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Sample records for cardiovascular abnormalities

  1. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  2. Immunohistochemical abnormalities of fibrillin in cardiovascular tissues in Marfan's syndrome.

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    Fleischer, K J; Nousari, H C; Anhalt, G J; Stone, C D; Laschinger, J C

    1997-04-01

    Molecular defects in the glycoprotein fibrillin are believed to be responsible for impaired structural integrity of cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular tissues in Marfan's syndrome (MFS). Traditionally, excellent results have been achieved with the Bentall composite graft repair of aneurysms of the ascending aorta in MFS. However, because of the potential complications associated with prosthetic valves, there is growing interest in techniques that preserve the native aortic valve. Between May 1994 and February 1995, 15 patients with a history of concomitant or remote aortic root aneurysms or dissection underwent operation for valvular heart disease. Specimens of aortic valve, ascending aortic wall, and mitral valve were obtained specifically to observe differences in fibrillin content and architecture between patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 6) MFS. In addition, control specimens of aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve were obtained from 4 patients with isolated valvular or coronary artery disease but no evidence of connective tissue disorders or other aortic pathologic conditions. Fibrillin immunostaining using indirect immunofluorescence was used. Specimens were coded and graded by a blinded observer to determine quantity, homogeneity, and fragmentation of fibrillin. Observed fibrillin abnormalities in MFS and control patients were limited to the midportion (elastin-associated microfibrils) of the aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve tissues. Fibrillin abnormalities of aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve tissues were seen in all patients with MFS and were most severe in those older than 20 years. Similar fibrillin abnormalities of aortic valve and aortic wall specimens were observed in control patients more than 60 years old. Even in the setting of a normal-appearing aortic valve, the current rationale for widespread use of valve-sparing repairs of aortic root aneurysms in patients with MFS and patients older than 60 years should be

  3. Bicuspid aortic valve morphology and associated cardiovascular abnormalities in fetal Turner syndrome: a pathomorphological study

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    van Engelen, Klaartje; Bartelings, Margot M.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Baars, Marieke J. H.; Postma, Alex V.; Bijlsma, Emilia K.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is common in Turner syndrome (TS). In adult TS, 82-95% of BAVs have fusion of the right and left coronary leaflets. Data in fetal stages are scarce. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into aortic valve morphology and associated cardiovascular abnormalities in a

  4. Uncomplicated obesity is associated with abnormal aortic function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

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    Channon Keith M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Obese subjects with insulin resistance and hypertension have abnormal aortic elastic function, which may predispose them to the development of left ventricular dysfunction. We hypothesised that obesity, uncomplicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, is independently associated with aortic function. Methods and results We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure aortic compliance, distensibility and stiffness index in 27 obese subjects (BMI 33 kg/m2 without insulin resistance and with normal cholesterol and blood pressure, and 12 controls (BMI 23 kg/m2. Obesity was associated with reduced aortic compliance (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2 mm2/mmHg in controls, p -1 × 10-3, p Conclusion Aortic elastic function is abnormal in obese subjects without other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the independent importance of obesity in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Abnormal ankle brachial indices may predict cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients without known heart disease.

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    Fine, Jeffrey J; Hopkins, Christie B; Hall, Patrick Ax

    2005-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have failed to provide accurate, inexpensive, screening techniques to detect cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Ankle brachial indices (ABI) testing may be an effective screening technique for diabetics. The aim of this 100-subject clinical study was to determine cardiovascular disease prevalence, via perfusion stress testing, in diabetic patients having abnormal ABI (<0.90) and without known heart disease who were referred to the South Carolina Heart Center, Columbia, SC for nuclear perfusion stress testing. Study data were analyzed using frequency and descriptive statistics and 2-sample T-testing. Mean subject age was 62+/-11 years, ABI 0.76+/-13, and ejection fraction 60+/-12%. Perfusion stress testing detected 49 abnormal electrocardiograms, 36 subjects with coronary ischemia, 20 with diminished left ventricular function, and 26 subjects having significant thinning of the myocardium. There were 71 subjects who tested positive for at least one form of cardiovascular disease. The sole predictive variable reaching significance for the presence of cardiovascular disease was an ABI score <0.90 (p< or =0.0001). Cardiovascular disease may be predicted among diabetic patients via ABI scores and confirmed by nuclear perfusion testing.

  6. Incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities.

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    Chalian, Hamid; O'Donnell, James K; Bolen, Michael; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular system is affected by a wide range of pathological processes, including neoplastic, inflammatory, ischemic, and congenital aetiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are state-of-the-art imaging modalities used in the evaluation of these cardiovascular disorders. MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization and multi-planar imaging/reconstruction capabilities, which makes it useful in the evaluation of cardiac morphology, ventricular and valvar function, disease characterization, and evaluation of myocardial viability. FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of the cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia, inflammation, and neoplasm. MRI and FDG-PET can provide complementary information on the evaluation of several cardiovascular disorders. For example, in cardiac masses, FDG-PET provides the metabolic information for indeterminate cardiac masses. MRI can be used for localizing and characterizing abnormal hypermetabolic foci identified incidentally on PET scan and also for local staging. A recent advance in imaging technology has been the development of integrated PET/MRI systems that utilize the advantages of PET and MRI in a single examination. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review on the incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. • MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization, and multi-planar reconstruction • FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of cardiovascular disorders • PET and MRI provide complementary information on the evaluation of cardiovascular disorders.

  7. HIV and antiretroviral therapy: lipid abnormalities and associated cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.

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    Kotler, Donald P

    2008-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for developing metabolic abnormalities that include elevated levels of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This dyslipidemia is similar to that seen in the metabolic syndrome, raising the concern that highly active antiretroviral therapy also potentially increases the risk for cardiovascular complications. This paper reviews the contribution of both HIV infection and the different components of highly active antiretroviral therapy to dyslipidemia and the role of these abnormalities toward increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients; therapeutic strategies to manage these risks are also considered.

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of resting electrocardiogram abnormalities among systemic lupus erythematosus patients without cardiovascular disease

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    Al Rayes, Hanan; Harvey, Paula J.; Gladman, Dafna D.; Su, Jiandong; Sabapathy, Arthy; Urowitz, Murray B.; Touma, Zahi

    2017-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiovascular disease (CVD) abnormalities (ECG-CVD) are predictive of subsequent CVD events in the general population. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are vulnerable to CVD. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ECG-CVD in SLE patients and to examine the risk factors associated with ECG-CVD. Methods A 12-lead resting supine ECG was performed on consecutive adult patients attending the clinic. One cardiologist interpreted the ECGs. ECG-CVD were...

  9. Measurement of ECG abnormalities and cardiovascular risk classification: a cohort study of primary care patients in the Netherlands

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    de Groot, A.; Bots, M.L.; Rutten, F.H.; den Ruijter, H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Vaartjes, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: GPs need accurate tools for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. Abnormalities in resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) relate to increased CV risk. Aim: To determine whether measurement of ECG abnormalities on top of established risk estimation (SCORE) improves CV risk classification in a

  10. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

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    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Chest x-ray generation and data augmentation for cardiovascular abnormality classification

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    Madani, Ali; Moradi, Mehdi; Karargyris, Alexandros; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2018-03-01

    Medical imaging datasets are limited in size due to privacy issues and the high cost of obtaining annotations. Augmentation is a widely used practice in deep learning to enrich the data in data-limited scenarios and to avoid overfitting. However, standard augmentation methods that produce new examples of data by varying lighting, field of view, and spatial rigid transformations do not capture the biological variance of medical imaging data and could result in unrealistic images. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) provide an avenue to understand the underlying structure of image data which can then be utilized to generate new realistic samples. In this work, we investigate the use of GANs for producing chest X-ray images to augment a dataset. This dataset is then used to train a convolutional neural network to classify images for cardiovascular abnormalities. We compare our augmentation strategy with traditional data augmentation and show higher accuracy for normal vs abnormal classification in chest X-rays.

  12. Positive correlation between pesticide sales and central nervous system and cardiovascular congenital abnormalities in Brazil.

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    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Raggio, Ronir; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the association between pesticide exposure in Brazil (2005-2013) with rates of central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) congenital abnormalities in 2014. An exposure variable was established from data on production and sales of pesticides (kg) per crop area (ha) for 2012 and 2013 years. The Brazilian states were divided into three categories: high, medium, and low pesticide use and rate ratios were estimated for each group of states (CI: 95 %). In 2013 and 2014, the high use group presented a 100 and a 75 % increase, and the medium group a 65 and 23 % increase, respectively, in the risk of CNS and CVS congenital abnormalities at birth, compared to the low use group. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure could be associated with increased risk of congenital malformations at birth in Brazil.

  13. Advanced cardiovascular imaging in Williams syndrome: Abnormalities, usefulness, and strategy for use.

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    Hills, Jordan A; Zarate, Yuri A; Danylchuk, Noelle R; Lepard, Tiffany; Chen, Jean Chi-Jen; Collins, Ronnie Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Extracardiac arterial stenoses are not uncommon in Williams syndrome (WS); however, data on the utility of advanced cardiovascular imaging (CVI) to assess these stenoses are lacking. We retrospectively reviewed the frequency, indication, and diagnostic outcomes of CVI modalities performed in patients with WS evaluated at a single institution between 2001 and 2014. Data were collected and analyzed from 34 patients (56% female) who underwent CVI during the study period. The median age was 10 years (range 1.8-33 years). Excluding echocardiograms, 78 CVI studies "advanced" were performed in the 34 patients (mean 2.3 studies/patient). The most common advanced CVI was renal ultrasound with Doppler (29/34, 85%), followed by computed tomographic angiography (13/34, 38%) and magnetic resonance angiography in (9/34, 26%). Abnormalities were detected in 62% of patients (21/34). For the 20 patients in whom advanced CVI were performed for defined clinical indications, the rate of abnormalities were 73, 70, 57, and 100% when performed for anatomic delineation (15 patients), hypertension (10 patients), bruits (7 patients), and/or decreased peripheral pulses (2 patients), respectively. Advanced CVI in patients with WS reveals abnormalities in the majority of cases, and physical exam findings frequently indicate abnormalities on advanced CVI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microvascular and Macrovascular Abnormalities and Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cardiovascular Health Study.

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    Kim, Dae Hyun; Grodstein, Francine; Newman, Anne B; Chaves, Paulo H M; Odden, Michelle C; Klein, Ronald; Sarnak, Mark J; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the associations between microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and cognitive and physical function Cross-sectional analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1998-1999). Community. Individuals with available data on three or more of five microvascular abnormalities (brain, retina, kidney) and three or more of six macrovascular abnormalities (brain, carotid artery, heart, peripheral artery) (N = 2,452; mean age 79.5). Standardized composite scores derived from three cognitive tests (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit-Symbol Substitution Test, Trail-Making Test (TMT)) and three physical tests (gait speed, grip strength, 5-time sit to stand) Participants with high microvascular and macrovascular burden had worse cognitive (mean score difference = -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.37 to -0.24) and physical (mean score difference = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.38 to -0.26) function than those with low microvascular and macrovascular burden. Individuals with high microvascular burden alone had similarly lower scores than those with high macrovascular burden alone (cognitive function: -0.16, 95% CI = -0.24 to -0.08 vs -0.13, 95% CI = -0.20 to -0.06; physical function: -0.15, 95% CI = -0.22 to -0.08 vs -0.12, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.06). Psychomotor speed and working memory, assessed using the TMT, were only impaired in the presence of high microvascular burden. Of the 11 vascular abnormalities considered, white matter hyperintensity, cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate, large brain infarct, and ankle-arm index were independently associated with cognitive and physical function. Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities assessed using noninvasive tests of the brain, kidney, and peripheral artery were independently associated with poor cognitive and physical function in older adults. Future research should evaluate the usefulness of these tests in prognostication. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015

  15. Proof of concept in cardiovascular risk: the paradoxical findings in blood pressure and lipid abnormalities

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    Fuchs FD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flavio Danni Fuchs, Sandra Costa Fuchs, Leila Beltrami Moreira, Miguel GusDivision of Cardiology and Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilAbstract: High blood pressure and lipoprotein abnormalities were identified by many cohort studies as the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory experiments apparently confirmed their role in the causation of atherosclerosis, but a proof of concept requires the corroboration by clinical trials in human beings. The size of benefit in clinical trials regarding the control of high blood pressure was within the estimations of risk provided by cohort studies. For a reduction of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure, the relative risk reduction of coronary heart disease was 22% (95% confidence interval 27%–17% in a meta-analysis of clinical trials, close to the estimation of reduction of 25% (95% confidence interval 23%–27% provided by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The corresponding values for stroke were 41% (95% confidence interval 33%–48% in clinical trials compared to a cohort risk prediction of 36% (95% confidence interval 34%–38%. This efficacy was shared by all blood pressure-lowering drugs. The same figure has not paradoxically happened with drugs that act over abnormalities of cholesterol and lipoproteins. Only statins, which have other beneficial actions as well, have consistently lowered the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, an efficacy that was not reproduced by older and newer quite potent lipid drugs. The adverse effects of these drugs may nullify their beneficial effects over lipoproteins and abnormalities of lipoproteins may only be surrogate markers of the underlying real risks.Keywords: proof of concept, hypertension, lipoproteins, clinical trials

  16. ST-T Abnormalities on ECG in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Yuko Chinushi, MD

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: ST-T abnormalities without apparent heart diseas may be considered to be nonspecific but this cross-sectional study showed that they are related to CVRs and may be used as an early marker of preclinical cardiac damage by CVRs.

  17. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium.

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    Moon, James C C; Sachdev, Bhavesh; Elkington, Andrew G; McKenna, William J; Mehta, Atul; Pennell, Dudley J; Leed, Philip J; Elliott, Perry M

    2003-12-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD), an X-linked disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, is a cause of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy but the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can detect focal myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesised that hyperenhancement would be present in AFD. Eighteen males (mean 43+/-14 years) and eight female heterozygotes (mean 48+/-12 years) with AFD underwent cine and late gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Nine male (50%) had myocardial hyperenhancement ranging from 3.4% to 20.6% (mean 7.7+/-5.7%) of total myocardium; in males, percentage hyperenhancement related to LV mass index (r=0.78, P=0.0002) but not to ejection fraction or left ventricular volumes. Lesser hyperenhancement was also found in four (50%) heterozygous females (mean 4.6%). In 12 (92%) patients with abnormal gadolinium uptake, hyperenhancement occurred in the basal infero-lateral wall where, unlike myocardial infarction, it was not sub-endocardial. In two male patients with severe LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and systolic impairment there was additional hyperenhancement in other myocardial segments. These observations suggests that myocardial fibrosis occurs in AFD and may contribute to the hypertrophy and the natural history of the disease.

  18. Abnormal Cardiovascular Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Responses to Physical and Emotional Stimuli in Depersonalization Disorder.

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    Andrew Paul Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depersonalization disorder (DPD is characterized by subjective unreality, disembodiment, emotional numbing and reduced psychogenic sympathoexcitation. 3 related experiments used physical and emotional challenges in 14 DPD participants and 16 controls to elucidate whether the cardiovascular sympathetic (SNS and parasympathetic (PNS nervous systems are implicated in DPD and if blunted DPD sympathoexcitation is peripherally or centrally mediated. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Dissociative Experience Scale (DES and Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS. Study I recorded heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP during 5mins supine baseline, 3mins handgrip (HG, 3mins cold pressor (CP and 5mins 60°head-up tilt (HUT. Study II recorded HR, BP and heart rate variability (HRV during 5mins HUT and unpleasant images. Study III examined HR and BP orienting responses (ORs to HUT and unpleasant, neutral and pleasant images. DPD BAI (p=0.0004, DES (p=.0002 and CDS (p=< 0.0001 scores were higher than controls. The DPD group produced diminished diastolic BP (DBP (p=0.045 increases to HG. Other indices were comparable between groups. DPD participants produced diminished systolic BP (SBP (p=0.003 and DBP (p=0.002 increases, but greater (p=0.004 HR increases to CP. In study II, DPD high frequency HRV (HF-HRV – indicating parasympathetic vagal activity - was reduced (p=0.029. In study III, DPD DBP was higher throughout the 5s duration of HUT/pseudorandom unpleasant image presentation (1s [p=0.002], 2s [p=0.033], 3s [p=0.001], 4s [p=0.009], 5s [p=0.029]. Study I’s BP pressor data supports previous findings of suppressed sympathoexcitatioin DPD. The greater HR increases to CP, decreased HF-HRV in study II, and increased DBP during unpleasant ORs in study III implicates the SNS and PNS in DPD pathophysiology. These studies suggest the cardiovascular autonomic dysregulation in DPD is likely to be centrally-mediated

  19. Cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with oral cleft: a clinical-electrocardiographic-echocardiographic study

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    Gisele C.P. Leite

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to describe the clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic cardiological findings in a group of patients with oral clefts. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study on 70 children (age range from 13 days to 19 years with oral clefts who attended the multidisciplinary program of a university hospital from March 2013 to September 2014. The patients were evaluated by a pediatric cardiologist and underwent detailed anamnesis, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the patients were male; 55.7% presented with cleft lip and palate, and 40.0% presented with health complaints. Comorbidities were found in 44.3%. Relevant pregnancy, neonatal, family and personal antecedents were present in 55.7%, 27.1%, 67.2%, and 24.3% of the patients, respectively. Regarding the antecedents, 15.2% of the patients presented with a cardiac murmur, 49.0% with a familial risk of developing plurimetabolic syndrome, and 6% with family antecedents of rheumatic fever. Electrocardiographic evaluation showed one case of atrioventricular block. Echocardiograms were abnormal in 35.7% of the exams, including 5 cases of mitral valve prolapse — one of which was diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease. CONCLUSION: The finding of a family risk of developing plurimetabolic syndrome and a diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease indicates that patients with oral clefts may be more prone to developing acquired heart disease. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of anamnesis and methodological triangulation (clinical-electrocardiographic-echocardiographic in the investigation of patients with oral clefts and emphasize that cardiological follow-up to evaluate acquired and/or rhythm heart diseases is necessary. This strategy permits comorbidity prevention and individualized planned treatment.

  20. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

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    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Low protein diet fed exclusively during mouse oocyte maturation leads to behavioural and cardiovascular abnormalities in offspring.

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    Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

    2008-04-15

    Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome.

  2. Alteraciones electrocardiográficas y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Martha Rodríguez-Morán

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar cuáles son las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción cardiaca más frecuentes en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin cardiopatía previa y establecer su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin presencia o antecedentes de cardiopatía. Se determinaron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, el índice de masa corporal y los niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol y triglicéridos. Se registró electrocardiograma convencional en reposo. La asociación de las variables en estudio con la ocurrencia de arritmias se calculó con un modelo de análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo. Resultados. Se integraron 199 pacientes: 113 mujeres (56.8% y 86 hombres (43.2%, y se identificó algún tipo de alteración electrocardiográfica en 29.1% de los sujetos. El hemibloqueo fascicular anterior (HFA y el bloqueo completo de rama derecha del Haz de His (BRDHH, constituyeron 75.9% de las alteraciones identificadas. Los pacientes con trastornos del ritmo y la conducción tienen niveles más elevados de colesterol y triglicéridos. La aparición de arritmias se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la edad (r= 0.75, p= 0.01. En el análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo la hipercolesterolemia y la edad se asociaron significativamente con las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción: RM 1.5, IC95% 1.1-4.6, pObjective. To determine the most frequent alterations in rhythm and cardiac conduction in patients with type 2 diabetes without previous cardiopathy, and to establish the association of this disease with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. Subjects with type 2 diabetes, without cardiopathy antecedents were included in the study. Cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index and serum glucose, cholesterol and trygliceride levels were determined. A resting electrocardiogram was recorded. The association between the variables under study and

  3. Liver-specific rescuing of CEACAM1 reverses endothelial and cardiovascular abnormalities in male mice with null deletion of Ceacam1 gene

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    Lucia Russo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mice with global null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1−/−, display impairment of insulin clearance that causes hyperinsulinemia followed by insulin resistance, elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and visceral obesity. In addition, they manifest abnormal vascular permeability and elevated blood pressure. Liver-specific rescuing of Ceacam1 reversed all of the metabolic abnormalities in Cc1−/−liver+ mice. The current study examined whether Cc1−/− male mice develop endothelial and cardiac dysfunction and whether this relates to the metabolic abnormalities caused by defective insulin extraction. Methods and results: Myography studies showed reduction of agonist-stimulated nitric oxide production in resistance arterioles in Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−liver+ mice. Liver-based rescuing of CEACAM1 also attenuated the abnormal endothelial adhesiveness to circulating leukocytes in parallel to reducing plasma endothelin-1 and recovering plasma nitric oxide levels. Echocardiography studies revealed increased septal wall thickness, cardiac hypertrophy and reduced cardiac performance in Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. Insulin signaling experiments indicated compromised IRS1/Akt/eNOS pathway leading to lower nitric oxide level, and activated Shc/MAPK pathway leading to more endothelin-1 production in the aortae and hearts of Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. The increase in the ratio of endothelin-1 receptor A/B indicated an imbalance in the vasomotor activity of Cc1−/− mice, which was normalized in Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. Conclusions: The data underscore a critical role for impaired CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance pathways and resulting hyperinsulinemia and lipid accumulation in aortae and heart in regulating the cardiovascular function. Keywords: Insulin clearance, Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin resistance, Endothelial function, Cardiomyopathy

  4. Estudio de las subpoblaciones linfocitarias T en pacientes pediátricos con anomalías tronco-conales cardiovasculares Study of the T-lymphocyte subpopulations in pediatric patients with conal-truncal cardiovascular abnormalities

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    Bertha Beatriz Socarrás Ferrer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron en 20 pacientes pediátricos con anomalías tronco-conales cardiovasculares las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T mediante el método de la fosfatasa alcalina antifosfatasa alcalina con los anticuerpos monoclonales específicos anti-CD3, anti-CD4 y anti-CD8. Se tomó como grupo control a 25 individuos supuestamente sanos. Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas para las subpoblaciones T CD3 y CD4 positivas (p The T-lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 20 pediatric patients with conal-truncal cardiovascular abnormalities by the alkaline phosphatase alkaline antiphosphatase method with the anti-CD3, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 specific monoclonal antibodies. 25 apparently sound individuals were selected as the control group. Significant differences were obtained for the CD3- and CD4-positive T cell subpopulations (p< 0.05. The cellular immunological deficit found in these patients shows the need to include immunomodulators in their treatment to prevent septic complications

  5. Abnormal function of monoamine oxidase-A in comorbid major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Mallinger, Alan G

    2012-11-01

    The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the best described medical comorbidities. The presence of MDD increases the risk of cardiac admissions and mortality and increases healthcare costs in patients with CVD, and similarly, CVD affects the course and outcome of MDD. The potential shared biological mechanisms involved in these comorbid conditions are not well known. However, the enzyme monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), which has a key role in the degradation of catecholamines, has been associated with the pathophysiology and therapeutics of both MDD and CVD. Increased MAO-A activity results in the dysregulation of downstream targets of this enzyme and thus affects the pathophysiology of the two diseases. These deleterious effects include altered noradrenaline turnover, with a direct elevation in oxidative stress parameters, as well as increased platelet activity and cytokine levels. These effects were shown to be reversed by MAO inhibitors. Here, a model describing a key role for the MAO-A in comorbid MDD and CVD is proposed, with focus on the shared pathophysiological mechanisms and the potential therapeutic relevance of agents targeting this enzyme.

  6. Cardiac Diastolic Evaluation in Pregnant Women with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance: An Opportunity to Detect the Early and Subclinical Alterations and Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pintaudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to assess diastolic function in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT, compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT women, and to evaluate the insulin resistance status and its association with Doppler-echocardiographic indexes. Echocardiograms of 108 consecutive Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were performed. Insulin resistance status was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI. All the studied women showed normal diastolic patterns. Patients with AGT (50.9%, as compared with NGT women, had higher HOMA-IR (1.70±1.30 versus 1.01±0.81, P=0.003, lower QUICKI (0.36±0.005 versus 0.40±0.06, P=0.004, higher lateral mitral annulus late diastolic velocity (13.6±4.9 versus 11.9±4.9, P=0.03, and higher A-wave velocity, the wave responsible for the active atrial contraction component (75.2±14.2 versus 67.7±16.2, P=0.01. At multivariate regression analysis HOMA-IR was the only parameter associated with A-wave velocity. In conclusion, women with AGT had an increased subclinical diastolic active participation, which is associated with higher levels of insulin resistance. For the increased risk of deterioration of cardiac diastolic function, earlier and more seriously than normal pregnancy, AGT women may have a careful followup to detect the early signs of cardiac alteration and to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanAman, M.; Mueller, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Soon after Roentgen documented the uses of x-rays in 1895, fluoroscopic and film evaluation of the heart began. Even today the chest roentgenogram remains one of the first and most frequently used studies for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal heart and great vessels. This chapter gives an overview of plain film evaluation of the cardiovascular system and follow up with comments on the newer imaging modalities of computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography, in the cardiovascular disease workup. The authors present an evaluation of plain films of the chest, which remains their most cost effective, available, simple, and reliable initial screening tool in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease

  8. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  9. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  10. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  11. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  12. Anormalidades cardiovasculares e metabólicas em pacientes com a síndrome de Berardinelli-Seip Anormalidades cardiovasculares y metabólicas en pacientes con el síndrome de Berardinelli-Seip Cardiometabolic abnormalities in patients with berardinelli-Seip syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guedes do Rêgo

    2010-01-01

    .BACKGROUND: Berardinelli-Seip syndrome (BSS or Generalized Congenital Lipodystrophy often affects the cardiovascular system and also promotes metabolic abnormalities involving glycidic and lipid metabolisms. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in patients with BSS. METHODS: Twenty-two patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, diagnosed with BSS, underwent clinical evaluation, resting electrocardiogram, echodopplercardiogram, chest X-ray, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring, exercise testing and laboratory analysis. RESULTS: The patients were predominantly young adults, most of whom women. The whole sample showed insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans and diminished HDL-cholesterol. The presence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, type II diabetes and elevated triglycerides was constant. Metabolic syndrome was characterized in most patients, which were predominantly women and with a high degree of paternal consanguinity. SAH and prehypertension blood pressure were found in more than half of the patients (77.3%. The echodopplercardiogram showed the presence of CLVH (50%, eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (4.5%, and normal left ventricular geometry (45.5%. High arrhythmia rates were observed by Holter monitoring, such as ventricular ectopic beats, supraventricular ectopic beats and sustained supraventricular tachycardia. Chronotropic incompetence (54.5% was observed during exercise testing. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities was observed in young asymptomatic individuals with BSS. These findings point to the need for systematic cardiological follow-up and of preventive measures in this high-risk group.

  13. Alterações metabólicas, terapia antirretroviral e doença cardiovascular em idosos portadores de HIV Alteraciones metabólicas, terapia antirretroviral y enfermedad cardiovascular en adultos mayores portadores de VIH Metabolic abnormalities, antiretroviral therapy and cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Sebben Kramer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fenômenos mais atuais da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS é o surgimento de uma nova população vulnerável: os idosos. Um dos fatores responsáveis por este aumento é o desenvolvimento da terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV, que tem proporcionado uma melhor qualidade e expectativa de vida do portador de HIV. Entretanto, a TARV está associada a efeitos adversos como dislipidemia, diabete melito e resistência à insulina, os quais se constituem como fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. Com o impacto da TARV no metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, surgiram muitos estudos associando a infecção pelo HIV e a doença cardiovascular, assim como, os seus fatores de risco e a utilização da TARV, porém, poucos deles relatam sobre a cardiotoxicidade desta Terapia em idosos. Este artigo tem o objetivo de revisar as principais alterações metabólicas causadas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral e o seu impacto no aumento do risco de doenças cardiovasculares nos idosos portadores de HIV.Uno de los fenómenos más actuales del síndrome de la inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA es el surgimiento de una nueva población vulnerable: los adultos mayores. Uno de los factores responsables de este incremento es el desarrollo de la terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV, que ha proporcionado una mejor calidad y expectativa de vida del portador de VIH. Sin embargo, la TARV está asociada a efectos adversos como dislipidemia, diabetes melito y resistencia a la insulina, los que se constituyen como factores de enfermedad para riesgo cardiovascular. Con el impacto de la TARV en el metabolismo glucídico y lipídico, surgieron muchos estudios asociando la infección por el riesgo y la enfermedad cardiovascular, así como, sus factores de VIH y la utilización de la TARV, sin embargo, pocos de ellos relatan sobre la cardiotoxicidad de esta terapia en adultos mayores. Este artículo tiene por objeto revisar las principales

  14. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy...

  15. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in Nigerians of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... artery disease, cardiac murmurs, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and transient ischaemic attack.[4,5] In some circumstances, the examination is an appropriate screening test even in the absence of cardiovascular symptoms, especially. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in. Nigerians of different age groups.

  16. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  20. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  1. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  2. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  3. ECG abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, S.; Saleem, M.; Anjum, R.; Abdullah, W.; Shafi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are common in CKD patients. However, there is variation in literature regarding frequency of ECG abnormalities in CKD patients and limited information in local population. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional in nature. All patients between ages of 20-80 years with CKD not previously on renal replacement therapy who were admitted to nephrology ward at a tertiary care facility over a 6-month period were included. All patients underwent 12 lead electrocardiograms (ECG). ECG abnormalities were defined based on accepted standard criteria. Results: Total number of patients included in the study was 124. Mean age of all patients was 49.9+-13.8 years, 106 (84.8%) had hypertension, 84 (70%) had diabetes mellitus, and 35 (29.9%) had known cardiovascular disease. Mean serum creatinine was 7.2+-3.4 mg/dl, mean eGFR was 10.6+-9.2 ml/min/1.73 m/sup 2/. Overall 78.4% of all CKD patients have one or more ECG abnormality. Left ventricular hypertrophy (40%), Q waves (27.2%), ST segment elevation or depression (23.4%), prolonged QRS duration (19.2%), tachycardia (17.6%) and left and right atrial enlargement (17.6%) were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: ECG abnormalities are common in hospitalized CKD patients in local population. All hospitalized CKD patients should undergo ECG to screen for cardiovascular disease. (author)

  4. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  6. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  7. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  9. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Imai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Sigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Yukio; Ikehira, Hiroo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique for visualization of the cardiovascular system, and is used to evaluate tissue characteristics, cardiac function and blood flow abnormalities, as well as to obtain morphological information. In this paper we presented results of clinical and laboratory research obtained using conventional spin echo MRI with regard to cardiovascular anatomy, tissue characterization and physiology. Furthermore, experience with two new techniques, cine-MRI and volume-selected MR spectroscopy, and their potential clinical usefulness in detecting cardiovascular diseases are documented. (author)

  11. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  12. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  13. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  14. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  15. Cardiovascular risk calculation | Ker | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular disease events. Traditional independent risk factors for car diovascular disease include age, abnormal lipid levels, elevated blood pressure, smoking and elevated ...

  16. ANALYSIS OF ABNORMALITIES IN COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IMAGES USING MULTIWAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nandakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the report given by World Health Organization, by 2030 almost 23.6 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases (CVD, mostly from heart disease and stroke. The main objective of this work is to develop a classifier for the diagnosis of abnormal Common Carotid Arteries (CCA. This paper proposes a new approach for the analysis of abnormalities in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound CCA images using multiwavelets. Analysis is done using HM and GHM multiwavelets at various levels of decomposition. Energy values of the coefficients of approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal details are calculated and plotted for different levels. Plots of energy values show high correlation with the abnormalities of CCA and offer the possibility of improved diagnosis of CVD. It is clear that the energy values can be used as an index of individual atherosclerosis and to develop a cost effective system for cardiovascular risk assessment at an early stage.

  17. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  18. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.).

  19. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  20. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  1. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use......Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  2. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  3. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  4. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  5. [Congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, J G; Ley, S

    2007-11-01

    Aortic abnormalities are common cardiovascular malformations accounting for 15-20% of all congenital heart disease. Ultrafast CT and MR imaging are noninvasive, accurate and robust techniques that can be used in the diagnosis of aortic malformations. While their sensitivity in detecting vascular abnormalities seems to be as good as that of conventional catheter angiocardiography, at over 90%, they are superior in the diagnosis of potentially life-threatening complications, such as tracheal, bronchial, or esophageal compression. It has been shown that more than 80% of small children with aortic abnormalities benefit directly from the use of noninvasive imaging: either cardiac catheterization is no longer necessary or radiation doses and periods of general anesthesia for interventional catheterization procedures can be much reduced. The most important congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents are presented with reference to examples, and the value of CT and MR angiography is documented.

  6. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Umbilical cord abnormalities Umbilical cord abnormalities Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. ... blood supply) to the baby. The two arteries transport waste from the baby to the placenta (where ...

  9. Fibrillin abnormalities and prognosis in Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, T.; Furthmayr, H.; Francke, U.; Gasner, C. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)

    1995-08-28

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem autosomal-dominant disorder, is characterized by mutations of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene and by abnormal patterns of synthesis, secretion, and matrix deposition of the fibrillin protein. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of fibrillin protein abnormalities in the diagnosis of MFS, we studied dermal fibroblasts from 57 patients with classical MFS, 15 with equivocal MFS, 8 with single-organ manifestations, and 16 with other connective tissue disorders including homocystinuria and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism was identified in 70 samples that were classified into four different groups based on quantitation of fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition. Significant correlations were found for phenotypic features including arachnodactyly, striae distensae, cardiovascular manifestations, and fibrillin groups II and IV, which included 70% of the MFS patients. In addition, these two groups were associated with shortened {open_quotes}event-free{close_quotes} survival and more severe cardiovascular complications than groups I and III. The latter included most of the equivocal MFS/single manifestation patients with fibrillin abnormalities. Our results indicate that fibrillin defects at the protein level per se are not specific for MFS, but that the drastically reduced fibrillin deposition, caused by a dominant-negative effect of abnormal fibrillin molecules in individuals defined as groups II and IV, is of prognostic and possibly diagnostic significance. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  11. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  14. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  15. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: an example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; De Lorenzo, Anna; Lucci, Rosa; Ambrosino, Elena; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a good example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women. PCOS is not only considered a reproductive problem but rather represents a complex endocrine, multifaceted syndrome with important health implications. Several evidences suggest an increased cardiovascular risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this syndrome, characterized by an impairment of heart structure and function, endothelial dysfunction and lipid abnormalities. All these features, probably linked to insulin-resistance, are often present in obese PCOS patients. Cardiovascular abnormalities represent important long-term sequelae of PCOS that need further investigations.

  16. Alterações eletrocardiográficas e sua relação com os fatores de risco para doença isquêmica do coração em população da área metropolitana de São Paulo Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors for ischemic heart disease in an adult population from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETH CARDOSO

    2002-09-01

    sobrepeso ou obesidade (³25 Kg/m2,relação cintura/quadril alterada correlacionaram-se positivamente com ARV. O sexo masculino, diabetes, hipertensão arterial e o tabagismo foram correlacionados positivamente com SVE. Na presença de ARV no ECG encontramos uma razão de chance de 3,54 para a ocorrência do diagnóstico de hipertensão sistólica e de 1,83 para colesterol total ³ a 200 mg/dl. Na presença de SVE no ECG, a razão de chance para a ocorrência do diagnóstico de hipertensão sistólica observada foi de 5,92. Dos três fatores de risco correlacionados às alterações eletrocardiográficas associadas à isquemia miocárdia, dois são controláveis e ligados a condições nutricionais (hipertensão e colesterol ³ a 200 mg/dl, o que demonstra a importância da sua detecção precoce. Em estudos epidemiológicos e de intervenção nutricional, o eletrocardiograma, método simples e de baixo custo, pode auxiliar na identificação de fatores de risco cardiovascular. Seria importante que estas informações fossem confirmadas por estudos prospectivos que incluíssem a determinação dos valores preditivos do ECG nesta situação.OBJETIVE: Ischemic heart disease is associated with high rates of mortality and it is the most prevalent among cardiovascular diseases. It is a multifactorial disease, and its prevention depends on control of risk factors. Resting electrocardiogram can be used to detect manifestations of ischemic heart disease, since some electrocardiographic abnormalities are indicative of coronary disease in asymptomatic subjects. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between electrocardiographic abnormalities and risk factors for ischemic heart disease in an adult population from the metropolitan area of São Paulo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in an adult population (age 20 years and over from Cotia, near São Paulo, southeastern of Brazil. The study population comprised 1067 subjects. The subjects were interviewed

  17. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Sheng Yang, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, a variety of syndromes are associated with cardiovascular disease and have characteristic findings. Most of them are an autosomal dominant genetic disorder and have different types of cardiovascular abnormalities, including electrocardiographic conduction defects, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, vascular and valvular diseases, cardiac septal defects, and pulmonary problems. There is a growing need for physicians to pay more attention to these syndromes.

  18. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  19. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  20. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  1. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...

  2. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...

  3. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  4. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: CORRELATIONS WITH DIABETES, OBESITY, AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Saulette R; Smulevitz, Beverly; Rentfro, Anne R; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D; Hanis, Craig L; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B; Laing, Susan T

    2012-04-01

    Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population.

  5. Neuroimaging, cardiovascular physiology, and functional outcomes in infants with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Nathalie H. P.; Kelly, Christopher J; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.

    This review integrates data on brain dysmaturation and acquired brain injury using fetal and neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the contribution of cardiovascular physiology to differences in brain development, and the relationship between brain abnormalities and subsequent

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  7. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation with methadone and benzodiazepines.

  8. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Alegret, X.; Sanchis, E.; Rivas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  9. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction due to diabetes mellitus: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common form of diabetes autonomic neuropathy, causes abnormalities in heart rate control as well as central and peripheral vascular dynamics, and may carry an increased risk of mortality. The aim of this article was to review the importance of identifying CAN and ...

  10. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna

    2014-01-01

    with the increasing opportunities and challenges in multidisciplinary research, the Science Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professionals (CCNAP) recognised the need for a position statement to guide researchers, policymakers and funding bodies to contribute to the advancement...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  11. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  12. The incidence of obvious congenital abnormalities among the neonates born in Rasht hospitals in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zohreh Jalali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital abnormalities are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of obvious congenital abnormalities in live neonates and the relationship between these abnormalities and some important factors in live newborns in Rasht hospitals. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all live neonates born in maternity hospitals of Rasht were investigated for the presence of apparent congenital abnormalities. The data recorded in the patients’ files, including the information of parents, neonate and the type of abnormality were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 16. Results: From 1824 live neonates, 77 cases (4.2% had congenital abnormalities. The most common diagnosed abnormalities were musculoskeletal (37.7%, genital (16.9%, urinary (13%, cardiovascular (13%, and nervous system (10.4% anomalies. The increased incidence of congenital abnormalities was correlated with gestational age, route of pregnancy, history of maternal disease and drug consumption during pregnancy (P<0.0001. No significant relationship was found between abnormalities and sex, birth weight, age of parents, and consanguineous marriage. Conclusion: As gestational age, route of pregnancy, history of maternal disease and drug consumption during pregnancy were significantly associated with the increased incidence of congenital abnormalities in this region, it is necessary to pay more attention to the risk factors and the approach to control them.

  13. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar R. Vootla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  14. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  15. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Karolina; Reif, Andreas; Haack, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the glucose metabolism cause nervous and organic damage and are a cardiovascular risk factor. They could be a main cause for the increased morbidity and mortality rates found in patients with bipolar disorders. The exact prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetic...... quality were assessed. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found in 7% of the patients, pre-diabetic abnormalities in 27%. The group of patients with abnormalities in the glucose metabolism had significantly lower quality of life and global functioning. Higher BMI, leptin, triglycerides and CRP levels...

  16. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  17. Cardiac Abnormalities in Youth with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Fida; Gidding, Samuel S

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Of great concern is the expected increase in the population's CVD burden in relation to childhood obesity. This is compounded by the risk related to chronic hyperglycemia exposure in youth with type 2 diabetes. We herein provide an overview of the spectrum of early cardiovascular disease manifestation in youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes, in particular abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. Cardiac remodeling and adverse target organ damage is already evident in the pediatric age group in children with obesity and type 2 diabetes. This supports the importance of intensifying obesity prevention efforts and early intervention to treat comorbidities of obesity in the pediatric age group to prevent cardiac events in early adulthood.

  18. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Euler, M.; Bongers, M.Y.; Rolden, H.J.A.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Ulrich, L.; Schenck-Gustafsson, K.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual

  19. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  20. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  2. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  3. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari Soltani, Saman; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Tabibi, Hadi; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Atabak, Shahnaz; Loh, Su-Peng; Rahmani, Leila

    2013-04-01

    Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  4. Evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in patients with asymptomatic turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Ji Mi; Song, Min Seob; Choi, Seok jin; Chung, Woo Yeong

    2013-08-01

    Turner syndrome is well known to be associated with significant cardiovascular abnormalities. This paper studied the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in asymptomatic adolescent patients with Turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) instead of echocardiography. Twenty subjects diagnosed with Turner syndrome who had no cardiac symptoms were included. Blood pressure and electrocardiography (ECG) was checked. Cardiovascular abnormalities were checked by MDCT. According to the ECG results, 11 had a prolonged QTc interval, 5 had a posterior fascicular block, 3 had a ventricular conduction disorder. MDCT revealed vascular abnormalities in 13 patients (65%). Three patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery, 2 had dilatation of left subclavian artery, and others had an aortic root dilatation, aortic diverticulum, and abnormal left vertebral artery. As for venous abnormalities, 3 patients had partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and 2 had a persistent left superior vena cava. This study found cardiovascular abnormalities in 65% of asymptomatic Turner syndrome patients using MDCT. Even though, there are no cardiac symptoms in Turner syndrome patients, a complete evaluation of the heart with echocardiography or MDCT at transition period to adults must be performed.

  5. Cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome: utility of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Falk, K.; Bakker, B.; Rosenfeld, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Forty patients with karyotypically proven Turner syndrome were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular anomalies and to assess the utility of both imaging modalities as methods for cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 45% of patients. A high absolute prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve (17.5%) and aortic coarctation (12.5%) were observed relative to comparable series. Of clinically significant abnormalities, three of five aortic coarctations and four of five ascending aortic dilatations were solely MRI detected and not evident at echocardiographic examination. MRI is thus seen as a valuable adjunct to echocardiography in the cardiovascular evaluation of Turner syndrome patients. The usefulness of MRI primarily relates to its ability to provide excellent visualisation of the entire thoracic aorta where a large proportion of clinically significant anomalies occur in Turner syndrome. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome: utility of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Falk, K; Bakker, B; Rosenfeld, R G [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1992-08-01

    Forty patients with karyotypically proven Turner syndrome were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular anomalies and to assess the utility of both imaging modalities as methods for cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 45% of patients. A high absolute prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve (17.5%) and aortic coarctation (12.5%) were observed relative to comparable series. Of clinically significant abnormalities, three of five aortic coarctations and four of five ascending aortic dilatations were solely MRI detected and not evident at echocardiographic examination. MRI is thus seen as a valuable adjunct to echocardiography in the cardiovascular evaluation of Turner syndrome patients. The usefulness of MRI primarily relates to its ability to provide excellent visualisation of the entire thoracic aorta where a large proportion of clinically significant anomalies occur in Turner syndrome. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Caffeine and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah

    2017-10-01

    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of androgen excess on metabolic aberrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Charikleia D; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance is implicated as the major player in the metabolic abnormalities and contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the syndrome. However, androgen excess appears to participate as an independent parameter, which further aggravates the cardiovascular and metabolic aberrations in affected women with PCOS. The resultant impact of hyperandrogenemia possibly acquires clinical significance for women's health in the context of PCOS, particularly since recent data support an increased incidence of coronary artery disease and of cardiovascular events directly related to androgen levels in women with the syndrome.

  9. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Di Sessa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  10. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  11. Crowdfunding for cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Zhang, HongJu Janet; Aydar, Mehmet; Wang, Zhen; Sun, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The competition for public cardiovascular research grants has recently increased. Independent researchers are facing increasing competition for public research grant support and ultimately may need to seek alternative funding sources. Crowdfunding, a financing method of raising funds online by pooling together small donations from the online community to support a specific initiative, seems to have significant potential. However, the feasibility of crowdfunding for cardiovascular research remains unknown. Here, we performed exploratory data analysis of the feasibility of online crowdfunding in cardiovascular research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  13. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... His height. mass. intelligence and genitalia were normal. The aSSOCiatIOn between deafness and disturbance of cardiac conduction and between pigmented skin lesions and cardiac abnormalities, has been well described. Should. ~I patient present with multiple lentigines and/or familial sensineural ...

  14. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  15. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  16. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  17. Commentary: Using Impedance Cardiography to Detect Asymptomatic Cardiovascular Disease in Prehypertensive Adults with Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2018-06-01

    New guidelines on hypertension eliminated the classification of prehypertension and divided those blood pressure (BP) levels into elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension. For elevated BP, this study showed that cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities were prevalent in adults over 40 years of age with at least 2 CV risk factors. Detecting abnormalities of the CV system moves a patient from being at high risk to having earlystage cardiovascular disease (CVD) and supports a decision to treat. By redefining stage 1 and lowering the target BP, the new guidelines have set an ambitious goal for early intervention to prevent progression of CVD. Proper drug selection and titration are critical. Hypertensive patients have diverse CV abnormalities that can be quantified by impedance cardiography. By stratifying patients with ventricular, vascular, and hemodynamic abnormalities, treatment can be customized based on the abnormal underlying mechanisms to rapidly control BP and prevent progression of CVD.

  18. Cardiovascular Disease in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Morali D; Nguyen, Anh V; Brown, Spandana; Robbins, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    In patients with acromegaly, chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) leads to the development of acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Its main features are biventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and in later stages, systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Surgical and/or pharmacological treatment of acromegaly and control of cardiovascular risk factors help reverse some of these pathophysiologic changes and decrease the high risk of cardiovascular complications.

  19. Oxidative and inflammatory signals in obesity-associated vascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reho, John J; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2017-07-15

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part due to vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. The hypertension and other health complications that arise from these vascular defects increase the risk of heart diseases and stroke. Prooxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways as well as adipocyte-derived factors have emerged as critical mediators of obesity-associated vascular abnormalities. Designing treatments aimed specifically at improving the vascular dysfunction caused by obesity may provide an effective therapeutic approach to prevent the cardiovascular sequelae associated with excessive adiposity. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting the role of oxidative stress and cytokines and inflammatory signals within the vasculature as well as the impact of the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the regulation of vascular function and arterial stiffening in obesity. In particular, we focus on the highly plastic nature of the vasculature in response to altered oxidant and inflammatory signaling and highlight how weight management can be an effective therapeutic approach to reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and improve vascular function. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. HEART ABNORMALITY CLASSIFICATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORMS METHOD AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Purwanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health problems with cardiovascular system disorder are still ranked high globally. One way to detect abnormalities in the cardiovascular system especially in the heart is through the electrocardiogram (ECG reading. However, reading ECG recording needs experience and expertise, software-based neural networks has designed to help identify any abnormalities ofthe heart through electrocardiogram digital image. This image is processed using image processing methods to obtain ordinate chart which representing the heart’s electrical potential. Feature extraction using Fourier transforms which are divided into several numbers of coefficients. As the software input, Fourier transforms coefficient have been normalized. Output of this software is divided into three classes, namely heart with atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and normal. Maximum accuracy rate ofthis software is 95.45%, with the distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/8 and number of nodes 5, while minimum accuracy rate of this software at least 68.18% by distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/32 and the number of nodes 32. Overall result accuracy rate of this software has an average of86.05% and standard deviation of7.82.

  1. Epidemiology and the physiopathological link between depression and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pizzi

    2014-11-01

    The defined pathophysiological pathways which link depression and cardiovascular outcomes are not well recognized although various mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. Beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors, autonomic nervous system, low grade of inflammation, platelet function, abnormal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and genetic factors can adversely impact the endothelium and arterial walls. Consequently, these mechanisms might be crucial factors in promoting and accelerating atherosclerosis and its complications due to plaque rupture and thrombosis. For these reasons, depression symptoms should be considered as a new cardiac risk factor in the general population and in patients with coronary artery disease.

  2. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  3. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  4. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  5. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  6. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. (orig.)

  7. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  8. Pattern-based approach to fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies using the transverse aortic arch view on prenatal cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhu, Ming [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-01

    Fetal echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. However, echocardiography has limitations. Fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to complement US in detecting congenital cardiovascular anomalies. This article draws on our experience; it describes the transverse aortic arch view on fetal cardiac MRI and important clues on an abnormal transverse view at the level of the aortic arch to the diagnosis of fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies. (orig.)

  9. Pattern-based approach to fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies using the transverse aortic arch view on prenatal cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Fetal echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. However, echocardiography has limitations. Fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to complement US in detecting congenital cardiovascular anomalies. This article draws on our experience; it describes the transverse aortic arch view on fetal cardiac MRI and important clues on an abnormal transverse view at the level of the aortic arch to the diagnosis of fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies. (orig.)

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  11. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Abe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of dialysis patients, as determined by risk factors such as hypertension, nutritional status, and chronic inflammation, is lower than that of the general population. In addition, disorders of bone mineral metabolism are independently related to mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is an important risk factor of, not only secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, the risk of death reportedly increases with an increase in adjusted serum calcium level, while calcium levels below the recommended target are not associated with a worsened outcome. Thus, the significance of target levels of serum calcium in dialysis patients is debatable. The consensus on determining optimal parathyroid function in dialysis patients, however, is yet to be established. Therefore, the contribution of phosphorus and calcium levels to prognosis is perhaps more significant. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels have also been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events and death. In this review, we examine the associations between mineral metabolic abnormalities including serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone and mortality in dialysis patients.

  13. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  14. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  15. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  16. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular Cardiovascular system aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ocampo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inotropismo y lusitropismo mediados por estímulo b-adrenérgico. A nivel vascular, hay incremento en la rigidez de la pared de las arterias, con aumento en la velocidad de la onda de pulso, disfunción endotelial y disminución de la vasodilatación mediada por estímulo b-adrenérgico. Durante el reposo el sistema cardiovascular es capaz de desarrollar mecanismos adaptativos eficientes, pero en situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio, los cambios asociados con el envejecimiento se hacen evidentes ya que está disminuida la capacidad para obtener la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, está incrementada la postcarga y hay disminución de la contractilidad intrínseca. Por lo anterior, los ancianos deben utilizar al máximo el mecanismo de Frank-Starling para mantener el gasto cardiaco. Los cambios estructurales y funcionales asociados con el envejecimiento cardiovascular, disminuyen de forma significativa el umbral en el cual las enfermedades cardiacas llegan a ser evidentes, y deben ser conocidos por el personal de salud encargado de cuidar a los ancianos.Cardiovascular aging is associated with characteristic biochemical, histological and morphological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are not necessarily associated to a deterioration in its function. Among the cardiac changes found, there is a reduction in the number of myocytes and of the cardiac conduction system cells, development of fibrosis, changes in the trans-membrane calcium transport and a

  17. Special report on abnormal climate in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This reports on abnormal climate in 2010 with impact on the each field. It is comprised of four chapters, which deal with Introduction with purpose of publish and background, current situation and cause of abnormal climate in 2010 on abnormal climate around the world and Korea, Action and impact against abnormal climate in 2010 to agriculture, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, forest, fishery products, environment and health, Evaluation and policy proposal. It also has an appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world in 2010 and media reports on abnormal climate in Korea in 2010.

  18. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  19. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Menopause and cardiovascular disease: the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, G M C; Vitale, C; Marazzi, G; Volterrani, M

    2007-02-01

    Menopause is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) because estrogen withdrawal has a detrimental effect on cardiovascular function and metabolism. The menopause compounds many traditional CVD risk factors, including changes in body fat distribution from a gynoid to an android pattern, reduced glucose tolerance, abnormal plasma lipids, increased blood pressure, increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Many CVD risk factors have different impacts in men and women. In postmenopausal women, treatment of arterial hypertension and glucose intolerance should be priorities. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) started soon after the menopause may confer cardiovascular benefit. In contrast to other synthetic progestogens used in continuous combined HRTs, the unique progestogen drospirenone has antialdosterone properties. Drospirenone can therefore counteract the water- and sodium-retaining effects of the estrogen component of HRT via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which may otherwise result in weight gain and raised blood pressure. As a continuous combined HRT with 17beta-estradiol, drospirenone has been shown to significantly reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure, but not in normotensive women. Therefore, in addition to relieving climacteric symptoms, drospirenone/17beta-estradiol may offer further benefits in postmenopausal women, such as improved CVD risk profile.

  1. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.

  2. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  3. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  4. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA

  5. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  6. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A.; Sortso, C.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    We present an investigation of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes in Denmark 2000 through 2011. The Diabetes Impact Study 2013 is based on all registrants in the Danish National Diabetes Register as of July 3rd 2013 (n=497,232). Record linkage with the Danish...... National Patient Register was used to defining the first date of experiencing a cardiovascular event by means of a discharge diagnosis and/or having performed a coronary bypass operation or revascularization of the coronary arteries. The proportion of patients with already established CVD at the diagnosis...

  7. Cardiovascular impact in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: Clinical management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Francis, Gary S; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  9. Impact of chronic kidney disease and stress myocardial perfusion imaging as a predictor of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established means of predicting cardiovascular events and is suitable in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CKD parameters and an abnormal stress MPI for cardiovascular events. A total of 495 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) or history of CAD including 130 CKD patients not undergoing hemodialysis, underwent stress MPI (313 males, mean age 70 years) and were followed up for 14 months (mean period). CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events were defined as sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 41 (8.3%) patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that CKD [hazard ratio (HR) =3.76, p<0.001] and a stress MPI summed difference score (SDS) of ≥2 (HR=3.78, p<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiovascular events; CKD plus abnormal stress MPI was also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (non-CKD and SDS <2 vs. CKD and SDS ≥2, HR=15.9, p<0.001). Both CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI are independent predictors for cardiovascular events. Coexistence of CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI is more useful for short-term risk stratification of cardiovascular events. (author)

  10. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  11. Prevalence and predictors of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J.; Kharagjitsingh, Antje V.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in a cohort of truly asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using myocardial perfusion imaging by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Secondly, we determined which clinical characteristics may predict an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in this population. A total of 120 asymptomatic patients (mean age 53±10 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging by means of adenosine 99m Tc sestamibi SPECT. Images were evaluated for the presence of perfusion abnormalities as well as other nonperfusion abnormalities that may indicate extensive ischaemia, including left ventricular dysfunction (defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%), transient ischaemic dilatation and adenosine-induced ST segment depression. Multivariable analysis was performed using a backward selection strategy to identify potential predictors for an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study. Finally, all patients were followed up for 12 months to determine the occurrence of cardiovascular events: (1) cardiac death, (2) nonfatal myocardial infarction, (3) unstable angina requiring hospitalization, (4) revascularization, or (5) stroke. Of the 120 patients, 40 (33%) had an abnormal stress study, including myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 30 patients (25%). In 10 patients (8%), indicators of extensive (possibly balanced ischaemia) were observed in the absence of abnormal perfusion. The multivariable analysis identified current smoking, duration of diabetes and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio as independent predictors of an abnormal stress study. During a follow-up period of 12 months six patients (5%) had a cardiovascular event. The current study revealed

  12. Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Algorithm: A New Sonographic Algorithm for Evaluation of the Fetal Cardiovascular System in the Second Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Luis, Juan; Bravo, Coral; Gámez, Francisco; Ortiz-Quintana, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and feasibility of the new cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm for studying the extended fetal cardiovascular system, including the portal, thymic, and supra-aortic areas, in the second trimester of pregnancy (19-22 weeks). We performed a cross-sectional study of pregnant women with healthy fetuses (singleton and twin pregnancies) attending our center from March to August 2011. The extended fetal cardiovascular system was evaluated by following the new algorithm, a sequential acquisition of axial views comprising the following (caudal to cranial): I, portal sinus; II, ductus venosus; III, hepatic veins; IV, 4-chamber view; V, left ventricular outflow tract; VI, right ventricular outflow tract; VII, 3-vessel and trachea view; VIII, thy-box; and IX, subclavian arteries. Interobserver agreement on the feasibility and exploration time was estimated in a subgroup of patients. The feasibility and exploration time were determined for the main cohort. Maternal, fetal, and sonographic factors affecting both features were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was excellent for all views except view VIII; the difference in the mean exploration time between observers was 1.5 minutes (95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.1 minutes; P cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm is a reproducible and feasible approach for exploration of the extended fetal cardiovascular system in a second-trimester scan. It can be used to explore these areas in normal and abnormal conditions and provides an integrated image of extended fetal cardiovascular anatomy. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Electron-beam CT diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Youyou; Zheng Lili; Li Xiangmin; Zhou Xuhui; Peng Qian; Meng Quanfei; Dai Ruping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of electron-beam CT (EBCT) in the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular diverticula. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 9 patients with congenital cardiovascular diverticula confirmed by operation and pathology was done. Of them, enhanced continuous volume scan was performed on 8 patients and enhanced single slice scan was performed on one patient with an Imatron C-150 scanner. Results: The group of 9 patients included one patient with diverticulum of the left ventricle, 3 patients with diverticulum of the atria and 5 patients with diverticulum of the aorta. EBCT scan and three dimensional reconstruction could demonstrate not only the origin, size, shape, location and adjacent structure of diverticula, but also other important complicated abnormalities such as ventriculoarterial connection disorder, cardiac septal defect, aortic coarctation and even dissection. Conclusion: EBCT is an ideal noninvasive technique in the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular diverticula. (authors)

  14. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...

  15. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the

  16. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...

  17. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  18. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  19. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  20. Nutrition and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciano, Silvia; Ordovás, José M

    2014-09-01

    A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormality diagnosis device for nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Shinmi; Sakaba, Hideo

    1989-02-21

    According to the present invention, abnormality such as abnormal increase of temperature in a nuclear reactor is detected to send a signal to control rod drives, etc. thereby stopping the operation of the nuclear reactor. Receiving/transmission device transmits a signal for conducting normal operation of an abnormality information section, as well as receives an echo signal from the abnormality information section to transmit an abnormal signal to a reactor protection system. The abnormality information section is disposed to fuel assemblies, receives a signal from the receiving/transmission device for conducting the normal operation to transmit a normal echo signal, as well as changes the echo signal when detecting the nuclear reactor abnormality. By the foregoing method, since the abnormality information section is disposed to the fuel assemblies, various effects can be attained such as: (1) there is no response delay from the occurrence of abnormality to emergency counter measure after detection, (2) high burnup degree for fuels can thus be possible to improve the economical property, (3) the abnormality information section can be taken out from the reactor container together with fuel assemablies by an existent take-out mechanism and (4) since wireless transmission and reception are established between the receiving/transmission device and the abnormality information section, cables are not required in the container. (K.M.).

  2. Evaluation of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Wang, Qiushi; Huang, Hongfei; Yang, Lin; Xie, Zhaofeng; Chen, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Liang, Changhong; Chung, Taylor; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Saboo, Sachin S.

    2014-01-01

    To analyze 15 cases of malposition of branch pulmonary arteries (MBPA) for the hospital-based prevalence, clinical information, surgical outcome, imaging findings, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities on cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively searched for patients with MBPA from our database consisting of patients referred for CCTA due to known or suspected congenital heart disease and also from all patients receiving chest computed tomography (CT) during the same time period. We analyzed the hospital-based prevalence, image findings, associated cardiovascular anomalies, airway compression, and recorded the clinical information and surgical outcome. Our study showed 15 patients with MBPA (hospital-based prevalence: 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving chest CT or CCTA). Classic type was more common than lesser type (67 % versus 33 %). All patients had associated cardiovascular anomalies, including aortic arch abnormalities (80 %) and secondary airway compression (33 %). Surgery was performed in 67 % of cardiovascular anomalies and 60 % of airway stenoses. MBPA has a hospital-based prevalence of 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving either chest CT or CCTA. CCTA can delineate the anatomy of MBPA, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities for preoperative evaluation. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Juan, Yu-Hsiang [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Qiushi; Huang, Hongfei; Yang, Lin [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Xie, Zhaofeng [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Chen, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaoshen [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Liang, Changhong [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chung, Taylor [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y.; Saboo, Sachin S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To analyze 15 cases of malposition of branch pulmonary arteries (MBPA) for the hospital-based prevalence, clinical information, surgical outcome, imaging findings, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities on cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively searched for patients with MBPA from our database consisting of patients referred for CCTA due to known or suspected congenital heart disease and also from all patients receiving chest computed tomography (CT) during the same time period. We analyzed the hospital-based prevalence, image findings, associated cardiovascular anomalies, airway compression, and recorded the clinical information and surgical outcome. Our study showed 15 patients with MBPA (hospital-based prevalence: 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving chest CT or CCTA). Classic type was more common than lesser type (67 % versus 33 %). All patients had associated cardiovascular anomalies, including aortic arch abnormalities (80 %) and secondary airway compression (33 %). Surgery was performed in 67 % of cardiovascular anomalies and 60 % of airway stenoses. MBPA has a hospital-based prevalence of 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving either chest CT or CCTA. CCTA can delineate the anatomy of MBPA, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities for preoperative evaluation. (orig.)

  4. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  5. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  6. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  7. Abnormal innominate vein and right aortic arch, an uncommon association that should be taken into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catala, J.; Martin, C.

    2000-01-01

    A case of abnormal innominate vein associated with right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery is presented. It was an incidental finding during the radiological study of an 8-year old boy suspected of having tuberculosis. The authors review the different etiological theories, radiological features and diagnostic impact of this uncommon venous malformation, as well as its relationship to other cardiovascular anomalies. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  9. [Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David

    2018-02-28

    Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.

  10. Major Electrocardiographic Abnormalities According to the Minnesota Coding System Among Brazilian Adults (from the ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Filho, Marcelo M; Brant, Luisa C C; Foppa, Murilo; Garcia-Silva, Kaiser B; Mendes de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria; Alvim, Sheila; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José G; Barreto, Sandhi M; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-15

    The electrocardiogram is a simple and useful clinical tool; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in the Latin American population. This study aims to evaluate the major electrocardiographic abnormalities according to the Minnesota coding system in Brazilian adults, stratified by gender, age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 14,424 adults (45.8% men, age 35 to 74 years) were obtained at baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), according to standardized protocol. The electrocardiogram were obtained with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine, stored on Pyramis System, automatically coded according to the Minnesota coding system by the Glasgow University software and then manually revised. Major abnormalities were more prevalent in men than women (11.3% and 7.9%, p <0.001). These differences were consistent through the different age groups, race, and number of cardiovascular risk factors. Electrocardiographic major abnormalities were more prevalent in black participants for both men (black: 15.1%, mixed: 10.4%, white: 11.1%, p = 0.001) and women (black: 10%, mixed: 7.6%, white: 7.2%, p = 0.004). In conclusion, in this large sample of Brazilian adults, the prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher among men, the elderly, black, and among people with more cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  12. Cardiovascular manifestations of Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Stephen J; Fisher, Michael; Gallagher, James A; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R

    2011-12-01

    The cardiovascular manifestations of alkaptonuria relate to deposition of ochronotic pigment within heart valves, endocardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. We assessed 16 individuals with alkaptonuria for cardiovascular disease, including full electrocardiographic and echocardiographic assessment. The self reported prevalence of valvular heart disease and coronary artery disease was low. There was a significant burden of previously undiagnosed aortic valve disease, reaching a prevalence of over 40% by the fifth decade of life. The aortic valve disease was found to increase in both prevalence and severity with advancing age. In contrast to previous reports, we did not find a significant burden of mitral valve disease or coronary artery disease. These findings are important for the clinical follow-up of patients with alkaptonuria and suggest a role for echocardiographic surveillance of patients above 40 years old.

  13. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  14. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  15. Cardiovascular safety of etoricoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meticulous attention is paid to the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the so-called selective cyclooxy-genase 2 (COX-2 inhibitors in particular. The author considers precisely this matter in case of Russia's recent NSAID etoricoxib that has been tested along with other most studied medications from this group, by applying one of the latest meta-analyses. The EULAR recommendations to use NSAIDs are given.

  16. Nutritional habits & cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Hélia; Capitão, Sandra; Ferro-Lebres, Vera

    2010-01-01

    An elevated predominance of the risk factors associated to the illnesses of the circulatory system, particurily hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension aim for a special attention to its prevention. This way, the composition of the digested food daily can influence the sprouting of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), which has shown association between the risk factors and the things we consume. The present study had an objective to identify the influential factors of social economics...

  17. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, R; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  18. [Thyroid and cardiovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-05-01

    In this study three problems concerning interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular system are discussed. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pleural effusion, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension may be consequences of thyroid disorders leading to inappropriate hormone secretion. During such illnesses as heart failure, myocardial infarction and in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery profound changes may occur in thyroid hormone metabolism known as sick euthyroid syndrome. Treatment with amiodarone may lead to changes in thyroid tests results and to development of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis.

  19. Psoriasis and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaby, Line; Ahlehoff, Ole; de Thurah, Annette

    2017-01-01

    So far, systematic reviews have suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in psoriatic patients, though some results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to update the current level of evidence through a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central...... Register databases. In total, 13 high-quality observational studies estimating the incidence of CVD were included. Patients with mild psoriasis had an increased risk of stroke [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.0-1.19] and myocardial infarction (MI) (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.35), but not cardiovascular...... death. The risks of both stroke (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.60), MI (HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.18-2.43) and cardiovascular death (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67) were increased in patients with severe psoriasis. In conclusion, this updated meta-analysis confirmed that patients with psoriasis have an increased...

  20. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D.J.; Beek, E.J.R. van; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients

  1. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mahboob; Das, Pinaki; Ghosh, Parasar; Zaman, Md Salim Uz; Boro, Madhusmita; Sadhu, Manika; Mazumdar, Ardhendu

    2015-01-01

    Objective is to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in SLE by simple non-invasive tests. A case control study was carried out involving 18-50 yrs old previously diagnosed SLE patients and same number of age and sex-matched controls. Parasympathetic function was assessed by heart rate (HR) response to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing. Sympathetic function was evaluated by blood pressure response to standing and sustained hand-grip test (HGT). There were 50 female SLE patients. They had significantly higher minimum resting HR and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). HR variation with deep breathing, expiratory inspiratory ratio, 30:15 ratio and DBP change in response to HGT were significantly lower inpatients compared to controls. Thirty patients (60%) had at least one abnormal or two borderline test results indicating autonomic impairment of which 27 had parasympathetic dysfunction and 7 had sympathetic dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction is common in SLE with higher prevalence of parasympathetic impairment.

  2. Bile acids and cardiovascular function in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voiosu, Andrei; Wiese, Signe; Voiosu, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and the hyperdynamic syndrome are clinically important complications of cirrhosis, but their exact pathogenesis is still partly unknown. Experimental models have proven the cardiotoxic effects of bile acids and recent studies of their varied receptor-mediated functions...... offer new insight into their involvement in cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhosis. Bile acid receptors such as farnesoid X-activated receptor and TGR5 are currently under investigation as potential therapeutic targets in a variety of pathological conditions. These receptors have also recently been...... identified in cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells where they seem to play an important role in cellular metabolism. Chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal levels of circulating bile acids alters the normal signalling pathways and contributes to the development of profound...

  3. SQL based cardiovascular ultrasound image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopalan, S; Suryanarayana, Adiga B; Sudarshan, T S B; Chandrashekar, Dhanalakshmi; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to analyze and classify the cardiovascular ultrasound echocardiographic images using Naïve-Bayesian model via database OLAP-SQL. Efficient data mining algorithms based on tightly-coupled model is used to extract features. Three algorithms are proposed for classification namely Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Discrete variables (NBCD) with SQL, NBCD with OLAP-SQL, and Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Continuous variables (NBCC) using OLAP-SQL. The proposed model is trained with 207 patient images containing normal and abnormal categories. Out of the three proposed algorithms, a high classification accuracy of 96.59% was achieved from NBCC which is better than the earlier methods.

  4. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hui; Lyu, Xing; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2017-09-01

    Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a special type of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. It is a process that is characterized by the loss of features of endothelial cells and acquisition of specific markers of mesenchymal cells. A variety of stimuli, such as inflammation, growth factors, and hypoxia, regulate EndMT through various signaling pathways and intracellular transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are also involved in this process. Recent studies have identified the essential role of EndMT in the cardiovascular system. EndMT contributes to steps in cardiovascular development, such as cardiac valve formation and septation, as well as the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders, such as congenital heart disease, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial infarction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Thus, comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of EndMT will provide novel therapeutic strategies to overcome congenital heart disease due to abnormal development and other cardiovascular diseases. This review will focus on summarizing the currently understood signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications involved in the regulation of EndMT and the role of EndMT in pathophysiological conditions of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Neonatal autonomic function after pregnancy complications and early cardiovascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Oster, Julien; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Yu, Grace Z; Siepmann, Timo; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B; Leeson, Paul

    2018-05-23

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a predictor of later cardiac risk. This study tested whether pregnancy complications that may have long-term offspring cardiac sequelae are associated with differences in HRV at birth, and whether these HRV differences identify abnormal cardiovascular development in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight sleeping neonates had 5-min electrocardiogram recordings at birth. Standard time and frequency domain parameters were calculated and related to cardiovascular measures at birth and 3 months of age. Increasing prematurity, but not maternal hypertension or growth restriction, was associated with decreased HRV at birth, as demonstrated by a lower root mean square of the difference between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD) and low (LF) and high-frequency power (HF), with decreasing gestational age (p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated a relative imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, compared to the term infants. However, differences in autonomic function did not predict cardiovascular measures at either time point. Altered cardiac autonomic function at birth relates to prematurity rather than other pregnancy complications and does not predict cardiovascular developmental patterns during the first 3 months post birth. Long-term studies will be needed to understand the relevance to cardiovascular risk.

  6. Playing it safe: exercise and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhutia, Harshil; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity controls acquired cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Exercise is generally associated with a 50% reduction in adverse events from coronary artery disease (CAD). The benefits of exercise extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Recent evidence suggests that exercise prevents cell senescence, and active individuals are at lower risk of developing certain malignancies including cancer of the prostate and the colon, osteoporosis, depression and dementia. Individuals who exercise regularly extend their life expectancy by three to seven years. Healthy individuals should engage in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity, aerobic exercise per week. Recent studies have demonstrated that even lower volumes of exercise below these recommendations confer health benefits, which is highly relevant to individuals with established cardiac disease including heart failure. Sudden cardiac death in athletes under 35 is rare with.estimates ranging from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 200,000. Hereditary and congenital abnormalities of the heart are the most common cause of nontraumatic death during sport in young athletes. In middle-aged recreational athletes more than 90% of sudden cardiac deaths occur in males and more than 90% are caused by atherosclerotic CAD. The AHA and the ESC advocate pre-participation screening of young athletes. The ECG has the ability to detect congenital accessory pathways and ion channelopathies, and is frequently abnormal in individuals with cardiomyopathy. Screening with a 12-lead ECG in older athletes is of limited value given the overwhelming contribution of atherosclerotic CAD to sudden cardiac death.

  7. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  8. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  9. Report on abnormal climate in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports of impact on abnormal climate in 2011. It has Introduction with purpose and background of publish and summary of this report. The cause and current state on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011, Measurement and impact against abnormal climate in 2011 to agriculture, land and maritime, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, environment and health, assessment and advice on the policy. It lists the appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011 and media report data.

  10. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  11. Similar nature of ionic imbalances in cardiovascular and renal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.M.; Jawed, M.; Akram, H.; Mahboob, T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported improper ionic environment in cardiovascular and renal patients but how the diseases are associated on ionic basis is still not clear. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate sodium and potassium concentrations and their transport abnormalities in cardiovascular and renal patients. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients of various cardiovascular and thirty patients of various renal disorders (53.33% males, 46.67% females) were selected. Erythrocytes were isolated from freshly drawn blood samples, washed and used for the estimation of sodium and potassium levels using flame photometer (Corning 410). Serum sodium and potassium were measured by flame photometer. RBC membranes were prepared for the estimation of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity in terms of inorganic phosphate released/mg protein/hour. Results: Intra-erythrocyte and serum sodium and potassium concentrations and Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity were different in cardiovascular and renal patients from controls. Intra-erythrocyte sodium level was increased significantly (P<0.01) in cardiovascular patients and non-significantly in renal patients as compared to controls. Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity and serum sodium level were decreased significantly (P<0.01) in both the groups as compared to controls. Serum potassium was found to be decreased significantly (P<0.01) in cardiovascular patients whereas it was raised significantly (P<0.01) in renal patients as compared to control subjects. Conclusion: The results indicated similar nature of ionic and electrolyte imbalances in cardiovascular and renal disorders resulting from impaired Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase system. Further investigations in the same area, may be of help to establish an understanding of the progression of diseases, associated complications and the preventive steps that should-be taken to arrest the progression of these disorders. (author)

  12. Cardiovascular Involvement in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamifar, Hamdollah; Ilkhanipoor, Homa; Ajami, Gholamhossein; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Amirhakimi, Gholamhossein; Shakiba, Ali-Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary disease resulting from mutation in type I procollagen genes. One of the extra skeletal manifestations of this disease is cardiac involvement. The prevalence of cardiac involvement is still unknown in the children with osteogenesis imperfecta. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in these patients. Methods 24 children with osteogenesis imperfecta and 24 normal children who were matched with the patients regarding sex and age were studied. In both groups, standard echocardiography was performed, and heart valves were investigated. Dimensions of left ventricle, aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between the two groups. Findings The results revealed no significant difference between the two groups regarding age, sex, ejection fraction, shortening fraction, mean of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta, but after correction based on the body surface area, dimensions of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta in the patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P25 mmHg and one patient had pulmonary insufficiency with indirect evidence of pulmonary hypertension. According to Z scores of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta, 5, 3, and 1 out of 24 patients had Z scores >2 respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of valvular heart diseases and aortic root dilation was higher in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. In conclusion, cardiovascular investigation is recommended in these children. PMID:24800009

  13. Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Among the NASA Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Wear, Mary L.; Stenger, Michael B.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular system have been studied extensively, but the combined chronic effects of spaceflight and aging are not well understood. Preparation for and participation in spaceflight activities are associated with changes in the cardiovascular system such as decreased carotid artery distensibility and decreased ventricular mass which may lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, astronauts who travel into space multiple times or for longer durations may be at an increased risk across their lifespan. To that end, the purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of common cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes among the NASA astronaut corps during their active career and through retirement. METHODS: Cardiovascular disease outcomes were defined as reports of any of the following: myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), hypertension, stroke or transient ischemic attack [TIA], heart failure, or total CVD (as defined by the AHA - combined outcome of MI, Angina Pectoris, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension). Each outcome was identified individually from review of NASA's Electronic Medical Record (EMR), EKG reports, and death certificates using ICD-9 codes as well as string searches of physician notes of astronaut exams that occurred between 1959 and 2016. RESULTS: Of 338 NASA astronauts selected as of 2016, 9 reported an MI, 12 reported a revascularization procedure, (7 PCI and 5 CABG), 4 reported Angina (without MI), 5 reported heart failure, 9 reported stroke/TIA, and 96 reported hypertension. Total CVD was reported in 105 astronauts. No astronaut who had an MI or revascularization procedure flew a spaceflight mission following the event. All MI, revascularization, and stroke events occurred in male astronauts. When reviewing astronaut ECG reports, abnormal ECG reports were found

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  15. Peripheral inflammation during abnormal mood states in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Prossin, Alan R; Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2015-11-15

    Bipolar disorder carries a substantive morbidity and mortality burden, particularly related to cardiovascular disease. Abnormalities in peripheral inflammatory markers, which have been commonly reported in case-control studies, potentially link these co-morbidities. However, it is not clear whether inflammatory markers change episodically in response to mood states or are indicative of chronic pro-inflammatory activity, regardless of mood, in bipolar disorder. Investigations focused on comparing concentrations of specific inflammatory cytokines associated with immune activation status (primary outcome=tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in 37 participants with bipolar disorder across 3 mood states (mania N=15, depression N=9, normal mood N=13) and 29 controls without a psychiatric disorder (total N=66). Cytokine levels were also compared to T1ρ, a potential neuroimaging marker for inflammation, in select brain regions in a subsample (N=39). Participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls did not differ significantly in inflammatory cytokine concentrations. However, compared to cases with normal mood, cases with abnormal mood states (mania and depression) had significantly elevated levels of TNF-α, its soluble receptors (sTNFR1/sTNFR2), other macrophage-derived cytokines (interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) in addition to IL-4, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, fibroblast growth factor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Cytokine levels were not correlated with signals from T1ρ imaging in selected structures (amygdalae, hippocampi, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus). Participants were not followed prospectively across mood states. Activation of inflammatory markers was found in abnormal mood states of bipolar disorder. Longitudinal study of individuals with mood disorders is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the time course of any such changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  16. Trans-sphenoidal encephalocele in association with Dandy-Walker complex and cardiovascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, H.M.; Barker, C.S. [Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Small, J.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Bournemouth Hospital (United Kingdom); Armitage, M. [Bournemouth Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, Royal Bournemouth Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of trans-sphenoidal encephalomeningocele in association with a posterior cranial fossa malformation which fulfils the criteria for the Dandy-Walker complex. Congenital cardiovascular defects were also present. An abnormality of neural crest development may be responsible for the combined occurrence of these anomalies. (orig.)

  17. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  18. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  19. Cardiovascular system aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo, José M; Gutiérrez, Javier

    2005-01-01

    El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inot...

  20. Cardiovascular Physiology of Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head? ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  1. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  2. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  3. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  4. Contrast sensitivity abnormalities in deaf individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khorrami-Nejad

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Hearing impaired boys are at a greater risk for contrast sensitivity abnormalities than boys with normal hearing. The larger frequency of contrast sensitivity abnormalities in high spatial frequencies than in other frequencies may demonstrate greater defects in the central visual system compared with the periphery in individuals with hearing loss.

  5. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant risk factors is a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ...

  6. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  7. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  8. Cardiovascular complications of anorexia nervosa: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Katherine V; Harnke, Ben; Mehler, Philip S; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa portends the highest mortality among psychiatric diseases, despite primarily being a disease of adolescents and younger adults. Although some of this mortality risk is attributable to suicide, many deaths are likely cardiovascular in etiology. Recent studies suggest that adverse myocardial structural changes occur in this condition, which could underlie the increased mortality. Given limited prevalence of severe anorexia there is a paucity of clinical and autopsy data to discern an exact cause of death. Given this background we conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to provide a contemporary summary of the pathobiologic sequelae of severe anorexia nervosa on the cardiovascular system. We sought to elucidate the impact of anorexia nervosa in four cardiovascular domains: structural, repolarization/conduction, hemodynamic, and peripheral vascular. A number of cardiac abnormalities associated with anorexia nervosa have been described in the literature, including pericardial and valvular pathology, changes in left ventricular mass and function, conduction abnormalities, bradycardia, hypotension, and dysregulation in peripheral vascular contractility. Despite the prevalent theory that malignant arrhythmias are implicated as a cause of sudden death in this disorder, data to support this causal relationship are lacking. It is reasonable to obtain routine electrocardiography and measurements of orthostatic vital signs in patients presenting with anorexia nervosa. Echocardiography is generally not indicated unless prompted by clinical signs of disease. Admission to an inpatient unit with telemetry monitoring is recommended for patients with severe sinus bradycardia or junction rhythm, marked prolongation of the corrected QT interval, or syncope. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Race and ethnicity, obesity, metabolic health, and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting...... serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined......, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased...

  10. Role of Peripheral Vascular Resistance for the Association Between Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjær, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial....... The changes in arterial structure, contractile and relaxing functions associated with depression symptoms are discussed, and the role of these abnormalities for the pathology of major depression and cardiovascular diseases are suggested....... character including a number of neuronal, humoral, immune, and circulatory pathways. Depression-associated cardiovascular abnormalities associate with cardiac dysfunctions and with changes in peripheral resistance. Although cardiac dysfunction in association with depression has been studied in detail...

  11. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  12. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  13. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gongora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  14. Cardiovascular diseases and periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R A; Preshaw, P M; Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Steele, J G

    2003-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a widespread heterogeneous group of conditions that have significant morbidity and mortality. The various diseases and their treatments can have an impact upon the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. In this paper we consider three main topics and explore their relationship to the periodontist and the provision of periodontal treatment. The areas reviewed include the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the periodontium and management of patients with periodontal diseases; the risk of infective endocarditis arising from periodontal procedures; the inter-relationship between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers cause gingival overgrowth and tooth demineralisation, respectively. Evidence suggests that stopping anticoagulant therapy prior to periodontal procedures is putting patients at a greater risk of thromboembolic disorders compared to the risk of prolonged bleeding. The relationship between dentistry and infective endocarditis remains a controversial issue. It would appear that spontaneous bacteraemia arising from a patient's oral hygiene practices is more likely to be the cause of endocarditis than one-off periodontal procedures. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis is uncertain (and unlikely to be proven), and the risk of death from penicillin appears to be greater than the risk of death arising from infective endocarditis. Finally, the association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease has been explored and there seem to be many issues with respect to data handling interpretation. Many putative mechanisms have been suggested; however, these only further highlight the need for intervention studies.

  15. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography predicts cardiovascular events after TIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, Katrin; Sadikovic, Suwad; Esposito, Lorena; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Sander, Dirk; Hemmer, Bernhard; Poppert, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients are at high vascular risk. We assessed the value of extracranial (ECD) and transcranial (TCD) Doppler and duplex ultrasonography to predict clinical outcome after TIA. 176 consecutive TIA patients admitted to the Stroke Unit were recruited in the study. All patients received diffusion-weighted imaging, standardized ECD and TCD. At a median follow-up of 27 months, new vascular events were recorded. 22 (13.8%) patients experienced an ischemic stroke or TIA, 5 (3.1%) a myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome, and 5 (3.1%) underwent arterial revascularization. ECD revealed extracranial ≥ 50% stenosis or occlusions in 34 (19.3%) patients, TCD showed intracranial stenosis in 15 (9.2%) and collateral flow patterns due to extracranial stenosis in 5 (3.1%) cases. Multivariate analysis identified these abnormal ECD and TCD findings as predictors of new cerebral ischemic events (ECD: hazard ratio (HR) 4.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75 to 10.57, P = 0.01; TCD: HR 4.73, 95% CI 1.86 to 12.04, P = 0.01). Abnormal TCD findings were also predictive of cardiovascular ischemic events (HR 18.51, 95% CI 3.49 to 98.24, P = 0.001). TIA patients with abnormal TCD findings are at high risk to develop further cerebral and cardiovascular ischemic events

  16. Legal consequences of standard setting for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistart, J C

    1985-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether establishing consensus standards for the treatment of particular medical conditions increases a physician's exposure to legal liability. The conclusion reached is that the legal effects of standard setting, rather than representing a significant threat of liability, should be seen as beneficial to the medical profession. A fundamental point is that the legal test for liability is entirely dependent on the medical profession's definition of what constitutes adequate care. The law incorporates the standard of care defined by the medical profession and does not impose an external norm. In the absence of formally stated standards, the process of defining relevant medical criteria will involve a great deal of uncertainty. Outcomes of legal contests will be affected by such extraneous factors as the relative experience of the lawyers involved, their access to knowledgeable expert witnesses, and their strategic decisions made with respect to tactics and procedures. Establishment of formal standards has the salutory effect of limiting the influence of these factors and thus reducing the randomness of the results reached. Formal standards also have the advantage of being easily replicated in unrelated proceedings and thereby contribute to the development of a consistent, evenly applied rule of liability. Finally, even if formal standards are either more, or less, progressive than the actual state of medical practice, there is relatively little risk that they will produce untoward results.

  17. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  18. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøllesdal, M. K. R.; Ariansen, I.; Mortensen, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974–2003) were linked...

  19. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes....

  20. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  1. Hysterosalpingography: analysis of 473 abnormal examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petta, C.A.; Costa-Paiva, L.H.S. da; Pinto-Neto, A.M.; Martins, R.; Souza, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors reviewed the reports of 4/3 abnormal hysterosalpingographies from 1,200 medical records of patients at the sterility and infertility out-patient clinic of the School of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp), from July, 1974 to December, 1981. The objective was to evaluate the incidence and main alterations diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. The most frequent findings were tuboperitoneal factors in 91% of the examinations, uterine cavity abnormalities in 17.4% and cervical factor in 6.3% of the cases. The examinations showed a great incident of tuboperitoneal abnormalities as cause of sterility from lower social classes. (author) [pt

  2. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  4. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality measurem...... is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  5. Klinefelter syndrome, cardiovascular system, and thromboembolic disease: review of literature and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; Esposito, Daniela; Accardo, Giacomo; Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Vigorito, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Pasquali, Daniela; Isidori, Andrea M; Cittadini, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors' own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...... factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart...

  7. Women's cardiovascular health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Patel, Anushka A

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death among adult women in many parts of India and a major cause of morbidity. In some parts of the world, gender inequities have been observed in cardiovascular healthcare and cardiovascular outcomes. The authors discuss the data for potential disparities in cardiovascular healthcare for women in India. Data on cardiovascular healthcare provision and CVD outcomes among women in India are generally lacking. The little available data suggest that women in rural areas, younger women and girl children with CVD are less likely to receive appropriate management than men, with this disparity most apparent in those of lower socioeconomic status and education. However, there is a particular lack of information about the prevention and management of atherosclerotic heart disease in women from a range of communities that comprise the extremely diverse population of India.

  8. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... to contain high amounts of SFA. However, cheese also contributes with several nutrients in the diet such as essential amino acids and calcium. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of cheese intake on CVD risk through evidence from both observational, intervention and explorative studies....... By reviewing results from published observational studies it was concluded that cheese does not seem to increase CVD risk, despite of the high SFA content of most cheeses. A human cross-over intervention study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of hard cheese intake on risk markers...

  9. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  10. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  11. RIA in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourani, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    When one discusses the management of chronic cardiac diseases, and in particular congestive heart failure (CHF), one cannot but think of digitalis and the important role it plays in the management of CHF. One also has to think about digitalis toxicity and the narrow margin between the therapeutic and toxic doses of digitalis and the important role that monitoring the serum level of the drug play in preventing and/or recognizing its toxic effects. Again, RIA has something to offer the clinician in this area. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the radioassays for CPK-MB and digoxin mainly, as well as touch upon other assays of use in evaluating patients with cardiovascular disease

  12. Cardiovascular hospitalizations and associations with environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease has been identified as a condition that may be associated with environmental factors. Air pollution in particular has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which can increase the likelihood of cardiovascular eve...

  13. Microalbuminuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease and risk factors. A population-based study of 1254 hypertensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    subjects. The frequency of cardiovascular disease was similar in the two groups. In contrast, when analysed as a continuous variable, a one unit increase in the logarithmically transformed urinary albumin excretion significantly increased the likelihood of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [95% confidence....... It is concluded that slightly elevated albumin excretion in the urine is not only a pressure-dependent functional phenomenon in the glomerular vessel walls, but associated with permanent atherosclerotic abnormalities in the entire vascular system....

  14. Does endothelial dysfunction correlate with endocrinal abnormalities in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    To study and critically analyze the published evidence on correlation of hormonal abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction (ED) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) through a systematic review. The databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, Up-To-Date, and Science Direct were searched using Medical subject handling terms and free text term keywords such as endocrine abnormalities in PCOS, ED assessment in PCOS, ED in combination with insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism (HA), increased free testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), gonadotrophin levels, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, estrogen, adipocytokines to search trials, and observational studies published from January 1987 to September 2015. Authors of original studies were contacted for additional data when necessary. PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. ED, which is a reliable indicator of cardiovascular risk in general population, is seen in most (but not all) women with PCOS. IR, seen in 70% patients with PCOS, is associated with ED in these women, but patients can have normal endothelial function even in the presence of IR. Free testosterone and FAI are consistently associated with ED, but endothelial function can be normal despite HA. Estradiol (not estrone) appears to be protective against ED though estrone is the predominant estrogen produced in PCOS. Increased levels of adipocytokines (visfatin) are promising in predicting ED and cardiovascular risk. However, more studies are required focusing on direct correlation of levels of prolactin, LH, estrone, and visfatin with ED in PCOS. PMID:27843797

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, ... neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ... level and by developmental changes2. .... for IQ as a confounding factor.30.

  16. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  17. Evaluation of chromosomal abnormalities and common trombophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Infections, genetic, endocrine, anatomic and immunologic problems have been suggested as causes for RM. ... Metaphase chromosome preparations from the .... The rate of karyotypically abnormal abortion specimens.

  18. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  19. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delivery Introduction to Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Amniotic Fluid Embolism Excessive Uterine Bleeding at Delivery Fetal Distress Inverted Uterus Labor That ...

  20. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging te...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate.......9) was observed in patients. This large-scale study indicates structural thalamic abnormalities in patients with migraine. The thalamic nuclei with abnormal volumes are densely connected to the limbic system. The data hence lend support to the view that higher-order integration systems are altered in migraine...

  1. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine. Vol. ... Medicine, Harvard University, U.S.A. ... abnormalities such as corneal opacities (0.5%) and allergic conjunctivitis (3.4%) while others had posterior .... were administered to those with treatable eye disease.

  2. Errata :Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent Abortions in Lagos, Nigeria. Akinde OR, Daramola A O, Taiwo I A, Afolayan M O and Akinsola Af. Sonographic Mammary Gland Density Pattern in Women in Selected ommunities of Southern Nigeria.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, ...

  4. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  5. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, A.‐M.; Rusbridge, C.; Laitinen‐Vapaavuori, O.; Hielm‐Björkman, A.; Lappalainen, A.K.; Knowler, S.P.; Jokinen, T.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. Objectives: To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neuro...

  6. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  7. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Beverley; Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl; Murphy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  9. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  10. Visual field abnormalities in multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, V H; Heron, J R

    1980-01-01

    Visual fields were examined with a tangent screen in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or optic neuritis (ON). Visual fields were abnormal in all patients with definite MS, 94% with probable MS and 81% with possible MS. Three-quarters of the MS patients with no history of visual symptoms had abnormal fields. The commonest defect found was an arcuate scotoma. As a diagnostic test of visual pathway involvement in MS, tangent screen examination compares favourably with more sophisticated ...

  11. Results of voluntary cardiovascular examination of elite athletes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tischer, Susanne Glasius; Mattsson, N; Storgaard, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular status of elite athletes in Denmark, the extent of abnormal cardiac findings--both training related and pathologic--and how participating in cardiac examination was perceived by the athletes. A standardized protocol of questionnaires, physical examination, resting...... a cardiac diagnosis; one athlete (0.2%) diagnosed with long QT syndrome was advised against competition level sports. In total, 60 athletes (11.6%) were referred for additional testing. The athletes presented a very low level of psychological stress before and a slight decrease immediately after...

  12. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  13. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  14. Electrocardiographic changes in the most frequent endocrine disorders associated with cardiovascular diseases. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Irina Iuliana; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Iliescu, D; Petriş, A; Botnariu, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Car- diovascular abnormalities associated with endocrine diseases are often frequent and due to complex relationships between endocrine glands (with internal secretion) and cardiovascular system (heart and vessels). Certain hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (particularly the thyroid and pituitary gland) excesses or deficiencies, are involved in morphogenesis, growth processes and activity regulation of cardiovascular system, most often in connection with the autonomic nervous system. There are also a lot of electrocardiographic changes caused by hormonal disorders that requires differential diagnosis and represents the source of erroneous diagnosis. Endocrine pathology occurred later than a heart disease, may worse heart function. Ignoring the cardiovascular events that may occur in the evolution of endo- crine diseases, may induce increased mortality due to cardiovascular complications.

  15. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    -NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients......Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P...

  16. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  17. [Clinical analysis of pregnancy and postpartum cardiovascular complications in Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin-sheng; Li, Bin; Sun, Yan-qing; Guan, Xin-liang; Xu, Bao-wei; Qiao, Zhi-yu

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the management of pregnancy and cardiovascular complications in women with Marfan syndrome (MFS). From October 1994 to September 2006, 30 patients with MFS undergoing cardiovascular surgery were studied retrospectively. In the labor of 46 offsprings given birth by 30 women, 5 cases (11%) were performed elective cesarean section because of the existence of aortic complication, and 12 (26%) were diagnosed as MFS. The gestation in two patients was terminated due to deterioration of aortic abnormalities during their third trimester, and they received surgical treatment with Bentall procedure. Two developed acute aortic dissection during labor and post delivery respectively. With the manipulation of anticoagulation peripartum, one who had the implantation with mechanical prosthesis went through pregnancy and delivery uneventfully. The average duration between delivery and cardiovascular surgery was (15 +/- 9) years. Vaginal delivery can be done safely in patients with the MFS who do not have or have mild cardiovascular system abnormalities, aortic dissection, or other important cardiac abnormalities, cesarean section should be the preferred method of delivery. Women with MFS are at increased risk for dissection and congestive heart failure during pregnancy and should be counseled before pregnancy about these risks, as well as the inheritance of the condition.

  18. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.P.; Nguyen, K.-L.; Han, F.; Zhou, Z.; Salusky, I.; Ayad, I.; Hu, P.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r 1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications.

  19. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A symposium of eight short but complete papers giving an overview of interventional radiology is presented. Organized by Dr. William Casarella, this symposium is certainly the most current review of the subject available. This year's cardiovascular section is again heavily weighted toward interventional radiology. Abrams and Doubilet's article on the underutilization of angioplasty is important because it describes the cost effectiveness of this method. Most health planners, right or wrong, have complained about overutilization of diagnostic radiology procedures. In general, the opposite is true for interventional procedures - they are underutilized. If the authors draw the attention of their hospital administrators to these approaches and also produce the data on long-term follow-up for our medical colleagues, interventional radiology may realize its full potential. Articles on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are beginning to appear and this technique seems to have great potential. An important article, which is the first prospective study comparing lung scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, supports the increased use of pulmonary angiography. Finally, an article on complications of percutaneous biliary drainage provokes some discussion of its value for routine preoperative use

  1. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subtle gray matter changes in temporo-parietal cortex associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tânia Corrêa; Scazufca, Márcia; Squarzoni, Paula; de Souza Duran, Fábio Luiz; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline Hatsuko; Vallada, Homero P; Andrei, Anna; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Menezes, Paulo R; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2011-01-01

    Vascular risk factors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While there is consistent evidence of gray matter (GM) abnormalities in earlier stages of AD, the presence of more subtle GM changes associated with vascular risk factors in the absence of clinically significant vascular events has been scarcely investigated. This study aimed to examine GM changes in elderly subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. We predicted that the presence of cardiovascular risk would be associated with GM abnormalities involving the temporal-parietal cortices and limbic structures. We recruited 248 dementia-free subjects, age range 66-75 years, from the population-based "São Paulo Ageing and Health Study", classified in accordance to their Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk (FCHDR) score to undergo an MRI scan. We performed an overall analysis of covariance, controlled to total GM and APOE4 status, to investigate the presence of regional GM abnormalities in association with FCHDR subgroups (high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk), and followed by post hoc t-test. We also applied a co-relational design in order to investigate the presence of linear progression of the GM vulnerability in association with cardiovascular risk factor. Voxel-based morphometry showed that the presence of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with regional GM loss involving the temporal cortices bilaterally. Those results retained statistical significance after including APOE4 as a covariate of interest. We also observed that there was a negative correlation between FCHDR scores and rGM distribution in the parietal cortex. Subclinical cerebrovascular abnormalities involving GM loss may provide an important link between cardiovascular risk factors and AD.

  3. Cardiovascular nuclear medicine and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiber, J.H.C.; Wall, E.E. van der

    1992-01-01

    This book is based on a meeting of the Working Group on Nuclear Cardiology, which held March 22-23,1991 under the auspices of the European Society of Cardiology and the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, and on the Second International Symposium on Computer Applications in Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which was held March 20-22,1991 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. It covers almost every aspect of quantitative cardio-vascular nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging. The main topics are: single photon emission computed tomography (technical aspects); new development in cardiovascular nuclear medicine; advances in cardiovascular imaging; cardiovascular clinical applications; and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. (A.S.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  5. Cardiovascular risk in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Beatriz; Ferreira, Maria João

    2018-06-01

    Turner syndrome is a relatively common genetic disorder of female development, characterized by partial or complete absence of an X chromosome, with a variable clinical presentation. Congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of early death in this syndrome. The most feared complication is aortic dissection, which can occur at a very young age and requires careful assessment of its risk factors. A systematic literature search identified sixty relevant publications. These were reviewed with regard to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women with Turner syndrome, especially in pregnancy. The most common congenital cardiovascular defects are presented and illustrated with appropriate iconography. The current recommendations regarding the screening and monitoring of cardiovascular disease in these patients are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarmand, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors and behavior lifestyles of young women: implications from findings of the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Johnson, C C; Berenson, G S

    1997-12-01

    The primary purposes of this article are to highlight important issues related to cardiovascular risk factors and behavior life-styles in young women and to examine racial (black-white) differences in risk factors that relate to cardiovascular disease. In childhood, some girls show cardiovascular risk factors of higher blood pressure levels, dyslipidemia, and obesity, all of which continue into young adulthood. Factors that contribute to abnormal risk factors are a high-saturated fat diet, excess energy intake related to inactivity, and cigarette smoking. Trends of obesity are documented; and young white girls are continuing to use tobacco, more so than boys and black girls. Although the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease is delayed in women, the stage is set in childhood for the development of early cardiovascular risk.

  8. Using impedance cardiography to detect asymptomatic cardiovascular disease in prehypertensive adults with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2013-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prehypertension could initiate appropriate treatment and prevent progression. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology that can be used to assess cardiovascular function. This study used ICG waveform analysis with postural change to detect CVD in asymptomatic prehypertensive adults over 40 years of age with no history of CVD and at least 2 cardiovascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, central obesity, family history of premature CVD, elevated blood glucose, and dyslipidemia. A study group of 25 apparently healthy adults was tested by ICG in standing and supine positions. Criteria for an age-matched control group of 16 healthy subjects included an active lifestyle, no risk factor, and no history of CVD. In addition to hemodynamic measurements of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac index (CI), ICG used SVR to assess vascular resistive load, an index of arterial compliance and a widening of the systolic waveform to assess vascular pulsatile load, and waveform analysis and measured wave amplitude to detect ventricular dysfunction. All subjects in the study group had some abnormal ICG data, with an average of 2.9 ± 1.5 abnormalities per person. ICG indicated that 24 (96%) had elevated vascular load, 13 (52%) had some type of ventricular dysfunction, and 12 (48%) had abnormal hemodynamics. For the control group, ICG showed none (0%) with elevated vascular load, none (0%) with ventricular dysfunction, and 7 (44%) with high CI. Prehypertensives over 40 years of age with multiple risk factors have different cardiovascular abnormalities. This ICG test could be used as part of a prevention program for early detection of CVD. An abnormal ICG test could expedite the initiation of customized treatment that targets the subclinical CVD.

  9. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes

    2012-04-01

    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  10. Prevalence and prognostic significance of ECG abnormalities in HIV-infected patients: results from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J; Roediger, Mollie P

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains debated whether to include resting electrocardiogram (ECG) in the routine care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: This analysis included 4518 HIV-infected patients (28% women and 29% blacks) from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral...... Therapy study, a clinical trial aimed to compare 2 HIV treatment strategies. ECG abnormalities were classified using the Minnesota Code. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between baseline ECG abnormalities and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS: More than...... half of the participants (n = 2325, or 51.5%) had either minor or major ECG abnormalities. Minor ECG abnormalities (48.6%) were more common than major ECG abnormalities (7.7%). During a median follow-up of 28.7 months, 155 participants (3.4%) developed incident CVD. After adjusting for the study...

  11. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  12. Prevalence and predictors of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Kharagjitsingh, Antje V. [Medisch Centrum Haaglanden, Department of Internal Medicine, The Hague (Netherlands); Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in a cohort of truly asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using myocardial perfusion imaging by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Secondly, we determined which clinical characteristics may predict an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in this population. A total of 120 asymptomatic patients (mean age 53{+-}10 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging by means of adenosine {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi SPECT. Images were evaluated for the presence of perfusion abnormalities as well as other nonperfusion abnormalities that may indicate extensive ischaemia, including left ventricular dysfunction (defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%), transient ischaemic dilatation and adenosine-induced ST segment depression. Multivariable analysis was performed using a backward selection strategy to identify potential predictors for an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study. Finally, all patients were followed up for 12 months to determine the occurrence of cardiovascular events: (1) cardiac death, (2) nonfatal myocardial infarction, (3) unstable angina requiring hospitalization, (4) revascularization, or (5) stroke. Of the 120 patients, 40 (33%) had an abnormal stress study, including myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 30 patients (25%). In 10 patients (8%), indicators of extensive (possibly balanced ischaemia) were observed in the absence of abnormal perfusion. The multivariable analysis identified current smoking, duration of diabetes and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio as independent predictors of an abnormal stress study. During a follow-up period of 12 months six patients (5%) had a cardiovascular event. The current study

  13. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Candace R.; Das, Indra J.; Litt, Harold I.; Ferrari, Victor; Hwang, W.-T.; Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique

  14. Congenital abnormalities of aortic artery. Assessment in neonates and early childhood with multislice tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, D.; Gurfinkel, E.; Beresnak, A.; Martinez, A.; Emsani, R.; Toledo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the evaluation of aortic artery congenital abnormalities, the echocardiography and the plain X ray are the traditionally used imaging methods. Multislice angiotomography appears as an important method in diagnosis of these different diseases allowing evaluate these entities in a non invasive, fast and accurate form, giving to cardiovascular surgeons very important information to delineate the surgical strategy. In this article, we review the applications of multislice angiotomography in the evaluation of most frequent congenital anomalies of aorta artery, performed in neonates and early childhood. (authors) [es

  15. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two......-duration product (CP) over 5 years was assessed using a quadratic polynomial contrast, adjusting for age, sex, prevalent cardiovascular disease and treatment arm (losartan or atenolol). At baseline, despite similar blood pressures, CP was greater in the presence than in the absence of MetAb (p

  16. Environmental Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical observations have led to the hypothesis that the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is influenced not only by genetic, lifestyle and major risk factors, but also by environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered key determinants of cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and exercise are viewed as major environmental influences, the contribution of pollutants and environmental chemicals is less clear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to physically and chemical pollutants could elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies report that exposure to physically, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors are associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Relationships between environmental factors and coronary arter disease, arhythmias, and cardiomyopathies have been reported. Exposures to arsenic, lead, cadmium, pollutant gases, solvents, and pesticides have also been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, I review that relationships between exposure to physically, chemical, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 435-444

  17. Inhibition of Endothelial p53 Improves Metabolic Abnormalities Related to Dietary Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Yokoyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has suggested a role for p53 activation in various age-associated conditions. Here, we identified a crucial role of endothelial p53 activation in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Endothelial expression of p53 was markedly upregulated when mice were fed a high-calorie diet. Disruption of endothelial p53 activation improved dietary inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase that upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in skeletal muscle, thereby increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption. Mice with endothelial cell-specific p53 deficiency fed a high-calorie diet showed improvement of insulin sensitivity and less fat accumulation, compared with control littermates. Conversely, upregulation of endothelial p53 caused metabolic abnormalities. These results indicate that inhibition of endothelial p53 could be a novel therapeutic target to block the vicious cycle of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  18. World Health Organization cardiovascular risk stratification and target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorz, D; Bongarzoni, L; Citta, L; Citta, N; Citta, P; Keller, L; Mata, L; Tommasi, A

    2016-01-01

    Prediction charts allow treatment to be targeted according to simple markers of cardiovascular risk; many algorithms do not recommend screening asymptomatic target organ damage which could change dramatically the assessment. To demonstrate that target organ damage is present in low cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients and it is more frequent and severe as global cardiovascular risk increases. Consecutive hypertensive patients treated at a single Latin American center. Cardiovascular risk stratified according to 2013 WHO/ISH risk prediction chart America B. Left ventricular mass assessed by Devereux method, left ventricular hypertrophy considered >95g/m(2) in women and >115g/m(2) in men. Transmitral diastolic peak early flow velocity to average septal/lateral peak early diastolic relaxation velocity (E/e' ratio) measured cut off value >13. Systolic function assessed by tissue Doppler average interventricular septum/lateral wall mitral annulus rate systolic excursion (s wave). A total of 292 patients were included of whom 159 patients (54.5%) had cardiovascular risk of 20%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 17.6% low risk patients, 27.8% in medium risk and 23.3% in high risk (p<0.05), abnormal E/e' ratio was found in 13.8%, 31.1% and 27.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Mean s wave was 8.03+8, 8.1+9 and 8.7+1cm/s for low, intermediate and high risk patients, respectively (p<0.025). Target organ damage is more frequent and severe in high risk; one over four subjects was misclassified due to the presence of asymptomatic target organ damage. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  20. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  1. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  2. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Osseous temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Rikshospitalet, Oslo

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was compared with hypocycloidal tomography in 30 joints of 15 adults with rheumatic disease. CT included 1.5 mm thick axial scans (at 1.0 mm intervals) with reformatted oblique sagittal and oblique coronal sections. Multisection (at 2.0 mm intervals) tomography included oblique sagittal and occasionally, oblique coronal sections. CT demonstrated bone abnormalities in 21 and tomography in 20 joints, indicating high agreement between the imaging modalities regarding number of abnormal TMJs. Bone structures were, however, better visualized by multiplanar CT due to superior contrast and spatial resolution particularly in the most lateral and medial parts of the joint, indicating superiority of CT for depicting subtle bony TMJ abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. (orig.)

  4. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  5. Device for diagnoising abnormalities of equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the collision energy easily and at high accuracy by applying impact shocks at known collision energy from a simulated acoustic wave generator and using the generated acoustic signal as reference data. Constitution: A plurality of acoustic detectors are attached to the surface of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. These acoustic detectors are connected respectively to an abnormality diagnosis device for equipments. Then, when metal obstacles collide against the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel, acoustic signals generated upon collision are detected by the acoustic detectors and acoustic information thus obtained from the acoustic detectors determines the colliding position of the metal obstacles by means of the abnormality diagnosis device and then the collision energy is measured. In this case, by applying impact shocks at known collision energy near the colliding position of metal obstacles determined by the abnormality diagnosis device, collision energy can be determined at a higher accuracy. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  7. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  8. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene cluster and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Y.-T.; Li, W.-F.; Chen, C.-J.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Chen, Wei J.; Zhang Zhuming; Sun, C.-W.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic has been linked to increased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the long-term impact of arsenic exposure remains unclear. Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids and is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis, but evidence remains limited to case-control studies. Only recently have genes encoding enzymes responsible for arsenic metabolism, such as AS3MT and GSTO, been cloned and characterized. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic interaction of genetic factors and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality. A total of 216 residents from three tap water implemented villages of previous arseniasis-hyperendemic regions in Taiwan were prospectively followed for an average of 8 years. For each resident, a 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and coded by Minnesota Code standard criteria. Eight functional polymorphisms of PON1, PON2, AS3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2 were examined for genetic susceptibility to ECG abnormality. Among 42 incident cases with ECG deterioration identified among 121 baseline-normal subjects, arsenic exposure was significantly correlated with incidence of ECG abnormality. In addition, polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes were also found associated with the incidence of ECG abnormality. A haplotype R-C-S constituted by polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, -108C/T and PON2 C311S was linked to the increased risk. Subjects exposed to high levels of As (cumulative As exposure > 14.7 ppm-year or drinking artesian well water > 21 years) and carrying the R-C-S haplotype had significantly increased risks for ECG abnormality over those with only one risk factor. Results of this study showed a long-term arsenic effect on ECG abnormality and significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions linked to the incidence of CVD. This finding might have important implications for a novel and potentially useful

  10. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  11. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...

  12. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  13. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  15. Relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitations, and metabolic abnormalities in school workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥ 30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012-1.018; psmoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975-0.994; p = 0.007). Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities.

  16. Prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings on CT angiography in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Archana [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); St. Christopher' s Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hellinger, Jeffrey C. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); New York Cardiovascular Institute at Lenox Hill Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Servaes, Sabah; Keller, Marc S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Mathew C. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Levine Children' s Hospital, Sanger Heart and Vascular Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging/Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-03-15

    CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease. During 28 months, 300 consecutive children (170 males; mean age: 7.1 years, age range: 6 h-26 years), referred from a tertiary pediatric cardiology center, underwent clinically indicated CT angiography to evaluate known or suspected congenital heart disease. Slightly more than half (n = 169) of the patients were postoperative or post-intervention. Examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and non-cardiovascular findings were recorded and tabulated by organ system, congenital heart disease and operative procedure in conjunction with outcomes from medical charts. Non-cardiovascular findings were identified in 83% (n = 250 / 300) of the studies for a total of 857 findings. In 221 patients (n = 73.7% of 300) a total of 813 non-cardiovascular findings were clinically significant, while in 9.7% (n = 29 / 300) of patients, 5.1% (n = 44 / 857) of the findings were nonsignificant. In 38.3% (n = 115 / 300) of patients with significant non-cardiovascular pathology, the findings were unexpected and directly impacted patient care plans. Commonly involved organs with non-cardiovascular findings were the lungs with 280 non-cardiovascular findings in 176 / 300 (58.7%) of patients, the airway with 139 non-cardiovascular findings in 103 / 300 (34.3%) of patients and the liver with 108 non-cardiovascular findings in 72 / 300 (24.0%) of patients. Syndromic associations were noted in 22% (n = 66 / 300) of the patients. Non-cardiovascular findings are common in children with

  17. Prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings on CT angiography in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Archana; Hellinger, Jeffrey C.; Servaes, Sabah; Keller, Marc S.; Schwartz, Mathew C.; Epelman, Monica

    2017-01-01

    CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease. During 28 months, 300 consecutive children (170 males; mean age: 7.1 years, age range: 6 h-26 years), referred from a tertiary pediatric cardiology center, underwent clinically indicated CT angiography to evaluate known or suspected congenital heart disease. Slightly more than half (n = 169) of the patients were postoperative or post-intervention. Examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and non-cardiovascular findings were recorded and tabulated by organ system, congenital heart disease and operative procedure in conjunction with outcomes from medical charts. Non-cardiovascular findings were identified in 83% (n = 250 / 300) of the studies for a total of 857 findings. In 221 patients (n = 73.7% of 300) a total of 813 non-cardiovascular findings were clinically significant, while in 9.7% (n = 29 / 300) of patients, 5.1% (n = 44 / 857) of the findings were nonsignificant. In 38.3% (n = 115 / 300) of patients with significant non-cardiovascular pathology, the findings were unexpected and directly impacted patient care plans. Commonly involved organs with non-cardiovascular findings were the lungs with 280 non-cardiovascular findings in 176 / 300 (58.7%) of patients, the airway with 139 non-cardiovascular findings in 103 / 300 (34.3%) of patients and the liver with 108 non-cardiovascular findings in 72 / 300 (24.0%) of patients. Syndromic associations were noted in 22% (n = 66 / 300) of the patients. Non-cardiovascular findings are common in children with

  18. Sleep deprivation: cardiovascular effects for anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2016-03-01

    perioperative period or maybe a longer accompanying abnormality in patients undergoing anesthesia for surgery. However, the unwanted cardiovascular effects are really of great importance. As Choopani et al have quoted the following are among the other unwanted effects of sleep deprivation which mandate our vigilance in these patients (9: • hypertension • over activity of the sympathetic nervous system • increased heart rate • vasoconstriction • salt retention Also, based on this study and other related studies (10-12, chemical sympathectomy could be an efficient method to relieve these effects. Preparedness against this phenomenon remains an important concern.

  19. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Gender bias in cardiovascular advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sofia B; Grace, Sherry L; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Tomlinson, George; Cheung, Angela M

    2004-11-01

    Women with cardiovascular disease are treated less aggressively than men. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. Pharmaceutical advertisements may influence physician practices and patient care. To determine if female and male patients are equally likely to be featured in cardiovascular advertisements. We examined all cardiovascular advertisements from US editions of general medical and cardiovascular journals published between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 1998. For each unique advertisement, we recorded the total number of journal appearances and the number of appearances in journals' premium positions. We noted the gender, age, race and role of both the primary figure and the majority of people featured in the advertisement. Nine hundred and nineteen unique cardiovascular advertisements were identified of which 254 depicted a patient as the primary figure. A total of 20%[95% confidence interval (CI) 15.3-25.5%] of these advertisements portrayed a female patient, while 80% (95% CI 74.5-84.7%) depicted a male patient, P advertisements appeared 249 times (13.3%; 95% CI 8.6-18.9%) while male patient advertisements appeared 1618 times (86.7%; 95% CI 81.1-91.4%), P advertisements also had significantly fewer mean appearances than male patient advertisements in journals' premium positions (0.82 vs. 1.99, P=0.02). Similar results were seen when the advertisements were analysed according to predominant gender. Despite increasing emphasis on cardiovascular disease in women, significant under-representation of female patients exists in cardiovascular advertisements. Physicians should be cognizant of this gender bias.

  1. Hyperhemocysteinemia and cardiovascular risks in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagheb Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of premature and progressive occlusive vascular disease is high in chronic uremic patients, and it accounts for more than 40% of the mortality in dialysis patients. End stage renal failure (ESRF patients exhibit elevated plasma homocystein levels, about four fold as much as those in the controls, and it is now considered as a causative factor for increased risk of cardiovascular death among these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of total plasma homocysteine level and echocardiographic abnormalities as a surrogate of cardiac disease outcome in hemodialysis patients. 123 adult patients on maintenance hemodialysis and having echocardiography done during January till November 2006 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma homocysteine level was directly related to the presence of aortic regur-gitation r= 0.27 P= 0.009. There were negative correlations between ejection fraction (EF, left ventricular systolic dimension (LV.S (r= - 0.71, P= 0.0001, left ventricular diastolic dimension (LV.D (r= -0.23 p= 0.01 and age (r= - 0.021 P= 0.02. In conclusion we did not find the para-doxical reverse epidemiology in our patients and plasma total homocysteine level was in direct correlation with cardiac risk factors such as left ventricular mass index and aortic regurgitation.

  2. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  3. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Y [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

  4. Learning from anticipated and abnormal plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, B.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Transients in Light Water Reactors held in Jackson, Wyoming in September 1983. Industry involvement in the evaluation of operating experience, human error contributions, transient management, thermal hydraulic modelling, the role of probabilistic risk assessment and the cost of transient incidents are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The present report presents the findings of SIMRAC project GAP 045 entitled ‘Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments’. It is intended as a reference to develop guidelines which, in turn would assist mine management in establishing safe...

  6. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  7. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  8. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  9. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... the serum creatinine valuell and abnormalities of calcium and cholesterol have .... 16 high. Creatinine (JLmolJl). 75 - 115. 81,3 ± 20,9. 6,6 high. 7 high. 43,4 low ... acid levels without any obvious secondary cause. A raised.

  10. Fetal chromosome abnormalities and congenital malformations: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also showed that Multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) represented among 42.2%, congenital malformation of CNS represents 26.6%, congenital malformation of the skeletal system 20%, congenital polycystic kidney 8.8% and pyloric stenosis in 2.2%. Among the 21 women with abnormal karyotype of amniotic ...

  11. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  12. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... syndrome (0.6%) and Ushers syndrome (0.6%). Refractive error was the most common (7.9%). Conclusion: Since these deaf students use their sight to compensate for the deafness, routine ophthalmologic examination should be carried out on them so that ophthalmologic abnormalities are detected early and treatment ...

  13. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... South African studies. There is little South African data examining either prevalence or usefulness of EEG abnormalities among adult psychiatric patients. Some work has been done in adolescents. Szabo1 reviewed all admissions to the adolescent inpatient unit at Tara. Hospital between 1990 and 1995.

  14. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... This study is a cross-sectional case control study. 179 men and women were ... can lead to lipid parameters abnormalities and CVD risk factor via aggregation of ... insulin kit is the brand of DRG German Company. The insulin.

  15. Abnormal Events for Emergency Trip in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Guk Hun; Choi, M. J.; Park, S. I.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, S. J.; Park, J. H.; Kwon, I. C

    2006-12-15

    This report gathers abnormal events related to emergency trip of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide.

  16. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Yu

    1976-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls. (Kanao, N.)

  18. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  19. Abnormality diagnosis device for PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Masahiko.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention rapidly detects a small amount of primary coolants leaked from a heat transfer pipes in a steam generator to estimate the scale of the rupture and forecast the transition of the amount of the leakage. That is, a gamma-ray spectrum and dose rate measuring system having a bypass line capable of decaying short half-time nuclides disposed to each of second main steam pipelines and primary coolant pipelines. Data obtained from the measuring systems are compared, to judge the presence of abnormal symptom due to leakage and further, radioactivity concentration in main steams is calculated based on the dose rate at each of the measuring points. Further, radioactivity concentration of the leakage from the secondary main steam pipelines is calculated by change with passage of time. With such procedures, when primary coolants are leaked to the secondary main steam pipelines, the dose rate of the measured system is changed, thereby enabling to recognize the state at the abnormal point. The transition of abnormalities can be forecast with reference to the dose rate by change with passage of time. Further, state of the abnormal point can be recognized based on the gamma-ray spectrum, which is inherent upon occurrence of fuel rupture. (T.S.)

  20. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  1. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

  2. An abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jinwu

    1988-01-01

    An abnormal secretion of plasma human growth hormore (hGH) and insulin in 67 acromegalic patients had been previously treated by external pituitary radiation were studied. All subjects, following an overnight fast, a standard 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, were performed and venous blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. They were measured for blood glucose, plasma insulin and hGH. The results of this study have shown that, of the 67 subjects, 23 cases had an abnormal glucose tolerance(34.32%). Diabetes was detected in 17 cases (23.37%) and 6 patients had decreased glucose tolerance(8.69%). In all, hGH levels were consistantly above 5 ng/ml and were not suppressed after an oral glucose load. In these patients, however, about one-third had abnormal glucose tolerance. Low plasma insulin response to glucose and that of the releasing were evident in them than the normal glucose tolerance and a healthy control group. In addition, the mechanism of the abnormal secretion of hGH and insulin were disscussed

  3. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  4. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  5. PPARs and the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Milton; Chang, Lin; Fan, Yanbo; Zhang, Jifeng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone-receptor superfamily. Originally cloned in 1990, PPARs were found to be mediators of pharmacologic agents that induce hepatocyte peroxisome proliferation. PPARs also are expressed in cells of the cardiovascular system. PPARγ appears to be highly expressed during atherosclerotic lesion formation, suggesting that increased PPARγ expression may be a vascular compensatory response. Also, ligand-activated PPARγ decreases the inflammatory response in cardiovascular cells, particularly in endothelial cells. PPARα, similar to PPARγ, also has pleiotropic effects in the cardiovascular system, including antiinflammatory and antiatherosclerotic properties. PPARα activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle proinflammatory responses, attenuating the development of atherosclerosis. However, PPARδ overexpression may lead to elevated macrophage inflammation and atherosclerosis. Conversely, PPARδ ligands are shown to attenuate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by improving endothelial cell proliferation and survival while decreasing endothelial cell inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Furthermore, the administration of PPAR ligands in the form of TZDs and fibrates has been disappointing in terms of markedly reducing cardiovascular events in the clinical setting. Therefore, a better understanding of PPAR-dependent and -independent signaling will provide the foundation for future research on the role of PPARs in human cardiovascular biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1415–1452. PMID:19061437

  6. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher P.; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R.; Omholt, Stig W.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O.; Watanabe, Sansuke M.; Blanco, Pablo J.; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well‐established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo‐skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real‐time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. PMID:27506597

  7. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  8. The cardiovascular system after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A.; Minson, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery from exercise refers to the time period between the end of a bout of exercise and the subsequent return to a resting or recovered state. It also refers to specific physiological processes or states occurring after exercise that are distinct from the physiology of either the exercising or the resting states. In this context, recovery of the cardiovascular system after exercise occurs across a period of minutes to hours, during which many characteristics of the system, even how it is controlled, change over time. Some of these changes may be necessary for long-term adaptation to exercise training, yet some can lead to cardiovascular instability during recovery. Furthermore, some of these changes may provide insight into when the cardiovascular system has recovered from prior training and is physiologically ready for additional training stress. This review focuses on the most consistently observed hemodynamic adjustments and the underlying causes that drive cardiovascular recovery and will highlight how they differ following resistance and aerobic exercise. Primary emphasis will be placed on the hypotensive effect of aerobic and resistance exercise and associated mechanisms that have clinical relevance, but if left unchecked, can progress to symptomatic hypotension and syncope. Finally, we focus on the practical application of this information to strategies to maximize the benefits of cardiovascular recovery, or minimize the vulnerabilities of this state. We will explore appropriate field measures, and discuss to what extent these can guide an athlete’s training. PMID:28153943

  9. Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Hyperaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejbisz, A; Warchoł-Celińska, E; Lenders, J W M; Januszewicz, A

    2015-12-01

    After the first cases of primary aldosteronism were described and characterized by Conn, a substantial body of experimental and clinical evidence about the long-term effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system was gathered over the last 5 decades. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism varies considerably between different studies among hypertensive patients, depending on patient selection, the used diagnostic methods, and the severity of hypertension. Prevalence rates vary from 4.6 to 16.6% in those studies in which confirmatory tests to diagnose primary aldosteronism were used. There is also growing evidence indicating that prolonged exposure to elevated aldosterone concentrations is associated with target organ damage in the heart, kidney, and arterial wall, and high cardiovascular risk in patients with primary aldosteronism. Therefore, the aim of treatment should not be confined to BP normalization and hypokalemia correction, but rather should focus on restoring the deleterious effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system. Current evidence convincingly demonstrates that both surgical and medical treatment strategies beneficially affect cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in the long term. Further studies can be expected to provide better insight into the relationship between cardiovascular risk and complications and the genetic background of primary aldosteronism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviranta, A-M; Rusbridge, C; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Hielm-Björkman, A; Lappalainen, A K; Knowler, S P; Jokinen, T S

    2017-11-01

    Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neurologic deficits and to investigate the association of CM/SM-related clinical signs with signalment, SM, or CCJ abnormalities. Fifty-three client-owned Chihuahuas. Prospective study. Questionnaire analyses and physical and neurologic examinations were obtained before magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. Images were evaluated for the presence of SM, CM, and atlantooccipital overlapping. Additionally, medullary kinking, dorsal spinal cord compression, and their sum indices were calculated. Scratching was the most common CM/SM-related clinical sign and decreased postural reaction the most common neurologic deficit in 73 and 87% of dogs, respectively. Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 100 and 38% of dogs, respectively. Syringomyelia was associated with the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs (P = 0.034), and medullary kinking and sum indices were higher in dogs with clinical signs (P = 0.016 and P = 0.007, respectively). Syringomyelia and CCJ abnormalities are prevalent in Chihuahuas. Syringomyelia was an important factor for the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs, but many dogs suffered from similar clinical signs without being affected by SM, highlighting the clinical importance of CCJ abnormalities in Chihuahuas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  12. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  13. [Indications for antidepressive agents in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Hrabánková, M

    1993-06-01

    Antidepressants, in particular tricyclic ones (TCA), and inhibitors of monoaminooxidase (IMAO) exert a number of undesirable cardiovascular effects. TCA and IMAO frequently cause postural hypotension (PH). IMAO administration is associated with the risk of hypertensive crisis. TCA raises the heart rate and can cause abnormalities in the conduction of the cardiac excitation. TCA are contraindicated after myocardial infarction and are the cause of death after overdosage. When PH is undesirable, in hypertension and cardiac insufficiency the following safe antidepressants are recommended: nortriptyline, mianserine, trazodone and viloxazine. In abnormalities of conduction of the cardiac excitation and after myocardial infarction only mianserine, trazodione and viloxazine are recommended. With regard to cardiovascular toxicity, antidepressants from the series of selective inhibitors of serotonin reabsorption are very promising: fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine and sertraline. The same applies also to the reversible IMAO type A moclobemide.

  14. Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Buus, Niels Henril; Sihm, Inger

    2007-01-01

    Objective Structural abnormality of resistance arteries is a characteristic pathophysiological phenomenon in essential hypertension and can be assessed in vitro as an increase in the media : lumen ratio (M : L) of isolated small arteries. We have investigated whether M: L is a risk predictor......). Conclusion Abnormal resistance artery structure independently predicts cardiovascular events in essential hypertensive patients at moderate risk. J Hypertens 25:1021-1026 Q 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Journal of Hypertension 2007, 25:1021-1026...... in uncomplicated essential hypertensive patients. Recently, high M: L was demonstrated as a prognostic marker in patients at high cardiovascular risk, including normotensive type 2 diabetic patients. Since diabetes is associated with pressure-independent changes in M: L, the relevance of this finding to essential...

  15. Cardiovascular function in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visca, Dina; Aiello, Marina; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well. Skeletal mass depletion, which is a common feature in COPD especially in pulmonary emphysema patients, may have also a role in cardiovascular function of these patients, irrespective of lung damage. We reviewed the emerging evidence that highlights the role of lung mechanics and muscle mass impairment on ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and stroke work at rest and on exercise in the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Patients with emphysema may differ among COPD population even in terms of cardiovascular function.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  17. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  18. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial perspectives in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; von Känel, Roland; Tully, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients' psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress. Co......-morbid depression and/or anxiety is prevalent in 20% of patients with cardiovascular disease, which may be either transient or chronic. Distress, such as depression, reduces adherence, serves as a barrier to behaviour change and the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, and increases the risk that patients drop out...

  20. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  1. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleman, Berthe M P; Moser, Elizabeth C; Nuver, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we......, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results...

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  3. Is cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS a real risk? Current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Kandaraki, Eleni; Papalou, Olga; Vryonidou, Andromachi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. PCOS incorporates not only symptoms related to the reproductive system but also a clustering of systemic metabolic abnormalities that are linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More specifically, metabolic aberrations such as impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, accompanied by increased low-grade inflammation as well as elevated coagulation factors appear to contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. Even though many studies have indicated a rise in surrogate biomarkers of CVD in women with PCOS, it is still doubtful to what extent and magnitude this elevation can be translated to real cardiovascular events. Furthermore, the cardiovascular risk factors appear to vary significantly in the different phenotypes of the syndrome. Women with PCOS have the potential for early atherosclerosis, myocardial and endothelial dysfunction. Whether PCOS women are at real cardiovascular risk compared to controls remains between the verge of theoretical and real threat for the PCOS women at any age but particularly in the post-menopausal state. Interestingly, although the presence of the CVD risk factors is well documented in PCOS women, their combination on different phenotypes may play a role, which eventually results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CVD with variable degree of severity. The present manuscript aims to review the interaction between PCOS and the combination of several cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. The phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels: a silent cause of cardiovascular border obliteration on chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, Shiri; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ogihara, Yukihiro; Aso, Nobuya; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to clarify the frequency of cardiovascular border obliteration on frontal chest radiography and to prove that the phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels can be considered as a cause of obliteration of cardiovascular border on an otherwise normal chest radiography. Two radiologists reviewed chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images of 100 individuals. CT confirmed the absence of intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary abnormalities in all of them. We examined the frequency of cardiovascular border obliteration on frontal chest radiography and summarized the causes of obliteration as pericardial fat pad, phrenic nerve, intrafissure fat, pulmonary vessels, and others, comparing them with CT in each case. Cardiovascular border was obliterated on frontal chest radiography in 46 cases on the right and in 61 on the left. The phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels was found to be a cause of obliteration in 34 of 46 cases (74%) on the right and 29 of 61 (48%) cases on the left. The phrenic nerve was the most frequent cause of cardiovascular border obliteration on both sides. The phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels, forming a prominent fold of parietal pleura, can be attributed as a cause of cardiovascular border obliteration on frontal chest radiography.

  5. Cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses to graded exercise in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen juvenile diabetics were studied in order to determine if decreased beat-to-beat variation during deep respiration, indicating abnormal autonomic nerve function, imply that cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses are impaired. Patients with decreased beat-to-beat variation had to...... to be more heavily stressed during exercise to reach a certain heart rate or catecholamine level. The relation between other metabolic and hormonal response is discussed....

  6. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on medical expenditure: evidence from epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have increasingly been raised about the medical economic burden in Japan, of which approximately 20% is attributable to cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Because the management of risk factors is essential for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, it is important to understand the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and medical expenditure in the Japanese population. However, only a few Japanese epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance have provided evidence on this topic. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may incur medical expenditures through treatment of the risk factors themselves and through procedures for associated diseases that usually require hospitalization and sometimes result in death. Untreated risk factors may cause medical expenditure surges, mainly due to long-term hospitalization, more often than risk factors preventively treated by medication. On an individual patient level, medical expenditures increase with the number of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. For single risk factors, personal medical expenditure may increase with the severity of that factor. However, on a population level, the medical economic burden attributable to cardiovascular risk factors results largely from a single, particularly prevalent risk factor, especially from mildly-to-moderately abnormal levels of the factor. Therefore, cardiovascular risk factors require management on the basis of both a cost-effective strategy of treating high-risk patients and a population strategy for reducing both the ill health and medical economic burdens that result from cardiovascular disease.

  7. [Otoneurologic abnormalities in insulin-dependent diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Renaud, K; Domínguez-Rubio, B; Ibarra-Olmos, A; González-Bárcena, D

    1998-01-01

    To assess the auditory and vestibular function in patients with diabetes. We studied and followed for three years, 10 patients (6 females) of 20.6 years of age (SD 5.5 years), with insulindependent diabetes mellitus of 9.5 years (SD 3.7 years). The patients were selected for having peripheral neuropathy without prolipherative retinopathy and otologic disease or individual factors which could cause neurootologic symptoms. Their glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were 150 mL/min (SD 50) and 543 mL/min (SD 113). Initially all patients had normal audiologic responses, including auditory brainstem responses, but had abnormally and simetrically diminished horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses. A year later one patient had vertigo and asymmetric vestibulo-ocular responses. In the third year, another patient showed similar abnormalities and a third one showed sensorineural hearing loss. Our results suggest that patients with insulindependent diabetes mellitus may suffer neuro-otological deterioration.

  8. Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2011-11-01

    Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder.

  9. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National......" the cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...

  10. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and documentation of medical history, diet, and lifestyle. Compared with controls, the risks of abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome in women with a history of GDM were 4.61, 1.30, 1.57 and 3.52, respectively. Fasting blood glucose, progestational body mass index (pBMI) and antenatal insulin resistance at antenatal visit were predictors for abnormal glucose metabolism. pBMI and antenatal diastolic blood pressure were predictors for hypertension. pBMI and weight gain during pregnancy were predictors for obesity/overweight. pBMI, antenatal systolic blood pressure and antenatal triglyceride were predictors for metabolic syndrome. Women with a history of GDM have increased rates of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome. pBMI is the common independent predictors of cardiometabolic disease in the post-partum.

  13. Venous abnormalities demonstrated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukune, Y; Ashida, H; Tokuda, M; Oyama, Y [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-05-01

    CT is capable of demonstrating various venous changes. However, little have been described on this subject in the literature. Examples of various venous abnormalities such as obstructed jugular vein, superior and inferior vena cava (IVC), tumor invasion of IVC and renal vein and venous changes in portal hypertension were presented. It was stressed that noninvasive CT is a good tool in diagnosis of some of venous changes and may be able to eliminate angiography in such cases.

  14. Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo; Silva, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 50 countries we evaluate firms´ abnormal retained earnings. The results of our work indicate that firms located in emerging markets retain more earnings than firms from developed countries. On the other hand, firms located on common law based countries retain earnings above the expected and higher than firms placed on civil law based countries. A possible explanation, according to our results, can be seen in the economic growth that these countries ...

  15. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  17. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour.

  18. Laryngopharyngeal abnormalities in hospitalized patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Gregory N; McGuirt, W Frederick; Butler, Susan G; Rees, Catherine J; Crandall, Heather L; Tansavatdi, Kristina

    2007-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of laryngopharyngeal (LP) abnormalities in hospitalized patients with dysphagia referred for flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Retrospective, blinded review by two otolaryngologists of 100 consecutive FEES studies performed and video-recorded by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Two otolaryngologists reviewed videos of 100 consecutive FEES studies on hospitalized patients with dysphagia for the presence of abnormal LP findings. Sixty-one male and 38 female patients comprised the hospital dysphagia cohort. The mean age was 62. One subject could not be evaluated because of the severity of the retained secretions, leaving 99 subjects in the cohort. Seventy-six percent had been previously intubated, with a mean intubation duration of 13 days. The overall prevalence of abnormal LP findings was 79%. Forty-five percent of the patients presented with two or more findings, which included arytenoid edema (33%), granuloma (31%), vocal fold paresis (24%), mucosal lesions (17%), vocal fold bowing (14%), diffuse edema (11%), airway stenosis (3%), and ulcer (6%). There was a significant difference in LP findings between those individuals who had or had not been intubated. Hospitalized patients with dysphagia are at high risk for LP abnormalities, particularly if they have been intubated, and may benefit from either 1) an initial joint examination by the SLP and otolaryngologist or 2) an otolaryngologist's review of the recorded examination conducted by the SLP. Such otolaryngology involvement could identify airway stenosis patients at an earlier stage, initiate granuloma treatment sooner, enable earlier biopsy of unexpected lesions, and allow follow-up of mucosal and neuromuscular findings that do not respond to medical management.

  19. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  20. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  1. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  2. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  3. Additional chromosome abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Hsiao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome and/or Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus oncogene transcript are unique markers for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. However, CML demonstrates heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. We analyzed the cytogenetic and molecular results of CML patients to evaluate their correlation with clinical presentations and outcome. A total of 84 newly diagnosed CML patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated according to disease status. Bone marrow samples were obtained to perform cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clinical presentations, treatment courses, and survival were reviewed retrospectively. Among 84 patients, 72 had chronic phase and 12 had accelerated phase CML. Cytogenetic study showed 69 (82.1% with the classic Ph chromosome, 6 (7.2% with a variant Ph chromosome, and 9 (10.7% with additional chromosome abnormalities. Fifty-four (64.3% cases harbored b3a2 transcripts, 29 (34.5% had b2a2 transcript, and 1 had e19a2 transcript. There was no difference in clinical presentations between different cytogenetic and molecular groups; however, additional chromosome abnormalities were significantly associated with the accelerated phase. Imatinib therapy was an effective treatment, as measured by cytogenetic response, when administered as first- and second-line therapy in chronic phase patients. Survival analysis showed that old age, additional chromosome abnormalities, high Sokal score, and no cytogenetic response in second-line therapy had a significant poor impact (p<0.05. In conclusion, we presented the cytogenetic and molecular pattern of CML patients and demonstrated that the additional chromosome abnormality was associated with poor outcome.

  4. Flow imaging of the cardiovascular system using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Sakakibara, Makoto; Sunami, Yuko

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow images by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.25 T unit were evaluated for nine normal volunteers and 108 subjects with a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities. Using the non-gated short-spin echo (SE) technique, blood flow in the cardiovascular systems was not imaged in the normal volunteers. Using end-systolic and end-diastolic SE techniques for the normal subjects, blood flow in the cardiac chambers was not clearly imaged. Blood flow in the ascending aorta and aortic arch often did not appear in the gated SE images of the normal subjects. However, blood flow in the descending aorta was often observed in the gated SE images. Blood flow imaging was demonstrated by both non-gated and gated SE techniques in regions where blood flow was relatively slow; for example, in the left atrium of mitral stenosis, in an aortic aneurysm, in a false lumen of an aortic dissection, and in the left ventricle having old myocardial infarction. Using the non-gated inversion recovery (IR) technique, no blood flow was imaged in the cardiovascular system except in the left atrium of one case with mitral stenosis. Using the non-gated short SE technique, there was good correlation between the thrombus formation and the presence of blood flow images in the left atria of 17 patients with mitral stenosis, and in the aneurysmal portions of the aorta or in the false lumens of aortic dissection of 18 patients. It was suggested that mural thrombi in such diseases were related to the relatively slow blood flow. Blood flow imaging easily distinguished stagnant blood flow from mural thrombi using non-gated short SE, end-systolic SE, and IR techniques. Thus, blood flow imaging using MRI should become an important means of evaluating the cardiovascular system. (author)

  5. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-03-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, these potential alternate causes should be considered. In this clinical review, we have presented a case of referred pain from the digastric muscle (Patient 1), of pulpectomized (Patient 2), and of pulpectomized pain (Patient 3) to illustrate referred, neuromodulatory, and neuropathic pain, respectively. The Patient 1 was advised muscle stretching and gentle massage of the trigger points, as well as pain relief using a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. The pain in Patient 2 was relieved completely by the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. In Patient 3, the pain was controlled using either a continuous drip infusion of adenosine triphosphate or intravenous Mg2+ and lidocaine administered every 2 weeks. In each case of abnormal dental pain, the patient's diagnostic chart was used (Fig.2 and 3). Pain was satisfactorily relieved in all cases.

  7. Abnormality diagnostic technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, it is feared that the failure of the installations containing radioactive substances may inflict serious damage on public and workers. Therefore in nuclear power plants, the ensuring of safety is planned by supposing hypothetical accidents which are not likely to occur from engineering viewpoint, and multiple protection measures are taken in the plant constitution. In addition to the safety measures from such hardware aspect, recently in order to prevent the occurrence of accidents by using various safety-confirming means, and to detect early when any accident occurred, the development and putting in practical use of many monitoring equipments have been promoted. In such background, the development of nuclear power generation supporting system was carried out for five years since fiscal year 1980, subsidized by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and in this report, the technology of equipment abnormality diagnosis developed as a part of that project and the diagnostic techniques for actual plants are described. The technology of diagnosing nuclear reactor abnormality includes the diagnosis of loose metal pieces and the abnormal vibration of in-core structures. The detection and diagnosis of valve leak and the diagnosis of the deterioration of detectors are also explained. (Kako, I.)

  8. Spermatogenesis Abnormalities following Hormonal Therapy in Transwomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirachai Jindarak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure spermatogenesis abnormalities in transwomen at the time of sex reassignment surgery (SRS and to analyze the association between hormonal therapy duration and infertility severity. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. University hospital. Patients. One-hundred seventy-three transwomen who underwent SRS from January 2000 to December 2015. Interventions. All orchidectomy specimens were retrospectively reviewed and classified. History of hormonal therapy duration was retrieved from medical records. Main Outcome Measures. Histological examinations of orchidectomy specimens were performed to assess spermatogenesis. Results. One-hundred seventy-three orchidectomy specimens were evaluated. Histological examinations showed maturation arrest in 36.4%, hypospermatogenesis in 26%, Sertoli cell-only syndrome in 20.2%, normal spermatogenesis in 11%, and seminiferous tubule hyalinization in 6.4% of the specimens. Spermatogenesis abnormality severity was not associated with the total therapy duration (P=0.81 or patient age at the time of surgery (P=0.88. Testicular volumes and sizes were associated with spermatogenesis abnormality severity (P=0.001 and P=0.026, right testicle and left testicle, resp.. Conclusion(s. Feminizing hormonal treatment leads to reductions in testicular germ cell levels. All transwomen should be warned about this consequence, and gamete preservation should be offered before starting hormonal treatment.

  9. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  10. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials of the effects of Vitamin E on complaints of intermittent claudication and angina pectoris are reviewed, and their methodological shortcomings are considered. Mechanisms by which Vitamin E might act in cardiovascular disease are discussed. The evidence about the possible

  12. The Relationship Between Microalbuminuria, Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background :In patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is an early clinical sign suggestive of vascular damage to the glomerulus. Microalbuminuria has also been currently reported as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and becomes relevant in the management of type 2 diabetes. Objectives :This ...

  13. Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zaragoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Animal models of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begoña; Mallavia, Beñat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  15. NKT cells in cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijvelde, van G.H.M.; Kuiper, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite life-style advice and the prescription of cholesterol-lowering and anti-thrombotic drugs, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies focussing on atherosclerosis, the major underlying pathology of

  16. NKT cells in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; Kuiper, Johan

    2017-12-05

    Despite life-style advice and the prescription of cholesterol-lowering and anti-thrombotic drugs, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies focussing on atherosclerosis, the major underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases characterized by an accumulation of lipids in an inflamed arterial/vessel wall. CD1d-restricted lipid-sensing natural killer T (NKT) cells, bridging the innate and adaptive immunity, and CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells are detected in atherosclerotic lesions of mice and humans. In this review we will summarize studies that point to a critical role for NKT cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases by the secretion of pro-atherogenic cytokines and cytotoxins. These pro-atherogenic NKT cells are potential targets for new therapeutic strategies in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, proteins transferring lipids during atherosclerosis, which are also important in the loading of lipids onto CD1d and possible endogenous ligands responsible for the activation of NKT cells during atherosclerosis will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzen, P.H.; Brennecke, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present book contains 27 papers presented at an international symposium on digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology held in Kiel in 1982. The main themes were as follows. Introductory reviews, digital systems for X-ray video imaging, quantitative X-ray image analysis, and clinical applications. (MG)

  18. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  19. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, S.E.P.; Aikawa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  20. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  1. Psychosocial perspectives in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, S.S.; von Kaenel, R.; Tully, P.J.; Denollet, J.

    Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients’ psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Hyperaldosteronism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Warchol-Celinska, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Januszewicz, A.

    2015-01-01

    After the first cases of primary aldosteronism were described and characterized by Conn, a substantial body of experimental and clinical evidence about the long-term effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system was gathered over the last 5 decades. The prevalence of primary

  3. Lipid measures and cardiovascular disease prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, D.F.; Stroes, E.S.G.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lipid measures are the cornerstone of risk assessment and treatment goals in cardiovascular prevention. Whereas the association between total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk has been generally acknowledged, the rather poor capacity to distinguish between patients

  4. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 16,2018 How much do ... Healthy This content was last reviewed July 2015. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  5. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  6. Machine learning based analysis of cardiovascular images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, JM

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary artery disease (CAD) and congenital heart disease (CHD) are the global leading cause of death. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular structures. This thesis presents machine

  7. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological

  8. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Tadjine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state

  9. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  10. Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

    2013-08-01

    Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may

  11. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  12. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  13. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu Beng

    2014-01-01

    As men grow older, testosterone (T) levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD. PMID:24407188

  14. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floras, John S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep apnea is evident in approximately 10% of adults in the general population, but in certain cardiovascular diseases, and in particular those characterized by sodium and water retention, its prevalence can exceed 50%. Although sleep apnea is not as yet integrated into formal cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms, there is increasing awareness of its importance in the causation or promotion of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and stroke, and thus, not surprisingly, as a predictor of premature cardiovascular death. Sleep apnea manifests as two principal phenotypes, both characterized by respiratory instability: obstructive (OSA), which arises when sleep-related withdrawal of respiratory drive to the upper airway dilator muscles is superimposed upon a narrow and highly compliant airway predisposed to collapse, and central (CSA), which occurs when the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide falls below the apnea threshold, resulting in withdrawal of central drive to respiratory muscles. The present objectives are to: (1) review the epidemiology and patho-physiology of OSA and CSA, with particular emphasis on the role of renal sodium retention in initiating and promoting these processes, and on population studies that reveal the long-term consequences of untreated OSA and CSA; (2) illustrate mechanical, autonomic, chemical, and inflammatory mechanisms by which OSA and CSA can increase cardiovascular risk and event rates by initiating or promoting hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke; (3) highlight insights from randomized trials in which treating sleep apnea was the specific target of therapy; (4) emphasize the present lack of evidence that treating sleep apnea reduces cardiovascular risk and the current clinical equipoise concerning treatment of asymptomatic patients with sleep apnea; and (5) consider clinical implications and future directions of clinical

  15. Congenital abnormalities associated with hemivertebrae in relation to hemivertebrae location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Gerard; Launay, Franck; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Viehweger, Elke; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Numerous congenital abnormalities have been reported in association with hemivertebrae (HV). No data exist about their incidence depending on the location of the HV. From 1980 to 2003, 75 patients with 80 HV responsible for evolutive congenital scoliosis were managed by HV resection using a double approach and short anterior and posterior convex fusion. The associated abnormalities were evaluated with MRI, echocardiography and renal ultrasound. Associated genitourinary abnormalities were found in 24% of patients, cardiac abnormalities in 8% and intrathecal abnormalities in 15%. Medullar abnormalities were more frequent in case of vertebral malformations at lumbosacral level.

  16. Ankle-brachial index and cardiovascular outcomes in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J Dawn; Lombardero, Manuel S; Barsness, Gregory W; Pena-Sing, Ivan; Buitrón, L Virginia; Singh, Premranjan; Woodhead, Gail; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Kelsey, Sheryl F

    2012-10-01

    Peripheral arterial disease increases cardiovascular risk in many patient populations. The risks associated with an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease have not been well described with respect to thresholds and types of cardiovascular events. We examined 2,368 patients in the BARI 2D trial who underwent ABI assessment at baseline. Death and major cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction and stroke) during follow-up (average 4.3 years) were assessed across the ABI spectrum and by categorized ABI: low (≤0.90), normal (0.91-1.3), high (>1.3), or noncompressible. A total of 12,568 person-years were available for mortality analysis. During follow-up, 316 patients died, and 549 had major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for potential confounders, with normal ABI as the referent group, a low ABI conferred an increased risk of death (relative risk [RR] 1.6, CI 1.2-2.2, P = .0005) and major cardiovascular events (RR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.7, P = .004). Patients with a high ABI had similar outcomes as patients with a normal ABI, but risk again increased in patients with a noncompressible ABI with a risk of death (RR 1.9, CI 1.3-2.8, P = .001) and major cardiovascular event (RR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.1, P = .01). In patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes, ABI screening and identification of ABI abnormalities including a low ABI (<1.0) or noncompressible artery provide incremental prognostic information. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational medical imaging and hemodynamics framework for functional analysis and assessment of cardiovascular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin K L; Wang, Defeng; Ko, Jacky K L; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Le, Thu-Thao; Ghista, Dhanjoo

    2017-03-21

    Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential. Some of these indicators constitute important cardiac functional parameters affecting the cardiovascular abnormalities. With the advancement of computer technology that facilitates high speed computational fluid dynamics, the realization of a support diagnostic platform of hemodynamics quantification and analysis can be achieved. This article reviews the state-of-the-art medical imaging and high fidelity multi-physics computational analyses that together enable reconstruction of cardiovascular structures and hemodynamic flow patterns within them, such as of the left ventricle (LV) and carotid bifurcations. The combined medical imaging and hemodynamic analysis enables us to study the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease-causing dysfunctions, such as how (1) cardiomyopathy causes left ventricular remodeling and loss of contractility leading to heart failure, and (2) modeling of LV construction and simulation of intra-LV hemodynamics can enable us to determine the optimum procedure of surgical ventriculation to restore its contractility and health This combined medical imaging and hemodynamics framework can potentially extend medical knowledge of cardiovascular defects and associated hemodynamic behavior and their surgical restoration, by means of an integrated medical image diagnostics and hemodynamic performance analysis framework.

  18. Resting cardiovascular function improvements in adult men ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired cardiovascular function increases the risk for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, renal disease and all-cause mortality. Research has demonstrated an inverse relationship between these cardiovascular impairments and exercise. However, previous research has mainly focused on aerobic training since ...

  19. 14 CFR 67.111 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.111 Section 67.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.111 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...

  20. 14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.311 Section 67.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...

  1. 14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.211 Section 67.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...

  2. Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Pooled Occupational Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew Steven; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew S; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Wood, Eric M; Kendall, Richard; Wertsch, Jacqueline; Foster, James; Garg, Arun; Drury, David L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain if cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) risk factors. Analysis of pooled baseline data from two large prospective cohort studies (n = 1824) assessed the relationships between a modified Framingham Heart Study CVD risk score both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study prevalence. Quantified job exposures, personal and psychosocial confounders were statistically controlled. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual risk scores. There was a strong relationship between CVD risk score and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study after adjustment for confounders, with odds ratios as high as 4.16 and 7.35, respectively. Dose responses were also observed. In this workplace population, there is a strong association between CVD risk scores and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study that persisted after controlling for confounders. These data suggest a potentially modifiable disease mechanism.

  3. Cardiovascular consequences of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Baan (Caroline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has

  4. Down syndrome: a cardiovascular perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skilful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart

  5. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazmi, Elham; Mousavi, Farinaz; Giahchin, Leila; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Behnoush, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography. Results A total of 230 patients (5.9%) had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9%) were <20 years old and 196 (85.2%) were male. In total, 119 (51.7%) used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3%) used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%), followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%). Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3%) of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD) was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%), three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings. PMID:28417026

  7. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Arnold H; Fenoy, Kathleen A

    2009-05-01

    Developmental remnants around the foramen magnum, or proatlas segmentation abnormalities, have been recorded in postmortem studies but very rarely in a clinical setting. Because of their rarity, the pathological anatomy has been misunderstood, and treatment has been fraught with failures. The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management. Our craniovertebral junction (CVJ) database started in 1977 and comprises 5200 cases. This prospective study has retrieval capabilities. Neurodiagnostic studies changed with the evolution of imaging. Seventy-two patients were recognized as having symptomatic proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Ventral bony masses from the clivus or medial occipital condyle occurred in 66% (44/72), lateral or anterolateral compressive masses in 37% (27 of 72 patients), and dorsal bony compression in 17% (12 of 72 patients). Hindbrain herniation was associated in 33%. The age at presentation was 3 to 23 years. Motor symptoms occurred in 72% (52 of 72 patients); palsies in Cranial Nerves IX, X, and XII in 33% (24 of 72 patients); and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 25% (18 of 72 patients). Trauma precipitated symptoms in 55% (40 of 72 patients). The best definition of the abnormality was demonstrated by 3-dimensional computed tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was aimed at decompression of the pathology and stabilization. Remnants of the occipital vertebrae around the foramen magnum were recognized in 72 of 5200 CVJ cases (7.2%). Magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional computed tomography of the CVJ provides the best definition and understanding of the lesions. Brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerve deficits are common clinical presentations in the first and second decades of life. Treatment is aimed at decompression of the pathology and CVJ stabilization.

  8. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  9. Wall motion abnormality of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Senji; Tsuda, Takashi; Ojima, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    By use of the gated blood pool scan, we divided the left ventricular LAO 45 image into 8 sections with the center of the volume as the basal point, and devised a method of quantitative evaluation of the regional wall motion from 2 aspects: 1) wall movement and 2) phase abnormality. To evaluate the wall movement, we obtained the following indeces from count curves of each section: 1) EF1=(end-diastolic count-end-systolic count)/ end-diastolic count, 2) EF2=(maximum count-minimum count)/maximum count, and 3) the difference of the two (EF2-EF1). As indeces of the phase abnormality, the mean value of phases of the pixels (phase characteristics) and the standard deviation (variation) of each section were calculated. Furthermore, the phase delay of each section was calculated as the difference from the earliest phase value of the 8 sections. Control values and standard deviation were obtained from 8 healthy controls. By this method, we analyzed 20 patients with old myocardial infarction. And following results were obtained: 1. Applying this method, we could evaluate the regional wall motion of the left ventricle more precisely, and we considered it would be useful clinically. 2. The abnormal regional wall motion of old myocardial infarction were classified into 4 typical forms as follows: 1) the wall movement decreased extremely. 2) the wall movement decreased, but no phase delay recognized. 3) the wall movement did not decrease, but phase delay was recognized. 4) the wall movement decreased, and phase delay was recognized. (author)

  10. Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

  11. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  12. Abnormalities of the external genitalia and groins among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    penoscrotal abnormalities are common in our community (36.20%). Screening of pre-school and school children to detect them should be introduced into the school health programs in Nigeria. Keywords: External genitalia, groin abnormalities, ...

  13. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED), guard cell length (GCL) and guard cell width (GCW) of normal and abnormal leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd were studied. This can be useful for further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. Epidermal cells were ...

  14. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haymon, M.L. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Willis, R.B. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics; Ehlayel, M.S. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics; Lacassie, Y. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics]|[Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1997-05-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi.

  15. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymon, M.L.; Willis, R.B.; Ehlayel, M.S.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Lacassie, Y.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Children's Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1997-01-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20 1 / 2 -year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi

  16. MR imaging of cerebral abnormalities in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thickman, D; Mintz, M; Mennuti, M; Kressel, H Y

    1984-12-01

    In view of the lack of ionizing radiation, ability to image in a variety of planes, and high contrast resolution, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may have a role in obstetrical management. Three fetuses with severe cerebral abnormalities were studied by MR in utero. The findings were correlated with ultrasound examinations and with autopsy results. Ventricular dilatation and progression of hydrocephalus were detected by MR. Although fetal motion may affect image quality, diagnostically useful images were obtained with imaging times of 2.5 min.

  17. Torpedo maculopathy: A primary choroidal capillary abnormality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Chawla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old healthy male patient's fundus revealed findings consistent with torpedo maculopathy. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a dome-shaped elevation of the retina at the level of ellipsoid zone. On OCT angiography segmented at the level of the choriocapillaris, a cluster of convoluted fine vessels was seen, and further, deeper scans of the larger choroidal vessels showed a slower flow. From these observations along with the embryological correlation of choriocapillaris development, a possibility of an abnormality preventing proper fenestration of the choriocapillaris along the horizontal raphe being responsible for this anomaly is suggested.

  18. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...

  19. Timing of Conduction Abnormalities Leading to Permanent Pacemaker Insertion After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation-A Single-Centre Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Daniel; Zivkovic, Nevena; Elbaz-Greener, Gabby; Singh, Sheldon M; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2017-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the preferred alternative to traditional surgical aortic valve replacement; however, it remains expensive. One potential driver of cost is the need for postprocedural monitoring for conduction abnormalities after TAVI. Given the paucity of literature on the optimal length of monitoring, we aimed to determine when clinically significant conduction abnormalities leading to permanent pacemaker (PPM) insertion after TAVI were first identified. We identified all patients in the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre TAVI registry (Toronto, Canada) who underwent TAVI between 2009 and 2016, excluding those with pre-existing PPMs or those who underwent emergency open heart surgery. Through dedicated chart review, the timing and type of conduction abnormalities leading to PPM were recorded. Patients were divided according to the timing of conduction abnormality: during the procedure vs after the procedure. The overall PPM insertion rate was 15.6% (80 of 512 cases), with all but 1 patient receiving a PPM for class I indications. PPMs were inserted for complete heart block/high-grade atrioventricular block (91.3%), severe sinus node dysfunction (3.8%), and alternating bundle branch block (3.8%). Of these conduction abnormalities, 55.0% occurred during the procedure (intraprocedure; n = 44 patients). The mean time to the development of a conduction abnormality necessitating PPM was 1.2 days (interquartile range, 0-2 days), with 88.8% occurring within 72 hours of the procedure (n = 71 patients). In the entire TAVI cohort, leading to PPM. The majority of conduction abnormalities leading to PPM insertion after TAVI occur in the very early periprocedural period, suggesting that early mobilization and discharge will be safe from a conduction standpoint. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J. Eapen, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. This article focuses on current guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and addresses management of key risk factors. Dietary modification, weight loss, exercise, and tobacco use cessation are specific areas where focused efforts can successfully reduce CVD risk on both an individual and a societal level. Specific areas requiring management include dyslipidemia, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, aspirin use, and alcohol intake. These preventive efforts have major public health implications. As the global population continues to grow, health care expenditures will also rise, with the potential to eventually overwhelm the health care system. Therefore it is imperative to apply our collective efforts on CVD prevention to improve the cardiovascular health of individuals, communities, and nations.

  1. Molecular imaging by cardiovascular MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    Do molecularly-targeted contrast agents have what it takes to usher in a paradigm shift as to how we will image cardiovascular disease in the near future? Moreover, are non-invasive vulnerable plaque detection and preemptive treatments with these novel nanoparticulate agents within reach for clinical applications? In this article, we attempt to make a compelling case for how the advent of molecularly-targeted nanoparticle technology may change the way we detect atherosclerotic lesions, determine their clinical significance and even provide non-invasive treatments. Focusing on imaging with cardiovascular MR, an overview of the latest developments in this rapidly evolving field of so-called "intelligent" contrast agents that are able to interrogate the vascular wall and various complementary advanced imaging technologies are presented.

  2. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  3. Hiperhomocisteinemia e o risco cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gannabathula Sree Vani

    2002-01-01

    Nível elevado de homocisteína (Hcy) no plasma é considerado fator de risco de doença cardiovascular. Consumo reduzido de vitaminas B6, B12 e ácido fólico tem sido relacionado com hiperhomocisteinemia. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar o consumo de vitaminas B6, B12 e ácido fólico nas populações urbana e rural, bem como a correlação dos níveis plasmáticos dessas vitaminas com os níveis plasmáticos de Hcy. Também determinamos os níveis séricos de lipídeos e avaliamos o risco cardiovascular ...

  4. Erectile dysfunction in the cardiovascular patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Jackson, Graham; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Montorsi, Piero

    2013-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is common in the patient with cardiovascular disease. It is an important component of the quality of life and it also confers an independent risk for future cardiovascular events. The usual 3-year time period between the onset of erectile dysfunction symptoms and a cardiovascular event offers an opportunity for risk mitigation. Thus, sexual function should be incorporated into cardiovascular disease risk assessment for all men. A comprehensive approach to cardiovascular risk reduction (comprising of both lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatment) improves overall vascular health, including sexual function. Proper sexual counselling improves the quality of life and increases adherence to medication. This review explores the critical connection between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease and evaluates how this relationship may influence clinical practice. Algorithms for the management of patient with erectile dysfunction according to the risk for sexual activity and future cardiovascular events are proposed.

  5. Unknown and abnormal accumulation in the chest in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Masashi; Tokunaga, Koji; Maeda, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiko.

    1979-01-01

    In scintigraphies of forty patients with hemiplegia following appoplexia, focal abnormal accumulations in the chest region were seen in bone scintigraphies of four patients. These hot accumulations could be neither rib fracture, rib metastases, nor abnormal calcium accumulation. A mechanism of these accumulation remains to undicided. We believe that this phenomena is related to abnormal bone metabolism in hemiplegial condition. (author)

  6. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  7. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of gases, liquids and PM (particulate matter). In the modern urban world, PM is principally derived from fossil fuel combustion with individual constituents varying in size from a few nanometres to 10 microm in diameter. In addition to the ambient concentration, the pollution source and chemical composition may play roles in determining the biological toxicity and subsequent health effects. Nevertheless, studies from across the world have consistently shown that both short- and long-term exposures to PM are associated with a host of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischaemia and infarctions, heart failure, arrhythmias, strokes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Evidence from cellular/toxicological experiments, controlled animal and human exposures and human panel studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which particle exposure may both trigger acute events as well as prompt the chronic development of cardiovascular diseases. PM inhaled into the pulmonary tree may instigate remote cardiovascular health effects via three general pathways: instigation of systemic inflammation and/or oxidative stress, alterations in autonomic balance, and potentially by direct actions upon the vasculature of particle constituents capable of reaching the systemic circulation. In turn, these responses have been shown to trigger acute arterial vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmias and pro-coagulant/thrombotic actions. Finally, long-term exposure has been shown to enhance the chronic genesis of atherosclerosis. Although the risk to one individual at any single time point is small, given the prodigious number of people continuously exposed, PM air pollution imparts a tremendous burden to the global public health, ranking it as the 13th leading cause of morality (approx. 800,000 annual deaths).

  8. Emotion, motivation, and cardiovascular response

    OpenAIRE

    Kreibig Sylvia D

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) response consists of changes in CV parameters such as heart rate blood pressure and heart contraction force in reaction to an event or set of events. It is significant for multiple reasons perhaps most notably because research suggests that it affects the development and progression of heart disease. Disease models vary but most assume that characteristically strong and prolonged CV responses confer health risk. Psychologists have long suspected linkages between motivation...

  9. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  10. Apolipoprotein E and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moreno Valladares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E is a polymorphic glycoprotein who interacts with the lipoprotein receptors (LRP-Receptor Related Protein and the receptors for low density lipoproteins of (LDL receptors. When lipoproteins bring up the receptors begins lipids captation and degradation which allows cholesterol utilization, taking place an intracellular auto regulation. The three isoforms of greater importance: Apo E2, E3 and E4 are product of three alleles e2, e3, e4 of one only gene. This factor is related with the amount of lipoproteins that contains ApoE for E/B receptors. A low concentration of lipoproteins with ApoE can increase the activity of LDL receptors and consequently downward the circulating LDL. In the other hand particles with Apo E3 or Apo E4, can cause a downward regulation of LDL and in this way produces a LDL plasma elevation. Many studies in human populations have concluded that this polymorphism of apoE and the plasma variation of lipoproteins are associated with cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular disease is the result of different interaction between factors which are genetic factor specially ApoE polymorphism e4 allelic of ApoE can explain, in some degree, the greater frequency of cardiovascular disease in those who carries it.

  11. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiNicolantonio JJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA study significantly reduced major cardiovascular events despite a small reduction (approximately 4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure from baseline.2,3 Additionally, the average baseline blood pressure in the EUROPA was just 137/82 mmHg, and in those without hypertension, perindopril still provided a 20% reduction in the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.4,5 In fact, patients receiving perindopril with a baseline systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg had the greatest reduction in the primary event.6 View original paper by Wang and colleagues. 

  12. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  13. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  14. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  15. Riesgo cardiovascular, una herramienta útil para la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares Cardiovascular risk, a useful tool for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vega Abascal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo cardiovascular se define como la probabilidad de padecer un evento cardiovascular en un determinado período. Mejorar la exactitud en la predicción del riesgo requiere la evaluación y el tratamiento de múltiples factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los que tienen un efecto sinérgico, más que aditivo, sobre el riesgo cardiovascular total. El cálculo utilizando métodos cuantitativos es más preciso que el obtenido con métodos cualitativos. La predicción del riesgo cardiovascular ha constituido, en los últimos años, la piedra angular en las guías clínicas de prevención cardiovascular, y deviene una herramienta útil del Médico de Familia para establecer prioridades en la atención primaria, mejorando la atención a los pacientes y eligiendo más eficazmente la terapéutica a seguir, con el objetivo de acercarnos más a la realidad multifactorial de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su prevención.The cardiovascular risk is defined like a probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in a determined period. To improve the accuracy in risk prediction requires the assessment and treatment of different cardiovascular risk factors, which have a synergistic effect more than additive on the total cardiovascular risk. The calculus using quantitative methods is more accurate than that obtained with qualitative methods. The prediction of cardiovascular risk has been in past years the cornerstone in clinical guidances of cardiovascular prevention and becomes an useful tool for Family Physician to establish priorities in the primary care, improving the patients care and selecting in a more effective way the therapy to be followed to bring closer more to multifactor reality of cardiovascular diseases and its prevention.

  16. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  17. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  18. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.

  19. Structural brain abnormalities in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Stephanie E E C; van der Wee, Nic J A; van der Werff, Steven J A

    2018-05-08

    Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome. Recent findings are of particular interest because they provide more detailed information on localization of the structural changes as well as possible insights into the underlying biological processes. Active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome is related to volume reductions of the hippocampus and in a prefrontal region involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG). Whilst there are indications that the reductions in hippocampal volume are partially reversible, the changes in the ACC and MFG appear to be more persistent. In contrast to the volumetric findings, changes in white matter connectivity are typically widespread involving multiple tracts.

  20. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  1. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  2. Retinal Layer Abnormalities as Biomarkers of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Niraj N; Proudlock, Frank A; Siram, Vasantha; Suraweera, Chathurie; Hutchinson, Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2018-06-06

    Schizophrenia is associated with several brain deficits, as well as visual processing deficits, but clinically useful biomarkers are elusive. We hypothesized that retinal layer changes, noninvasively visualized using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), may represent a possible "window" to these abnormalities. A Leica EnvisuTM SD-OCT device was used to obtain high-resolution central foveal B-scans in both eyes of 35 patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched controls. Manual retinal layer segmentation was performed to acquire individual and combined layer thickness measurements in 3 macular regions. Contrast sensitivity was measured at 3 spatial frequencies in a subgroup of each cohort. Differences were compared using adjusted linear models and significantly different layer measures in patients underwent Spearman Rank correlations with contrast sensitivity, quantified symptoms severity, disease duration, and antipsychotic medication dose. Total retinal and photoreceptor complex thickness was reduced in all regions in patients (P layer (P layer (P layer thickness (R = -.47, P = .005). Our novel findings demonstrate considerable retinal layer abnormalities in schizophrenia that are related to clinical features and visual function. With time, SD-OCT could provide easily-measurable biomarkers to facilitate clinical assessment and further our understanding of the disease.

  3. State of cardiovascular system during exercise in sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usanov D.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the state of cardiovascular system of sportsmen involved in rowing and canoeing, both before and after training. Material et methods: The research has been performed by means of the developed mobile devices that allow non-invasive screening assessment of the potential risk of collapse complications. Results: The article outlines the results of the survey carried out to determine the presence of vagotonic tone with deficient activity supply and abnormal pulse wave that may lead to circulatory collapse in exercise. Conclusion: The technique of pulse wave and vegetative regulation assessment before and after training enables to prevent the circulatory collapse development in stressful physical exertion in sportsmen.

  4. Cardiovascular disease in the polycystic ovary syndrome: new insights and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussons, Andrea J; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Watts, Gerald F

    2006-04-01

    The new millennium has brought intense focus of interest on the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women characterised by hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhoea. Most women with PCOS also exhibit features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidaemia. While the association with type 2 diabetes is well established, whether the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increased in women with PCOS remains unclear. Echocardiography, imaging of coronary and carotid arteries, and assessments of both endothelial function and arterial stiffness have recently been employed to address this question. These studies have collectively demonstrated both structural and functional abnormalities of the cardiovascular system in PCOS. These alterations, however, appear to be related to the presence of individual cardiovascular risk factors, particularly insulin resistance, rather than to the presence of PCOS and hyperandrogenaemia per se. However, given the inferential nature of the evidence to date, more rigorous cohort studies of long-term cardiovascular outcomes and clinical trials of risk factor modification are required in women with PCOS.

  5. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes: clinical impact, assessment, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy; Bernardi, Luciano; Frontoni, Simona; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Stevens, Martin; Kempler, Peter; Hilsted, Jannik; Tesfaye, Solomon; Low, Phillip; Valensi, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: (1) one abnormal cardiovagal test result identifies possible or early CAN; (2) at least two abnormal cardiovagal test results are required for definite or confirmed CAN; and (3) the presence of orthostatic hypotension in addition to abnormal heart rate test results identifies severe or advanced CAN. Progressive stages of CAN are associated with increasingly worse prognosis. CAN assessment is relevant in clinical practice for (1) diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, (2) detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, non-dipping, QT interval prolongation), (3) risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and (4) modulation of targets of diabetes therapy. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CAN testing is lacking. Apart from the preventive role of intensive glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes, recommendations cannot be made for most therapeutic approaches to CAN. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Real-time Multiple Abnormality Detection in Video Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Simon Hartmann; Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in video sequences has recently gained an increasing attention within the research community. Although progress has been seen, there are still some limitations in current research. While most systems are designed at detecting specific abnormality, others which...... are capable of detecting more than two types of abnormalities rely on heavy computation. Therefore, we provide a framework for detecting abnormalities in video surveillance by using multiple features and cascade classifiers, yet achieve above real-time processing speed. Experimental results on two datasets...... show that the proposed framework can reliably detect abnormalities in the video sequence, outperforming the current state-of-the-art methods....

  7. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet

    2016-10-17

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  9. Report to congress on abnormal occurrences: January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1992. The abnormal occurrences involving medical therapy misadministrations at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant, and none were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  10. FORECASTING OF SURVIVAL OF CHILDREN WITH THE PRENATALLY DIAGNOSED PATHOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Валериевна Дубовая

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective methods for the analysis and prognosis of the survival of newborns with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system are the urgent task of modern medicine. Objective – a neural network model for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was developed. Materials and methods. To create the artificial neural networks, the method of constructing multifactor mathematical prediction models in the software package Statistica 6.0 was used. The significance level of the factors influencing the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was determined using Wald statistics. When checking statistical hypotheses, the critical level of significance was assumed to be 0,05. Results. A neural network model for the determination of the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system, which has a high prognostic ability of 0,88, sensitivity of the model was 77,6 %, specificity 86,4 %. The value of prognostic survival probability is in the range from 0 to 100 %. With an indicator value of more than 80 %, the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system is estimated as high, ranging from 20 % to 80 % – as an average and less than 20 % – as low. Conclusion. In the algorithm for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system it is necessary to include a combination with other pathology of cardiovascular system, with other organs and systems, with chromosomal abnormalities, with microdeletion and monogenic syndromes.

  11. Application of acoustic microscopy to assessment of cardiovascular biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Hidehiko; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Motonao; Joergensen, Claus S.; Falk, Erling

    2002-11-01

    Acoustic microscopy provides information on physical and mechanical properties of biological tissues, while optical microscopy with various staining techniques provides chemical properties. The biomechanics of tissues is especially important in cardiovascular system because its pathophysiology is closely related with mechanical stresses such as blood pressure or blood flow. A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) system with tone-burst ultrasound in the frequency range of 100-200 MHz has been developed, and attenuation and sound speed of tissues have been measured. In human coronary arteries, attenuation and sound speed were high in calcification and collagen, while both values were low in smooth muscle and lipid. Another SAM system with 800-MHz-1.3-GHz ultrasound was applied for aortas of Apo-E deficient mouse, which is known to develop atherosclerosis. Attenuation of ultrasound was significantly higher in type 1 collagen compared to type 3 collagen. Recently, a new type FFT-SAM using a single-pulse, broadband frequency range ultrasound (20-150 MHz) has been developed. Cardiac allograft was observed by FFT-SAM and the acoustic properties were able to grade allograft rejection. SAM provides very useful information for assessing cardiovascular biomechanics and for understanding normal and abnormal images of clinical ultrasound.

  12. New trends in chromosomal investigation in children with cardiovascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellberg, Ruth; Schwanitz, Gesa; Grävinghoff, Lutz; Kallenberg, Rolf; Trost, Detlef; Raff, Ruth; Wiebe, Walter

    2004-12-01

    We investigated a group of 376 children, seen over a period of 7 years with different types of congenital cardiovascular defects, to assess the presence of chromosomal aberrations. The diagnostic approach, achieved in 3 consecutive steps, revealed conventional chromosomal aberrations in 30 of the patients (8%) excluding trisomies 13, 18, 21. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation for microdeletions showed 51 microdeletions (15%), with 43 patients having deletions of 22q11.2, 7 patients with deletion of 7q11.23, and 1 patient with deletion of 4p16.3. In 23 patients with additional clinical abnormalities, we carried out a subtelomeric screening. This revealed, in two cases (9%), different subtelomeric aberrations, namely deletions of 1p and of 1q. Thus, subtelomeric screening proved to be a very valuable as a new diagnostic approach. Our approach to genetic investigation in three phases makes it possible to detect a high rate of pathologic karyotypes in patients with congenital cardiovascular malformations, thus guaranteeing more effective genetic counselling of the families, and a more precise prognosis for the patient.

  13. Cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine disorders, affecting 5-10% of the female population of reproductive age. "Classic" PCOS is characterized by clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism and oligo-ovulation. According to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria, two additional phenotypes are recognized: (1) the ovulatory patient with androgen excess and polycystic ovarian morphology and (2) the anovulatory patient with polycystic ovarian morphology without androgen excess. PCOS is associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile, consisting of increased total or central adiposity, increased blood pressure, a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, increased inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Furthermore, the incidence of overt or gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as of preeclampsia is significantly higher in PCOS patients. Among the various PCOS phenotypes, those with evidence of androgen excess have the highest burden of cardiovascular risk. Studies evaluating the incidence of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with PCOS are extremely sparse. The available data so far indicate that coronary heart disease, as well as cerebrovascular disease is more common in postmenopausal PCOS patients. Persisting high androgen levels through the menopause, obesity and maturity onset diabetes mellitus are proposed as the main mechanisms accounting for the increased risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic syndrome in an Hispanic population–cardiovascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I. Altieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS is presently one of the main medical problems in developing countries. This syndrome was studied in Puerto Rico at the Cardiovascular Center of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean with emphasis on understanding the cardiovascular complications. The medical records of patients admitted between 1999 to 2005 were evaluated for three or more MetS diagnostic criteria. One hundred and seventy-three patients met the consensus criteria of metabolic syndrome (MetS. The mean age of those diagnosed with MetS was 60 years of age. Fifty-seven percent were males and 42 percent females. The mean body mass was 30 kg/m. The ejection fraction was found to be subnormal (49±8% and the end systolic dimension of the left atrium was increased ( 45±10 mm in comparison to a group of diabetic patients without MetS used for comparison. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was found to be 16% higher in the MetS group than in the comparison group. The number of cases of metabolic syndrome recorded within the Hispanic population of Puerto Rico showed a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation without ventricular tachycardia. This is thought to be as a result of the abnormal left ventricular and atrial function.

  15. ECG gated NMR-CT for cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, J.; Machida, K.; Iio, M.; Yoshimoto, N.; Sugimoto, T.; Kawaguchi, H.; Mano, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors applied NMR-CT to cardiac study with ECG gated technique to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function and compared it with cardiovascular nuclear medicine study (NM). The NMR-CT machine has resistive air-core magnet with 0.15 Tesla. The saturation recovery image or inversion recovery image were obtained as 256 x 256 matrix and 15 mm in thickness. The study population was ten patients who were evaluated both by NMR image and by NM performed within one week interval. The heart muscle was able to be visualized without any contrast material nor radioisotopes in inversion recovery images, whereas saturation recovery images failed to separate heart muscle from blood pool. The wall motions of LV in both methods were well correlated except for inferior wall. The values of ejection fraction in NMR image were moderately low, but two modalities showed satisfactory correlation (r=0.85). The region of myocardial infarction was revealed as wall thinning and/or wall motion abnormality. It is still preliminary to draw a conclusion, however, it can be said that in the evaluation of LV function, method by NMR might be of equal value to those of NM. It can be certain that eventually gated NMR-CT will become more effective method for various aspects of cardiovascular evaluation

  16. Gab Docking Proteins in Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakaoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The docking proteins of the Grb2-associated binder (Gab family have emerged as crucial signaling compartments in metazoans. In mammals, the Gab proteins, consisting of Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3, are involved in the amplification and integration of signal transduction evoked by a variety of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, antigens, and other molecules. Gab proteins lack the enzymatic activity themselves; however, when phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, they provide binding sites for multiple Src homology-2 (SH2 domain-containing proteins, such as SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85, phospholipase Cγ, Crk, and GC-GAP. Through these interactions, the Gab proteins transduce signals from activated receptors into pathways with distinct biological functions, thereby contributing to signal diversification. They are known to play crucial roles in numerous physiological processes through their associations with SHP2 and p85. In addition, abnormal Gab protein signaling has been linked to human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. In this paper, we provide an overview of the structure, effector functions, and regulation of the Gab docking proteins, with a special focus on their associations with cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammation.

  17. Effects of Intensive Statin Therapy on Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auscher, Søren; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with greater mortality and adverse cardiovascular effects. As statins possess a range of beneficial pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system, we sought to assess the cardioprotective...... effects of statins on left ventricular function in patients with AMI in relation to glycometabolic state. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized trial, 140 patients with AMI were randomized to intensive statin therapy receiving statin loading with 80 mg of rosuvastatin followed by 40 mg daily or standard...... statin therapy. Patients were assessed with an oral glucose tolerance test and their left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography measuring regional longitudinal systolic strain (RLSS) in the infarct area. RESULTS: Overall RLSS in the infarct area improved by a mean...

  18. Equipment abnormality monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Asakura, Yamato; Uemura, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Oyamada, Osamu; Oyobe, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    In the present invention, it is judged whether the operation state of equipments used in a plant are normal or not by using learning performances. That is, a plurality of monitoring parameters are measured for an equipment. Previously determined monitoring parameters are extracted. A leaning mode or a monitoring mode is selected. In the leaning mode, based on the values of previously determined monitoring parameters, values of other monitoring parameters during normal states are learned. In the monitoring mode, based on the values of the previously determined monitoring parameters, typical values of other leaned monitoring parameters are outputted. The typical values of other normal monitoring parameters after learning and the values of other parameters at the present time are compared. If the values of the other parameters at the present time are out of normal range, it is judged as abnormal, and the result is alarmed and displayed. (I.S.)

  19. Central nervous system abnormalities in vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Emma; Graziottin, Alessandra; Priori, Alberto; Dall'ora, Elisa; Didonè, Giuseppe; Garbin, Emilio Luigi; Vicentini, Silvana; Bertolasi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To investigate possible altered CNS excitability in vaginismus. In 10 patients with primary idiopathic lifelong vaginismus, 10 with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome accompanied by vaginismus and healthy controls we recorded EMG activity from the levator ani (LA) and external anal sphincter (EAS) muscles and tested bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR). Pudendal-nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were tested after a single stimulus. Pudendal-nerve SEP recovery functions were assessed using a paired conditioning-test paradigm at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 5, 20 and 40ms. EMG in patients showed muscular hyperactivity at rest and reduced inhibition during straining. The BCR polysynaptic R2 had larger amplitude (pvaginismus. The neurophysiological abnormalities in patients with vaginismus indicate concomitant CNS changes in this disorder.

  20. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. RSNA, 2015

  1. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion

  2. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  3. Abnormal neuronal migration: radiologic-clinic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Fernandez, M.; Menor Serrano, F.; Bordon Ferre, F.; Garcia Tena, J.; Esteban Hernandez, E.; Sanguesa Nebot, C.; Marti Bonnati, L.

    1994-01-01

    We present our experience in 18 pediatric patients with abnormal neuronal migration. Seven cases of heterotopia of the gray matter, 7 agyria-pachygyria complexes, 1 case of polymicrogyria, 2 cases of schizencephaly and 1 case of hemimegalencephaly were diagnosed by means of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. The clinical picture was reviewed in each case, with special attention to the occurrence of convulsions, psycho motor development and visual changes. In general, the greater the morphological change, the greater the neurological involvement in these patients. However, the two cases of schizencephaly presented mild clinical expression. Magnetic resonance increases the diagnostic yield in neuronal migration disorders. Nevertheless, either ultrasonography or, especially, computed tomography is useful as a first diagnostic approach in these malformative disorders. (Author)

  4. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  6. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Głuszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for

  7. Calcium as a cardiovascular toxin in CKD-MBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Sharon M

    2017-07-01

    Disordered calcium balance and homeostasis are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Such alterations are commonly associated with abnormal bone remodeling, directly and indirectly. Similarly, positive calcium balance may also be a factor in the pathogenesis of extra skeletal soft tissue and arterial calcification. Calcium may directly affect cardiac structure and function through direct effects to alter cell signaling due to abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis 2) extra-skeletal deposition of calcium and phosphate in the myocardium and small cardiac arterioles, 3) inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcium and hormone activation of NFAT signaling mechanisms, and 4) increased aorta calcification resulting in chronic increased afterload leading to hypertrophy. Similarly, calcium may alter vascular smooth muscle cell function and affect cell signaling which may predispose to a proliferative phenotype important in arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification. Thus, disorders of calcium balance and homeostasis due to CKD-MBD may play a role in the high cardiovascular burden observed in patients with CKD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density

  9. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...

  10. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by various oxygen containing free radicals and reactive species (collectively called "Reactive Oxygen Species" or ROS has long been attributed to cardiovascular diseases. In human body, major oxidizing species are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxy nitrite etc. ROS are produced from distinct cellular sources, enzymatic and non-enzymatic; have specific physicochemical properties and often have specific cellular targets. Although early studies in nineteen sixties and seventies highlighted the deleterious effects of these species, later it was established that they also act as physiological modulators of cellular functions and diseases occur only when ROS production is deregulated. One of the major sources of cellular ROS is Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxes that are expressed in almost all cell types. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated from them under various conditions act as signal transducers. Due to their immense importance in cellular physiology, various Nox inhibitors are now being developed as therapeutics. Another free radical of importance in cardiovascular system is nitric oxide (a reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide synthase(s. It plays a critical role in cardiac function and its dysregulated generation along with superoxide leads to the formation of peroxynitrite a highly deleterious agent. Despite overwhelming evidences of association between increased level of ROS and cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant therapies using vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids have largely been unsuccessful till date. Also, there are major discrepancies between studies with laboratory animals and human trials. It thus appears that the biology of ROS is far complex than anticipated before. A comprehensive understanding of the redox biology of diseases is thus needed for developing targeted therapeutics.

  11. Can cardiovascular magnetic resonance prompt early cardiovascular/rheumatic treatment in autoimmune rheumatic diseases? Current practice and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Sfikakis, Petros P; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Koutsogeorgopoulou, Loukia; Katsifis, Gikas; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kitas, George D

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) remains lower compared to the general population, due to various comoborbidities. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the main contributor to premature mortality. Conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have considerably improved long-term outcomes in ARDs not only by suppressing systemic inflammation but also by lowering CVD burden. Regarding atherosclerotic disease prevention, EULAR has recommended tight disease control accompanied by regular assessment of traditional CVD risk factors and lifestyle changes. However, this approach, although rational and evidence-based, does not account for important issues such as myocardial inflammation and the long asymptomatic period that usually proceeds clinical manifestations of CVD disease in ARDs before or after the diagnosis of systemic disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can offer reliable, reproducible and operator independent information regarding myocardial inflammation, ischemia and fibrosis. Some studies suggest a role for CMR in the risk stratification of ARDs and demonstrate that oedema/fibrosis visualisation with CMR may have the potential to inform cardiac and rheumatic treatment modification in ARDs with or without abnormal routine cardiac evaluation. In this review, we discuss how CMR findings could influence anti-rheumatic treatment decisions targeting optimal control of both systemic and myocardial inflammation irrespective of clinical manifestations of cardiac disease. CMR can provide a different approach that is very promising for risk stratification and treatment modification; however, further studies are needed before the inclusion of CMR in the routine evaluation and treatment of patients with ARDs.

  12. Cardiovascular screening in Turner syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, K.L.; Wright, A.M.; Pitlick, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the utility of MR imaging as a cardiovascular screening method in patients with Turner syndrome and to compare its utility with that of echocardiography. Forty females with karytotypically proved Turner syndrome were prospectively evaluated with MR imaging and echocardiography. A 0.38-T resistive magnet was used to obtain ECG-gated axial and off-sagittal oblique images through the thorax with a spin-echo pulse sequence and TR 400--600 msec, TE 15--30 msec. Two-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography were performed and standard echocardiographic views were obtained

  13. Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Madani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Recently, cell therapy has sparked a revolution in ischemic heart disease that will in the future help clinicians to cure patients. Earlier investigations in animal models and clinical trials have suggested that positive paracrine effects such as neoangiogenesis and anti-apoptotic can improve myocardial function. In this regard the Royan cell therapy center designed a few trials in collaboration with multi hospitals such as Baqiyatallah, Shahid Lavasani, Tehran Heart Center, Shahid rajaee, Masih daneshvari, Imam Reza, Razavi and Sasan from 2006. Their results were interesting. However, cardiac stem cell therapy still faces great challenges in optimizing the treatment of patients. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Cell therapy.  

  14. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  15. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clar,Christine; Oseni,Zainab; Flowers,Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi,Maryam; Rees,Karen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Coch...

  16. The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo

    1994-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies was evaluated. Pelvic MRI was carried out on 29 cases suspected of abnormal pregnancy by ultrasonography and clinical examinations. The abnormal pregnancies were classified into three categories: (1) maternal abnormalities, (2) fetal abnormalities and (3) placental abnormalities. MRI was of great value for the diagnosis of maternal abnormalities, particularly in cases of coexistent pelvic tumor. MRI allowed diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and dermoid cyst through its excellent tissue characterization and broad range of vision. MRI was useful in making diagnoses of fetal central nervous anomalies and fetal death, since the lack of fetal movement and the lesions were clear enough to be detected by MRI. However, anomalies in the fetal trunk or extremities could only be demonstrated, but not diagnosed, by MRI owing to its inferior spatial and time resolution. MRI showed placenta accreta and placental hematoma. Although accurate diagnosis was difficult because of their rarity, MRI revealed the hemorrhagic component of the lesions, which was not shown by ultrasonography. The author believes MRI has potential usefulness in making diagnoses of placental abnormalities through its tissue characterization. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the soft tissue characterization, field of view, while MRI was inferior in time and spatial resolution. In summary, MRI hould be used in case of abnormal pregnancies such as pelvic tumors, fetal nervous anomalies and placental hemorrhagic lesions. MRI will become useful for the diagnosis of other abnormalities as its spatial resolution and fast scan technology advances. (author)

  17. The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The clinical usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies was evaluated. Pelvic MRI was carried out on 29 cases suspected of abnormal pregnancy by ultrasonography and clinical examinations. The abnormal pregnancies were classified into three categories: (1) maternal abnormalities, (2) fetal abnormalities and (3) placental abnormalities. MRI was of great value for the diagnosis of maternal abnormalities, particularly in cases of coexistent pelvic tumor. MRI allowed diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and dermoid cyst through its excellent tissue characterization and broad range of vision. MRI was useful in making diagnoses of fetal central nervous anomalies and fetal death, since the lack of fetal movement and the lesions were clear enough to be detected by MRI. However, anomalies in the fetal trunk or extremities could only be demonstrated, but not diagnosed, by MRI owing to its inferior spatial and time resolution. MRI showed placenta accreta and placental hematoma. Although accurate diagnosis was difficult because of their rarity, MRI revealed the hemorrhagic component of the lesions, which was not shown by ultrasonography. The author believes MRI has potential usefulness in making diagnoses of placental abnormalities through its tissue characterization. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the soft tissue characterization, field of view, while MRI was inferior in time and spatial resolution. In summary, MRI hould be used in case of abnormal pregnancies such as pelvic tumors, fetal nervous anomalies and placental hemorrhagic lesions. MRI will become useful for the diagnosis of other abnormalities as its spatial resolution and fast scan technology advances. (author).

  18. Association of diastolic blood pressure with cardiovascular events in older people varies upon cardiovascular history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W.; Muller, Majon; de Craen, Anton J .M.

    2018-01-01

    with those with normal DBP. After further adjusting for cardiovascular factors, this association attenuated to 1.05 (0.86; 1.28). A previous history of cardiovascular disease significantly modified the relation between DBP and risk of cardiovascular events (P-interaction 0.042). In participants without......BACKGROUND: In older age, a low DBP has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, especially in frail older people. We tested the hypothesis that low DBP is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events in people with a previous history of cardiovascular disease......-90 mmHg) or high (>90 mmHg). Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI); analyses were stratified for cardiovascular history. RESULTS: Participants with low DBP had a 1.24-fold (1.04; 1.49) increased risk of cardiovascular events compared...

  19. Increased susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapcaicin in resuscitated rats. Cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the extern...

  20. Cardiovascular death and manic-depressive psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, A; Juel, K; Vaeth, M

    2013-01-01

    In order to study if tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCA) in therapeutic doses increase the risk of death due to cardiovascular causes, the relative mortality from cardiovascular diseases was studied in two large groups of first hospitalized manic-depressive patients, one from the TCA era...... to the general population. Among 1133 such cases admitted between 1950 and 1956, the rate was 1.87. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that TCA contribute to the cardiovascular mortality in manic-depressives and even support suggestions that TCA treatment may lower the risk of death by cardiovascular...

  1. Sleep apnoea syndromes and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperell, Justin C

    2011-06-01

    Management of SAS and cardiovascular disease risk should be closely linked. It is important to screen for cardiovascular disease risk in patients with SAS and vice versa. CSA/CSR may be improved by ventilation strategies in heart failure, but benefit remains to be proven. For OSA, although CPAP may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, its main benefit is symptom control. In the longer-term, CPAP should be used alongside standard cardiovascular risk reduction strategies including robust weight management programmes, with referral for bariatric surgery in appropriate cases. CPAP and NIV should be considered for acute admissions with decompensated cardiac failure.

  2. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Nuver, Janine; Suter, Thomas M.; Maraldo, Maja V.; Specht, Lena; Vrieling, Conny; Darby, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we describe current knowledge of the cardiotoxicity arising from cancer treatments, outline gaps in knowledge, and indicate directions for future research and guideline development, as discussed during the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Better knowledge is needed of the late effects of modern systemic treatments and of radiotherapy to critical structures of the heart, including the effect of both radiation dose and volume of the heart exposed. Research elucidating the extent to which treatments interact in causing CVD, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results. Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines for CVD following cancer are also needed. Finally, risk prediction models should be developed to guide primary treatment choice and appropriate follow up after cancer treatment. PMID:26217163

  3. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  4. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  5. Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ping Chen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As in other Western countries, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death among women in Taiwan, exceeding the mortality from cervical or breast cancer. Women generally present with CVD after menopause and later than men, since menopause-related estrogen deficiency has been considered to be associated with an increased risk for CVD. Thus, coronary artery diseases and stroke are the two main contributors of mortality among postmenopausal women. Observational studies have reported a reduction in coronary artery disease risk after hormone therapy (HT ranging from 31-44%. However, recent randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of HT on primary and secondary CVD prevention have questioned the efficacy of HT, despite confirming the lipid-lowering effect of estrogen. However, a cluster of factors are responsible for the genesis and progression of CVD. Until we further evaluate their specific actions and how these different factors interact, the issue related to HT and cardiovascular risk will remain unsettled. Since these studies have contributed to our understanding of the benefits and risks associated with HT, HT use should be individualized after consideration of the condition of each postmenopausal patient. Ideally, the efficacy of different preparations and dosages of HT in postmenopausal women who are at risk of CVD, before atheromatous lesions have developed, should be investigated.

  6. Dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the detection of myocardial ischemia with the use of myocardial tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Ho, Kai Yiu J A M; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of high-dose dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with myocardial tagging for the detection of wall motion abnormalities as a measure of myocardial ischemia in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Two hundred eleven consecutive patients with chest pain underwent dobutamine-CMR 4 days after antianginal medication was stopped. Dobutamine-CMR was performed at rest and during increasing doses of dobutamine. Cine-images were acquired during breath-hold with and without myocardial tagging at 3 short-axis levels. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment short-axis model. Patients with new wall motion abnormalities (NWMA) were examined by coronary angiography. Dobutamine-CMR was successfully performed in 194 patients. Dobutamine-CMR without tagging detected NWMA in 58 patients, whereas NWMA were detected in 68 patients with tagging (P=0.002, McNemar). Coronary angiography showed coronary artery disease in 65 (96%) of these 68 patients. All but 3 of the 65 patients needed revascularization. In the 112 patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study, without baseline wall motion abnormalities, the cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 98.2% during the mean follow-up period of 17.3 months (range, 7 to 31). Dobutamine-CMR with myocardial tagging detected more NWMA compared with dobutamine-CMR without tagging and reliably separated patients with a normal life expectancy from those at increased risk of major adverse cardiac events.

  7. Imaging Characteristics of Venous Parenchymal Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Audrey; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Andriuta, Daniela; Wallon, David; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Leclercq, Claire; Martinaud, Olivier; Castier-Amouyel, Mélody; Godefroy, Olivier; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    There are few published data on the patterns of parenchymal imaging abnormalities in a context of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of parenchymal lesions associated with CVT and to determine the lesion sites. We included 44 consecutively hospitalized patients with CVT and parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of CVT had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns for CVT were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the lesion's type, shape, and site. The most frequent stroke subtype was hemorrhagic ischemia (in 56.8% of cases), followed by intracerebral hematoma (in 22.72% of cases) and nonhemorrhagic ischemia (in 20.45% of cases). Although there were no significant differences between these 3 groups with regard to the clinical and radiological characteristics, we observed a nonsignificant trend ( P =0.08) toward a shorter time interval between hospital admission and magnetic resonance imaging for nonhemorrhagic stroke. The CVT parenchymal abnormalities were centered on 6 main foci and were related to the site of venous occlusion: (1) the inferior parietal lobule (n=20; 44.5%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=10) or pure cortical veins (n=10); (2) the inferior and posterior temporal regions (n=10; 22.75%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=9); (3) the parasagittal frontal region (n=6; 13.6%), associated mainly with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus (n=4) or the transverse sinus (n=4); (4) the thalamus (n=5; 11.3%) associated with occlusion of the straight sinus (n=5); (5) the cerebellar hemisphere (n=2; 4.5%), associated in both cases with occlusion of the transverse sinus; and (6) the deep hemispheric regions (n=3; 6.8%), associated with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus in all cases. Parenchymal lesions caused by CVT display specific

  8. G protein abnormalities in pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, A; Lania, A; Ballarè, E

    1998-07-25

    It has been demonstrated that the majority of secreting and nonsecreting adenomas is monoclonal in origin suggesting that these neoplasia arise from the replication of a single mutated cell, in which growth advantage results from either activation of protooncogenes or inactivation of antioncogenes. Although a large number of genes has been screened for mutations, only few genetic abnormalities have been found in pituitary tumors such as allelic deletion of chromosome 11q13 where the MEN-1 gene has been localised, and mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory Gs and Gi2 protein. These mutations constitutively activate the alpha subunit of the Gs and Gi2 protein by inhibiting their intrinsic GTPase activity. Both Gs alpha and Gi2alpha can be considered products of protooncogenes (gsp and gip2, respectively) since gain of function mutations that activate mitogenic signals have been recognized in human tumors. Gsp oncogene is found in 30-40% of GH-secreting adenomas, in a low percentage of nonfunctioning and ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, in toxic thyroid adenomas and differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The same mutations, occurred early in embriogenesis, have been also identified in tissues from patients affected with the McCune Albright syndrome. These mutations result in an increased cAMP production and in the subsequent overactivation of specific pathways involved in both cell growth and specific programmes of cell differentiation. By consequence, the endocrine tumors expressing gsp oncogene retain differentiated functions. The gip2 oncogene has been identified in about 10% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, in tumors of the ovary and the adrenal cortex. However, it remains to be established whether Gi proteins activate mitogenic signals in pituitary cells. Since Gi proteins are involved in mediating the effect of inhibitory neurohormones on intracellular effectors, it has been proposed that in pituitary tumors the low expression of

  9. Antenatal diagnosis and management of urinary abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodny, A H

    1987-10-01

    Although much time, effort, and money have been expended in the area of fetal surgery and even though considerable unfortunate media publicity has resulted, the actual clinical problem is not one of great magnitude. Currently all those interested in this area agree that consideration of any intrauterine manipulation or surgery should be reserved for a fetus who has bilateral involvement that is progressive, destructive, and associated with oligohydramnios. Except for rare instances, this eliminates all fetuses except those with some type of urethral obstruction. Significant urethral obstruction accounts for approximately 10 per cent of all patients who have a prenatal diagnosis of a urologic abnormality. Of this 10 per cent, some will not be progressive, some will not be destructive, some will not involve both kidneys, and some will not develop oligohydramnios. Some of these patients will be diagnosed early enough in pregnancy to allow termination of the pregnancy if the involvement is significant and if termination is acceptable to the family. Some will be diagnosed late enough in pregnancy so that if the lungs are mature or can be stimulated to mature, early delivery and postnatal management can be elected. Some will have other associated lethal anomalies that can be diagnosed and would preclude any consideration of intrauterine manipulation or therapy. Some will have irreversible renal failure. Occasionally, the mother may refuse any proposed intrauterine therapy. Thus we are probably considering, on a theoretic basis, well under 1 per cent of all fetuses who have a prenatal diagnosis of urologic abnormalities. There may be some unusual situations that justify intrauterine manipulation. One that we encountered involved a fetus with an abdominal mass so large that a cesarean section was deemed necessary (Figs. 12 and 13). Aspiration of the mass just before delivery was performed to allow a vaginal delivery. Another case involved a pregnant woman who developed

  10. Abnormal global and local event detection in compressive sensing domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Qiao, Meina; Chen, Jie; Wang, Chuanyun; Zhang, Wenjia; Snoussi, Hichem

    2018-05-01

    Abnormal event detection, also known as anomaly detection, is one challenging task in security video surveillance. It is important to develop effective and robust movement representation models for global and local abnormal event detection to fight against factors such as occlusion and illumination change. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed. It can locate the abnormal events on one frame, and detect the global abnormal frame. The proposed algorithm employs a sparse measurement matrix designed to represent the movement feature based on optical flow efficiently. Then, the abnormal detection mission is constructed as a one-class classification task via merely learning from the training normal samples. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm performs well on the benchmark abnormal detection datasets against state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Abnormal global and local event detection in compressive sensing domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal event detection, also known as anomaly detection, is one challenging task in security video surveillance. It is important to develop effective and robust movement representation models for global and local abnormal event detection to fight against factors such as occlusion and illumination change. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed. It can locate the abnormal events on one frame, and detect the global abnormal frame. The proposed algorithm employs a sparse measurement matrix designed to represent the movement feature based on optical flow efficiently. Then, the abnormal detection mission is constructed as a one-class classification task via merely learning from the training normal samples. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm performs well on the benchmark abnormal detection datasets against state-of-the-art methods.

  12. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  13. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Uenguer, Savas; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Tuerkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  14. Abnormal norepinephrine clearance and adrenergic receptor sensitivity in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Shannon, J. R.; Costa, F.; Furlan, R.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by symptoms of inadequate cerebral perfusion with standing, in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension. A heart rate increase of >/=30 bpm is typical. Possible underlying pathophysiologies include hypovolemia, partial dysautonomia, or a primary hyperadrenergic state. We tested the hypothesis that patients with OI have functional abnormalities in autonomic neurons regulating cardiovascular responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen patients with chronic OI and 10 control subjects underwent a battery of autonomic tests. Systemic norepinephrine (NE) kinetics were determined with the patients supine and standing before and after tyramine administration. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity, hemodynamic responses to bolus injections of adrenergic agonists, and intrinsic heart rate were determined. Resting supine NE spillover and clearance were similar in both groups. With standing, patients had a greater decrease in NE clearance than control subjects (55+/-5% versus 30+/-7%, Pheart rate 25 bpm was lower in patients than in control subjects (0.5+/-0.05 versus 1.0+/-0.1 microg, Pheart rate was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased NE clearance with standing, resistance to the NE-releasing effect of tyramine, and increased sensitivity to adrenergic agonists demonstrate dramatically disordered sympathetic cardiovascular regulation in patients with chronic OI.

  15. Arthropathy of the abnormal temporo-mandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfel, G.; Gausch, K.; Waldhart, E.

    1984-05-01

    Arthrography provides accurate information concerning abnormal changes and function of the soft tissue components of the T.M.J. It is superior to all other clinical and radiological methods of examination for elucidating functional abnormalities. The increasing incidence of functional T.M.J. abnormalities and improvements in treatment make arthrography of the T.M.J. of increasing importance. The importance of views in the sagittal plane and of video recordings is stressed. 3 figs.

  16. Adenosine deaminase organic effect in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, A.M.; Samarai, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of the organic substances on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Various concentrations of 2-mercaptopurine, Ame-tycine, Adenosine analogues (Guanine, Thymine) and ATP were tested to see their effect on ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF. ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF was remarkably decreased with the increasing of concentrations of substances tested. These effects may have important therapeutic implications. (author)

  17. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  18. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  19. Pathophysiology of somatosensory abnormalities in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Khan, Nashaba; Defazio, Giovanni; Rothwell, John C; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Changes in sensory function that have been described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can be either 'pure' disorders of conscious perception such as elevations in sensory threshold, or disorders of sensorimotor integration, in which the interaction between sensory input and motor output is altered. In this article, we review the extensive evidence for disrupted tactile, nociceptive, thermal and proprioceptive sensations in PD, as well as the influences exerted on these sensations by dopaminergic therapy and deep brain stimulation. We argue that abnormal spatial and temporal processing of sensory information produces incorrect signals for the preparation and execution of voluntary movement. Sensory deficits are likely to be a consequence of the dopaminergic denervation of the basal ganglia that is the hallmark of PD. A possible mechanism to account for somatosensory deficits is one in which disease-related dopaminergic denervation leads to a loss of response specificity, resulting in transmission of noisier and less-differentiated information to cortical regions. Changes in pain perception might have a different explanation, possibly involving disease-related effects outside the basal ganglia, including involvement of peripheral pain receptors, as well as structures such as the periaqueductal grey matter and non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems.

  20. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The presence of brain dysfunction in violent offenders has been frequently examined with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to assess the EEG of 84 violent offenders by visual inspection and frequency-domain quantitative analysis in 84 violent prisoners. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was also employed for theta band of the EEG spectra. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was present in 50 of the offenders and it was absent in the remaining 34. The prevalence of EEG abnormalities, by visual inspection, was similar for both the ASPD group (82%) and non-ASPD group (79%). The brain topography of these anomalies also did not differ between groups, in contrast to results of the EEG quantitative analysis (QEEG) and LORETA that showed remarkable regional differences between both groups. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excess of theta-delta activities and decrease of alpha band on the right fronto-temporal and left temporo-parietal regions in the ASPD group. LORETA signified an increase of theta activity (5.08 Hz) in ASPD group relative to non-ASPD group within left temporal and parietal regions. Findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with ASPD, which was not obvious to visual inspection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.