technique are adaptive in that they allow the user to specify locations in the problem where resolution is of particular importance and to concentrate the work at those locations; and (3) These techniques permit the solution of very large systems of equations in that matrix elements need not be stored. The user could trade calculational speed for storage if elements of the matrix are calculated on the fly. The goal of this study is to compare the parallel performance of Monte Carlo linear solvers to that of a more traditional parallelized linear solver. The authors observe the linear speedup that they expect from the Monte Carlo algorithm, given that there is no domain decomposition to cause significant communication overhead. Overall, PETSc outperforms the Monte Carlo solver for the test problem. The PETSc parallel performance improves with larger numbers of unknowns for a given number of processors. Parallel performance of the Monte Carlo technique is independent of the size of the matrix and the number of processes. They are investigating modifications to the scheme to accommodate matrix problems with positive off-diagonal elements. They are also currently coding an on-the-fly version of the algorithm to investigate the solution of very large linear systems

  9. Distribution of Inherent Strains and Residual Stresses in Medium Thickness Plate Weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental theory for the analysis of residual weldingstresses and deformation based on the inherent strain distribution along the welded joint is introduced. Distribution of inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses in medium thickness plate weldment is calculated and analyzed.A new method of calculating inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses is proposed.

  10. Registration of optical imagery and LiDAR data using an inherent geometrical constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wuming; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Mei; Chen, Yiming; Yan, Kai; Li, Linyuan; Qi, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Jinghui; Chu, Qing

    2015-03-23

    A novel method for registering imagery with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is proposed. It is based on the phenomenon that the back-projection of LiDAR point cloud of an object should be located within the object boundary in the image. Using this inherent geometrical constraint, the registration parameters computation of both data sets only requires LiDAR point clouds of several objects and their corresponding boundaries in the image. The proposed registration method comprises of four steps: point clouds extraction, boundary extraction, back-projection computation and registration parameters computation. There are not any limitations on the geometrical and spectral properties of the object. So it is suitable not only for structured scenes with man-made objects but also for natural scenes. Moreover, the proposed method based on the inherent geometrical constraint can register two data sets derived from different parts of an object. It can be used to co-register TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) LiDAR point cloud and UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) image, which are obtaining more attention in the forest survey application. Using initial registration parameters comparable to POS (position and orientation system) accuracy, the performed experiments validated the feasibility of the proposed registration method. PMID:25837107

  11. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  12. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity

  13. Are the current recommendations for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease applicable in low-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noubiap JJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jean Jacques N Noubiap,1,2 Jobert Richie N Nansseu3,41Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Medical Diagnostic Center, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Sickle Cell Disease Unit, Mother and Child Centre, Chantal BIYA Foundation, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: Although evidence has accumulated that long-term aspirin therapy is beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD, a lot of controversies persist regarding the benefit of aspirin use in primary prevention of CVD. In low-income countries (LIC specifically, the decision to prescribe aspirin for primary CVD prevention is more problematic, as there is a dearth of evidence in this regard. Aspirin has been shown to have relative beneficial effects in preventing a first myocardial infarction, but not stroke. However, as stroke is the prevailing CVD in many LIC, especially in Africa, the benefit of aspirin in these settings is therefore questionable. Indeed, there is no published trial that has evaluated the benefits and risks of continuous aspirin therapy in populations of LIC. Furthermore, though cardiovascular risk assessment is crucial in decision-making for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD, there are no risk assessment tools that have been validated in African populations. Studies are urgently warranted, to determine the usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD in low-income settings where the drug is highly available and affordable, as CVD is becoming the leading cause of deaths in LIC.Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular disease, primary prevention, low-income countries

  14. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  15. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  16. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  17. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  18. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna;

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  19. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxi...

  20. Polymers for Cardiovascular Stent Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Strohbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have found widespread applications in cardiology, in particular in coronary vascular intervention as stent platforms (scaffolds and coating matrices for drug-eluting stents. Apart from permanent polymers, current research is focussing on biodegradable polymers. Since they degrade once their function is fulfilled, their use might contribute to the reduction of adverse events like in-stent restenosis, late stent-thrombosis, and hypersensitivity reactions. After reviewing current literature concerning polymers used for cardiovascular applications, this review deals with parameters of tissue and blood cell functions which should be considered to evaluate biocompatibility of stent polymers in order to enhance physiological appropriate properties. The properties of the substrate on which vascular cells are placed can have a large impact on cell morphology, differentiation, motility, and fate. Finally, methods to assess these parameters under physiological conditions will be summarized.

  1. Understanding the Spatiotemporal Variability of Inherent Water Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Sven; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Reichstein, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The global carbon and water cycles are coupled via plant physiology. However, the resulting spatial and temporal covariability of both fluxes on a global scale lacks sufficient understanding. This is required to estimate the impact of atmospheric drought on photosynthesis in water-limited ecosystems. Water use efficiency (WUE) is an essential ecosystem diagnostic defined as the ratio between gross primary productivity (GPP) and transpiration (T). WUE is known to vary with vapour-pressure deficit (VPD) and therefore also in time. The inherent water use efficiency (iWUE) accounts for the VPD effect on WUE and aims at representing a largely time-invariant ecosystem property. However, different ways of describing the functional response of iWUE to VPD are found in the literature. One established iWUE definition was proposed by Beer et al. (2009) and takes the form of iWUE = GPP--VPD- . T (1) A similar definition can be derived from stomatal conductance theories such as Katul et al. (2010) and takes the form of √ -- GPP---VPD- iWUE = T . (2) Here, we use eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET database to evaluate both approaches for a globally representative set of biomes including tropical, temperate and semi-arid ecosystems. Testing both definitions in a model-data fusion setup indicated that (2) is more consistent with FLUXNET observations than (1). However, there still remains considerable temporal variability of iWUE which is linked to seasonal changes in VPD. To explore up to which extent the temporal variability of iWUE may be related to the prescribed functional responses to VPD, we treated the exponent of VPD as a global parameter, here termed γ. When γ = 1 the functional response is equivalent to (1), while when γ = 0.5 it corresponds to formulation of model (2)). The global estimate was found to be significantly lower than 0.5, which would have been expected from stomatal conductance theory at leaf level. We assessed whether adding γ as site

  2. Technological competencies in cardiovascular nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Miyahara Kobayashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the perception of the coordinators of the Specialization Courses in Cardiovascular Nursing about inserting content from Information and Communication Technology (ICT and analyze them in relation to the technological competencies and regarding its applicability, relevance and importance in assisting, teaching and management. METHOD Descriptive study with 10 coordinators of the Specialization course in Cardiologic Nursing, who replied to the questionnaire for the development of technological competency adapted from the Technology Initiative Guidelines Education Reforms (TIGER, and analyzed using the Delphi technique for obtaining consensus and scored according to the relevance, pertinence and applicability using Likert scale according to degree of agreement. RESULTS Six courses developed ICT content. The contents of the TIGER were considered relevant, pertinent and applicable. CONCLUSION The coordinators recognize the need for technological competencies of the Cardiovascular Nurse for healthcare applicability.

  3. Clinical significance of cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deedwania Prakash C

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although diabetes mellitus is predominantly a metabolic disorder, recent data suggest that it is as much a vascular disorder. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus. A number of recent reports have emphasized that many patients already have atherosclerosis in progression by the time they are diagnosed with clinical evidence of diabetes mellitus. The increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients is related to the frequently associated dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The evolving knowledge regarding the variety of metabolic, hormonal, and hemodynamic abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus has led to efforts designed for early identification of individuals at risk of subsequent disease. It has been suggested that insulin resistance, the key abnormality in type II diabetes, often precedes clinical features of diabetes by 5–6 years. Careful attention to the criteria described for the cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome should help identify those at risk at an early stage. The application of nonpharmacologic as well as newer emerging pharmacologic therapies can have beneficial effects in individuals with cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome and/or diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and related abnormalities. Early identification and implementation of appropriate therapeutic strategies would be necessary to contain the emerging new epidemic of cardiovascular disease related to diabetes.

  4. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  5. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  6. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  8. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  9. Proposal of a method to evaluate the growth of inherent filtration originated by metallizing in a glass ampoule of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam condensation of metal anode on the walls of a glass ampule producing X-rays form a metallic layer, which is an inherent filtration mode. This process is referred to as metallizing. The thickness of the metal grows with the intensity of use of X-ray machine. in General, routine applications, this growth is despised and is only considered when its value has reached such proportions that undermine the purpose of irradiation. There are situations, however, where it is not correct to ignore this growth inherent filtration. For example, when it comes to machine used for calibration of instruments in beams of x-rays, the knowledge of the value of inherent filtration is desirable. This paper proposes a method for evaluating the increased inherent filtration due to metallization using X-ray spectra laid down in international standards

  10. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  11. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  12. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  13. Multifaceted prospects of nanocomposites for cardiovascular grafts and stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellayappan MV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Muthu Vignesh Vellayappan,1 Arunpandian Balaji,1 Aruna Priyadarshini Subramanian,1 Agnes Aruna John,1 Saravana Kumar Jaganathan,1 Selvakumar Murugesan,2 Eko Supriyanto,1 Mustafa Yusof1 1IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Rubber Technology Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death across the globe. The use of synthetic materials is indispensable in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Major drawbacks related to the use of biomaterials are their mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and these have to be circumvented before promoting the material to the market or clinical setting. Revolutionary advancements in nanotechnology have introduced a novel class of materials called nanocomposites which have superior properties for biomedical applications. Recently, there has been a widespread recognition of the nanocomposites utilizing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, bacterial cellulose, silk fibroin, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes in cardiovascular grafts and stents. The unique characteristics of these nanocomposites have led to the development of a wide range of nanostructured copolymers with appreciably enhanced properties, such as improved mechanical, chemical, and physical characteristics suitable for cardiovascular implants. The incorporation of advanced nanocomposite materials in cardiovascular grafts and stents improves hemocompatibility, enhances antithrombogenicity, improves mechanical and surface properties, and decreases the microbial response to the cardiovascular implants. A thorough attempt is made to summarize the various applications of nanocomposites for cardiovascular graft and stent applications. This review will highlight the recent advances in nanocomposites and also address the need of future research in

  14. Application of the Loading Inherent Subspace Scaling Method on the Whipping Responses Test of a Surface Ship to Underwater Explosions%载荷内部子空间缩比方法在水面舰船水下爆炸鞭状响应试验上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建湖; 吴有生; 王海坤; 潘建强

    2013-01-01

      水下爆炸载荷作用下舰船结构的鞭状运动不仅受冲击波载荷的影响,而且与气泡脉动载荷密切相关。理想条件下,水面舰船鞭状响应的缩比模型试验预测必须在离心机或增压水池内进行,这样才能保证冲击与气泡载荷在整个力学空间上的一致性,这对于通常采用的大尺度模型鞭状试验来说,显然不切实际。之前,作者提出一个专门的称为载荷内部子空间的缩比模型方法(LIS Scaling Method),能够在与原型载荷条件紧密相连的特定子空间内模拟水下爆炸载荷与鞭状响应。文中将该方法用于水面舰船,通过精心设计的“原型”和“子模型”水下爆炸鞭状响应模型对比试验研究进行验证,结果表明,原型与子模型的鞭状响应通过LIS方法换算后,有非常好的一致性。此外,发现阻尼随模型鞭状响应的幅值而变化。%The whipping response of a ship structure to underwater explosion is relevant not only to the shock wave load but also to the bubble load. So the ideal subscale underwater explosion test for whipping responses of a surface ship must be executed on a centrifuge machine or in an air pressure modifiable pond that can insure the consistency of shock wave and bubble load in the whole me-chanical space, and it is not practical for big model that is usually used for whipping responses test. Previously, a special scaling method called Loading Inherent Subspace (LIS) scaling method was pro-posed by authors, which can simulate the underwater explosion loadings and the whipping responses in a specific subspace that is concerned with load condition of prototype. In this paper, the LIS scal-ing method was applied to a surface ship, and two experiments including one prototype and one sub-scale model of whipping responses to underwater explosion were carried out and the responses were compared with each other. The results show that the responses are

  15. Inherent structures of phase-separating binary mixtures: nucleation, spinodal decomposition, and pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sarmistha; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-03-01

    An energy landscape view of phase separation and nonideality in binary mixtures is developed by exploring their potential energy landscape (PEL) as functions of temperature and composition. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study a model that promotes structure breaking in the solute-solvent parent binary liquid, at low temperatures. The PEL of the system captures the potential energy distribution of the inherent structures (IS) of the system and is obtained by removing the kinetic energy (including that of intermolecular vibrations). The broader distribution of the inherent structure energy for structure breaking liquid than that of the structure making liquid demonstrates the larger role of entropy in stabilizing the parent liquid of the structure breaking type of binary mixtures. At high temperature, although the parent structure of the structure breaking binary mixture is homogenous, the corresponding inherent structure is found to be always phase separated, with a density pattern that exhibits marked correlation with the energy of its inherent structure. Over a broad range of intermediate inherent structure energy, bicontinuous phase separation prevails with interpenetrating stripes as signatures of spinodal decomposition. At low inherent structure energy, the structure is largely phase separated with one interface where as at high inherent structure energy we find nucleation type growth. Interestingly, at low temperature, the average inherent structure energy () exhibits a drop with temperature which signals the onset of crystallization in one of the phases while the other remains in the liquid state. The nonideal composition dependence of viscosity is anticorrelated with average inherent structure energy. PMID:21517506

  16. Inherent structures of phase-separating binary mixtures: Nucleation, spinodal decomposition, and pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sarmistha; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-03-01

    An energy landscape view of phase separation and nonideality in binary mixtures is developed by exploring their potential energy landscape (PEL) as functions of temperature and composition. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study a model that promotes structure breaking in the solute-solvent parent binary liquid, at low temperatures. The PEL of the system captures the potential energy distribution of the inherent structures (IS) of the system and is obtained by removing the kinetic energy (including that of intermolecular vibrations). The broader distribution of the inherent structure energy for structure breaking liquid than that of the structure making liquid demonstrates the larger role of entropy in stabilizing the parent liquid of the structure breaking type of binary mixtures. At high temperature, although the parent structure of the structure breaking binary mixture is homogenous, the corresponding inherent structure is found to be always phase separated, with a density pattern that exhibits marked correlation with the energy of its inherent structure. Over a broad range of intermediate inherent structure energy, bicontinuous phase separation prevails with interpenetrating stripes as signatures of spinodal decomposition. At low inherent structure energy, the structure is largely phase separated with one interface where as at high inherent structure energy we find nucleation type growth. Interestingly, at low temperature, the average inherent structure energy () exhibits a drop with temperature which signals the onset of crystallization in one of the phases while the other remains in the liquid state. The nonideal composition dependence of viscosity is anticorrelated with average inherent structure energy.

  17. Simultaneous, inherently temperature and strain insensitive bio-sensors based on dual-resonance long-period gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Saurabh Mani; Bock, Wojtek J; Mikulic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the temperature and strain induced cross-talks simultaneously, we propose an inherently strain and temperature insensitive fiber-optic bio-sensor. The insensitivity has been achieved by properly adjusting the dopants and their concentrations in the optical fiber core region, and by optimizing the grating period and the strength of concatenated dual-resonance long-period-gratings. The simulations have been carried out using the same fiber parameters as used in our earlier experimental studies, which matched excellently with the experimental results. The proposed sensor has a theoretical refractive-index sensitivity of 4607 nm/RIU, which can be used to detect changes as small as 2.2 x10^-7 in ambient refractive indices using a detection system with spectral resolution of 1 pm. Our work finds application in developing precision biosensors with inherent insensitivity towards temperature and axial strain fluctuations. The sensor is currently under fabrication at our lab.

  18. Synchrotron Infrared Spectroscopy with Multivariate Spectral Analyses Potentially Facilitates the Classification of Inherent Structures of Feed-Type of Sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inherent structural-chemical features of Chinese feed-type sorghum seed using synchrotron-radiation Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM) with two multivariate molecular spectral analysis techniques: Agglomerative Hierarchical cluster (AHCA) and principal component analyses (PCA). The results show that by application of these two multivariate techniques with the infrared spectroscopy of the SRFTIRM, it makes possible to discriminate and classify the inherent molecular structural features among the different layers of sorghum with a great efficiency. With the SRFTIRM, images of the molecular chemistry of sorghum could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of nutrient matrix and nutrient make-up and interactions could be revealed.

  19. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  20. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  1. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  2. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  3. Synthesis and characterization of iodinated polyurethane with inherent radiopacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S; James, Nirmala R; Joseph, Roy; Jayakrishnan, A

    2009-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of polyurethane (PU) with excellent radiopacity for medical and allied applications are reported. Bisphenol-A (BPA) was iodinated to obtain 4,4'-isopropylidinedi-(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBPA) which was used as a chain extender for the preparation of a radiopaque PU. The PU was prepared by reacting 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG) and IBPA in 2.2:1.2:1 molecular ratio and is characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetry (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and X-radiography. X-ray images showed that the PU prepared using IBPA as the chain extender is highly radiopaque. An in vitro cytotoxicity test using L929 mouse fibroblast cells shows that the PU is non-cytotoxic. The outlined synthesis of a PU with radiocontrast properties opens up the possibility of synthesizing many different kinds of radiopaque PUs with desirable range of physical properties exploiting the versatility in their chemical synthesis. PMID:19596151

  4. The concept of passive cooling systems for inherently safe BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and its consequences have led to extensive rethinking about the safety technologies used in boiling water reactors (BWRs). As one of the options of the safety technologies, we have been developing passive cooling systems consisting of a water-cooling system and an infinite-time air-cooling system. These systems achieve core cooling without electricity and are intended to cope with a long-term station blackout (SBO). Both these cooling systems remove relatively high decay heat for the initial 10 days after an accident, and then the infinite-time air-cooling system continues to remove attenuated decay heat after this period. To obtain heat transfer data for the design of the water-cooling system, we conducted heat transfer tests using a full-scale U-shaped single tube. The data were obtained at a system pressure of 0.2 to 3.0 MPa (absolute) and inlet steam velocity of 5 to 56 m/s. To enhance heat transfer of the air-cooling system, we successfully implemented some air-cooling enhancing technologies. The performance was evaluated by heat transfer data obtained from the element heat transfer tests. The heat transfer performance increased at least 100% with the enhancement technologies compared with a bare tube. From these test results, we confirmed good feasibility for application of the cooling systems. (author)

  5. The cardiovascular system, as understood in antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular concepts in antiquity were primitive up to the early 5th century BC, when Greek philosopher-physicians like Empedocles and Diogenes divorced human physiology from its previous magico-religious base in order to find answers in the natural sciences. The heart was not initially seen as central to the cardiovascular system – blood (containing life-giving pneuma moved through the body in blood vessels (phlebes by way of a spontaneous “ebb and flow” motion. Their perceived anatomical vascular models were quite fanciful, but nevertheless accepted by the Hippocratic doctors, who, except for a single work, The heart (containing a useful description of the heart, added little of significance to the subject. Based on animal dissections, post-Hippocratic authors like Diocles and Praxagoras first distinguished between arteries and veins, confirmed that the heart had two main chambers (ventricles and extended the theory that “innate heat” in the left ventricle produced pneuma which filled the arteries; only veins contained blood, produced in the right ventricle. Basing their theories on human dissections the Alexandrians, Herophilus and Erasistratus (3rd century BC produced the first accurate descriptions of the heart and major components of the vascular system. Erasistratus even postulated minute (normally non-functional peripheral arterio-venous anastomoses. The heart’s pump function was only partially understood – diastole was seen as the active phase of the cardiac cycle (sucking blood into the heart, and the pulse as inherent contraction of the arterial wall. After Herophilus and Erasistratus human dissection ceased, putting an end to further significant developments in unravelling the cardiovascular system. In the 2nd century AD, Celsus consolidated known knowledge, even adding minor contributions (e.g. a description of the coronary vessels based on his own animal dissections. He mainly confirmed the Alexandrians’ findings

  6. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  7. Cardiovascular safety of etoricoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meticulous attention is paid to the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the so-called selective cyclooxy-genase 2 (COX-2 inhibitors in particular. The author considers precisely this matter in case of Russia's recent NSAID etoricoxib that has been tested along with other most studied medications from this group, by applying one of the latest meta-analyses. The EULAR recommendations to use NSAIDs are given.

  8. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alimadad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  9. Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Clare

    2013-04-01

    Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with

  10. 40 CFR 88.313-93 - Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.313-93 Section 88.313-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-93 Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Administration. (1) The...—Fleet Credit Table Based on Reduction in NMOG+NOX. Vehicle Equivalents for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  11. Strategische keuzen in verkeersveiligheidsbeleid en onderzoek : naar een inherent veiliger wegverkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszbach, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the Multiyear plan for traffic safety the terms "inherent safe" and "systematic management" were used. This report explains why these terms can be used and shows their correlation in the traffic safety theories. Some elements which can be a part of an inherent safe traffic and transport system ar

  12. Inherent reward & risk (Part I): Towards a universal paradigm for investment analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new paradigm is developed for analyzinginvestment strategies and pricing financial assets. This paradigmassumes that any investment strategy has its own "inherent reward"and "inherent risk" that can be judged with common sense. Ijustify axiomatically the existence and uniqueness (ra

  13. Myocardial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstad, Anne Pernille

    2016-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with increased risk of myocardial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD), two separate conditions which often co-exist and influence each other's course. The prevalence of myocardial dysfunction may be as high as 75% in T2DM populations but is often overlooked due to the initial asymptomatic nature of the disease, complicating co-morbidities such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity, and the lack of consensus on diagnostic criteria. More sensitive echocardiographic applications are furthermore needed to improve detection of early subclinical changes in myocardial function which do not affect conventional echocardiographic parameters. The pathophysiology of the diabetic myocardial dysfunction is not fully elucidated, but involves hyperglycemia and high levels of free fatty acids. It evolves over several years and increases the risk of developing overt HF, and is suggested to at least in part account for the worse outcome seen in T2DM individuals after cardiac events. CAD and stroke are the most frequent CV manifestations among T2DM patients and relate to a large degree to the accelerated atherosclerosis driven by inflammation. Diagnosing CAD is challenging due to the lower sensitivity inherent in the diagnostic tests and there is thus a need for new biomarkers to improve prediction and detection of CAD. It seems that a multi-factorial approach (i.e. targeting several CV risk factors simultaneously) is superior to a strict glucose lowering strategy in reducing risk for macrovascular events, and recent research may even support an effect also on HF outcomes. PMID:27071642

  14. Biomarkers: A Challenging Conundrum in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Peter; King, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The use of biomarkers has proven utility in cardiovascular medicine and holds great promise for future advances, but their application requires considerable rigor in thinking and methodology. Numerous confounding factors can cloud the clinical and investigative uses of biomarkers. Yet, the thoughtful and critical use of biomarkers can doubtless aid discovery of new pathogenic pathways, identify novel therapeutic targets, and provide a bridge between the laboratory and the clinic. Biomarkers can provide diagnostic and prognostic tools to the practitioner. The careful application of biomarkers can also help design and guide clinical trials required to establish the efficacy of novel interventions to improve patient outcomes. Point of care testing, technological advances, such as microfluidic and wearable devices, and the power of omics approaches all promise to elevate the potential contributions of biomarkers to discovery science, translation, clinical trials, and the practice of cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26543097

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    OpenAIRE

    Sady Montes Amador; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Lenia Ramos Rodríguez; Esther Cano Andino; Erick Andrés Pérez Martín

    2015-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: ag...

  16. Cardiovascular-Active Venom Toxins: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello Horta, Carolina Campolina; Chatzaki, Maria; Rezende, Bruno Almeida; Magalhães, Bárbara de Freitas; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Felicori, Liza Figueiredo; Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna; do Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses. PMID:26812904

  17. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  18. Cardiovascular Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics for the Clinical Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleder, Anna T; Kalus, James; Lanfear, David E

    2016-01-01

    Current clinical cardiovascular practice requires a clinician to have a strong foundation in multiple aspects of pharmacology. Modern cardiovascular regimens are complex, and optimal management, application of evolving guidelines, and adoption of new therapies build off a more basic understanding of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In addition, it is likely time to add a third pillar into this discussion, the expanding field of pharmacogenomics referring to the genetic influences on drug response. This field has increasing applications in medicine and clearly holds significant promise for cardiovascular disease management. Awareness of pharmacogenomic advances and the fundamentals of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can help the clinician more easily deliver great care. Here we attempt to briefly summarize and simplify key concepts of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics relevant to the cardiovascular disease practitioner. PMID:26054891

  19. Cardiovascular comorbidity in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohamed, Michael T; Heslinga, Maaike; Kitas, George D

    2015-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) have an increased risk of premature death compared with the general population, mainly because of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is similar in patients with RA and in those with diabetes mellitus. Pathogenic mechanisms and clinical expression of cardiovascular comorbidities vary greatly between different rheumatic diseases, but atherosclerosis seems to be associated with all IJDs. Traditional risk factors such as age, gender, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus, together with inflammation, are the main contributors to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with IJDs. Although cardiovascular risk assessment should be part of routine care in such patients, no disease-specific models are currently available for this purpose. The main pillars of cardiovascular risk reduction are pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as tight control of disease activity. PMID:26282082

  20. Cardiovascular determinants of life span

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y; Camici, G G; Lüscher, T. F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases rises with aging and is one of the main causes of mortality in western countries. In view of the progressively aging population, there is an urge for a better understanding of age-associated cardiovascular diseases and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include unhealthy diet, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and aging. Increased production of oxygen-derived free radic...

  1. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  2. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  3. [Hyperuricemia, gout and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Karsten; Burkard, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia, gout as well as arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrom are highly prevalent and clinicians are frequently confronted with both conditions in the same patient. Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and a high cardiovascular risk. Despite coherent pathophysiological concepts, it remains to be determined, if this association is independent and causal. In daily clinical practice, cardiovascular risk factors should be thoroughly identified and consequently treated in all patients with hyperuricemia and gout. If preventive treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia with urate-lowering agents may improve cardiovascular risk and outcomes remains to be determined and is recommended only in special situations like young patients with severe hyperuricemia. PMID:27008446

  4. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  5. Improved Accuracy of the Inherent Shrinkage Method for Fast and More Reliable Welding Distortion Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, A.; González-Díaz, J. B.; San Sebastián, M.; Echeverría, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a simple strategy adopted for the inherent shrinkage method (ISM) to predict welding-induced distortion. This strategy not only makes it possible for the ISM to reach accuracy levels similar to the detailed transient analysis method (considered the most reliable technique for calculating welding distortion) but also significantly reduces the time required for these types of calculations. This strategy is based on the sequential activation of welding blocks to account for welding direction and transient movement of the heat source. As a result, a significant improvement in distortion prediction is achieved. This is demonstrated by experimentally measuring and numerically analyzing distortions in two case studies: a vane segment subassembly of an aero-engine, represented with 3D-solid elements, and a car body component, represented with 3D-shell elements. The proposed strategy proves to be a good alternative for quickly estimating the correct behaviors of large welded components and may have important practical applications in the manufacturing industry.

  6. Computability, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and an inherent limit on the predictability of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Troy

    2012-04-01

    The process of evolutionary diversification unfolds in a vast genotypic space of potential outcomes. During the past century, there have been remarkable advances in the development of theory for this diversification, and the theory's success rests, in part, on the scope of its applicability. A great deal of this theory focuses on a relatively small subset of the space of potential genotypes, chosen largely based on historical or contemporary patterns, and then predicts the evolutionary dynamics within this pre-defined set. To what extent can such an approach be pushed to a broader perspective that accounts for the potential open-endedness of evolutionary diversification? There have been a number of significant theoretical developments along these lines but the question of how far such theory can be pushed has not been addressed. Here a theorem is proven demonstrating that, because of the digital nature of inheritance, there are inherent limits on the kinds of questions that can be answered using such an approach. In particular, even in extremely simple evolutionary systems, a complete theory accounting for the potential open-endedness of evolution is unattainable unless evolution is progressive. The theorem is closely related to Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and to the halting problem from computability theory. PMID:21849390

  7. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  8. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  9. The role of passive and inherent safety properties in Siemens/KWU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Siemens/KWU Nuclear Power Plants the applied safety concept consist of a well balanced combination of active, passive use well is inherent safety measures. In principle it is not possible to realise a safety concept exclusively with inherent and/or passive safety properties. The respective measures and arguments will be explained in detail in the presentation. In addition the Siemens/KWU safety concept with examples of the role of inherent and passive safety measures will be illustrated. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs

  10. Comparing the inherent safety of the modular LMRs and HTGRs and the PIUS concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced design concepts, including a liquid-metal cooled reactor (LMR), a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), and a light water reactor (LWR) are discussed and compared. Each provides inherent and/or passive safety to improve system safety. The focus is on two primary objectives: reactor shutdown and shutdown heat removal. The LMR an HTGR concepts rely upon inherent reactivity feedbacks to provide an inherent reactor response, whereas passive borated water injection shuts down the LWR (PIUS). For shutdown heat removal, the LMR and HTGR designs rely upon air cooling of the vessel, and the LWR relies upon a large tank of water for several days of cooling

  11. Long range stress correlations in the inherent structures of liquids at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sadrul; Abraham, Sneha; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Simulation studies of the atomic shear stress in the local potential energy minima (inherent structures) are reported for binary liquid mixtures in 2D and 3D. These inherent structure stresses are fundamental to slow stress relaxation and high viscosity in supercooled liquids. We find that the atomic shear stress in the inherent structures (IS's) of both liquids at rest exhibits slowly decaying anisotropic correlations. We show that the stress correlations contribute significantly to the variance of the total shear stress of the IS configurations and consider the origins of the anisotropy and spatial extent of the stress correlations.

  12. A comparative study of the effects of vitamin C, sirolimus, and paclitaxel on the growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells for cardiovascular medical device applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakade S

    2013-06-01

    L-AA doses significantly inhibited the SMC growth. Thus, this study demonstrates that L-AA is a promising drug for potential use in stents and vascular grafts, to promote their endothelialization and inhibit neointimal hyperplasia.Keywords: stents, drug-eluting stents, thrombosis, endothelial cells, cardiovascular

  13. Toward cardiovascular MRI at 7 T: clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niendorf, Thoralf [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (BUFF), Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Sodickson, Daniel K. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Krombach, Gabriele A. [Universtitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Giessen (Germany); Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (BUFF), Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin Buch, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To consider potential clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises of ultrahigh-field strength cardiovascular MR (CMR). A literature review is given, surveying advantages and disadvantages of CMR at ultrahigh fields (UHF). Key concepts, emerging technologies, practical considerations and applications of UHF CMR are provided. Examples of UHF CMR imaging strategies and their added value are demonstrated, including the numerous unsolved problems. A concluding section explores future directions in UHF CMR. UHF CMR can be regarded as one of the most challenging MRI applications. Image quality achievable at UHF is not always exclusively defined by signal-to-noise considerations. Some of the inherent advantages of UHF MRI are offset by practical challenges. But UHF CMR can boast advantages over its kindred lower field counterparts by trading the traits of high magnetic fields for increased temporal and/or spatial resolution. CMR at ultrahigh-field strengths is a powerful motivator, since speed and signal may be invested to overcome the fundamental constraints that continue to hamper traditional CMR. If practical challenges can be overcome, UHF CMR will help to open the door to new approaches for basic science and clinical research. (orig.)

  14. Toward cardiovascular MRI at 7 T: clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To consider potential clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises of ultrahigh-field strength cardiovascular MR (CMR). A literature review is given, surveying advantages and disadvantages of CMR at ultrahigh fields (UHF). Key concepts, emerging technologies, practical considerations and applications of UHF CMR are provided. Examples of UHF CMR imaging strategies and their added value are demonstrated, including the numerous unsolved problems. A concluding section explores future directions in UHF CMR. UHF CMR can be regarded as one of the most challenging MRI applications. Image quality achievable at UHF is not always exclusively defined by signal-to-noise considerations. Some of the inherent advantages of UHF MRI are offset by practical challenges. But UHF CMR can boast advantages over its kindred lower field counterparts by trading the traits of high magnetic fields for increased temporal and/or spatial resolution. CMR at ultrahigh-field strengths is a powerful motivator, since speed and signal may be invested to overcome the fundamental constraints that continue to hamper traditional CMR. If practical challenges can be overcome, UHF CMR will help to open the door to new approaches for basic science and clinical research. (orig.)

  15. Aplicação da ventilação não-invasiva em insuficiência respiratória aguda após cirurgia cardiovascular Application of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure after cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina de Morais Coimbra

    2007-11-01

    response, oxygenation-related, and hemodynamics of patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF submitted to noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV during the postoperative phase of cardiovascular surgery in order to identify predictive variables of success, and to compare the different types of NIV. METHODS: Seventy patients with hypoxemic ARF were randomized to one of three modalities of NIV - continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and ventilation with two pressure levels (PEEP + SP and BiPAP®. Ventilation, oxygenation-related, and hemodynamics variables were analyzed at pre-application, and 3, 6, and 12 hours after the protocol began. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were excluded. Thirty-one patients progressed to independence from ventilatory support and comprised the success group, and 26 required orotracheal intubation and were considered the nonsuccess group. Age, initial heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR showed elevated levels in the nonsuccess group (p=0.042, 0.029, and 0.002, respectively. A greater number of intraoperative complications were seen in the nonsuccess group (p=0.025. Oxygenation variables increased only in the success group. Among the NIV types, 57.9% of patients in the ventilator group, 57.9% in the two-pressure levels group, and 47.3% in the CPAP group progressed with success. Oxygenation and RR variables showed improvement only in the groups with two pressure levels. CONCLUSION: Patients with hypoxemic ARF in the postoperative stage after cardiovascular surgery showed better oxygenation, RR, and HR during NIV application. In older patients and those with higher baseline RR and HR values, NIV was not sufficient to reverse ARF. The two-pressure level modes showed better results.

  16. 77 FR 7609 - Policy Letter 11-01, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-12/pdf/2011-23165.pdf . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mathew... ``Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions'' (76 FR 56227-56242, September 12, 2011)...

  17. Have US Legislatures Fully Considered Causal Factors in Assigning Liability for Inherent Risk Accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J. Centner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The public’s dissatisfaction with American tort rules has led US state legislatures to enact more than 120 statutes for assigning liability for accident losses. Many of these statutes address the liability of accidents involving inherent risks of activities where neither the activity provider nor injured participant was negligent. Due to business complaints about high insurance costs, legislatures decided that participants ought to bear the costs arising from inherent risk accidents. Yet, causal factors associated with sport activities may support an alternative liability rule to maximize social welfare. Because inherent risk statutes lead to increased activity levels, they are accompanied by increased accident costs. Factors causing incorrect liability results may be compared to offer a recommendation for a liability regime for inherent risk accidents.

  18. Phenomenological models for reactivity feedback calculations of LMR inherent safety transient type tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor technology improvements have made the development of a liquid-metal reactor (LMR) with inherent safety capability possible. Various designers are using this technology to develop innovative reactor concepts. The purpose of this paper is to suggest mechanistic reactivity feedback models that can be used in computer code predictions of experiments that could potentially be performed in FFTF to validate LMR inherently safe response characteristics. A discussion is provided of the various considerations for performing inherent safety type predictions on a phenomenological basis. To do this, the evaluation is divided into the three time phases of initial, transition and long term periods. The initial period is emphasized since it is during this phase that the hypothetical core disrupture accidents took place in LMR designs not optimized for inherent safety. A description is provided for the relative importance of the various nuclear feedbacks and thermal-hydraulic phenomena

  19. ATC Taskload Inherent to the Geometry of Stochastic 4-D Trajectory Flows with Flight Technical Errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method to quantify the probabilistic controller taskload inherent to maintaining aircraft adherence to 4-D trajectories within flow corridors is presented. An...

  20. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  1. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    effects. One serious adverse effect is the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. Some targeted therapies, eg, treatment with monoclonal antibodies or angiogenesis inhibitors, have shown an increased risk of cardiac events. Their influence on the cardiovascular system, however, seems to be transient, but...

  2. Reduction of System Inherent Pressure Losses at Pressure Compensators of Hydraulic Load Sensing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Jan; Geimer, Marcus [Hrsg.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their high technical maturity, load sensing systems (LS) have system-inherent energy losses that are largely due to the operation of parallel actuators with different loads at the same pressure level. Hereby, the pressure compensators of the system are crucial. So far, excessive hydraulic energy has been throttled at these compensators and been discharged as heat via the oil. The research project “Reduction of System Inherent Pressure Losses at Pressure Compensators of Hydraulic L...

  3. Novel OSNR Monitoring Technique in Dense WDM Systems using Inherently Generated CW Monitoring Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing.......We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing....

  4. Brain Activation Patterns at Exhaustion in Rats That Differ in Inherent Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Teresa E.; Leah R Brooks; Gilligan, Lori J.; Burghardt, Paul R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Monika Fleshner

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a mark...

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  6. A real-life example of choosing an inherently safer process option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While choosing an inherently safer alternative may seem straightforward, sometimes what seems to be the most obvious alternative may not provide the best risk reduction. The process designer must maintain a broad perspective to be able to recognize all potential hazards when evaluating design options. All aspects of operation such as start-up, shut-down, utility failure, as well as normal operation should be considered. Choosing the inherently safer option is best accomplished early in the option selection phase of a project; however, recycle back to the option selection phase may be needed if an option is not thoroughly evaluated early in the process. In this paper, a project to supply ammonia to a catalytic reactor will be reviewed. During the course of the project, an 'inherently safer' alternative was selected and later discarded due to issues uncovered during the detail design phase. The final option chosen will be compared to (1) the original design and (2) the initial 'inherently safer' alternative. The final option was inherently safer than both the original design and the initial 'inherently safer' alternative even though the design team initially believed that it would not be

  7. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  8. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    without adequate plasma volume expansion, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion, peritoneovenous shunting and surgery. Cardiac failure is an important cause of mortality after liver transplantation, but improved liver function has also been shown to reverse the cardiac......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and...... abnormalities. No specific treatment can be recommended, and cardiac failure should be treated as in non-cirrhotic patients with sodium restriction, diuretics, and oxygen therapy when necessary. Special care should be taken with the use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin antagonists in these patients. The...

  9. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  10. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  11. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Poeggel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  12. A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Allen, P.A. [Life Link, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  13. Relationships between inherent optical properties in the Baltic Sea for application to the underwater imaging problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.

  14. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  15. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  17. Simulations of the Cardiovascular System Using the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-León, Gabriela; Vílchez-Monge, Marta; Montero-Rodríguez, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present document, six mathematical models of the cardiovascular system are studied and implemented in MATLAB R2013a using an updated version of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox proposed by O. Barnea at the Tel-Aviv University. All the mathematical models are based on electrical lumped-parameter analogies. The results of the simulations are compared with a list of expected hemodynamic parameters and contrasted with laboratory values.

  18. Strain Echocardiography in Acute Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Mark; Courage, Cheryl; Ehrman, Robert; Khait, Lyudmila; Levy, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography has become a critical tool in the evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute cardiovascular diseases and undifferentiated cardiopulmonary symptoms. New technological advances allow clinicians to accurately measure left ventricular (LV) strain, a superior marker of LV systolic function compared to traditional measures such as ejection fraction, but most emergency physicians (EPs) are unfamiliar with this method of echocardiographic assessment. This article discusses the application of LV longitudinal strain in the ED and reviews how it has been used in various disease states including acute heart failure, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and pulmonary embolism. It is important for EPs to understand the utility of technological and software advances in ultrasound and how new methods can build on traditional two-dimensional and Doppler techniques of standard echocardiography. The next step in competency development for EP-performed focused echocardiography is to adopt novel approaches such as strain using speckle-tracking software in the management of patients with acute cardiovascular disease. With the advent of speckle tracking, strain image acquisition and interpretation has become semi-automated making it something that could be routinely added to the sonographic evaluation of patients presenting to the ED with cardiovascular disease. Once strain imaging is adopted by skilled EPs, focused echocardiography can be expanded and more direct, phenotype-driven care may be achievable for ED patients with a variety of conditions including heart failure, ACS and shock. PMID:26823931

  19. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  20. Is the inherent potential of maize roots efficient for soil phosphorus acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture requires improved phosphorus (P management to reduce the overreliance on P fertilization. Despite intensive research of root adaptive mechanisms for improving P acquisition, the inherent potential of roots for efficient P acquisition remains unfulfilled, especially in intensive agriculture, while current P management generally focuses on agronomic and environmental concerns. Here, we investigated how levels of soil P affect the inherent potential of maize (Zea mays L. roots to obtain P from soil. Responses of root morphology, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, and phosphate transporters were characterized and related to agronomic traits in pot and field experiments with soil P supply from deficiency to excess. Critical soil Olsen-P level for maize growth approximated 3.2 mg kg(-1, and the threshold indicating a significant environmental risk was about 15 mg kg(-1, which represented the lower and upper levels of soil P recommended in current P management. However, most root adaptations involved with P acquisition were triggered when soil Olsen-P was below 10 mg kg(-1, indicating a threshold for maximum root inherent potential. Therefore, to maintain efficient inherent potential of roots for P acquisition, we suggest that the target upper level of soil P in intensive agriculture should be reduced from the environmental risk threshold to the point maximizing the inherent potential of roots.

  1. Is the Inherent Potential of Maize Roots Efficient for Soil Phosphorus Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Chen, Keru; Teng, Wan; Zhan, Ai; Tong, Yiping; Feng, Gu; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture requires improved phosphorus (P) management to reduce the overreliance on P fertilization. Despite intensive research of root adaptive mechanisms for improving P acquisition, the inherent potential of roots for efficient P acquisition remains unfulfilled, especially in intensive agriculture, while current P management generally focuses on agronomic and environmental concerns. Here, we investigated how levels of soil P affect the inherent potential of maize (Zea mays L.) roots to obtain P from soil. Responses of root morphology, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, and phosphate transporters were characterized and related to agronomic traits in pot and field experiments with soil P supply from deficiency to excess. Critical soil Olsen-P level for maize growth approximated 3.2 mg kg−1, and the threshold indicating a significant environmental risk was about 15 mg kg−1, which represented the lower and upper levels of soil P recommended in current P management. However, most root adaptations involved with P acquisition were triggered when soil Olsen-P was below 10 mg kg−1, indicating a threshold for maximum root inherent potential. Therefore, to maintain efficient inherent potential of roots for P acquisition, we suggest that the target upper level of soil P in intensive agriculture should be reduced from the environmental risk threshold to the point maximizing the inherent potential of roots. PMID:24594677

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of cardiovascular disorders and the attendant morbidity and mortality have encouraged the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and localisation of coronary diseases. Myocardial perfusion imaging is an invaluable tool for the demonstration of transient ischemia and infarction in heart and identification of viable and non-viable myocardial tissue. Thallium chloride (Tl-201) is the agent currently in wide use but its drawbacks have been well recognised. Hence tremendous amount of research work has been carried out to develop a suitable Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical for this purpose which has resulted in the introduction of two Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals HEXAMIBI and BATO. These are being tried as myocardial imaging agents these days and the choice amongst these depends on concrete clinical situation. The experimental work involving the synthesis of ligand MIBI, formulation into freeze dried KIT form, quality control procedure, biodistribution studies and finally clinical evaluation of locally produced KIT in human volunteers has now been reported here. Our KIT has been produced for the first time in Pakistan and has been tried on forty five patients in Nuclear Medical Centre, AFIP (Rawalpindi). The results obtained are comparable to those of Ti-201 with a slightly higher liver background in case of MIBI but because of the easy availability MIBI has become agent of choice for myocardial perfusion studies. (author)

  3. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

    2014-09-01

    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  4. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587. ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  5. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  6. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter;

    2013-01-01

    important species differences, which can partly be explained by variations in physiology or pathophysiology. Most important are physiological differences in heart rate, cardiovascular response to exercise, food and water intake, and molecular elimination in plasma. Pathological differences are even more...

  7. Inherent safety of nuclear power plants: A lifesaver or a pacifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on interviews with scientists, representatives of ministries, politicians, the press and environmentalists it has been investigated whether the development of inherent safe nuclear power plants contributes to an improved acceptation of nuclear energy or not. The most important controversies appear to be the organization and planning of the Dutch electric power supply, the role of nuclear energy in the electric power supply, the arguments pro nuclear energy, the definition and interpretation of the notion inherent safety, and the value attached to inherent safety. In appendix one the physical backgrounds of nuclear energy, several types of nuclear reactors, and the safety aspects of nuclear energy are discussed. In appendix two an overview is given of regulations for the use of nuclear energy. 4 appendices, 35 refs

  8. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  9. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  10. Integrative approaches for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Mimi; Mercado, Nestor; Suhar, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, $2.5 trillion is spent on healthcare annually. Seven chronic diseases account for half of all this expense. Of these 7, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus are largely preventable. Integrative cardiology programs that focus on risk-factor modification through lifestyle change combined with early detection and advanced lipid management offer a new paradigm to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19955547

  11. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  12. Estrogen Signaling and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms by which estrogen confers these pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular function is under active investigation. Until a decade ago, all estrogen signaling was thought to occur by estrogen binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. Estrogen binding to the receptor alters gene expression thereby altering cell function. In 2000 estrogen w...

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of...

  14. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  15. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: bernard.lemire@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  16. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  17. Arrayed SU-8 polymer thermal actuators with inherent real-time feedback for actively modifying MEMS’ substrate warpage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Xiao, Dingbang; Chen, Zhihua; Wu, Xuezhong

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a batch-fabricated micro-thermal actuators array with inherent real-time self-feedback, which can be used to actively modify micro-electro-mechanical systems’ (MEMS’) substrate warpage. Arrayed polymer thermal actuators utilize SU-8 polymer (a thick negative photoresist) as a functional material with integrated Ti/Al film-heaters as a microscale heat source. The electro-thermo-mechanical response of a micro-fabricated actuator was measured. The resistance of the Al/Ti film resistor varies obviously with ambient temperature, which can be used as inherent feedback for observing real-time displacement of activated SU-8 bumps (0.43 μm Ω‑1). Due to the high thermal expansion coefficient, SU-8 bumps tend to have relatively large deflection at low driving voltage and are very easily integrated with MEMS devices. Experimental results indicated that the proposed SU-8 polymer thermal actuators (array) are able to achieve accurate rectification of MEMS’ substrate warpage, which might find potential applications for solving stress-induced problems in MEMS.

  18. Instrumentation for Non-Invasive Assessment of Cardiovascular Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    It is critically important to be able to assess alterations in cardiovascular regulation during and after space flight. We propose to develop an instrument for the non-invasive assessment of such alterations that can be used on the ground and potentially during space flight. This instrumentation would be used by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team at multiple sites for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system and the evaluation of countermeasures. In particular, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team will use this instrumentation in conjunction with ground-based human bed-rest studies and during application of acute stresses e.g., tilt, lower body negative pressure, and exercise. In future studies, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team anticipates using this instrumentation to study astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The instrumentation may also be used by the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team, the Neurovestibular Team and the Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team to measure changes in autonomic nervous function. The instrumentation will be based on a powerful new technology - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - which has been developed in our laboratory. CSI provides a non-invasive approach for the study of alterations in cardiovascular regulation. This approach involves the analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in physiologic signals such as heart rate and non-invasively measured arterial blood pressure in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of multiple physiologic mechanisms, CSI provides a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject.

  19. Quasi-static reactivity balance interpretations of inherent safety response in fast and thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasi-static reactivity balance provides a useful way to codify the inherent response of a reactor to unprotected accident initiators. This approach has been used to illuminate the underlying physics of passive reactivity shutdown in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMRs) and has facilitated the design effort to configure LMR reactor cores for favorable inherent safety features. The purpose of this paper is to extend the quasi-static reactivity balance methodology to thermal reactor types - and in particular to the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) where, as in LMRs, passive reactivity shutdown is a design goal

  20. Probabilities of inherent shutdown of unprotected events in innovative liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty in predicting the effectiveness of inherent shutdown (ISD) in innovative designs results from three broad contributing areas of uncertainty: (1) the inability to exactly predict the frequency of ATWS events with potential to challenge the safety systems and require ISD; (2) the approximation of representing all such ATWS events by a selected set of ''generic scenarios''; and (3) the inability to exactly calculate the core response to the selected generic scenarios. In this summary, the methodology and associated results of work used to establish probabilities of failure of inherent shutdown of innovative LMRs to the unprotected loss-of-flow (LOF) accident are discussed

  1. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. PMID:27230640

  2. Application value of emergency bedside echocardiogram in diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases%急诊床旁超声心动图在心血管疾病诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠萍; 孙红光

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨急诊床旁超声心动图在急诊心血管疾病诊断中的应用价值。方法入选2013年6月~2015年1月于江苏扬州市第一人民医院急诊就诊的心血管疾病患者188例,其中男性120例,女性68例,年龄45~82岁,平均年龄(62.1±5.7)岁。所有患者入院30 min内均行急诊床旁超声心动图及常规十二导联心电图检查,观察超声心动图与常规心电图诊断准确率、检查反应时间、检查用时及诊断用时。对比超声心动图与临床证实诊断结果,其中临床证实为通过手术、治疗或其他影像学检查确诊。结果所有188例患者中166例依据超声心动图结果明确诊断,准确率为88.3%。临床证实对各类心血管疾病的诊断准确率与超声诊断准确率比较,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05)。超声心动图与心电图对各类心血管疾病诊断准确率分别为(88.3%、48.9%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。超声心动图检查反应时间、检查用时及诊断用时略高于心电图,但差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05)。结论急诊床旁超声心动图诊断心血管疾病准确率较高,检查用时及诊断用时相对较少,利于急性心血管疾病的快速诊断与早期干预治疗。%Objective To investigate the application value of emergency bedside echocardiogram in diagnosis of acute cardiovascular diseases.Methods The patients with cardiovascular diseases (n=188, male 120, female 68, aged from 45 to 82 and average age=62.1±5.7) were chosen from the First People’s Hospital of Yangzhou City in Jiangsu Province from Jun. 2013 to Jan. 2015. All patients were given examinations of emergency bedside echocardiogram and routine 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) 30 min after hospitalization. The rate of accurateness, reaction time, examination duration and diagnostic duration were compared between 2 examination methods The results of echocardiogram and clinical

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  4. Efficiency of inherent protection mechanisms for an improved HTR safety concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a preliminary design of a 350 MWsub(th) annular core derived from AVR-reactor the efficiency of inherent protection mechanisms is discussed. After-heat removal and auto-shut down potential are demonstrated for intact and complete failure of core heat sinks

  5. Making the Grade: Describing Inherent Requirements for the Initial Teacher Education Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharplin, Elaine; Peden, Sanna; Marais, Ida

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the development, description, and illustration of inherent requirement (IR) statements to make explicit the requirements for performance on an initial teacher education (ITE) practicum. Through consultative group processes with stakeholders involved in ITE, seven IR domains were identified. From interviews with academics,…

  6. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  7. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sensors. 1211.13 Section 1211.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force activated door sensor of a door system installed according to the installation instructions shall...

  8. Unlocking variability: inherent variation and developmental traits of garlic plants originated from sexual reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, E.; Scholten, O.E.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent collections of fertile garlic (Allium sativum) accessions from Central Asia allow a detailed study of seedling developments and the evaluation of inherent variations. We hereby provide a comprehensive account of the ontogenesis of a population of garlic seedlings and their vegetative and repr

  9. Child as Totem: Redressing the Myth of Inherent Creativity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Marissa

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I present a reexamination of the myth of inherent creativity in early childhood to elucidate how still-dominant discourses of optimization such as child development, individualism, expression, creativity, and visual realism exert limiting pressures on understandings of the art and visual culture that children consume and create.…

  10. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage.

  11. Evaluation of the role of inherent Ca(2+) in phosphorus removal from wastewater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, Wangjin; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The role of inherent Ca(2+) in phosphorus removal from wastewater was evaluated by batch tests. Precipitates were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system. Effects of inherent Ca(2+) on phosphorus removal through basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were also analyzed. The results show that upon adjusting the pH to higher than 7.0, inherent Ca(2+) can remove phosphorus from wastewater and form Ca-P precipitates. Residual phosphorus exhibited a linear decreasing trend with increasing the pH from 7.0 to 10.0 and then remained unchanged at higher pH than 10.0. EDS determined that the precipitates contained the elements Ca, P and O. FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the functional groups of precipitates involved PO4(3-), OH(-) and CO3(2-). XRD indicated that the precipitates may consist of CaCO3 and some Ca-P phosphates such as CaHPO4, Ca4H(PO4)3, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). During the removal process of phosphorus by BOFS, due to the presence of inherent Ca(2+) in wastewater, the removal efficiency and rate of phosphorus increased by 15.5% and by a factor of about 3.0, respectively. PMID:27054736

  12. The Market for Academic Knowledge: Its Historical Emergence and Inherent Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Elke

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion about the marketisation of universities by providing a historical perspective. Going back to the time when the market for academic knowledge emerged, I argue that it was created through incorporating a number of inherent tensions that have been, and still are, shaping its development. I show how these…

  13. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariff, Azmi Mohd, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my [Process Safety Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zaini, Dzulkarnain [Process Safety Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage.

  14. mHealth in Cardiovascular Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Ariyarathna, Nilshan; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Redfern, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) has been defined as medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices, such as mobile phones, patient monitoring devices and personal digital assistants. Cardiovascular mHealth is, arguably, leading the mHealth space, through innovation, research and implementation, and especially in the areas of prevention, cardiac rehabilitation and education. mHealth includes simple strategies, such as the use of short message service (SMS) or text messages in successful short-term smoking-cessation, weight loss and diabetes management programs. The recent Australian Tobacco, Exercise and Diet Messages (TEXT ME) randomised clinical trial addressed multiple cardiovascular risk factors. mHealth can also involve more complex strategies, such as smart phone applications (apps), global positioning systems (GPS) and Bluetooth technologies. Although many apps could be considered suitable for primary prevention, they are largely unregulated and most are not evidence-based. Some have been well-developed, such as the Food Switch app and an iPhone electrocardiogram (ECG) system. The "explosion" of apps has driven initiatives such as the Mobile Applications Rating Scale (MARS). More recently, the use of sensors to monitor and provide feedback to patients and healthcare providers is being explored. With almost two billion people currently owning a Smartphone, and 50% of adults (globally) predicted to own one by 2018, mHealth provides the prospect of delivering efficient, affordable healthcare services to widespread populations both locally and globally. In particular, it has the potential to reduce socioeconomic disparity and alleviate the burden of cardiovascular disease. There is now a need to rethink traditional health service structures and bioengineering capacity, to ensure mHealth systems are also safe, secure and robust. PMID:27262389

  15. The rat - Cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor-Herazo Aristides

    2012-06-01

    locura inducida porlas sustancias, donde la culpa proyectada y la negación campean a la par dela visión del mundo degradado y alucinante como construcción alterna de larealidad del drogadicto.A falta de una vida plena llena de realizaciones, el vacío interno, los sentimientosde soledad, la futilidad mediatizada, la ausencia de un verdadero sentido de lavida, el existir solo por el principio del placer, constituyen modos de vida sinsignificado, donde comanda el cerebro del reptil que llevamos dentro, no digoque el de mamífero porque sería ofender a tan nobles animales.En el desarrollo de esta obra, y en la realidad, vemos como se encuentratrastocado, cuando no ausente, el sentido de lo espiritual. La incapacidad paraexperimentar el dolor del prójimo, posiblemente se deba a una falla del hazde neuronas conocidas como “neuronas espejo” descubiertas por el equipoinvestigador de la Universidad de Parma, liderado por Giacomo Rizzolatti en1996. El sistema de “neuronas espejo” permite hacer propias las acciones, sensaciones y emociones de los demás; sirve paraexplicar las bases neurobiológicas de la empatíay, su ausencia o daño, ayudaría a comprender lasbases del trastorno antisocial de la personalidado psicopatía. Grave patología caracterizadapor la imposibilidad del sujeto para vivenciarlos sentimientos de sus iguales, por lo mismo,son incapaces para sentir culpa o ansiedad, losque los lleva a una ausencia de moralidad y decapacidad para experimentar compasión por elotro, eso los convierte en depredadores de los herdemás.La droga prospera en estos individuosy daña las conexiones lógicas de sus funciones,socio-patizándolos aún más; así nos impresionaArístides, con unos personajes desalmados,afectados por este destructor flagelo. Esta esla saga en la que nos introduce con magistralhabilidad el autor.CHISTIAN AYOLA GÓMEZMédico Especialista en PsiquiatriaFARMACOLOGIA CARDIOVASCULAR:El conocimiento de la farmacología, ciencia vitalen la formaci

  16. Location estimation of approaching objects is modulated by the observer's inherent and momentary action capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Manasa; Hofman, Dennis; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2016-08-01

    Action capability may be one of the factors that can influence our percept of the world. A distinction can be made between momentary action capability (action capability at that particular moment) and inherent action capability (representing a stable action capability). In the current study, we investigated whether there was a biasing effect of these two forms of action capability on visual perception of location. In a virtual reality room, subjects had to stop a moving ball from hitting a pillar. On some trials, the ball disappeared automatically during its motion. Subjects had to estimate the location of the ball's disappearance in these trials. We expected that if action is necessary but action capability (inherent or momentary) is limiting performance, the location of approaching objects with respect to the observer is underestimated. By judging the objects to be nearer than they really are, the need to select and execute the appropriate action increases, thereby facilitating quick action (Cole et al. in Psychol Sci 24(1):34-40, 2013. doi: 10.1177/0956797612446953 ). As a manipulation of inherent action capability in a virtual environment, two groups of participants (video game players vs. non-video game players) were entered into the study (high and low action capability). Momentary action capability was manipulated by using two difficulty levels in the experiment (Easy vs. Difficult). Results indicated that inherent and momentary action capabilities interacted together to influence online location judgments: Non-players underestimated locations when the task was Difficult. Taken together, our data suggest that both inherent and momentary action capabilities influence location judgments. PMID:27117302

  17. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  18. Big data analytics to improve cardiovascular care: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsfeld, John S; Joynt, Karen E; Maddox, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    The potential for big data analytics to improve cardiovascular quality of care and patient outcomes is tremendous. However, the application of big data in health care is at a nascent stage, and the evidence to date demonstrating that big data analytics will improve care and outcomes is scant. This Review provides an overview of the data sources and methods that comprise big data analytics, and describes eight areas of application of big data analytics to improve cardiovascular care, including predictive modelling for risk and resource use, population management, drug and medical device safety surveillance, disease and treatment heterogeneity, precision medicine and clinical decision support, quality of care and performance measurement, and public health and research applications. We also delineate the important challenges for big data applications in cardiovascular care, including the need for evidence of effectiveness and safety, the methodological issues such as data quality and validation, and the critical importance of clinical integration and proof of clinical utility. If big data analytics are shown to improve quality of care and patient outcomes, and can be successfully implemented in cardiovascular practice, big data will fulfil its potential as an important component of a learning health-care system. PMID:27009423

  19. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  20. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy;

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and glycaemic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests...

  1. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  2. Lymphatic System in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Robciuc, Marius R; Karaman, Sinem; Makinen, Taija; Alitalo, Kari

    2016-02-01

    The mammalian circulatory system comprises both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. In contrast to the blood vascular circulation, the lymphatic system forms a unidirectional transit pathway from the extracellular space to the venous system. It actively regulates tissue fluid homeostasis, absorption of gastrointestinal lipids, and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes to lymphoid organs and on to the systemic circulation. The cardinal manifestation of lymphatic malfunction is lymphedema. Recent research has implicated the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including obesity and metabolic disease, dyslipidemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Here, we review the most recent advances in the field of lymphatic vascular biology, with a focus on cardiovascular disease. PMID:26846644

  3. Cardiovascular Session Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter; Schneider, Sue

    1999-01-01

    It was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity

  4. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryyani Deb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications.

  5. Cardiovascular PET-CT imaging: a new frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P D; Williams, M C; Newby, D E

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular positron-emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) has recently emerged as an imaging technology with the potential to simultaneously describe both anatomical structures and physiological processes in vivo. The scope for clinical application of this technique is vast, but to date this promise has not been realised. Nonetheless, significant research activity is underway to explore these possibilities and it is likely that the knowledge gained will have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in due course. This review provides a brief overview of the current state of cardiovascular PET-CT and the likely direction of future developments. PMID:26951964

  6. Three-dimensional measurement of welding residual stress of thick coolant pipe joint in nuclear reactor plant by inherent strain method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. A number of accidents caused by leaks from welded zones at pipe penetration points of the reactor vessel or in coolant pipes have been reported at sites around the world. One of the main causes of such leaks is welding residual stress. It is therefore very important to know the welding residual stress in order to maintain the safety of the plants, estimate plant life cycle and design an effective maintenance plan. In this study, the inherent strain method combined with Finite Element Method (FEM) is applied to measure the welding residual stress accurately. A mock-up for a welded joint at a coolant pipe of an actual nuclear reactor was manufactured for the study. The inherent strain method is used to measure the three-dimensional residual stress distribution. In this method, the inherent strains are unknowns. When the residual stresses have a complex three-dimensional distribution, the number of unknowns becomes very large. The inherent strain distribution is therefore expressed with an appropriate function, significantly decreasing the number of unknowns. 10 kinds of inherent strain distribution functions are applied to estimate the residual stress distribution of the joint. Applicability of each function is diagnosed. Accuracy and reliability of analyzed results are judged from three points of view, that is, residuals, unbiased estimate of variance of errors and necessary conditions from welding mechanics. Most suitable function is selected, which brings most reliable result. The characteristics of the three-dimensional residual stress distribution are cleared. The circumferential stress and axial stress are important, related to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The circumferential stress is estimated to be large tension near the outer surface of welding finish region. The large tensile axial stress is produced near the outer surface, widely in the circumferential direction. Near the inner

  7. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  8. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lizzie M. Castillo S; Ana Teresa Alvarado G; María Isabel Sánchez V

    2006-01-01

    En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de det...

  9. Artificial intelligence as a diagnostic adjunct in cardiovascular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiologist and/or nuclear medicine physician is literally bombarded with information from today's diagnostic imaging technologies. As a consequence of this, whereas a decade ago the emphasis in medical image analysis was on improving the extraction of diagnostic information by developing and using more sophisticated imaging modalities, today those working on the development of medical imaging technology are struggling to find ways to handle all gathered information effectively. This chapter gives an introduction to the area of artificial intelligence, with an emphasis on the research ongoing in cardiovascular nuclear imaging. This chapter has reviewed the place of artificial intelligence in cardiovascular nuclear imaging. It is intended to provide a general sense of this new and emerging field, an insight into some of its specific methodologies and applications, and a closer look at the several AI approaches currently being applied in cardiovascular nuclear imaging

  10. Klotho in cardiovascular disease:Current and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Donate-Correa; Ernesto; Martín-Nú?ez; Carmen; Mora-Fernández; Mercedes; Muros-de-Fuentes; Nayra; Pérez-Delgado; Juan; F; Navarro-González

    2015-01-01

    Protein Klotho,beyond its role as a regulator of the phosphatemia,is also involved in the maintaining of the cardiovascular health,being associated its alterations with the development of cardiovascular damage and increased morbi-mortality. For all this,nowadays Klotho is the subject of a thorough research which is focused on uncover its intimate mechanisms of action,and in analyzing the utility of its modulation as a potential strategy with clinical applicability. Molecular mechanisms of Klotho are not well understood but an emerging research area links Klotho deficiency with vascular pathology. Changes in this protein have been associated with cardiovascular-related complications like inflammation,vascular calcification,and endothelial dysfunction. All this is particularly relevant if considering the recent discovery of Klotho expression in vascular tissue.

  11. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes as inherently electroactive labels for DNA hybridization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2014-10-21

    The detection of specific DNA sequences plays a critical role in the areas of medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, drug discovery and food safety. This has therefore become a strong driving force behind the ever-increasing demand for simple, cost-effective, highly sensitive and selective DNA biosensors. In this study, we report for the first time, a novel approach for the utilization of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes, a member of the transition metal dichalcogenides family, in the detection of DNA hybridization. Herein, molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes serve as inherently electroactive labels, with the inherent oxidation peak exploited as the analytical signal. The principle of detection is based on the differential affinity of molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes towards single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. The employment of transition metal dichalcogenide nanomaterials for sensing and biosensing purposes represents an upcoming research area which holds great promise. Hence, our findings are anticipated to have significant contributions towards the fabrication of future DNA biosensors. PMID:25177907

  12. European Constitutional Identity “Inside Out”: Inherent Risks of the Pluralist Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola Paula

    2012-01-01

    The jurisprudence of the CJEU and the national constitutional courts referring to the national constitutional identities of the Members States fits into the framework of constitutional pluralism as modus vivendi of the European legal order. This paper focuses in particular on the recent judgments...... tendencies enhance the tensions inherent in the pluralist structure of the relationships between legal orders in the European arena. Constitutional identity is yet another concept used in this debate about the ultimate authority. Pluralism assumes that the courts will compete over the ultimate authority and...... constitutional identity expressed to the inside and to the outside of the EU. Pure heterarchy based on a balance of powers and protection of national constitutions and constitutional courts comes with the inherent risk of leading to a logic of “might is right”. On the other hand, even though one could identify...

  13. Passive and inherent safety technologies for light-water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive/inherent safety implies a technical revolution in our approach to nuclear power safety. This direction is discussed herein for light-water reactors (LWRs) -- the predominant type of power reactor used in the world today. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the approach to the development of passive/inherent safety for LWRs consists of four steps: identify and quantify safety requirements and goals; identify and quantify the technical functional requirements needed for safety; identify, invent, develop, and quantify technical options that meet both of the above requirements; and integrate safety systems into designs of economic and reliable nuclear power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the first three steps of this program. The last step involves primarily the reactor vendors. These activities, as well as related activities worldwide, are described here. 27 refs., 7 tabs

  14. Acoustic resonance scattering by a system of concentrically multilayered shells: the inherent background and resonance coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, M S; Lee, S H

    1999-01-01

    The inherent background coefficients that exactly describe the background amplitudes in the scattered field have been presented for the scattering of plane acoustic waves by a system of concentrically multilayered solid and/or fluid shells submerged in a fluid. The coefficients have been obtained by replacing the mechanical surface admittance function with the zero-frequency limit of the admittance function for the analogous fluid system, where the shear wave speeds in the solid layers are set to zero. By taking advantage of the concept of incoming and outgoing waves, we find the surface admittance function for the fluid system in such a form that the analytical generalization for any number of layers and the physical interpretation are very easy. The background coefficients obtained are independent of the bulk wave speeds in the system: they depend on the mass densities and the thickness of the shells. With increasing frequency, the inherent background undergoes a transition from the soft to the rigid backgr...

  15. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  16. Determination of inherent and additional filtration in order to establish radiation qualities according to IEC 61267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish the radiation qualities recommended do the IEC 61267 to diagnostic radiology calibration, it was determined the inherent and additional filtration of an X rays system at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. To determine the inherent filtration it was used the methodology recommended by the norm ISO 4037-1. The HVL found was 0.1 mmAl. After that, using the published data at the ISO 4037-1, it was calculated the inherent filtration correspondent to this HVL, by extrapolation method. The inherent filtration found was 0.138 mmAl. To determine the additional filtration necessary to get each one of the RQR radiation qualities, according to IEC 61267, it is necessary to make an attenuation curve with no filtration. After that a transparent rectangle template representing the first and the second HVL, correspondent to the specific RQR, was made and it was slid through the curve. When the edges of the rectangle fit the curve, it is found the additional filtration to the specific radiation quality. This procedure was applied to each radiation quality from 40 to 150 kV. According to the IEC 61267, after the additional filtration determination, the correspondent HVL must be added and the relation between the values obtained with and without this HVL must be from 0.485 and 0.515. In this work all obtained values were inside this range, nevertheless, a fine adjustment was made in order to get a relation of 0.500. The obtained additional filtration to the RQR qualities was from 2.3 mmAl to 4.2 mmAl. (author)

  17. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  18. Components of selection in the evolution of the influenza virus: linkage effects beat inherent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J R Illingworth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influenza virus is an important human pathogen, with a rapid rate of evolution in the human population. The rate of homologous recombination within genes of influenza is essentially zero. As such, where two alleles within the same gene are in linkage disequilibrium, interference between alleles will occur, whereby selection acting upon one allele has an influence upon the frequency of the other. We here measured the relative importance of selection and interference effects upon the evolution of influenza. We considered time-resolved allele frequency data from the global evolutionary history of the haemagglutinin gene of human influenza A/H3N2, conducting an in-depth analysis of sequences collected since 1996. Using a model that accounts for selection-caused interference between alleles in linkage disequilibrium, we estimated the inherent selective benefit of individual polymorphisms in the viral population. These inherent selection coefficients were in turn used to calculate the total selective effect of interference acting upon each polymorphism, considering the effect of the initial background upon which a mutation arose, and the subsequent effect of interference from other alleles that were under selection. Viewing events in retrospect, we estimated the influence of each of these components in determining whether a mutant allele eventually fixed or died in the global viral population. Our inherent selection coefficients, when combined across different regions of the protein, were consistent with previous measurements of dN/dS for the same system. Alleles going on to fix in the global population tended to be under more positive selection, to arise on more beneficial backgrounds, and to avoid strong negative interference from other alleles under selection. However, on average, the fate of a polymorphism was determined more by the combined influence of interference effects than by its inherent selection coefficient.

  19. Inherent Safety Features and Passive Prevention Approaches for Pb/Bi-cooled Accelerator-Driven Systems

    OpenAIRE

    CARLSSON Johan

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of passivesafety and inherent features of subcritical nucleartransmutation systems - accelerator-driven systems. The generalobjective of this research has been to improve the safetyperformance and avoid elevated coolant temperatures inworst-case scenarios like unprotected loss-of-ow accidents,loss-of-heat-sink accidents, and a combination of both theseaccident initiators. The specific topics covered are emergencydecay heat removal by reactor vessel ...

  20. The Inherent Right of the Haudenosaunee to Criminal Justice Jurisdiction in Canada: A Preliminary Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Cousins, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Haudenosaunee, or Six Nations of the Grand River, are the largest First Nations community in Canada and are located near the city of Brantford, Ontario. Currently, the Six Nations Band Council is examining the prospect of implementing a "parallel" criminal justice system. In support of this initiative, this thesis analyzes the viability of implementing a parallel criminal justice system pursuant to the inherent right of self-government within the meaning of s. 35 (1) of the Constitution A...

  1. The psychology of inherence is self-referential (and that is a good thing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L

    2014-10-01

    Cimpian & Salomon (C&S) appear to characterize the inherence heuristic and essentialism as unwise or childish aspects of human reasoning. But actually, these cognitive modes lie at the core of statistical analysis across all of the quantitative sciences, including the developmental cognitive psychology in which the argument here is couched. Their whole argument is as much an example of its topic as an analysis of it. PMID:25388030

  2. Equilibrium Distribution of the Inherent States and their Dynamics in Glassy Systems and Granular Media

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro, Annalisa; Nicodemi, Mario; Coniglio, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The present paper proposes a Statistical Mechanics approach to the inherent states of glassy systems and granular materials, following the original ideas developed by Edwards for granular materials. Two lattice models, a diluted Spin Glass and a system of hard-spheres under gravity, introduced in the context of glassy systems and granular materials, are evolved using a ``tap dynamics'' analogous to that of experiments on granular materials. The asymptotic macrostates, reached by the system, a...

  3. Multi-Scale Recognition of Objects Approach based on Inherent Redundancy Information Entropy Equalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Jalali

    2014-01-01

    Development of new imaging sensors arise the need for image processing techniques that can effectively fuse images from different sensors into a single coherent composition for interpretation. In order to make use of inherent redundancy and extended coverage of multiple sensors, we propose a multiscale approach for pixel level image fusion. The ultimate goal is to reduce human/machine error in detection and recognition of objects. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has in...

  4. Inherently safe reactors - reflections on a contemporary trend in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inherently safe reactor concepts are discussed in the context of their quantitative effects on risk reduction. The essential message is that the risk reduction provided is very small and practically irrelevant with respect to normal every-day risks. On the other hand, the possibility of an intrinsically safe afterheat-removal system, which would be available in the case of small space heating reactors, is still interesting. Such reactors could be located near agglomerations and ultimately be operated unmanned. (orig.)

  5. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Vicente; Grisdale-Helland Barbara; Jørgensen Sven M; Helgerud Jan; Claireaux Guy; Farrell Anthony P; Krasnov Aleksei; Helland Ståle J; Takle Harald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming p...

  6. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Teresa E; Brooks, Leah R; Gilligan, Lori J; Burghardt, Paul R; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min) or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min). During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines. PMID:23028992

  7. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa E Foley

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively. The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min. During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines.

  8. Model development for the dynamic analysis of the OSU inherently safe reactor. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybar, H.S.

    1992-12-31

    Faculty and students in the Nuclear Engineering Program at the Ohio State University (OSU) have proposed a conceptual design for an inherently safe 340 MWe power reactor. The design is based on the state-of-the-art technology of LWRs and the High Temperature Gas- cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The OSU Inherently Safe Reactor (OSU-ISR) concept uses shorter than standard BWR fuel elements in the reactor core. All the fluid on the primary side is contained within a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV). This important feature significantly reduces the probability of a LOCA. A new feature of the OSU-ISR is an operator independent steam driven Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) housed within the PCRV. In accident conditions where the steam generators are incapacitated, steam from the core drives a jet injector, which takes water from the suppression pool and pumps it into the core cavity to maintain core coverability. The preliminary analysis of the concept was performed as a design project in the Nuclear Engineering Program at the OSU during the Spring of 1985, and published in ``Nuclear Technology.`` The use of a PCRV for ducting and containment and the replacement of forced recirculation with natural circulation on the primary side significantly improve the inherent safety of the plant. Currently, work is in progress for the refinement of the OSU-ISR concept, partially supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Interdependency control : compensation strategies for the inherent vulnerability of critical infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's increasingly interacting national critical infrastructures (NCIs) can tolerate most stochastic local disturbances. However, they are extremely fragile under global disturbances, as the latter may either push the whole system into a critical state or reveal many unexpected hidden interdependencies, inducing or triggering cascading failures among all possible layers. This robust yet fragile duality is an inherent vulnerability of modern infrastructures. It is therefore expected that weather-related disasters will be more frequent under a changing climate. This paper proposed an interdependency control strategy (ICS) that would maintain the survival of the most critical services, and compensate for this inherent vulnerability during emergency states. The paper also proposed a generalized adjacency matrix (GAM) to represent the physical interdependencies intra/inter of various infrastructure networks. The vulnerable section in the network can be identified, based on computed results of GAM, number of islands in the network, and influence domain(s) of each component. These features render ICS more effective and convincing. Last, the paper proposed a survivability index for isolated sub-networks and described relevant measures for improving this index during the four phases of emergency management. It was concluded that the proposed strategy is an effective means to reduce the inherent vulnerability and increase the resiliency of these critical infrastructures networks. 20 refs., 5 figs

  10. Model development for the dynamic analysis of the OSU inherently safe reactor. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faculty and students in the Nuclear Engineering Program at the Ohio State University (OSU) have proposed a conceptual design for an inherently safe 340 MWe power reactor. The design is based on the state-of-the-art technology of LWRs and the High Temperature Gas- cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The OSU Inherently Safe Reactor (OSU-ISR) concept uses shorter than standard BWR fuel elements in the reactor core. All the fluid on the primary side is contained within a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV). This important feature significantly reduces the probability of a LOCA. A new feature of the OSU-ISR is an operator independent steam driven Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) housed within the PCRV. In accident conditions where the steam generators are incapacitated, steam from the core drives a jet injector, which takes water from the suppression pool and pumps it into the core cavity to maintain core coverability. The preliminary analysis of the concept was performed as a design project in the Nuclear Engineering Program at the OSU during the Spring of 1985, and published in ''Nuclear Technology.'' The use of a PCRV for ducting and containment and the replacement of forced recirculation with natural circulation on the primary side significantly improve the inherent safety of the plant. Currently, work is in progress for the refinement of the OSU-ISR concept, partially supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy

  11. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming performance in a screening test and then exercise trained for 10 weeks using one of two constant-velocity or two interval-velocity training regimes for comparison against control trained fish (low speed continuously. Disease resistance was assessed by a viral disease challenge test (infectious pancreatic necrosis and gene expression analyses of the host response in selected organs. Results An inherently good swimming performance was associated with improved disease resistance, as good swimmers showed significantly better survival compared to poor swimmers in the viral challenge test. Differences in mortalities between poor and good swimmers were correlated with cardiac mRNA expression of virus responsive genes reflecting the infection status. Although not significant, fish trained at constant-velocity showed a trend towards higher survival than fish trained at either short or long intervals. Finally, only constant training at high intensity had a significant positive effect on fish growth compared to control trained fish. Conclusions This is the first evidence suggesting that inherent swimming performance is associated with disease resistance in fish.

  12. Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jointly produced, collaborated with, or endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Press & News » Review ... SCAI Member? Create an Account Advertisement Advertisement The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Foundation, 1100 17th ...

  13. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  15. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  16. Hedgehog morphogen in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the basic biology of the important developmental Hedgehog ( Hh) protein family, its general function in development, pathway mechanisms, and gene discovery and nomenclature. Hh function in cardiovascular development and recent findings concerning Hh signaling in ischemia

  17. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  18. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  19. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  20. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  1. Epac and the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Sand, Carsten; Jakobs, Karl H.; Michel, Martin C.; Weernink, Paschal A. Oude

    2007-01-01

    Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) - a cyclic AMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases - has emerged as a novel mediator of pivotal processes in the cardiovascular system, including cellular calcium handling, hypertrophy, integrin-mediated cell adhesion, est

  2. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  3. Residual stress distribution measurement in welded thick-walled pipe joints using inherent strain method. Comparison in different groove geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherent strain method measures weld residual stress by coupling of approach to measure inherent strain which is source of residual stress in weld structures with elastic computation to estimate residual stress from inherent strain. In this study, the weld residual stress distributions in the welded thick-walled pipe joints of stainless steel were measured using the inherent strain method. The different features between residual stress distribution in the two kinds of joint with the standard and narrow groove geometries were clarified using the contour map of the whole joints estimated by the method. (author)

  4. Ethical considerations in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follath, F

    2009-12-01

    The fundamental values in medical ethics include the following aspects of professional conduct: (i) actions in the best interest of patients; (ii) first, do no harm; (iii) patients' right to refuse or choose treatments; (iv) fairness and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources; and (v) truthfulness and honesty (informed consent). These values have to be considered in all diagnostic steps and therapeutic decisions. They should also form the basis for discussions of potential conflicts of interest among patients, doctors, healthcare financers and politicians. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases represent the most frequent cause of death and a major healthcare problem in most regions of the world. CV prevention is therefore an important task both in individual subjects and as a means to improve health in the general population. While the merits of treatment in patients with established CV diseases, i.e. secondary prevention, are widely accepted and regarded as necessary, primary prevention with drugs in apparently healthy individuals at an increased risk of future CV events is not free of controversies. The different types of prevention envisaged also give rise to ethical questions: Should all the growing number of classical and newly recognised CV risk markers be a reason for intervention or should they be preferably used for calculating a total risk score? What are the compelling or only relative indications for anti-hypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic or platelet-inhibiting drugs? Are pre-hypertension, pre-diabetes and marginally elevated cholesterol levels early diseases justifying drug treatment, regardless of the possibility that some prophylactic interventions may be associated with adverse events? Discussions also often arise concerning the role of age, gender and of non-CV co-morbidities for decisions about long-term prevention with drugs. How reliable and applicable are 'evidence-based' guidelines derived from trials in highly selected

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Alpendurada, Francisco Diogo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Whilst most of the attention has been devoted to the left ventricle in cardiovascular disease, the right ventricle has been somewhat neglected. In the last decades, there has been a renewal of interest in the right ventricle, in part driven by advances in cardiovascular imaging. Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance is arguably the best imaging modality for the study of the right ventricle. In this research thesis, cardiovascular magnetic resonance w...

  6. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  7. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  8. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  9. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  10. [Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2004-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

  11. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  13. Nanotechnology-the key to unlocking the intrinsic properties of inherently conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Currently the properties of inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) such as polypyrroles, polythiophenes and polyanilines at the macroscopic level is limited by our ability to unlock the inherent electronic and electrochemical properties they possess at the nanodimension. It is known that the macroscopic structures consist of highly conducting nanodimensional islands separated by a sea of less conducting material. It is also known that incredibly fast and discrete electrochemical switching can be obtained if nanowire ICP electrodes are used instead of larger structures. In our recent work several approaches for the synthesis and fabrication of controlled nanodimensional structures based on inherently conducting polymers have been investigated. The simplest involves chemical oxidation of monomer in an inverse microemulsion to produce polyaniline nanoparticles. The second approach involves use of a flow-through electrolytic method which enables production of nanoparticles of tightly controlled dimensions. Conducting polymer nanostructures have also been produced in our laboratories using an inverse synthetic opal approach wherein ICPs are synthesized within the interstitial volume of ordered nanoparticles. In a different strategy we have utilized the unusual properties of carbon nanotubes (high strength and conductivity) to produce ICP nanostructures. This has been achieved by using water soluble conducting polymer as a dispersant prior to making CNT structures or by individually coating arrays (forests) of aligned carbon nanotubes. The former approach has been used to produce CNT structures with high charge storage capabilities while the latter has presented a convenient route to ICP based biosensor surfaces with enhanced performance characteristics. Each of the above approaches to development of ICP nanocomponents and the properties of these unique structures will be discussed here

  14. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  15. Natural history of spontaneous aortic intramural hematoma progression: Six years follow-up with cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Lei; Fan Zhanming; Zhang Zhaoqi; Ma Xiaohai; Yu Jing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We described a 6 years follow-up of a spontaneous aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examination. Since multiple factors may play roles in the natural history of IMH, the patient experienced the course of progression, which included hematoma absorption, ulcer-like lesion, aneurysm and limited dissection. The initial and follow-up CMR examination included 3D CE MRA and non-enhanced "bright blood" pulse sequence. The inherent advantage of outs...

  16. Deliberate practice theory: relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2008-10-01

    This study examined three assumptions of the theory of deliberate practice for practice playing music on an electronic keyboard. 40 undergraduate students, divided into two separate groups, practiced one of two music sequences and rated the relevance of practice for improving performance on the sequences, the amount of effort needed to learn the sequences, and the inherent enjoyment of practice sessions. Findings for each assumption were consistent with those suggested by theory but also showed that perceptions are affected by the amount of practice completed and performance of the skill. PMID:19093605

  17. SBWR 200, a low-cost NPP with high inherent safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Small Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR 200) has been investigated at Siemens to serve potential customers which cannot accommodate large standard nuclear power stations due to infrastructure limitations such as grid size, growth rate and available financing. In order to meet a specific capital cost target that for competitiveness has to be close to that for a large standard NPP several novel features are incorporated in the SBWR concept which are none the less within the realm of current technology. These features are also intended to increase the inherent safety characteristics by employing passive means for reactor shutdown and decay heat removal under all conceivable emergency conditions. (orig.)

  18. On the inherent self-excited macroscopic randomness of chaotic three-body system

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Shijun; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)? This is one of the most fundamental open questions for human being. In this paper, 10000 samples of reliable (convergent), multiple-scale (from 1.0E-60 to 100) numerical simulations of a chaotic three-body system indicate that, without any external disturbance, the microscopic inherent uncertainty (in the level of 1.0E-60) due to physical fluctuation of initial positions of the three-body system enlarges exponentially into macroscopi...

  19. On the Inherent Self-Excited Macroscopic Randomness of Chaotic Three-Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shijun; Li, Xiaoming

    What is the origin of macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)? This is one of the most fundamental open questions for human beings. In this paper, 10 000 samples of reliable (convergent), multiple-scale (from 10-60 to 102) numerical simulations of a chaotic three-body system indicate that, without any external disturbance, the microscopic inherent uncertainty (in the level of 10-60) due to physical fluctuation of initial positions of the three-body system enlarges exponentially into macroscopic randomness (at the level O(1)) until t = T*, the so-called physical limit time of prediction, but propagates algebraically thereafter when accurate prediction of orbit is impossible. Note that these 10 000 samples use micro-level, inherent physical fluctuations of initial position, which have nothing to do with human beings. Especially, the differences of these 10 000 fluctuations are mathematically so small (in the level of 10-60) that they are physically the same since a distance shorter than a Planck length does not make physical sense according to the string theory. This indicates that the macroscopic randomness of the chaotic three-body system is self-excited, say, without any external force or disturbances, from the inherent micro-level uncertainty. It provides us the new concept "self-excited macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)". The macroscopic randomness is found to be dependent upon microscopic uncertainty, from the statistical viewpoint. In addition, it is found that, without any external disturbance, the chaotic three-body system might randomly disrupt with symmetry-breaking at t = 1000 in about 25% probability, which provides us new concepts "self-excited random disruption", "self-excited random escape" and "self-excited symmetry breaking" of the chaotic three-body system. Hence, it suggests that a chaotic three-body system might randomly evolve by itself, without any external forces or disturbance. Thus, the world is essentially uncertain, since such kind of self

  20. EBR-II inherent shutdown and heat removal tests: a survey of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of inherently safe characteristics of LMFBR systems is being conducted in EBR-II. Experiments have been conducted which show (1) capabilities of heat removal without the aid of active safety systems and (2) capabilities to mitigate a reduction in-core cooling flow or heat rejection to the balance of plant (BOP) without aid of active control or protection systems. Experiments involving loss of forced reactor cooling flow and loss of all heat rejection to the BOP are planned to be conducted. Purpose of this paper is to summarize the result of the test program by presenting representative test data

  1. Measurement of inherent hydrogen and oxygen in graphites using laser release analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inherent concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen in different types of graphites (pyrolytic, isotropic and carbon-fibre-composite) were measured using laser-induced thermal desorption spectrometry. Subsequent to normal system bakeout at 500 K, H/C and O/C ratios of ∝0.1-1% were measured. These levels were progressively reduced by about two orders of magnitude by heating the samples in vacuum to temperatures up to 2300 K. The similar levels of O and H suggest that these species might originate from water or hydroxyl molecules introduced in the material either during manufacture or subsequent atmospheric exposure. (orig.)

  2. Multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 205, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China) and Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhg@163.com; Wang Changjiang [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)

    2007-07-15

    The multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. These stochastic symbolic sequences bear three features. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. The features of visitation density in surjective maps presents catholicity and the catholicity in n letters randomicity has the same measure foundation. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to attempt to study certain properties of DNA base sequences, 20 amino acids symbolic sequences of proteid structure, and the time series that can be symbolic in finance market et al.

  3. The influence of the physical education lessons with the application of means of oriental gymnastics on the adaptation potential of the cardio-vascular system of students of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirnaya A.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of functioning of the system of circulation of blood are rotined for students. 32 students took part in research. Employments on physical education were conducted in a volume 54 hour on I semester. Positive influence of facilities is rotined east health gymnastics on adaptation potential of the cardio-vascular system. It is set that the use east health gymnastics in employments on physical education promotes general physical preparedness and health level.

  4. The influence of the physical education lessons with the application of means of oriental gymnastics on the adaptation potential of the cardio-vascular system of students of higher education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mirnaya A.V.

    2010-01-01

    The levels of functioning of the system of circulation of blood are rotined for students. 32 students took part in research. Employments on physical education were conducted in a volume 54 hour on I semester. Positive influence of facilities is rotined east health gymnastics on adaptation potential of the cardio-vascular system. It is set that the use east health gymnastics in employments on physical education promotes general physical preparedness and health level.

  5. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  6. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come. PMID:26902518

  7. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  8. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  9. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  10. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed

  11. Ionizing radiation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G

    2006-09-01

    For more than 15 years the A-bomb survivor studies have shown increased noncancer mortality due to radiation exposures. The most prominent cause of this increase is circulatory disease mortality. Although the estimated relative risk is less than for solid cancers (1.2 versus 1.6 per Sv), there are measurable increases in cardiovascular disease mortality at doses greater than 0.5 Sv. The evidence for circulatory diseases in mortality studies of occupational cohorts exposed to external radiation is less compelling. It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arteries and a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Immunological markers for inflammatory disease have been shown to be dose related in A-bomb survivors. Evidence from animal studies reveals increased cardiovascular mortality and arterial endothelial damage from both neutron and, to a lesser extent, gamma exposures. PMID:17119211

  12. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design. PMID:18406517

  13. Helicobacter pylori and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukazman, M; Yeniova, O; Dal, K; Yavuz, B

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common infections in human. The association between H. pylori and gastrointestinal diseases including peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, mucosa associated tissue lymphoma (MALT) and gastric cancer is well known. However it was also suggested that H. pylori was linked to various extra-gastrointestinal disorders such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. In this review we summarized the association between H. pylori and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26502864

  14. Renal Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soveri, Inga

    2006-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The mechanisms for the risk increase seem to involve a combination of traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors. We studied renal dysfunction as CVD and mortality risk factor in middle-aged men free from diabetes and CVD. The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and CVD mortality was increased by ~40% in the 16.5% of men with worse renal function, independent of other CVD risk factors. Renal transplant dysfunction as CVD an...

  15. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Stu...

  16. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Takehara, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should r...

  17. Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Visca; Marina Aiello; Alfredo Chetta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well...

  18. Platelet proteomics in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Vélez; Ángel García

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, platelet proteomics has been applied successfully to the study of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It is very well known that platelets play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying many CVDs, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), since they are implied in thrombus formation after atheroma plaque rupture. This is the reason why molecules involved in platelet activation and aggregation are primary targets for treatment of ACSs. Many efforts are aimed...

  19. Fish Oil in Cardiovascular Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alaswad, Khaldoon; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; O'Keefe, James H

    2002-01-01

    The potential benefits of fish oil have been touted for several decades. The authors review evidence from epidemiologic, retrospective, and controlled prospective clinical trials demonstrating the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for the prevention of major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke in primary and especially secondary prevention settings. Fish oil's efficacy in reducing total mortality and sudden cardiac death appears particularly promising, pro...

  20. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James; O'Keefe, James

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Ev...

  1. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio JJ; O’Keefe JH

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perind...

  2. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  3. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  4. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiNicolantonio JJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA study significantly reduced major cardiovascular events despite a small reduction (approximately 4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure from baseline.2,3 Additionally, the average baseline blood pressure in the EUROPA was just 137/82 mmHg, and in those without hypertension, perindopril still provided a 20% reduction in the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.4,5 In fact, patients receiving perindopril with a baseline systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg had the greatest reduction in the primary event.6 View original paper by Wang and colleagues. 

  5. 应用层次分析法建立心血管专科护士岗位价值评价模型%Application of analytic hierarchy process to construct cardiovascular nurses' job evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍春颖; 李庆印; 袁小飞; 李腾

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立心血管专科护士岗位价值评价模型,促进岗位管理的实施。方法:在回顾文献、参考成熟岗位价值评价标准的基础上,根据心血管专科护理工作特点,采用层次分析法,形成护士岗位价值评价一、二级指标及权重,最终制定心血管专科护士岗位价值评价模型。结果:形成心血管专科护士岗位价值一级指标6个(知识经验、技能、责任、风险、工作性质和工作环境)和二级指标22个;确定一级指标和二级指标的分数和权重。结论:通过层次分析法初步建立了心血管专科护士岗位价值的评价模型,内容客观全面,体现了心血管专科特色,为护士岗位绩效管理提供了依据。%Objective:To construct a job evaluation model for cardiovascular nurses to promote nursing job management. Methods:The job evaluation model for cardiovascular nurses was developed according to the characteristics of cardiovascular nurses, and referred to job evaluation standards from literature review. Analytic hierarchy process was employed to determine weights of the primary and secondary indicators. Results:The evaluation model was composed of 6 first-level indicators, including knowledge and experiences, skill, responsibility, risk, job nature, work environment, and 22 second-level indicators. We also determined scores and weights of the indicators of the two levels. Conclusion:The job evaluation model for cardiovascular nurses was developed by analytic hierarchy process. The evaluation model reflecting the cardiovascular professional characteristics, is reliable and comprehensive, and provided the basis for nurses' job and performance management.

  6. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  7. Measurement of welding residual stresses of reactor vessel by inherent strain method. Diagnosis of strain measurement region for accurate and economical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to ensure safety of nuclear reactors. A few accidents of leaks from welded zones at pipe penetration parts of reactor vessel or in coolant pipes have been reported around the world. One of the main causes of such leaks is welding residual stress. It is therefore very important to know the welding residual stress in order to maintain the safety of the plants, estimate plant life cycle and design an effective maintenance plan. Welded joints in nuclear reactors have complex shapes, and the welding residual stresses have complex three-dimensional distributions. The inherent strain method is an analytical method that solves an inverse problem using a least squares finite element method. The method gives the most probable value and the deviation of the residual stress, allowing the reliability of the estimated results to be discussed. In this method, the inherent strains are unknowns. When residual stresses have a complex three-dimensional distribution, the number of unknowns becomes very large. The inherent strain distribution is therefore expressed with an appropriate function, significantly decreasing the number of unknowns. In this study, inherent strain theory and method are applied to measure the welding residual stresses for a mock-up of a welded joint at a pipe penetration of reactor vessel. In this paper, applicability of strain measurement region is diagnosed. 5 kinds of regions are applied to estimate the residual stress, and accuracy and reliability of analyzed results are judged from 4 points of view, that is, residuals, unbiased estimate of variance of errors, welding mechanics and economy. Most reliable and economical measurement region is selected, which brings most reasonable result. (author)

  8. Importance of inherent safety features and passive prevention measures in innovative designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both inherent safety features and passive safety systems can help to achieve the safety requirements of INPRO and GenIV and may improve the public acceptance of nuclear power. Passive systems for heavy and light water reactors can help to reduce the core damage frequency, and thus, also the investment risk. Moreover, they can help to reduce the capital cost of new reactor systems through simplifications in the design. However, passive components/systems require extensive experimental and analytical investigations to ensure their reliability. Additionally, in-service inspections are needed. Ideally, the passive approach is completely independent of the active one and, thus, meets the diversity and redundancy requirements. A combination of both an active and a comprehensive passive approach appears to be optimal. As future systems are supposed to meet the sustainability criteria i.e. breeders or molten salt reactors, more inherent safety features are needed. These include e.g. a low-pressure coolant, low power densities, small control reactivities and negative feedbacks that lead to a self-shutdown in critical accident situations. Furthermore, comprehensive passive safety systems are of course also desirable for these advanced systems. These improved safety approaches appear necessary in light of a potentially rapid increase of nuclear power in the next half of this century. (author)

  9. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  10. Iodine content in bread, milk and the retention of inherent iodine in commonly used Indian recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, T; Toteja, G S; Upadhyay, A

    2013-01-15

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 μg/100g) and milk (303 μg/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 ± 2.4 μg/100g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 ± 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 ± 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. PMID:23122074

  11. The inherent dynamics of isotropic- and nematic-phase liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Layne; Stratt, Richard M.

    2016-06-01

    The geodesic (shortest) pathways through the potential energy landscape of a liquid can be thought of as defining what its dynamics would be if thermal noise were removed, revealing what we have called the "inherent dynamics" of the liquid. We show how these inherent paths can be located for a model liquid crystal former, showing, in the process, how the molecular mechanisms of translation and reorientation compare in the isotropic and nematic phases of these systems. These mechanisms turn out to favor the preservation of local orientational order even under macroscopically isotropic conditions (a finding consistent with the experimental observation of pseudonematic domains in these cases), but disfavor the maintenance of macroscopic orientational order, even in the nematic phase. While the most efficient nematic pathways that maintain nematic order are indeed shorter than those that do not, it is apparently difficult for the system to locate these paths, suggesting that molecular motion in liquid-crystal formers is dynamically frustrated, and reinforcing the sense that there are strong analogies between liquid crystals and supercooled liquids.

  12. The optimisation and inherent limitations of 3D conformal radiotherapy of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation starts with implementation details of an inverse planning optimisation algorithm we have developed to optimise radiation beam-weights for radiotherapy treatment plans. The algorithm is based on fast-simulated-annealing, utilising a cost-function containing both linear and quadratic terms. General conclusions concerning the efficacy, usability and practicality of the algorithm will be presented. We have applied the algorithm extensively to the problem of optimising prostate treatment plans. The results of these investigations will be summarised and it will be shown that the algorithm can reproduce, and improve on, the results of an experienced human planner. During our investigations it was found that significant lowering of the dose to that part of the rectum outside the PTV produced only minor changes in normal-tissue-complication-probability (NTCP). This prompted an investigation into the 'overlap effect'; i.e. that conformal radiotherapy of the prostate is inherently limited by the size of the overlap region of the PTV and rectum. The NTCP of the rectum is due almost entirely to the high dose rectal tissue in the overlap region. The results of this investigation will be presented. The conclusion is that until the margin accounting for set-up errors that is added to the CTV can be reduced, or new methods are developed to deliver controlled non-uniform dose to the PTV, conformal therapy of the prostate is inherently limited by the overlap effect

  13. Detection of inherent and laser-induced scatter in optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory moves forward with the design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, issues relating to the detection and measurement of laser-induced damage on large optics must be addressed. Currently, microscopy is used to evaluate surface quality and measure damage thresholds on small witness samples. In order to evaluate large areas, an automated system was constructed which can scan optics with dimensions as large as 1 meter and weighing as much as 400 pounds. The use of microscopy as the main test diagnostic has been replaced with an optical scatter detection system. Now large areas can be rastered, and maps can be generated, reflecting inherent and laser-induced scatter in multilayer optical coatings and bulk materials. The integrated scattered light from a test piece is measured in transmission using a HeNe laser as the probe source. When the probe beam is overlapped on a pulsed, high power, ND:YAG laser beam, damage related scatter may be measured. This technique has been used for: (1) mapping of inherent scatter in an optic, (2) on-the-fly damage detection during a high fluence raster scan of an optic, and (3) single site damage evaluation for the determination of a laser damage threshold. Damage thresholds measured with the scatter diagnostic compare within measurement error to those attained using 100 x microscopy

  14. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive ''box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs

  15. DEM Simulation of Biaxial Compression Experiments of Inherently Anisotropic Granular Materials and the Boundary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of discrete element method (DEM numerical simulations is significantly dependent on the particle-scale parameters and boundary conditions. To verify the DEM models, two series of biaxial compression tests on ellipse-shaped steel rods are used. The comparisons on the stress-strain relationship, strength, and deformation pattern of experiments and simulations indicate that the DEM models are able to capture the key macro- and micromechanical behavior of inherently anisotropic granular materials with high fidelity. By using the validated DEM models, the boundary effects on the macrodeformation, strain localization, and nonuniformity of stress distribution inside the specimens are investigated using two rigid boundaries and one flexible boundary. The results demonstrate that the boundary condition plays a significant role on the stress-strain relationship and strength of granular materials with inherent fabric anisotropy if the stresses are calculated by the force applied on the wall. However, the responses of the particle assembly measured inside the specimens are almost the same with little influence from the boundary conditions. The peak friction angle obtained from the compression tests with flexible boundary represents the real friction angle of particle assembly. Due to the weak lateral constraints, the degree of stress nonuniformity under flexible boundary is higher than that under rigid boundary.

  16. Inherent noise appears as a Lévy walk in fish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hisashi; Niizato, Takayuki; Tomaru, Takenori; Nishiyama, Yuta; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and observational data have revealed that the internal structures of collective animal groups are not fixed in time. Rather, individuals can produce noise continuously within their group. These individuals' movements on the inside of the group, which appear to collapse the global order and information transfer, can enable interactions with various neighbors. In this study, we show that noise generated inherently in a school of ayus (Plecoglossus altivelis) is characterized by various power-law behaviors. First, we show that individual fish move faster than Brownian walkers with respect to the center of the mass of the school as a super-diffusive behavior, as seen in starling flocks. Second, we assess neighbor shuffling by measuring the duration of pair-wise contact and find that this distribution obeys the power law. Finally, we show that an individual's movement in the center of a mass reference frame displays a Lévy walk pattern. Our findings suggest that inherent noise (i.e., movements and changes in the relations between neighbors in a directed group) is dynamically self-organized in both time and space. In particular, Lévy walk in schools can be regarded as a well-balanced movement to facilitate dynamic collective motion and information transfer throughout the group. PMID:26039595

  17. Dealing with uncertainty and pursuing superior technology options in risk management-The inherency risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current regulatory systems focus on the state of scientific evidence as the predominant factor for how to handle risks to human health and the environment. However, production and assessment of risk information are costly and time-consuming, and firms have an intrinsic disincentive to produce and distribute information about risks of their products as this could endanger their production opportunities and sales. An emphasis on more or better science may result in insufficient thought and attention going into the exploration of technology alternatives, and that risk management policies miss out on the possible achievement of a more favorable set of consequences. In this article, a method is proposed that combines risk assessment with the search for alternative technological options as a part of the risk management procedure. The method proposed is the inherency risk analysis where the first stage focuses on the original agent subject to investigation, the second stage focuses on identifying technological options whereas the third stage reviews the different alternatives, searching for the most attractive tradeoffs between costs and inherent safety. This is then used as a fundament for deciding which technology option to pursue. This method aims at providing a solution-focused, systematic technology-based approach for addressing and setting priorities for environmental problems. By combining risk assessment with a structured approach to identify superior technology options within a risk management system, the result could very well be a win-win situation for both company and the environment.

  18. Inherent safety features of the HTTR revealed in the accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed by JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet gas temperature of 950degC. The inherent safety characteristics in the HTTR prevent temperature increase of reactor fuels and fission product release from the reactor core in postulated accident conditions. The reactor core can be cooled by a Vessel Cooling System (VCS) indirectly, even in the case that no forced cooling is expected during the accident such as primary pipe break. The VCS consists of independent water cooling loop and cooling panel around the reactor pressure vessel. The cooling panel whose temperature of 60-90degC cools the reactor pressure vessel by radiation and removes the decay heat from the core indirectly. Furthermore, even if failure of VCS is assumed during this accident as a severe accident, the reactor core is remained safe despite the temperature increase of biological concrete shield around the reactor pressure vessel. This paper describes the inherent safety features of the HTTR specially focused on the accident condition without forced cooling. The detailed analytical results of such an accident are described together with clarifying the role of the VCS. (author)

  19. Coarse-Grained Modeling of Genetic Circuits as a Function of the Inherent Time Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Labavic, Darka; Hildegard, Wolfhard Janke; Meyer-Ortmanns,

    2012-01-01

    From a coarse-grained perspective the motif of a self-activating species, activating a second species which acts as its own repressor, is widely found in biological systems, in particular in genetic systems with inherent oscillatory behavior. Here we consider a specific realization of this motif as a genetic circuit, in which genes are described as directly producing proteins, leaving out the intermediate step of mRNA production. We focus on the effect that inherent time scales on the underlying fine-grained scale can have on the bifurcation patterns on a coarser scale in time. Time scales are set by the binding and unbinding rates of the transcription factors to the promoter regions of the genes. Depending on the ratio of these rates to the decay times of the proteins, the appropriate averaging procedure for obtaining a coarse-grained description changes and leads to sets of deterministic equations, which differ in their bifurcation structure. In particular the desired intermediate range of regular limit cyc...

  20. The motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of the human behavioural repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-02-01

    According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour. PMID:19006651

  1. Aplicação da ventilação não-invasiva em insuficiência respiratória aguda após cirurgia cardiovascular Application of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure after cardiovascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Regina de Morais Coimbra; Rodrigo de Almeida Lara; Ériko Gonçalves Flores; Emília Nozawa; José Octávio Costa Auler Júnior; Maria Ignez Zanetti Feltrim

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Verificar as respostas ventilatória, de oxigenação e hemodinâmica de pacientes com insuficiência respiratória aguda (IResp) hipoxêmica submetidos a aplicação de ventilação mecânica não-invasiva (VMNI) no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardiovascular, buscando variáveis preditoras de sucesso, e comparar as diferentes modalidades de VMNI. MÉTODOS: No total, 70 pacientes com IResp hipoxêmica foram randomizados em uma das três modalidades de VMNI: pressão positiva contínua em vias aéreas (...

  2. Cardiovascular risk prediction: the old has given way to the new but at what risk-benefit ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeboah J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Yeboah Heart and Vascular Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The ultimate goal of cardiovascular risk prediction is to identify individuals in the population to whom the application or administration of current proven lifestyle modifications and medicinal therapies will result in reduction in cardiovascular disease events and minimal adverse effects (net benefit to society. The use of cardiovascular risk prediction tools dates back to 1976 when the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score was published. Since then a lot of novel risk markers have been identified and other cardiovascular risk prediction tools have been developed to either improve or replace the Framingham Risk Score (FRS. In 2013, the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator was published by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association to replace the FRS for cardiovascular risk prediction. It is too soon to know the performance of the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator. The risk-benefit ratio for preventive therapy (lifestyle modifications, statin +/− aspirin based on cardiovascular disease risk assessed using the FRS is unknown but it was assumed to be a net benefit. Should we also assume the risk-benefit ratio for the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator is also a net benefit? Keywords: risk prediction, prevention, cardiovascular disease

  3. Selecting Molecular Recognition. What Can Existing Aptamers Tell Us about Their Inherent Recognition Capabilities and Modes of Interaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Landgraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of nucleic acid derived aptamers has rapidly expanded since the introduction of SELEX in 1990. Nucleic acid aptamers have demonstrated their ability to target a broad range of molecules in ways that rival antibodies, but advances have been very uneven for different biochemical classes of targets, and clinical applications have been slow to emerge. What sets different aptamers apart from each other and from rivaling molecular recognition platforms, specifically proteins? What advantages do aptamers as a reagent class offer, and how do the chemical properties and selection procedures of aptamers influence their function? Do the building blocks of nucleic acid aptamers dictate inherent limitations in the nature of molecular targets, and do existing aptamers give us insight in how these challenges might be overcome? This review is written as an introduction for potential endusers of aptamer technology who are evaluating the advantages of aptamers as a versatile, affordable, yet highly expandable platform to target a broad range of biological processes or interactions.

  4. Paraventricular Nucleus Modulates Excitatory Cardiovascular Reflexes during Electroacupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    2016-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. Somatic afferent stimulation activates neurons in the hypothalamic PVN. Parvocellular PVN neurons project to sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular regions of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). Electroacupuncture (EA) stimulates the median nerve (P5-P6) to modulate sympathoexcitatory responses. We hypothesized that the PVN and its projections to the rVLM participate in the EA-modulation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular responses. Cats were anesthetized and ventilated. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were monitored. Application of bradykinin every 10-min on the gallbladder induced consistent pressor reflex responses. Thirty-min of bilateral EA stimulation at acupoints P5-P6 reduced the pressor responses for at least 60-min. Inhibition of the PVN with naloxone reversed the EA-inhibition. Responses of cardiovascular barosensitive rVLM neurons evoked by splanchnic nerve stimulation were reduced by EA and then restored with opioid receptor blockade in the PVN. EA at P5-P6 decreased splanchnic evoked activity of cardiovascular barosensitive PVN neurons that also project directly to the rVLM. PVN neurons labeled with retrograde tracer from rVLM were co-labeled with μ-opioid receptors and juxtaposed to endorphinergic fibers. Thus, the PVN and its projection to rVLM are important in processing acupuncture modulation of elevated blood pressure responses through a PVN opioid mechanism. PMID:27181844

  5. NANOBURRS: A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Jaithlia Rajiv; Jain Hardik; Shah Vaibhav; Arora vimal

    2011-01-01

    "Nanoburrs" are nanoparticles coated with a sticky protein that makes them cling onto artery walls while they slowly release drugs. Patients with narrowed arteries in which drug-eluting stents cannot be used, now can use nanoburrs. Nanoburrs provides an advance technology in the field of science that potentially provides an alternative to drug-releasing stents in some patients with cardiovascular disease. This review brings about the working and applications of nanoburrs.

  6. NANOBURRS: A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaithlia Rajiv

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "Nanoburrs" are nanoparticles coated with a sticky protein that makes them cling onto artery walls while they slowly release drugs. Patients with narrowed arteries in which drug-eluting stents cannot be used, now can use nanoburrs. Nanoburrs provides an advance technology in the field of science that potentially provides an alternative to drug-releasing stents in some patients with cardiovascular disease. This review brings about the working and applications of nanoburrs.

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: part I

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway John P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There are many excellent specialised texts and articles that describe the physical principles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques. There are also many texts written with the clinician in mind that provide an understandable, more general introduction to the basic physical principles of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques and applications. There are however very few texts or articles that attempt to provide a basic MR physics introduction that is tailored for clinician...

  8. ecg-kit: a Matlab Toolbox for Cardiovascular Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Julio Demski; Mariano Llamedo Soria

    2016-01-01

    The electrocardiogram kit ('ecg-kit') for Matlab is an application-programming interface (API) developed to provide users a common interface to access and process cardiovascular signals. In the current version, the toolbox supports several ECG recording formats, most of them used by the most popular databases, which allows access to more than 7 TB of information, stored in public databases such as those included in Physionet or the THEW project. The toolbox includes several algorithms frequen...

  9. Deriving inherent optical properties and associated uncertainties for the Dutch inland waters during the Eagle Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Salama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Eagle 2006 campaign intensive in-situ and air/space borne measurements were carried out over the Wolderwijd and Veluwemeer natural waters in the Netherlands. In this paper, we modify the GSM semi-analytical inversion model for these lakes to derive inherent optical properties (IOPs and their spectral dependencies from air and space borne data. Uncertainties of the derived IOPs are estimated using a nonlinear regression technique. The modified model succeeded in deriving accurate estimates of IOPs with R2 higher than 0.9 and RMSE values equal to 0.12 and 0.05 for absorption and scattering coefficients, respectively. Finally, we show that the uncertainty of derived absorption coefficients is slightly independent of absorption's magnitude. While the uncertainty of all derived IOPs increases with water turbidity.

  10. Evaluation of different in vitro assays of inherent sensitivity as predictors of radiotherapy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherent sensitivity of cells within a tumor plays an important role in the response of the tumor to radiotherapy. Clonogenic assays show that cells established from in-field radiotherapy failures are significantly more resistant to radiation than cell lines established from pre-treatment samples. Clonogenic assays fail to predict tumor response to radiotherapy, however. The failure might be due to the small sample size in this study, or the complicating factors of staging, surgery, and chemotherapy, and/or in vivo selection by radiotherapy for resistant tumor cells. In vitro selection for resistant cell lines does not appear to be a complicating factor. Nonclonogenic assays such as those that measure DNA strand break rejoining rates (filter elution, pulse-field gel electrophoresis) or chromosome structure (flow cytometric analysis) show promise as alternative rapid assays of radiation sensitivity and possibly tumor response. 16 refs., 2 figs

  11. Designs Characteristics and Main Inherent Concerns of the Antiproton Decelerator Target

    CERN Document Server

    Torregrosa, C; Calviani, M

    2015-01-01

    In the context of AD area consolidation activities a redesign of the AD-target is planned. The information presented in this report is a starting point to this purpose. The current design dates from late 80’s and it was obtained after more than 10 years of iterations and improvements of the material choices and conceptual designs due to the complexity of physical phenomena occurring inside the target material. The present report summarizes this process from the existing documents found in the literature as well as the inherent concerns which will have to be faced in the future design. Two major concerns which limit the target operation life were identified (i) shock wave effects and (ii) radiation damage. Therefore, a deep study of these phenomena and development of reliable models will be the way forward for the next steps in the re-design process.

  12. On the fundamentals of nuclear reactor safety assessment. Inherent threats and their implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyvaerinen, J. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Nuclear Safety Dept.

    1996-12-01

    The thesis addresses some fundamental questions related to implementation and assessment of nuclear safety. The safety principles and assessment methods are described, followed by descriptions of selected novel technical challenges to nuclear safety. The novel challenges encompass a wide variety of technical issues, thus providing insights on the limitations of conventional safety assessment methods. Study of the limitations suggests means to improve nuclear reactor design criteria and safety assessment practices. The novel safety challenges discussed are (1) inherent boron dilution in PWRs, (2) metallic insulation performance with respect to total loss of emergency cooling systems in a loss-of-coolant accident, and (3) horizontal steam generator heat transfer performance at natural circulation conditions. (50 refs.).

  13. All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As energy efficiency becomes a paramount issue in this day and age, reversible computing may serve as a critical step towards energy conservation in information technology. The inputs of reversible computing elements define the outputs and vice versa. Some reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate are also universal; that is, they may be used to produce any logic operation. It is possible to find physical representations for the information, so that when processed with reversible logic, the energy of the output is equal to the energy of the input. It is suggested that there may be devices that will do that without applying any additional power. Here, we present a formalism that may be used to produce any reversible logic gate. We implement this method over an optical design of the Fredkin gate, which utilizes only optical elements that inherently conserve energy. PMID:27113510

  14. All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael

    2016-04-01

    As energy efficiency becomes a paramount issue in this day and age, reversible computing may serve as a critical step towards energy conservation in information technology. The inputs of reversible computing elements define the outputs and vice versa. Some reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate are also universal; that is, they may be used to produce any logic operation. It is possible to find physical representations for the information, so that when processed with reversible logic, the energy of the output is equal to the energy of the input. It is suggested that there may be devices that will do that without applying any additional power. Here, we present a formalism that may be used to produce any reversible logic gate. We implement this method over an optical design of the Fredkin gate, which utilizes only optical elements that inherently conserve energy.

  15. On the fundamentals of nuclear reactor safety assessment. Inherent threats and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis addresses some fundamental questions related to implementation and assessment of nuclear safety. The safety principles and assessment methods are described, followed by descriptions of selected novel technical challenges to nuclear safety. The novel challenges encompass a wide variety of technical issues, thus providing insights on the limitations of conventional safety assessment methods. Study of the limitations suggests means to improve nuclear reactor design criteria and safety assessment practices. The novel safety challenges discussed are (1) inherent boron dilution in PWRs, (2) metallic insulation performance with respect to total loss of emergency cooling systems in a loss-of-coolant accident, and (3) horizontal steam generator heat transfer performance at natural circulation conditions. (50 refs.)

  16. Utopia and Debt in Postmodernity; or, Time Management in Inherent Vice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Liner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The category of postmodernism has come under renewed scrutiny in recent years. Indeed, it has become rather commonplace to pronounce the death or obsolescence of postmodernism today. Unsurprisingly, the increasingly questioned status of postmodernism also impacts the field of Pynchon studies. This article reads 'Inherent Vice' as symptomatic not of the end but of a transformation of postmodernism and postmodernity. Pynchon’s novel simultaneously registers a contemporary intensification of postmodern/late capitalism and, crucially, participates in a minor current in postmodernism, one which insists on collective agency and utopian thinking despite the atomization and isolation of subjects accomplished by late capitalism and which, against all odds, remembers how to think historically—or better, invents new ways of thinking historically.

  17. A NEW APPROACH TO TELUGU TEXT STEGANOGRAPHY BY SHIFTING INHERENT VOWEL SIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRAVANI ALAMETI. ANKAM,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. The advantage of steganography, over cryptography alone, is that messages do not attract attention to themselves. Cryptography protects the contents of a message, steganography can be said to protect both messages and communicating parties. Wide ranges of algorithms have been introduced using text, audio, video and imagesfiles as covering media. This paper presents a new approach for steganography in Telugu texts. Taking the typical structure of Telugu alphabets into consideration, in this approach, by shifting inherent vowel signs either left or right, we hide the secret message. The approach shows good result on the sample collected from differentTelugu newspaper.

  18. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field. PMID:27539179

  19. PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] design concept enhances waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRISM, a modular advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), has been designed conceptually by GE under the US Department of Energy sponsorship. The concept design and analyses have been primarily focused on passive safety and improved construction and operating costs. Significantly, the unique design of multiple modules and features of PRISM enhance waste management over conventional reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of PRISM of these enhancements. Inherent to the ALMR's, the sodium coolant precludes crud buildup on reactor surfaces and in components and waste for disposal. Preliminary evaluations indicate this fundamental feature results in factors of 2-4 less waste volume and 2-3 orders of magnitude less curies per megawatt-electric for ultimate disposal. For example, the tap designed for sodium cleanup is expected to be exchanged only once every thirty years. Also, inherent to ALMR's, burning waste actinides and selected fission products to preclude their accumulation and burial is very attractive. The hard neutron spectrum of ALMR burns the actinides efficiently and is not poisoned by the actinides and fission products. The modular design of PRISM components (and the fuel cycle equipment) permit replacement without expensive and potentially hazardous volume reduction. For example, the functional components of the reference electromagnetic pump and IHK can be removed intact for waste disposal. Although development of the reference metal fuel is not completed, it is estimated that (low-level) waste from recycle of the fuel will result in significantly less volume than would be generated by aqueous recycle of oxide fuel. 6 refs., 10 figs

  20. The inherent weaknesses in industrial control systems devices; hacking and defending SCADA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Louis J.

    The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is about to enforce their NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Version Five and Six requirements on July 1st 2016. The NERC CIP requirements are a set of cyber security standards designed to protect cyber assets essential the reliable operation of the electric grid. The new Version Five and Six requirements are a major revision to the Version Three (currently enforced) requirements. The new requirements also bring substations into scope alongside Energy Control Centers. When the Version Five requirements were originally drafted they were vague, causing in depth discussions throughout the industry. The ramifications of these requirements has made owners look at their systems in depth, questioning how much money it will take to meet these requirements. Some owners saw backing down from routable networks to non-routable as a means to save money as they would be held to less requirements within the standards. Some owners saw removing routable connections as a proper security move. The purpose of this research was to uncover the inherent weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) devices; to show how ICS devices can be hacked and figure out potential protections for these Critical Infrastructure devices. In addition, this research also aimed to validate the decision to move from External Routable connectivity to Non-Routable connectivity, as a security measure and not as a means of savings. The results reveal in order to ultimately protect Industrial Control Systems they must be removed from the Internet and all bi-directional external routable connections must be removed. Furthermore; non-routable serial connections should be utilized, and these non-routable serial connections should be encrypted on different layers of the OSI model. The research concluded that most weaknesses in SCADA systems are due to the inherent weaknesses in ICS devices and because of these weaknesses, human intervention is

  1. Liver function tests: Association with cardiovascular outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    An association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease has been repeatedly reported. Several studies have focused on levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Evidence indicates that GGT may have a potential role for cardiovascular risk stratification while the role of ALT for cardiac prognosis remains controversial. A conceptual framework that includes not only GGT and ALT but also markers ...

  2. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seaf...

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ‘free-radical theory’ of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that ROS and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding...

  4. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...

  5. Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

  6. Riesgo cardiovascular en la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Claver García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    La enfermedad cardiovascular siempre ha sido considerada una enfermedad de hombres. Sin embargo, existen datos que reflejan el aumento de esta patología en las mujeres, alcanzando e incluso superando al número de varones, y llegando a ser en España la primera causa de muerte. En ellas, estos episodios suelen comenzar 10 años más tarde debido a la protección que durante la etapa fértil brindan los estrógenos. Sin embargo, tras la menopausia los niveles de estas hormonas disminuyen y es ent...

  7. Image processing in cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past ten years digital image processing has contributed decisively to the advance of cardiovascular radiology. Not only images of better diagnostic value could be produced, but also in many cases the risk for the patient was diminished. In this paper three topics are discussed: One of the principal methods is digital angiography especially with functional imaging. In addition, because of the rapid progress of digital imaging data compression became a major issue. Finally there is a good chance that 3D-processing of MRI data will at least partly replace the present invasive techniques

  8. [Cognitive dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    A multitude of modifiable risk factors during the median phase of life are often causative for cognitive dysfunction (CD) in old age. High evidence exists for cigarette smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity and sleeping disorders. Single large scale population based studies proof it for hypertension, hypercholesterinemia and depression, conflicting evidence exists for obesity and work stress. Little attention is paid to the close association between cardiovascular disease conditions and CD, particularly for atrial fibrillation, heart failure and for older patients with coronary heart disease. Undetected CD may be responsible for non-adherence and failure of self-care programs in chronic heart patients. PMID:27557067

  9. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  10. Design and validation of Segment - freely available software for cardiovascular image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Engblom Henrik; Carlsson Marcus; Ugander Martin; Sjögren Jane; Heiberg Einar; Arheden Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Commercially available software for cardiovascular image analysis often has limited functionality and frequently lacks the careful validation that is required for clinical studies. We have already implemented a cardiovascular image analysis software package and released it as freeware for the research community. However, it was distributed as a stand-alone application and other researchers could not extend it by writing their own custom image analysis algorithms. We believ...

  11. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    OpenAIRE

    van Rossum Albert C; Raman Subha V; McConnell Michael V; Lawson Mark A; Higgins Charles B; Friedrich Matthias G; Bogaert Jan G; Bluemke David; Hundley W Gregory; Flamm Scott; Kramer Christopher M; Nagel Eike; Neubauer Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations.

  12. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  13. [Future directions of cardiovascular surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S S

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular surgery in China has achieved great progress both on scale and technology though development over the past thirty years. However, the technical predominance of cardiovascular surgery in therapies for some diseases has been weakened, along with developments of new drugs and interventional technology. Besides, the change of doctor-patient relationship result from internet medical information service and less attraction of cardiovascular surgery discipline to talents bring certain challenge to the development of cardiovascular surgery. Currently, cardiovascular surgeons should practice the "patient first" principle, carry out individual customized treatment and precision therapy, absorb the advantages of other subjects like intervention and imaging in order to achieve technological breakthroughs, create new treatment technologies and models with smaller trauma and better outcome, establish heart team to provide patient oriented treatment. Besides, cardiovascular surgeons should improve knowledge system by learning related technology and science, become hybrid doctors of research. Cardiovascular surgeons should pay high attention to critical effect of research on the disciplinary development, carry out question and demand oriented clinical studies, change the medical practice by virtue of research achievements, direct the treatment for cardiovascular diseases, and finally provide better health service and rebuild the predominance of cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27502127

  14. Biomechanical performance of new cardiovascular needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, J G; Ferguson, R E; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular needles are now being manufactured from new stainless steel alloys containing high concentrations of nickel, Surgalloy and Ethalloy. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of a cardiovascular needle made of Surgalloy with a comparably sized needle made of Ethalloy. The parameters of biomechanical performance included sharpness, maintenance of sharpness, resistance to bending, and ductility. Because the biomechanical performance of these needles was remarkably similar, cardiovascular needles made of either the Surgalloy or Ethalloy alloys are recommended for cardiovascular surgery. PMID:11495105

  15. Mathematical Biomarkers for the Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e. drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance.

  16. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  17. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  18. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  19. Increased susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapcaicin in resuscitated rats. Cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj; Axelsen, Mads; Gotfredsen, Jacob W; Weber, Uno J; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Videbaek, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the external...... and internal environment of the cardiovascular system as compared to the healthy situation....

  20. The nature of inherent bactericidal activity: insights from the nanotopology of three species of dragonfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, David E.; Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden; Jakubov, Timur; Tobin, Mark; Lamb, Robert N.; Wu, Alex H.-F.; Marchant, Richard; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2016-03-01

    While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy to be similar across these activity differences. Modelling the interaction between bacterial cells and the wing surface lipids of 3 species of dragonflies, that inhabit similar environments, but with distinctly different behavioural repertoires, provided the relationship between surface structure and antibacterial functionality. In doing so, these principal behavioural patterns correlated with the demands for antimicrobial efficiency dictated by differences in their foraging strategies. This work now reveals a new feature in the design elegance of natural multi-functional surfaces as well providing insights into the bactericidal mechanism underlying inherently antimicrobial materials, while suggesting that nanotopology is related to the evolutionary development of a species through the demands of its behavioural repertoire. The underlying relationship between the processes of wetting, adhesion and capillarity of the lipid nanopillars and bactericidal efficiency suggests new prospects for purely mechano-responsive antibacterial surfaces.While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron

  1. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. W. Yu; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; Alison M. McManus

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters i...

  2. How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Andrew; Japp, Alan; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Physical examination of the cardiovascular system is central to contemporary teaching and practice in clinical medicine. Evidence about its value focuses on its diagnostic accuracy and varies widely in methodological quality and statistical power. This makes collation, analysis, and understanding of results difficult and limits their application to daily clinical practice. Specific factors affecting interpretation and clinical application include poor standardisation of observers' technique and training, the study of single signs rather than multiple signs or signs in combination with symptoms, and the tendency to compare physical examination directly with technological aids to diagnosis rather than explore diagnostic strategies that combine both. Other potential aspects of the value of physical examination, such as cost effectiveness or patients' perceptions, are poorly studied. This review summarises the evidence for the clinical value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system. The best was judged to relate to the detection and evaluation of valvular heart disease, the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, the jugular venous pulse in the assessment of central venous pressure, and the detection of atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, impaired perfusion, and aortic and carotid disease. Although technological aids to diagnosis are likely to become even more widely available at the point of care, the evidence suggests that further research into the value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system is needed, particularly in low resource settings and as a potential means of limiting inappropriate overuse of technological aids to diagnosis. PMID:27598000

  3. 14 CFR 67.111 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.111 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...; (b) A person applying for first-class medical certification must demonstrate an absence of myocardial...) An electrocardiogram will satisfy a requirement of paragraph (b) of this section if it is dated...

  4. Significance of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Krutika Gajjar; Dr.Parloop Bhatt; Dr.Yagnik S.Bhalodia; Dr.Sizan B.Patel; Chintan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with cardiovascular diseases, Cardiacrehabilitation (CR) is regarded for prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. CR servicesare generally provided in an outpatient as comprehensive, long-term programs involving medicalevaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. This includesnutritional therapies, weight loss program management of lipid abnormalities with diet and medicat...

  5. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  6. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  7. Cardiovascular death and manic-depressive psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, A; Juel, K; Vaeth, M

    2013-01-01

    In order to study if tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCA) in therapeutic doses increase the risk of death due to cardiovascular causes, the relative mortality from cardiovascular diseases was studied in two large groups of first hospitalized manic-depressive patients, one from the TCA era, the ot...... disease, suicide, and other non-cancer causes....

  8. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  9. Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ting; Snieder, Harold; de Geus, Eco

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in the cardiovascular response to stress play a central role in the reactivity hypothesis linking frequent exposure to psychosocial stress to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular health. To assess the importance of genetic factors, a meta-analysis was performed on all published

  10. 14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a second-class medical certificate are no established medical history or clinical diagnosis...

  11. 14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are no established medical history or...

  12. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  13. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  14. Cardiovascular syphilis with coronary stenosis and aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Satyendra; Moorthy, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular manifestations of tertiary syphilis include aortitis, aortic root dilation, aneurysm formation, aortic regurgitation, and coronary ostial stenosis. Coronary ostial lesions have been detected in as many as 26% of patients with syphilitic aortitis. However nonostial coronary stenosis and coronary aneurysms in same patient is rarely described in cardiovascular syphilis. PMID:25634420

  15. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjian; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2014-10-16

    Cardiovascular cells derived from patient specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) harbor gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of inherited cardiac diseases and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Numerous reports have demonstrated the utilization of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) to model cardiac diseases as a means of investigating their underlying mechanisms. So far, they have been shown to investigate the molecular mechanisms of many cardiac disorders, such as long-QT syndrome (LQT), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Barth syndrome (BTHS), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and other CHD. This article summarizes the growing body of research related to modeling various cardiac diseases using hiPSCs. Moreover, by reviewing the methods used in previous studies, we propose multiple novel applications of hiPSCs to investigate comprehensive cardiovascular disorders and facilitate drug discovery. PMID:25322695

  16. Collaborative research in cardiovascular dynamics and bone elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A collaborative research program covering a variety of topics of biomechanics and biomedical engineering within the fields of cardiovascular dynamics, respiration, bone elasticity and vestibular physiology is described. The goals of the research were to promote: (1) a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the circulatory system and its control mechanisms; (2) development of noninvasive methods of measuring the changes in the mechanical properties of blood vessels and other cardiovascular parameters in man; (3) application of these noninvasive methods to examine in man the physiological effects of environmental changes, including earth-simulated gravitational changes; and (4) development of in-flight methods for studying the events which lead to post-flight postural hypotension.

  17. Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego López-de-Ipiña

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  18. Deriving inherent optical properties and associated inversion-uncertainties in the Dutch Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Verhoef

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of water quality in inland waters requires reliable retrieval algorithms, accurate atmospheric correction and consistent method for uncertainty estimation. In this paper, the GSM semi-analytical inversion model is modified for inland waters to derive inherent optical properties (IOPs and their spectral dependencies from air and space borne data. The modified model was validated using two data sets from the Veluwe and the Vecht Dutch lakes. For the Veluwe lakes, the model was able to derive a linear relationship between measured concentrations and estimated IOPs with R2 values above 0.7 for chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and up to 0.9 for suspended particulate matters (SPM. In the Vecht lakes, the modified model derived accurate values of IOPs. The R2 values were 0.89 for Chl-a and up to 0.95 for SPM. The RMSE values were 0.93 mg m−3 and 0.56 g m−3 for Chl-a and SPM respectively. Finally, the IOPs of the Veluwe lakes are derived from multi-spectral, ocean color and hyperspectral airborne data. Inversion-uncertainties of the derived IOPs were also estimated using a standard nonlinear regression technique. The study shows that inversion-uncertainties of remote sensing derived IOPs are proportional to water turbidity.

  19. Deriving inherent optical properties and associated inversion-uncertainties in the Dutch Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, M. S.; Dekker, A.; Su, Z.; Mannaerts, C. M.; Verhoef, W.

    2009-07-01

    Remote sensing of water quality in inland waters requires reliable retrieval algorithms, accurate atmospheric correction and consistent method for uncertainty estimation. In this paper, the GSM semi-analytical inversion model is modified for inland waters to derive inherent optical properties (IOPs) and their spectral dependencies from air and space borne data. The modified model was validated using two data sets from the Veluwe and the Vecht Dutch lakes. For the Veluwe lakes, the model was able to derive a linear relationship between measured concentrations and estimated IOPs with R2 values above 0.7 for chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and up to 0.9 for suspended particulate matters (SPM). In the Vecht lakes, the modified model derived accurate values of IOPs. The R2 values were 0.89 for Chl-a and up to 0.95 for SPM. The RMSE values were 0.93 mg m-3 and 0.56 g m-3 for Chl-a and SPM respectively. Finally, the IOPs of the Veluwe lakes are derived from multi-spectral, ocean color and hyperspectral airborne data. Inversion-uncertainties of the derived IOPs were also estimated using a standard nonlinear regression technique. The study shows that inversion-uncertainties of remote sensing derived IOPs are proportional to water turbidity.

  20. Design of dedicated nuclear desalination system Low pressure Inherent heat sink Nuclear Desalination plant: LIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is for developing a dedicated nuclear desalination system equipped with highly passive safety features. The target site of the project is Abu Dhabi Emirate in UAE. Low pressure Inherent heat sink Nuclear Desalination plant (LIND) adopts the several innovative design concepts: 1) Use of low pressure operation (1-3bar) due to a dedicated nuclear desalination plant; 2) Use of a pool type reactor to have a large water reservoir; 3) Use of square ring type fuel loading to maintain the cladding maximum temperature below the criterion even in accident scenario; 4) Use of SiC as control rod wall, baffle, guide tube, cladding etc. to allow high temperature of that components for decay heat removal; 5) Use of SiC as cladding to permit CHF during worst transients and eliminate H2 explosion; 6) Underground design of a reactor to eliminate concrete wall surrounding a steel containment; 7) Use of reactor cavity for ex vessel cooling; 8) Use of steel containment to effectively remove decay heat through radiation and air convection; 9) Use of In Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) and Desalted Water Storage Tank (DWST) as water storage for safety injection purpose

  1. Bionic Ears: Their Development and Future Advances Using Neurotrophins and Inherently Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M. Clark

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the multiple-channel bionic ear for hearing and speech understanding in profoundly deaf people is the result of integrating biological and physical sciences with engineering. It is the first clinically successful restoration of sensory and brain function, and brings electronic technology into a direct functional relationship with human consciousness. It presently transmits essential place and coarse temporal information for the coding of frequency, but the fine temporal and place excitation of groups of nerve fibres is inadequate for high-fidelity sound. This is required for adequate musical appreciation and hearing in noise. Research has demonstrated that nerve growth factors preserve the peripheral processes of the auditory nerves so that an electrode array placed close to these fibres could produce this fine temporal and spatial coding. The nerve growth factors can be incorporated into inherently conducting polymers that are part of the array so the peripheral processes can be preserved at the same time as they are electrically stimulated.

  2. Enhancement of the inherent self-protection of the fast sodium reactor cores with oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development and research into the generation IV fast sodium reactors, great attention is paid to the enhancement of the core inherent self-protection characteristics. One of the problems dealt here is connected with the reduction of the reactivity margin so that the control rods running should not result in the core overheating and melting. In this paper we consider the possibilities of improving the core of BN-1200 with oxide fuel by a known method of introducing an axial fertile layer into the core. But unlike earlier studies this paper looks at the possibility of using such a layer not only for improving breeding, but also for reducing sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE). This proposed improvement of the BN-1200 core does not solve the problem of strong interference in control and protection system (CPS) rods of BN-1200, but they reduce significantly the reactivity margin for burn-up compensation. This helps compensate all the reactivity balances in the improved core configurations without violating constraints on SVRE value

  3. Rapid synthesis of inherently robust and stable superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmeryan, Karekin D.; Castano, Carlos E.; Bressler, Ashton H.; Abolghasemibizaki, Mehran; Mohammadi, Reza

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings using a candle flame or rapeseed oil has become very attractive as a novel approach for synthesis of water repellent surfaces. Here, we report an improved, simplified and time-efficient method for the preparation of robust superhydrophobic carbon soot that does not require any additional stabilizers or chemical treatment. The soot's inherent stabilization is achieved using a specially-designed cone-shaped aluminum chimney, mounted over an ignited paper-based wick immersed in a rapeseed oil. Such configuration decreases the level of oxygen during the process of combustion; altering the ratio of chemical bonds in the soot. As a result, the fractal-like network of the carbon nanoparticles is converted into dense and fused carbon chains, rigidly coupled to the substrate surface. The modified carbon coating shows thermal sustainability and retains superhydrophobicity up to ∼300 °C. Furthermore, it demonstrates a low contact angle hysteresis of 0.7-1.2° accompanied by enhanced surface adhesion and mechanical durability under random water flows. In addition, the soot's deposition rate of ∼1.5 μm/s reduces the exposure time of the substrate to heat and consequently minimizes the thermal effects, allowing the creation of superhydrophobic coatings on materials with low thermal stability (e.g. wood or polyethylene).

  4. Inherent Structure-Based Multiview Learning With Multitemplate Feature Representation for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang; Adeli, Ehsan; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-07-01

    Multitemplate-based brain morphometric pattern analysis using magnetic resonance imaging has been recently proposed for automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage (i.e., mild cognitive impairment or MCI). In such methods, multiview morphological patterns generated from multiple templates are used as feature representation for brain images. However, existing multitemplate-based methods often simply assume that each class is represented by a specific type of data distribution (i.e., a single cluster), while in reality, the underlying data distribution is actually not preknown. In this paper, we propose an inherent structure-based multiview leaning method using multiple templates for AD/MCI classification. Specifically, we first extract multiview feature representations for subjects using multiple selected templates and then cluster subjects within a specific class into several subclasses (i.e., clusters) in each view space. Then, we encode those subclasses with unique codes by considering both their original class information and their own distribution information, followed by a multitask feature selection model. Finally, we learn an ensemble of view-specific support vector machine classifiers based on their, respectively, selected features in each view and fuse their results to draw the final decision. Experimental results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database demonstrate that our method achieves promising results for AD/MCI classification, compared to the state-of-the-art multitemplate-based methods. PMID:26540666

  5. An analytic framework for developing inherently-manufacturable pop-up laminate devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurred by advances in manufacturing technologies developed around layered manufacturing technologies such as PC-MEMS, SCM, and printable robotics, we propose a new analytic framework for capturing the geometry of folded composite laminate devices and the mechanical processes used to manufacture them. These processes can be represented by combining a small set of geometric operations which are general enough to encompass many different manufacturing paradigms. Furthermore, such a formulation permits one to construct a variety of geometric tools which can be used to analyze common manufacturability concepts, such as tool access, part removability, and device support. In order to increase the speed of development, reduce the occurrence of manufacturing problems inherent with current design methods, and reduce the level of expertise required to develop new devices, the framework has been implemented in a new design tool called popupCAD, which is suited for the design and development of complex folded laminate devices. We conclude with a demonstration of utility of the tools by creating a folded leg mechanism. (paper)

  6. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Improvement of inherent safety features in CSR (Coupled Spectrum Reactor) for treating MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burning and/or transmutation (B/T) of MA is proposed here using a CSR (Coupled Spectrum Reactor) concept. CSR was based on a modified conventional 1150 MWe-PWR system, and consisted of two core regions for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively. The B/T fuel used was supposed such that MA discharged from 1 GWe-LWR were mixed homogeneously in LWR fuel. The geometry of B/T fuel in the outer region was left the same with that of PWR, while in the inner region the B/T fuel was arranged in a tight-lattice geometry that allowed a higher fuel to coolant volume ratio, (Vm/Vf). In order to improve its inherent safety features, several cases of CSR were studied and compared, each case used different fuel type in the inner region. The result of the calculations showed that safety features can be improved by using composite fuel of (235U-Pu-238U) in the inner region. The equilibrium of main isotopes in CSR can be achieved after about 5 recycle stages. This study also showed that the CSR can burn and transmute MA up to 808 kg/stage in a single reactor operated with a reactivity swing of 2.8 % Δk/kk'. (author)

  8. Entropy: An Inherent, Non-statistical Property of any System in any State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias P. Gyftopoulos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Entropy is the distinguishing and most important concept of our efforts to understand and regularize our observations of a very large class of natural phenomena, and yet, it is one of the most contentious concepts of physics. In this article, we review two expositions of thermodynamics, one without reference to quantum theory, and the other quantum mechanical without probabilities of statistical mechanics. In the first, we show that entropy is an inherent property of any system in any state, and that its analytical expression must conform to eight criteria. In the second, we recognize that quantum thermodynamics: (i admits quantum probabilities described either by wave functions or by nonstatistical density operators; and (ii requires a nonlinear equation of motion that is delimited by but more general than the Schrödinger equation, and that accounts for both reversible and irreversible evolutions of the state of the system in time. Both the more general quantum probabilities, and the equation of motion have been defined, and the three laws of thermodynamics are shown to be theorems of this equation.

    • An initial version of this paper was published in
      July of 2006 in the proceedings of ECOS’06, Aghia
      Pelagia, Crete, Greece. 

  9. Inherent rhythmcity and interstitial cells of Cajal in a frog vein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipanwita Ghose; Lingu Jose; S Manjunatha; Muddanna S Rao; J Prakasa Rao

    2008-12-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal are responsible for rhythmic contractions of the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels. The existence of these cells and spontaneous rhythmicity were noticed in amphibian vein and the findings are reported in this paper. The postcaval vein was identified in the frog, Rana tigrina and was perfused with amphibian Ringer solution after isolation. Contractile activity was recorded through a tension transducer connected to a polygraph. The isolated postcaval vein showed spontaneous rhythmic activity. Addition of cold Ringer solution decreased, while warm Ringer increased, the rate of contraction. Adrenaline caused inhibition of rhythmic activity at a dosage that increased the rate of isolated sinus venosus. Sections of the postcaval vein, when stained supravitally with methylene blue, showed the presence of interstitial cells of Cajal. Photic stimulation of the vein in the presence of methylene blue led to a significant decrease in the rate of spontaneous beating of the vein. These findings indicate that the postcaval vein of frog is capable of inherent rhythmcity, which is dependent on the interstitial cells of Cajal but is independent of the sinus venosus.

  10. Laser Chemosensor with Rapid Responsivity and Inherent Memory Based on a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Turnbull

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the use of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1 as the active layer within a laser sensor to detect nitroaromatic-based explosive vapors. We show successful detection of dinitrobenzene (DNB by monitoring the real-time photoluminescence. We also show that PIM-1 has an inherent memory, so that it accumulates the analyte during exposure. In addition, the optical gain and refractive index of the polymer were studied by amplified spontaneous emission and variable-angle ellipsometry, respectively. A second-order distributed feedback PIM-1 laser sensor was fabricated and found to show an increase in laser threshold of 2.5 times and a reduction of the laser slope efficiency by 4.4 times after a 5-min exposure to the DNB vapor. For pumping at 2 times threshold, the lasing action was stopped within 30 s indicating that PIM-1 has a very fast responsivity and as such has a potential sensing ability for ultra-low-concentration explosives.

  11. Bayesian estimation inherent in a Mexican-hat-type neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2016-05-01

    Brain functions, such as perception, motor control and learning, and decision making, have been explained based on a Bayesian framework, i.e., to decrease the effects of noise inherent in the human nervous system or external environment, our brain integrates sensory and a priori information in a Bayesian optimal manner. However, it remains unclear how Bayesian computations are implemented in the brain. Herein, I address this issue by analyzing a Mexican-hat-type neural network, which was used as a model of the visual cortex, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex. I analytically demonstrate that the dynamics of an order parameter in the model corresponds exactly to a variational inference of a linear Gaussian state-space model, a Bayesian estimation, when the strength of recurrent synaptic connectivity is appropriately stronger than that of an external stimulus, a plausible condition in the brain. This exact correspondence can reveal the relationship between the parameters in the Bayesian estimation and those in the neural network, providing insight for understanding brain functions.

  12. Technical outline of a high temperature pool reactor with inherent passive safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many reactor designers world wide have successfully established technologies for very small reactors (less than 10 MWTH), and technologies for large power reactors (greater than 1000 MWTH), but have not developed small reactors (between 10 MWTH and 1000 MWth) which are safe, economic, and capable of meeting user technical, economic, and safety requirements. This is largely because the very small reactor technologies and the power reactor technologies are not amiable to safe and economic upsizing/downsizing. This paper postulates that new technologies, or novel combinations of existing technologies are necessary to the design of safe and economic small reactors. The paper then suggest a set of requirements that must be satisfied by a small reactor design, and defines a pool reactor that utilizes lead coolant and TRISO fuel which has the potential for meeting these requirements. This reactor, named LEADIR-PS, (an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor, Passively Safe) incorporates the inherent safety features of the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MWGR), while avoiding the cost of reactor and steam generator pressure vessels, and the safety concerns regarding pressure vessel rupture. This paper includes the description of a standard 200MW thermal reactor module based on this concept, called LEADIR-PS 200. (author)

  13. High homogeneity 25 cm low-energy rf ion source with inherent electron compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 25 cm single-grid low-energy rf ion source with inherent electron compensation is described and characterized. Measurements were carried out using Ar and CF4 filling gas. The dependence of the ion beam current to the target as well as the current partition between the beam fast and slow ions on the rf discharge pressure for both filling gases is discussed. The unique ability of generation of coinciding ion and electron flows is demonstrated and the measured ion and electron energy distribution functions are presented as well. The developed broad ion beam source is able of providing 0.5-5 mA/cm2 current density in the low ion energy range of 50-250 eV, with possibility of independent current density and energy control. It is shown that complementing the rf plasma source with a profiling electrode allows for CF4 ion source operation attaining ±5% ion beam uniformity over 250 mm in diameter. The presented CF4 etching test results exhibit the possibility of highly directional anisotropic Si and SiO2 etching utilizing the developed single grid rf ion source.

  14. Temporal and among-site variability of inherent water use efficiency at the ecosystem level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, C.; Ciais, P.; Reichstein, M.; Baldocchi, D.; Law, B. E.; Papale, D.; Soussana, J.-F.; Ammann, C.; Buchmann, N.; Frank, D.; Gianelle, D.; Janssens, I. A.; Knohl, A.; KöStner, B.; Moors, E.; Roupsard, O.; Verbeeck, H.; Vesala, T.; Williams, C. A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2009-06-01

    Half-hourly measurements of the net exchanges of carbon dioxide and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere provide estimates of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) at the ecosystem level and on daily to annual timescales. The ratio of these quantities represents ecosystem water use efficiency. Its multiplication with mean daylight vapor pressure deficit (VPD) leads to a quantity which we call "inherent water use efficiency" (IWUE*). The dependence of IWUE* on environmental conditions indicates possible adaptive adjustment of ecosystem physiology in response to a changing environment. IWUE* is analyzed for 43 sites across a range of plant functional types and climatic conditions. IWUE* increases during short-term moderate drought conditions. Mean annual IWUE* varied by a factor of 3 among all sites. This is partly explained by soil moisture at field capacity, particularly in deciduous broad-leaved forests. Canopy light interception sets the upper limits to canopy photosynthesis, and explains half the variance in annual IWUE* among herbaceous ecosystems and evergreen needle-leaved forests. Knowledge of IWUE* offers valuable improvement to the representation of carbon and water coupling in ecosystem process models.

  15. Simple frequency-dependent tools for analysis of inherent control limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Skogestad

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available By a plant's inherent control limitations we mean the characteristics of the plant which will cause poor control performance irrespective of what controller is used. Another frequently used term is 'dynamic resilience' which is the best closed-loop performance achievable using any controller. Since a plant's dynamic resilience cannot be altered by change of the control algorithm, but only by design modifications, it follows that the term controllability provides a link between process design and process control. In this paper we focus on two aspects of controllability. The plants' sensitivity to disturbances and the limitations imposed by interactions when using decentralized control. We use simple tools such as the RGA, the PRGA (Performance RGA and the closely related Closed Loop Disturbance Gain (CLDG. For example, if kth column of the CLDG is large, then this indicates that disturbance k will be difficult to reject. This may pinpoint the need for modifying the process. The PRGA provides a measure of interaction which also includes one-way coupling. In the paper we apply these measures to distillation column control and fluid catalytic cracker (FCC control.

  16. Cometabolic degradation of organic wastewater micropollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Klaus; Majewsky, Marius

    2014-08-01

    Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic trace pollutants. Often, their biodegradability by activated sludge microorganisms is decisive for their elimination during wastewater treatment. Since the amounts of micropollutants seem too low to serve as growth substrate, cometabolism is supposed to be the dominating biodegradation process. Nevertheless, as many biodegradation studies were performed without the intention to discriminate between metabolic and cometabolic processes, the specific contribution of the latter to substance transformations is often not clarified. This minireview summarizes current knowledge about the cometabolic degradation of organic trace pollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms. Due to their relevance for communal wastewater contamination, the focus is laid on pharmaceuticals, personal care products, antibiotics, estrogens, and nonylphenols. Wherever possible, reference is made to the molecular process level, i.e., cometabolic pathways, involved enzymes, and formed transformation products. Particular cometabolic capabilities of different activated sludge consortia and various microbial species are highlighted. Process conditions favoring cometabolic activities are emphasized. Finally, knowledge gaps are identified, and research perspectives are outlined. PMID:24866947

  17. Cardiovascular risk assessment in women - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P; Webb, C M; de Villiers, T J; Stevenson, J C; Panay, N; Baber, R J

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Although it is a disease of aging, vascular disease initiates much earlier in life. Thus, there is a need to be aware of the potential to prevent the development of the disease from an early age and continue this surveillance throughout life. The menopausal period and early menopause present an ideal opportunity to assess cardiovascular risk and plan accordingly. Generally in this period, women will be seen by primary health-care professionals and non-cardiovascular specialists. This review addresses female-specific risk factors that may contribute to the potential development of cardiovascular disease. It is important for all health-care professionals dealing with women in midlife and beyond to be cognisant of these risk factors and to initiate female-specific preventative measures or to refer to a cardiovascular specialist. PMID:27327421

  18. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...

  19. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  20. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874