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Sample records for cardiorespiratory fitness skeletal

  1. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  2. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

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    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities-A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels have been found in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), which puts them at higher risk for cardiovascula

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and death from cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer...... using a bicycle ergometer test and analysed in multivariable Cox models including conventional risk factors, social class and self-reported physical activity. Death from cancer and all-cause mortality was assessed using Danish national registers. Follow-up was 100% complete. RESULTS: In total, 5131 men...... were included, mean (SD) age 48.8 (5.4) years. During 44 years of follow-up, 4486 subjects died (87.4%), 1527 (29.8%) from cancer. In multivariable models, CRF was highly significantly inversely associated with death from cancer and all-cause mortality ((HR (95% CI)) 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90) and 0.89 (0...

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function in Midlife: Neuroprotection or Neuroselection?

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    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Israel, Salomon; Blumenthal, James A.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if better cognitive functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals reflects “neuroprotection,” in which fitness protects against age-related cognitive decline, or “neuroselection,” in which children with higher cognitive functioning select into more active lifestyles. Methods Children in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1,037) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Trail-Making, Rey-Delayed-Recall, and Grooved-Pegboard tasks as children and again at midlife (age-38). Adult cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a submaximal exercise test to estimate maximum-oxygen-consumption-adjusted-for-body-weight in milliliters/minute/kilogram (VO2max). We tested if more-fit individuals had better cognitive functioning than their less-fit counterparts (which could be consistent with neuroprotection), and if better childhood cognitive functioning predisposed to better adult cardiorespiratory fitness (neuroselection). Finally, we examined possible mechanisms of neuroselection. Results Participants with better cardiorespiratory fitness had higher cognitive test scores at midlife. However, fitness-associated advantages in cognitive functioning were present already in childhood. After accounting for childhood-baseline performance on the same cognitive tests, there was no association between cardiorespiratory fitness and midlife cognitive functioning. Socioeconomic and health advantages in childhood, and healthier lifestyles during young adulthood explained most of the association between childhood cognitive functioning and adult cardiorespiratory fitness. Interpretation We found no evidence for a neuroprotective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness as of midlife. Instead, children with better cognitive functioning are selecting into healthier lives. Fitness interventions may enhance cognitive functioning. But, observational and experimental studies testing neuroprotective effects of physical fitness should consider

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Risk, and Inflammation in Children

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    Antonios D. Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and C-reactive protein (CRP in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years. Data was obtained for children’s anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (<0.001 and CRP (<0.007, compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Risk, and Inflammation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulos, Antonios D.; Douda, Helen T.; Tokmakidis, Savvas P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years). Data was obtained for children’s anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, w...

  8. Self-reported occupational physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Methods Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards...... found for all-cause mortality. Conclusion These findings may have important implications for CVD prevention among workers with excessive cardiovascular strain at work....

  9. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatto, Giseli; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the economic level (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by economic level, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Conclusions: Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and economic level. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. PMID:27131896

  10. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic control, and fat distribution in type 2 diabetes subjects.

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    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Tarperi, Cantor; Baraldo, Anna; Faccioli, Niccolò; Milanese, Chiara; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Lanza, Massimo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonora, Enzo; Schena, Federico; Moghetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness typical of sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal and skeletal muscle fat content in 39 untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, 27 males and 12 females (mean ± SD age 56.5 ± 7.3 year, BMI 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were assessed by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate visceral, total subcutaneous (SAT), superficial (SSAT) and deep sub-depots of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as well as femoral quadriceps skeletal muscle fat content. In univariate analysis, both VO2peak and VO2VT were inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, SAT, SSAT, and sagittal abdominal diameter. VO2peak was also inversely associated with skeletal muscle fat content. A significant direct association was observed between VO2VT and insulin sensitivity. No associations between cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and metabolic profile data were found. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for age and gender, VO2peak was independently predicted by higher HDL cholesterol, and lower SAD and skeletal muscle fat content (R (2) = 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas VO2VT was predicted only by sagittal abdominal diameter (R (2) = 0.48, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, peak oxygen uptake is associated with sagittal abdominal diameter, skeletal muscle fat content, and HDL cholesterol levels. Future research should target these features in prospective intervention studies.

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness and laboratory stress: a meta-regression analysis.

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    Jackson, Erica M; Dishman, Rod K

    2006-01-01

    We performed a meta-regression analysis of 73 studies that examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness mitigates cardiovascular responses during and after acute laboratory stress in humans. The cumulative evidence indicates that fitness is related to slightly greater reactivity, but better recovery. However, effects varied according to several study features and were smallest in the better controlled studies. Fitness did not mitigate integrated stress responses such as heart rate and blood pressure, which were the focus of most of the studies we reviewed. Nonetheless, potentially important areas, particularly hemodynamic and vascular responses, have been understudied. Women, racial/ethnic groups, and cardiovascular patients were underrepresented. Randomized controlled trials, including naturalistic studies of real-life responses, are needed to clarify whether a change in fitness alters putative stress mechanisms linked with cardiovascular health.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Coronary Artery Calcification in Young Adults: The CARDIA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chong-Do; Jacobs, David R; Hankinson, Arlene; Iribarren, Carlos; SIDNEY, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Whether cardiorespiratory fitness relates to early subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease remains unknown. We investigated the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 2373 African-American and White young adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness in 1985-1986 (baseline) using a symptom-limited exercise test on a treadmill. Coronary calcium scores were measured in 2001-200...

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

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    Moreira Helena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years, whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720 and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min. The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  14. Contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness to the obesity paradox.

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    McAuley, Paul A; Beavers, Kristen M

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been overlooked as a potential modifier of the inverse association between obesity and mortality (the so-called obesity paradox), observed in patients with known or suspected cardiovascular (CV) disease. Evidence from five observational cohort studies of 30,104 patients (87% male) with CV disease indicates that CRF significantly alters the obesity paradox. There is general agreement across studies that the obesity paradox persists among patients with low CRF, regardless of whether adiposity is assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, or percentage body fat. However, among patients with high CRF, risk of all-cause mortality is lowest for the overweight category in some, but not all, studies, suggesting that higher levels of fitness may modify the relationship between body fatness and survival in patients manifesting an obesity paradox. Further study is needed to better characterize the joint contribution of CRF and obesity on mortality in diverse populations.

  15. A review of cardiorespiratory fitness-related neuroplasticity in the aging brain

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    Scott M Hayes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and the brain in older adults has increased rapidly, with 30 of 34 studies published since 2008. Here we review cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies in older adults examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain structure and function, typically assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Studies of patients with Alzheimer’s disease are discussed when available. The structural MRI studies revealed a consistent positive relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume in cortical regions including anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. Support for a positive relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and medial temporal lobe volume was less consistent, although evident when a region-of-interest approach was implemented. In fMRI studies, cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults was associated with activation in similar regions as those identified in the structural studies, including anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex, despite heterogeneity among the functional tasks implemented. This comprehensive review highlights the overlap in brain regions showing a positive relationship with cardiorespiratory fitness in both structural and functional imaging modalities. The findings suggest that aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to healthy brain aging, although additional studies in Alzheimer’s disease are needed.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Schoolchildren.

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    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Daza, Fernando; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in schoolchildren. A secondary aim was to evaluate the degree of association between overall and abdominal adiposity and CRF in a total of 1,875 children and adolescents attending public schools. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption. A CVRF ( Z score) was calculated and participants were divided into tertiles according to low and high levels of overall (sum of the skinfold thicknesses) and abdominal adiposity. Schoolchildren with a high-level of overall adiposity demonstrated significant differences in seven of the 10 variables analyzed (i.e., systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglycerides/high density lipoproteins [HDL-c] ratio, total cholesterol, glucose, C-reactive protein [usCRP], HDL-c, low density lipoproteins [LDL-c], and cardiovascular risk score). Schoolchildren with high levels of both overall and abdominal adiposity and low CRF had the least favorable CVRF score.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness predicts insulin action and secretion in healthy individuals.

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    Larsen, Filip J; Anderson, Martin; Ekblom, Björn; Nyström, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Long-term cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus are inversely correlated. Here, we examined the relationships between peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak), on the one hand, and glucose infusion rate at rest (GIR(rest)) and during exercise (GIR(exercise)), as well as insulin secretion (both the early and late phases of response [area under the curve {AUC}(insulin)]), on the other. Eight male and 4 female healthy, lean, nonsmoking volunteers were recruited. The VO(2)peak was measured during graded exercise on a cycle ergometer until exhaustion was reached. The GIR(rest) and GIR(exercise) were determined using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and insulin secretion at rest was evaluated with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The VO(2)peak correlated positively to GIR(rest) (r = 0.81, P = .001) and GIR(exercise) (r = 0.87, P exercise) (r = 0.86, P healthy population, CRF and RER were highly correlated to insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as to the ability to alter the substrate being oxidized during exercise. These findings highlight the importance of good CRF to maintaining normal insulin action.

  18. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Influence of Amyloid on Cognition.

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    Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Einerson, Jean; Korcarz, Claudia E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Christian, Bradley T; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Stein, James H; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal African-American Women.

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    Adams-Campbell, L L; Dash, C; Kim, B H; Hicks, J; Makambi, K; Hagberg, J

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. Pooled baseline data on 170 African-American women from 2 exercise trials were examined. Metabolic syndrome was defined as at least 3 of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high triglycerides. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was determined using the Bruce treadmill protocol and categorized as: Very Low (VLCRF22.0 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)). Associations of metabolic syndrome with cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and linear regression. VO2peak was significantly lower in the VLCRF compared to the MCRF group. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL among overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. In fully adjusted models, higher waist circumference and triglycerides were associated with lower VO2peak levels (Pmetabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and unhealthier levels of certain metabolic syndrome components than women with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness.

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Flexible Modulation of Cognitive Control in Preadolescent Children

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    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Cohen, Neal J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on the modulation of cognitive control was assessed in preadolescent children separated into higher- and lower-fit groups. Participants completed compatible and incompatible stimulus-response conditions of a modified flanker task, consisting of congruent and incongruent arrays, while ERPs and task…

  1. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

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    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  2. Sedentary time and vigorous physical activity are independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school youth.

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    Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Evenson, Kelly R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a diverse sample of youth. Participants were recruited from three middle schools and completed assessments of height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness, and wore an accelerometer for a minimum of four days. Hierarchical general linear models controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and sex were used to evaluate the association of time (minutes per day) spent sedentary, and in moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity with cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., heart rate response [beats per minute], dependent variable). Results indicated age (β = -0.16, P 0.05) and vigorous (β = -0.22, P engaging in vigorous activity.

  3. The association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. METHOD: Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish...... in a maximal cycle exercise test. RESULTS: A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self...... municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output...

  4. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high......The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were...... measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR...

  5. Status of police officers with regard to selected cardio-respiratory and body compositional fitness variables.

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    Stamford, B A; Weltman, A; Moffatt, R J; Fulco, C

    1978-01-01

    Physical performance and body composition characteristics of members (n = 75) and recruits (n = 61) of the Louisville Police Department (total n = 136) were assessed. Members were randomly selected males and ranged in age from 20 to 55 years and were ranked from the newest inductee through and including the Chief of Police. Members between the ages of 20 and 29 years assigned to active duty possessed average cardio-respiratory fitness (Vo2max). With age, cardio-respiratory fitness decreased and body weight and body fatness progressively increased. Male and female recruits entering basic training also demonstrated average cardio-respiratory fitness. Significant (P less than .05) increases for males and females in Vo2max and decreases in body fatness (males) were found following 4 months of physically rigorous recruit training. Fifteen of the male recruits who completed training were retested following 1 year of active duty. During active duty, physical activity involvement was limited to job requirements with no additional physical training imposed. Cardio-respiratory fitness and body fatness reverted to pre-training levels. It was concluded that the physical demands associated with police work are too low to permit maintenance of physical fitness.

  6. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lin Hsieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.

  7. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

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    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  8. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length.

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    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.

  9. Physical activity energy expenditure vs cardiorespiratory fitness level in impaired glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Lærke P; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Johansen, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Little is known about the relative roles of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as determinants of glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of PAEE and CRF with markers of glucose metabolism, and to test...

  10. The Sexual Dimorphic Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Working Memory in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Davis Moore, R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the sexual dimorphic patterns of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in preadolescent children (age range: 7.7-10.9). Data were collected in three separate studies (Study 1: n = 97, 42 females; Study 2: n = 95, 45 females; Study 3: n = 84, 37 females). All participants completed a cardiorespiratory…

  11. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are beneficial for white matter in low-fit older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zofia Burzynska

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60-78. Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle.

  12. The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, & electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Moore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems, which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs. No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d’ scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170 and late ERP components (P3, N400 were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3 and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Atherosclerosis: Recent Data and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Emile; Hamik, Anne; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, the relationship between exercise and the cardiovascular system was viewed as unidirectional, with a disease resulting in exercise limitation and hazard. This article reviews and explores the bidirectional nature, delineating the effects, generally positive, on the cardiovascular system and atherosclerosis. Exercise augments eNOS, affects redox potential, and favorably affects mediators of atherosclerosis including lipids, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. There are direct effects on the vasculature as well as indirect benefits related to exercise-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle. Application of aerobic exercise to specific populations is described, with the hope that this knowledge will move the science forward and improve individual patient outcome.

  14. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

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    Viinamäki Heimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67% more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness.

  16. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): effects on strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzelsberger, B; Stöggl, T; Lindinger, S J; Dirnberger, J; Stadlmann, M; Buchecker, M; Hofstaedter, T; Gordon, K; Müller, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-week recreational skiing intervention on lower limb muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in participants with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-seven older adults (70 ± 5 years) were assigned to the intervention (n = 13) or control group (n = 14) after surgery (2.5 ± 1 years). Leg muscle strength was measured using an IsoMed 2000 dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by cycle ergometry before and after the intervention as well as after an 8-week retention period. The skiing intervention led to increased muscle strength in the operated leg during unilateral single joint isometric extension (maximal force: 11%; P torque development: 24%; P < 0.05) and during the unilateral multi-joint isokinetic single leg strength test (8%; P < 0.05). This resulted in a decreased asymmetry index in the isokinetic test (13% to 5%; P < 0.05). These adaptations remained unchanged toward the retention test. No effect was observed for cardiorespiratory fitness. The results demonstrate that muscle contraction forces required during recreational skiing in individuals with TKA seem adequate and effective to increase quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength in the initially weaker operated leg and to reduce an augmented post-operative asymmetry index.

  17. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness in 16 025 adults aged 18-91 years and associations with physical activity and sitting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, L; Grønbaek, M; Helge, J W; Tolstrup, J S

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who were sedentary. Among sedentary or lightly physically active participants, inverse associations between total daily sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness were found, while there was no association between sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness among moderately or vigorously physically active participants. These data on cardiorespiratory fitness can serve as useful reference material. Although reluctant to conclude on causality, sitting time might impact cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with low levels of leisure time physical activity.

  20. Insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure: contribution of abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Maxime; Arsenault, Benoit J; Gaudreault, Valérie; Poirier, Paul; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance and low cardiorespiratory fitness are frequently found to have an increased waist circumference and high exercise blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that the relationships among insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure may be mediated by an elevated waist circumference. This study included 317 apparently healthy men and women (mean age: 34.8±12.8 years; mean body mass index: 26.1±5.2 kg/m(2)). Exercise blood pressure values were measured using a submaximal ergometer test evaluating physical working capacity. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were measured during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariate regression analyses showed that waist circumference accounted for 32.8% (Pexercise systolic blood pressure in men and women, respectively. Participants were classified into tertiles according to either insulin response, measured during the oral glucose tolerance test, or fitness levels and then further subdivided into 2 subgroups using sex-specific waist circumference thresholds. Individuals with an increased waist circumference (≥94 cm and ≥80 cm for men and women, respectively) had higher exercise systolic blood pressure compared with individuals with low waist circumference, irrespective of their level of insulin resistance (10.6 versus 6.8, 12.2 versus 7.7, and 13.2 versus 8.7 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; Pfitness levels (13.1 versus 8.2, 12.0 versus 7.9, and 10.6 versus 7.1 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; Pexercise systolic blood pressure, regardless of their insulin sensitivity or level of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  1. Differential cross-sectional associations of work- and leisure-time sitting, with cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness among working adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke K.

    2014-01-01

    and muscular fitness among working adults. This suggests that the domain in which sitting time is accrued should be considered when further investigating the relationship between sedentary behaviors and various healthy outcomes. In particular, caution should be exercised when labeling occupational sitting...... associations' between sitting time and cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between work- and leisure-time sitting, and key markers of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness among working adults. METHODS: Working adults (N=2544) aged 18...... of cardiorespiratory fitness (step test estimated VO 2Max, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and muscular fitness (handgrip strength, lower limb extension power). Associations were explored by linear regression. Results Leisure-time sitting time was significantly (P

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness in 16 025 adults aged 18-91 years and associations with physical activity and sitting time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Grønbaek, M; Helge, J W;

    2015-01-01

    fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher......Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory...... cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who...

  3. Do functional walk tests reflect cardiorespiratory fitness in sub-acute stroke?

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    Bayley Mark T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT has been employed as a measure of functional capacity, but its relationship to cardiorespiratory fitness in stroke is not well established. Gait speed measured over short distances is commonly used as an index of walking competency following stroke. We evaluated the relationship between the 6MWT, aerobic fitness (VO2peak and walking competency in sub-acute stroke. Methods Thirty-six individuals (mean age ± SD, 64.6 ± 14.4 years; time post-stroke 16.2 ± 13.3 days were evaluated using the 6MWT (distance, speed, heart rate, a maximal exercise test (VO2peak, heart rate, exercise test duration, and walking competency using a five meter walk (speed, symmetry ratio. Correlation analyses were used to examine the relationships between these outcomes. Results There was a strong correlation between the 6MWT and five meter walk velocity for preferred (r = 0.79 and fast (r = 0.82 speed (p 2peak (r = 0.56, p Conclusion The speed selected during the 6MWT was strongly related to the velocities selected during the five meter walk distance (intermediate to the selected preferred and fast speeds. Although the 6MWT may be challenging to the cardiorespiratory system, it appears to be more strongly influenced by potential limits to walking speed rather than cardiorespiratory capacity. As a result, this test is not, by itself, an adequate measure of aerobic fitness early after stroke.

  4. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners between...... 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were...

  5. Physical activity versus cardiorespiratory fitness: two (partly) distinct components of cardiovascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Willis, Benjamin L; Barlow, Carolyn E; Finley, Carrie E; Levine, Benjamin D; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) both have inverse relationships to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recent position papers and guidelines have identified the important role of both of these factors in CV health. The benefits of PA and CRF in the prevention of CV disease and risk factors are reviewed. In addition, assessment methodology and utilization in the research and clinical arenas are discussed. Finally, the benefits, methodology, and utilization are compared and contrasted to better understand the two (partly) distinct components and their impact on CV health.

  6. cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with hard and light intensity physical activity but not time spent sedentary in 10-14 year old schoolchildren: the HAPPY study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Denton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour is a major risk factor for developing chronic diseases and is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. It remains unclear how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are related to cardiorespiratory fitness in children. The purpose of this study was to assess how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are associated with 10-14 year-old schoolchildren's cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: 135 schoolchildren (81 girls, 12±1 year completed 7-day minute-by-minute habitual physical activity monitoring using triaxial accelerometers and undertook a maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. RESULTS: After controlling for sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and total wear time, light physical activity (1.5-2.9 METs was negatively associated (β = -.24, p.05. Sedentary to active transitions revealed little variability between cardiorespiratory fitness tertiles. CONCLUSIONS: Hard physical activity (≥9 METs holds greater potential for cardiorespiratory fitness compared to physical activity of lower intensities. There was no relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest that, for children, advice should focus on higher intensity physical activity and not sedentary behaviour as a means to maintain or improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Future research should explore longitudinal relationships between hard physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and health parameters.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Fisioterapia, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lopes, S.L.B. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Benze, B.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Estatística, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR{sub peak}: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO{sub 2peak}: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO{sub 2VT}: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  8. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management.

  9. Visualization of multivariate physiological data for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment through ECG (R-peak) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J E; Bermudez I Badia, S; Rubio, E; Cameirao, M S

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise and popularization of wearable and ubiquitous fitness sensors has increased our ability to generate large amounts of multivariate data for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) assessment. Consequently, there is a need to find new methods to visualize and interpret CRF data without overwhelming users. Current visualizations of CRF data are mainly tabular or in the form of stacked univariate plots. Moreover, normative data differs significantly between gender, age and activity, making data interpretation yet more challenging. Here we present a CRF assessment tool based on radar plots that provides a way to represent multivariate cardiorespiratory data from electrocardiographic (ECG) signals within its normative context. To that end, 5 parameters are extracted from raw ECG data using R-peak information: mean HR, SDNN, RMSSD, HRVI and the maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max. Our tool processes ECG data and produces a visualization of the data in a way that it is easy to compare between the performance of the user and normative data. This type of representation can assist both health professionals and non-expert users in the interpretation of CRF data.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256...... and 16.8% of the girls were classified as overweight, and 1.6% of the boys and 6.9% of the girls as obese. Mean age, body mass, height and Ponderal index were not significantly different between sexes. Girls had a higher BMI than boys (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to earlier Norwegian studies......, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among...

  11. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could...... reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... associates with CRF. Methods: Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles...

  12. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could...... reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... associates with CRF. METHODS: Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles...

  13. Physical activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcala-Sanchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua...... suggests high levels of overweight and hypertension in the Tarahumara, and points to fitness and physical activity as potential intervention targets although findings should be confirmed in larger samples....... and diastolic BP was 122 (20.8) and 82 (14.8) mm Hg, respectively, with 28.1% having hypertension. Mean body mass index was 27.5 (4.2) kg m22, with 71.9% being overweight. Following adjustment for age and sex, weak inverse associations were observed between PAEE and systolic BP (b 5 20.20, P 5 0...

  14. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1 to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020. Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942

  15. Associations of sedentary behaviour, physical activity, blood pressure and anthropometric measures with cardiorespiratory fitness in children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Ryan

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk.The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP.This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD age 11.3 (0.2 yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥10 min bouts were calculated.Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (β = 0.339, p<0.01, sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (β = 0.250, p<0.05 and total activity (β = 0.238, p<0.05 were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05. Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01, waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001, waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05 after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level.Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is

  16. Daily energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

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    John Joseph Valletta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Encouraging daily physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, increasing physical activity often creates a challenge for people with type 1 diabetes, because of difficulties maintaining euglycemia in the face of altered food intake and adjustments to insulin doses. Our aim was to examine the triangular relationship between glucose control measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (TEE recorded by a multi-sensory monitoring device, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, in free-living subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-three individuals (12 women with type 1 diabetes who were free from micro- and macrovascular complications were recruited. TEE and glucose control were monitored simultaneously for up to 12 days, using a multi-sensory device and CGMS respectively. CRF was recorded as V02 max from a maximal treadmill test with the Bruce protocol. RESULTS: Subjects (mean±SD were aged 37±11 years, with BMI = 26.5±5.1 kg.m⁻², HbA1c = 7.7±1.3% (61±14 mmol/mol and V02 max (ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹  = 39.9±8.4 (range 22.4-58.6. TEE (36.3±5.5 kcal.kg⁻¹.day⁻¹ was strongly associated with CRF(39.9±8.4 ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹ independently of sex (r = 0.63, p<0.01. However, neither TEE (r = -0.20, p = 0.36 nor CRF (r = -0.20, p = 0.39; adjusted for sex, were significantly associated with mean glycaemia measured by CGMS. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of energy expenditure (due to a more active lifestyle are associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness, but not necessarily better glycaemic control. Since increased levels of energy expenditure and good glycaemic control are both needed to protect against diabetes-related complications our data suggest they need to be achieved independently.

  17. Acute exercise stress reveals cerebrovascular benefits associated with moderate gains in cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugniaux, Julien V; Marley, Christopher J; Hodson, Danielle A; New, Karl J; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness improves resting cerebral perfusion, although to what extent this is further amplified during acute exposure to exercise stress and the corresponding implications for cerebral oxygenation remain unknown. To examine this, we recruited 12 moderately active and 12 sedentary healthy males. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and prefrontal cortical oxyhemoglobin (cO(2)Hb) concentration were monitored continuously at rest and throughout an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Despite a subtle elevation in the maximal oxygen uptake (active: 52±9 ml/kg per minute versus sedentary: 33±5 ml/kg per minute, Pexercise. Collectively, these findings indicate that the long-term benefits associated with moderate increase in physical activity are not observed in the resting state and only become apparent when the cerebrovasculature is challenged by acute exertional stress. This has important clinical implications when assessing the true extent of cerebrovascular adaptation.

  18. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well...... as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four...... muscle groups. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30 kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25 kg/m. CONCLUSIONS...

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase...... the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine...... and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work...

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have ...... opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity.Trial registrationThe study is registered as ISRCTN86682076....... been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim...... will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood...

  1. The Effectiveness of a Pre-Exercise Performance Drink (PRX) on Indices of Maximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Allyn; Greenwood, Mike; Greenwood, Lori; Simpson, Warren K

    2006-06-12

    This study examined the effectiveness of a pre-exercise drink (PRX) called EM.PACT on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-four males (n = 12) and females (n = 12) ages 18-24 years (20.25 + 1.42), volunteered as subjects. Each subject performed two randomized trials of a VO2max treadmill test within a week of each other. Subjects in this randomized, placebo controlled, counter balanced, crossover design, ingested either a placebo (water) or PRX 20 minutes before each exercise bout. VO2max and time to exhaustion (Time) during graded exercise testing were evaluated. Using paired samples t-tests, significantly greater mean values were found in VO2max and Time for the PRX trial compared to the placebo trial (p PRX prior to exercise testing. The combined results of this investigation may provide meaningful practical applications for coaches and athletes alike regarding ergogenic hydration options.

  2. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  3. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  4. Low cardiorespiratory fitness in people at risk for type 2 diabetes: early marker for insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Silmara AO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose There is a significant association between insulin resistance and low cardiorespiratory fitness in nondiabetic subjects. In a population with risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM, before they are insulin resistant, we investigated low exercise capacity (VO2max as an early marker of impaired insulin sensitivity in order to determine earlier interventions to prevent development of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS and T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of data on 369 (78 men and 291 women people at risk for IRS and T2DM, aged 45.6 +/- 10 years (20-65 years old from the Community Diabetes Prevention Project in Minnesota were carried out. The cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max by respiratory gas exchange and bicycle ergometer were measured in our at risk non insulin resistant population and compared with a control group living in the same geographic area. Both groups were equally sedentary, matched for age, gender and BMI. Results The most prevalent abnormality in the study population was markedly low VO2max when compared with general work site screening control group, (n = 177; 137F; 40 M, mean age 40 ± 11 years; BMI = 27.8 ± 6.1 kg/m2. Individuals at risk for IRS and T2DM had a VO2max (22 ± 6 ml/kg/min 15% lower than the control group VO2max (26 ± 9 ml/kg/min (p 2max was inversely correlated with HOMA-IR (r = -0.30, p Conclusions Decreased VO2max is correlated with impaired insulin sensitivity and was the most prevalent abnormality in a population at risk for IRS and T2DM but without overt disease. This raises the possibility that decreased VO2 max is among the earliest indicators of IRS and T2DM therefore, an important risk factor for disease progression.

  5. Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on the obesity paradox in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrienne L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2015-01-15

    Although high body mass index (BMI) is associated with improved outcomes in established heart failure (HF), the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on this obesity paradox is less clear. We studied 1,675 patients with systolic HF who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at a single university center (77.4% men, mean age 52.2 ± 11.6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 23.2 ± 7.1% and New York Heart Association class III or IV in 79.1%). We evaluated 2-year survival in patients stratified by both BMI (normal 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)[reference], overweight 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), obese ≥30.0 kg/m(2)) and by peak oxygen uptake (PKVO2; high >14 ml/kg/minute, low ≤14 ml/kg/minute). At 2 years, BMI category was significantly associated with outcomes for the low PKVO2 group (p obese patients had decreased risk of death free from urgent status 1A heart transplant or ventricular assist device placement after multivariate adjustment compared with normal BMI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44 to 0.91, p = 0.01); no significant difference was observed for overweight patients (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.25, p = 0.5). In the high PKVO2 group, no relation was seen (overweight BMI HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.32, p = 0.3; obese HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.75, p = 0.7). In conclusion, the obesity paradox was only observed in patients with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in this advanced systolic HF cohort, indicating that improved functional capacity may attenuate the obesity paradox.

  6. Relationship between peak cardiac pumping capability and indices of cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Popadic-Gacesa, Jelena Z; Barak, Otto F; Nunan, David; Donovan, Gay; Trenell, Michael I; Grujic, Nikola G; Brodie, David A

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac power output (CPO) is a unique and direct measure of overall cardiac function (i.e. cardiac pumping capability) that integrates both flow- and pressure-generating capacities of the heart. The present study assessed the relationship between peak exercise CPO and selected indices of cardio-respiratory fitness. Thirty-seven healthy adults (23 men and 14 women) performed an incremental exercise test to volitional fatigue using the Bruce protocol with gas exchange and ventilatory measurements. Following a 40-min recovery, the subjects performed a constant maximum workload exercise test at or above 95% of maximal oxygen consumption. Cardiac output was measured using the exponential CO(2) rebreathing method. The CPO, expressed in W, was calculated as the product of the mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. At peak exercise, CPO was well correlated with cardiac output (r = 0·92, P<0·01), stroke volume (r = 0·90, P<0·01) and peak oxygen consumption (r = 0·77, P<0·01). The coefficient of correlation was moderate between CPO and anaerobic threshold (r = 0·47, P<0·01), oxygen pulse (r = 0·57, P<0·01), minute ventilation (r = 0·53, P<0·01) and carbon dioxide production (r = 0·56, P<0·01). Small but significant relationship was found between peak CPO and peak heart rate (r = 0·23, P<0·05). These findings suggest that only peak cardiac output and stroke volume truly reflect CPO. Other indices of cardio-respiratory fitness such as oxygen consumption, anaerobic threshold, oxygen pulse, minute ventilation, carbon dioxide production and heart rate should not be used as surrogates for overall cardiac function and pumping capability of the heart.

  7. Reduced Cardiorespiratory Fitness after Stroke: Biological Consequences and Exercise-Induced Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Billinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies consistently shows decline in cardiorespiratory (CR fitness and physical function after disabling stroke. The broader implications of such a decline to general health may be partially understood through negative poststroke physiologic adaptations such as unilateral muscle fiber type shifts, impaired hemodynamic function, and decrements in systemic metabolic status. These physiologic changes also interrelate with reductions in activities of daily living (ADLs, community ambulation, and exercise tolerance, causing a perpetual cycle of worsening disability and deteriorating health. Fortunately, initial evidence suggests that stroke participants retain the capacity to adapt physiologically to an exercise training stimulus. However, despite this evidence, exercise as a therapeutic intervention continues to be clinically underutilized in the general stroke population. Far more research is needed to fully comprehend the consequences of and remedies for CR fitness impairments after stroke. The purpose of this brief review is to describe some of what is currently known about the physiological consequences of CR fitness decline after stroke. Additionally, there is an overview of the evidence supporting exercise interventions for improving CR fitness, and associated aspects of general health in this population.

  8. State adaptation reserves cardiorespiratory system first-year students with varying degrees of physical fitness in terms of treadmill test

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    Levchenko V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to examine the state of the cardiorespiratory system in terms of the stress test in first-year students with different levels of fitness. Material : the study involved 43 students, of which 18 boys and 25devushek basic medical group. The study used a treadmill, a pulse oximeter, spirometer. Results : more adjustment disorders were detected in students that are not involved in physical education at school. Decreased ability of the cardiorespiratory system to maintain proper oxygen supply of the organism in the stress test. This is not observed in students who were attending school in addition sports clubs. Found that students with low tolerance to physical exercise need a separate program of physical training, the dynamic control of the teachers and the need for additional medical examination. Conclusions : the treadmill test is an ideal way of revealing hidden maladjustment cardiorespiratory system in adolescence.

  9. The HALO submaximal treadmill protocol to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children and youth: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Peter; Adamo, Kristi B; Colley, Rachel C

    2012-04-01

    Many limitations exist with completing cardiorespiratory fitness testing in obese children. The aim of this study was to determine if the new Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group's (HALO's) submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing protocol for obese children and youth provides a comparable estimate of peak oxygen uptake to that measured using validated maximal and submaximal, equation-based protocols in the obese pediatric population. A group of obese children (n = 21; all ≥95th body mass index percentile; aged 10-17 years) completed 3 exercise testing protocols. Testing was completed as part of an ongoing cohort study and 2 submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests were completed, in randomized order, during a second visit. Significant correlations were found between observed peak oxygen uptake (mL·min(-1)) and predicted peak oxygen uptake for both the HALO (r = 0.75, p = 0.001) and Nemeth (r = 0.66, p = 0.001) submaximal protocols. A similar correlation was found, after accounting for body mass, between measured and predicted HALO peak oxygen uptake (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) values (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). HALO predicted peak oxygen uptake values showed a significant correlation when plotted against the measured values (r = 0.99). A Bland-Altman analysis found agreement between the maximal and HALO submaximal protocols (mean bias = -201.75 mL·min(-1)). The significant relationships found between estimates of peak oxygen uptake from the HALO submaximal protocol and measures of peak oxygen uptake during maximal cardiorespiratory testing support the use of the HALO submaximal protocol as a valid measure to estimate maximal cardiorespiratory fitness within the obese pediatric population. Given the proof of principle goal of this study, future research in the obese, pediatric population is encouraged to confirm the generalizability of the protocol.

  10. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise.

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness mediates the effects of aging on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eZimmerman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain’s vasculature is likely to be subjected to the same age-related physiological and anatomical changes affecting the rest of the cardiovascular system. Since aerobic fitness is known to alleviate both cognitive and volumetric losses in the brain, it is important to investigate some of the possible mechanisms underlying these beneficial changes. Here we investigated the role that estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF plays in determining the relationship between aging and cerebral blood flow (CBF in a group of older adults (ages 55-85. Using arterial spin labeling to quantify CBF, we found that blood flow in the gray matter was positively correlated with eCRF and negatively correlated with age. Subsequent analyses revealed that eCRF fully mediated the effects of age on CBF in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. Additionally, regional measures of CBF were related to regional measures of brain volume. These findings provide evidence that age-related effects on cerebrovascular health and perfusion in older adults are largely influenced by their eCRF levels.

  12. Construct validation of a non-exercise measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults

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    Kramer Arthur F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality but is rarely assessed in medical settings due to burdens of time, cost, risk, and resources. The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a regression equation developed by Jurca and colleagues (2005 to estimate CRF without exercise testing in community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants (n = 172 aged 60 to 80 years with no contraindications to submaximal or maximal exercise testing completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT and the submaximal Rockport 1-mile walk test on separate occasions. Data included in the regression equation (age, sex, body mass index, resting heart rate, and physical activity were obtained via measurement or self-report. Participants also reported presence of cardiovascular conditions. Results The multiple R for the regression equation was .72, p and CRF estimated from this equation was significantly correlated with the MET value from the GXT (r = 0.66 and with CRF estimated from submaximal field testing (r = 0.67. All three CRF indices were significantly and inversely associated with reporting more cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence that a non-exercise estimate of CRF is at least as valid as field test estimates of CRF and represents a low-risk, low-cost, and expedient method for estimating fitness in older adults.

  13. Cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and biomechanical responses during functional electrical stimulation leg exercise: health and fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Glen M; Hamzaid, Nur A; Fornusek, Ché

    2008-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-induced leg exercise offers the potential for individuals with lower-limb paralysis to otherwise gain some benefits conferred by leg exercise. Although its original intent is to reactivate the leg muscles to produce functional upright mobility, as a rehabilitation therapy, FES-evoked exercise increases the whole-body metabolism of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) so that they may gain general and localized health and fitness benefits. The physiological and psychosocial responses during FES-evoked cycling, standing, rowing, leg extension, or stepping have been extensively explored for over 20 years. Some of the advantages of such exercise include augmented cardiorespiratory fitness, promotion of leg blood circulation, increased activity of specific metabolic enzymes or hormones, greater muscle volume and fiber size, enhanced functional exercise capacity such as strength and endurance, and altered bone mineral density. Positive psychosocial adaptations have also been reported among SCI individuals who undergo FES exercise. This article presents a position review of the available literature on the effects of FES-evoked exercise since the earliest date until 2007, to warrant a conclusion about the current status and potential of FES-evoked exercise for paralyzed people.

  14. Association of low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity with low cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Nyun Kim

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, visceral obesity and low muscle mass may share pathophysiological mechanisms, such as insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether low CRF is associated with low muscle mass, visceral obesity, and visceral obesity combined with low muscle mass.The associations between CRF and low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity were examined in 298 apparently healthy adults aged 20-70 years. Low muscle mass was defined using a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI that was calculated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral fat area (VFA exceeding 100 cm2 in women and 130 cm2 in men. We classified the participants into 4 low muscle mass/visceral obesity groups according to SMI and VFA. CRF was measured using a cycle ergometer test.CRF level correlated positively with SMI and negatively with VFA. Individuals with low muscle mass had lower CRF values than those without low muscle mass. After adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors, and markers for insulin resistance and inflammation, participants in the lowest quartile of CRF had an odds ratio (OR for low muscle mass of 4.98 compared with those in the highest quartile (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.19-12.99; P for trend = 0.001 and an OR for combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity of 31.46 (95% CI = 4.31-229.68; P for trend = 0.001.Individuals with lower CRF exhibited increased risk of low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity. These results suggest that low CRF may be a potential indicator for low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity in Korean adults.

  15. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run....... In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases....

  16. A comparison of field methods to assess cardiorespiratory fitness among neophyte exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Marbach, Kate; Vincent, Linda

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence to suggest that aerobic fitness levels among adults have declined markedly over the past 2 to 3 decades. Submaximal field measures of aerobic fitness, such as step tests, may now be seen as aversive by contemporary neophyte exercisers. In this study, a single-factor within-subjects (repeated measures) factorial design was used to compare three field measures of cardiorespiratory fitness among sedentary women: (a) the Queen's College step test (QCST), (b) the Rockport 1-mile walk (RW), and (c) a nonexercise estimation of VO(2) max (NE). The sample consisted of 31 racially and ethnically diverse female college students (mean age of 24.8 years). No significant within-subjects differences were found in the three measures of V0(2) max (F = 1.89, p = .17) among Black, Hispanic, White non-Hispanic, or Asian women, but relative perceived exertion scores were significantly higher for the QCST than for the RW (t = 9.79, p < .001) for all groups. The mean calculated VO(2) max for the QCST was 35.90 ml/kg/min for the subset of women ages 18 to 25 and 31.85 for those ages 26 to 46. These values represent a "poor" to "below average" score for aerobic capacity among women in both age groups. Data from this preliminary study suggest that both the RW test and the NE test are comparable to the QCST as valid and reliable field measures of aerobic fitness and appear to be good alternatives to step testing among sedentary individuals.

  17. Combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is known to be an important correlate for cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is suggested to be an effective contributor for reducing this risk. This study was conducted to determine the combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity, otherwise known as fitness and fatness, on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: A total of 232 overweight and obese individuals were grouped into four subtypes according to their fitness level. This was measured by recovery heart rate from a step test in addition to visceral adiposity defined as the visceral adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VAT/SAT ratio. Associations of fitness and visceral fatness were analyzed in comparison with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The high visceral fat and low fitness group had the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome [Odds Ratio (OR 5.02; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.85-13.61] compared with the reference group, which was the low visceral adiposity and high fitness group, after adjustments for confounding factors. Viscerally lean but unfit subjects were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than more viscerally obese but fit subjects (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.27-9.19, and OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.01-7.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that visceral obesity and fitness levels are cumulatively associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in healthy overweight and obese adults. This suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness is a significant modifier in the relation of visceral adiposity to adverse metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese individuals.

  18. The effect on cardiorespiratory fitness after an 8-week period of commuter cycling - A randomized controlled study in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Gade, Jens Raaberg;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of commuter cycling on cardiorespiratory fitness in men and women. Secondary outcomes included body fat and blood pressure measurements. METHODS: In February 2009, 48 volunteers from the Island of Funen, Denmark were randomly assigned to either "no...... change in lifestyle" or to "minimum 20minutes of daily commuter cycling during 8weeks". Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed directly during a progressive cycle-ergometer-test, sum of skinfolds was used as an estimate of body fat, and blood pressure was measured using a Dinamap monitor. Measurements were...... obtained at baseline and at the conclusion of the 8-week intervention program. RESULTS: Six cyclists dropped out. After 8weeks V˙O(2)max (mLO(2)min(-1)) and cardiorespiratory fitness (mLO(2)kg(-1)min(-1)) were significantly improved in the cycling group when compared to the control group. Delta change in V...

  19. Associations between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity in Mexican children

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    Karla I Galavíz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent relation of physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness with measures of obesity in Mexican children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children (N=193 in 5th and 6th grade from Guadalajara participated. Body mass index (BMI, sum of skinfolds (SS and waist circumference (WC were measured. PA was measured over four days using pedometry and fitness was measured using the 20 meter shuttle-run test. RESULTS: Fitness and PA were negatively related to the obesity measures in boys and girls (r=-0.57 to -0.64 and r=-0.18 to -0.23 respectively. Age adjusted significant differences in WC, BMI, and SS were observed between the lowest and highest fitness tertiles for boys and girls (pOBJETIVO: Examinar la relación independiente entre actividad física (AF y acondicionamiento cardiorrespiratorio (fitness con obesidad en niños mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Participaron 193 niños de Guadalajara en 5to y 6to grado de primaria. Se midieron índice de masa corporal (IMC, suma de pliegues cutáneos (SP y circunferencia de cintura (CC. La AF se midió con podometría durante cuatro días y acondicionamiento usando la prueba de 20 metros shuttle-run. RESULTADOS: Acondicionamiento y AF estuvieron negativamente relacionados con obesidad en niños y niñas (r=-0.57 a -0.64 y r=-0.18 a -0.23 respectivamente. Ajustando por edad, se observaron diferencias significativas en CC, IMC y SP entre los terciles de acondicionamiento bajo y alto en niños y niñas (p<.01. Ajustando por edad, género y AF, el acondicionamiento explicó de 23 a 34% de la varianza en CC (r²=0.23, p<.01, IMC (r²=0.23, p<.01 y SP (r²=0.34, p<.01. CONCLUSIÓN: El acondicionamiento es un mejor predictor de obesidad que la AF en esta muestra.

  20. Prospective association of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, H; Grøntved, A; Møller, N C

    2014-01-01

    . Total body fat (TBF) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), CRF, blood samples, and blood pressure were obtained in 2008 and 2010 in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study in Denmark (CHAMPS study-DK). Greater adiposity......This study aimed to examine the prospective association of three different measures of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with 2-year change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. Two-year longitudinal data in schoolchildren aged 7-11 years (n = 365-729) was used...... at baseline was associated with increased CVD risk factor levels at follow-up. The magnitudes of associations were similar regardless of adiposity measure [TBF%: β 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.39; BMI: β 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14-0.33; WC: β 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.31], and no evidence of nonlinear...

  1. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... between VO2max and these determinants of glycemic control were examined. RESULTS: A low VO2max was associated with high HbA1c (r = -0.33), high fasting glucose (r = -0.34), high 2-h OGTT glucose (r = -0.33), low SiOGTT (r = 0.73), and high early-phase (r = -0.34) and late-phase (r = -0.36) GSISOGTT...

  2. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

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    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OHD, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OHD concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01 but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OHD concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OHD concentration (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OHD concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.

  3. The Effectiveness of a Pre-Exercise Performance Drink (PRX on Indices of Maximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness

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    Greenwood Lori

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the effectiveness of a pre-exercise drink (PRX called EM·PACT on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-four males (n = 12 and females (n = 12 ages 18–24 years (20.25 + 1.42, volunteered as subjects. Each subject performed two randomized trials of a VO2max treadmill test within a week of each other. Subjects in this randomized, placebo controlled, counter balanced, crossover design, ingested either a placebo (water or PRX 20 minutes before each exercise bout. VO2max and time to exhaustion (Time during graded exercise testing were evaluated. Using paired samples t-tests, significantly greater mean values were found in VO2max and Time for the PRX trial compared to the placebo trial (p 2max and Time are enhanced by ingestion of PRX prior to exercise testing. The combined results of this investigation may provide meaningful practical applications for coaches and athletes alike regarding ergogenic hydration options.

  4. Cumulative incidence of youth obesity is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and with maternal overweight

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    Anelise Reis Gaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This longitudinal study evaluated the association between the incidence of youth overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF over 4 years and youths' and their parents' demographic and nutritional characteristics. The randomized sample comprised 398 youth, aged 7-17 years at baseline, from a city in southern Brazil. Subjects were classified as being Ow/Ob according to international body mass index (BMI parameters. Parental weight and height were determined by direct questioning. Youth CRF was measured by a 9-minute walk-and-run test. The cumulative incidences of Ow/Ob and of low CRF levels were 25.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Relative to other youth, youth who were classified as "unhealthy" at baseline (with respect to CRF and by the fourth year were more likely to be classified as Ow/Ob (relative risks: 1.12 and 1.10, respectively. Youth whose mothers were categorized as Ow/Ob were at higher risk of being classified as Ow/Ob than youth whose mothers had normal BMIs (relative risks: 1.19 at baseline and 1.20 in the fourth year. The incidence of Ow/Ob among the former youth was associated with low CRF levels and with maternal Ob.

  5. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study

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    Zhu, Wenfei; Hooker, Steven P; Sun, Yuliang; Xie, Minhao; Su, Hao; Cao, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Meth...

  6. Relationship of body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk in Chinese children.

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    Pei-gang Wang

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 676 schoolchildren (392 boys and 284 girls, aged 9.6±0.7 yrs old in Wuhan, China. Their body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, CRF, blood pressure (BP, lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. Children were categorized into different groups based on their BMI, WC, and CRF using Chinese obesity cut-off points and CRF sex-specific median points. Metabolic Risk Score (MRS was computed based on the standardized scores of BP, lipids, and glucose. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed that, in the separate models, body fat was positively associated with MRS while CRF was inversely associated with MRS (p<0.001. However, when assessed simultaneously, only body fat had a significant association with MRS (p<0.001. In general, low-fit children had a lower MRS compared to their counterparts, and a significant difference between the two extreme groups was observed (low CRF and high fat vs. high CRF and low fat, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both body fat and CRF should be considered when interpreting CVD risk in Chinese children, while body fat may be correlated with CVD risk more than CRF.

  7. Assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Cairney, John; Hsairi, Ines; Triki, Chahinez; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-12-01

    The decreased participation in physical activity by children with probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD) has raised concerns about their aerobic fitness and lung function levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness, using laboratory-based tests during an incremental treadmill protocol in healthy children with and without pDCD. Twenty sex children ages 6-9 years took part in this study. Motor coordination was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). All participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometric measurements (forced vital capacity: FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1s: FEV1) and walking distance (6MWD) was assessed using the 6-min walking test. The children with pDCD had lower VO2max than children without pDCD (p disorder (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 respectively). Likewise, children with pDCD had poorer performance on the 6MWD than children without pDCD (p < 0.01). A significant correlation between the absolute value for FEV1 and 6MWD (r = 0.637, p < 0.05) in pDCD group was observed. We found a significant correlation between VO2max and MABC score (r = -0.612, p < .001) and between VO2max and 6MWD (r = 0.502, p < .001) for all children. Moreover, a significant correlation between VO2max and FEV1 (r = 0.668, p < .05) was found in children with pDCD. Overall, the reduced aerobic capacity of DCD was associated with decreased of lung function, as well as an alteration of peripheral muscle responses.

  8. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

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    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  9. Endothelial wall thickness, cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese adolescents

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    Larissa R. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT is considered a marker of early-onset atherosclerosis and it has been found in obese children and adolescents, but the risk factors associated with this population remain to be elucidated. Objective : To compare and verify the relationship between c-IMT, metabolic profile, inflammatory markers, and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese and non-obese children and adolescents. Method : Thirty-five obese subjects (19 boys and 18 non-obese subjects (9 boys, aged 10-16 years, were included. Anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, and basal metabolic rate were evaluated. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP, and adiponectin were assessed. c-IMT was measured by ultrasound. Results: The results showed that c-IMT, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and CRP values were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, adiponectin, and VO2max values were significantly lower in the obese group than in the non-obese group. The c-IMT was directly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, % body fat, and HOMA-IR and inversely correlated with % free fat mass, HDL-c, and VO2max. Conclusions : Our findings show that c-IMT correlates not only with body composition, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation but also with low VO2max values in children and adolescents.

  10. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women

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    I.A. Lesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55 from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI. Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8–21.8 mL/kg/min, women in the highest tertile (25.0–27.7 mL/kg/min had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05. We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women.

  11. Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

    2014-03-27

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children's fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants' performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

  12. A Simple Step Test to Estimate Cardio-Respiratory Fitness Levels of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in a Clinical Setting

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    Jennifer K. Cooney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Exercise tests represent an important clinical tool to evaluate cardio-respiratory fitness and to predict future adverse cardiovascular events. However, use of such tests in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA is relatively uncommon despite well-established evidence that low exercise capacity and high CVD mortality are features of this disease. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of a sub-maximal step test for use in RA patients. Methods. Thirty patients (24 females (mean ± SD age 53±10 years performed a sub-maximal step test on two occasions to estimate the criterion measure of cardio-respiratory fitness (V.O2max. A further maximal cycling test provided a direct fitness measurement (V.O2 peak. Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland and Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LOA were used to determine the validity and reliability of the sub-maximal test. Results. Estimated V.O2max correlated well with directly measured V.O2 peak (r=0.79, LoA ±5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1. Test-retest reproducibility for estimated V.O2max was excellent (ICC=0.97, LoA ±2.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Conclusion. The sub-maximal step test studied here represents a valid and reproducible method to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness in RA patients. This test may be useful for the assessment and management of CVD risk in a clinical setting.

  13. Examining the Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Weight Status: Empirical Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Adults in Taiwan

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    Tai-Hsiung Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Meanwhile, obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic. This study aims to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with body mass among adult males and females in Taiwan. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative dataset consisting of 68,175 adults aged 18–60, including 31,743 males and 36,432 females, was used. Several multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status, after controlling for adults’ sociodemographic status. Results. A one-unit increase in the BMI lowered the cardiorespiratory fitness score by 0.316 and 0.368 points for adult males and females, respectively. Among adult males, compared to those of normal weight, adult males who were underweight, overweight, or obese had a lower cardiorespiratory fitness score by 1.287, 0.845, and 3.353 points, respectively. Similar results could be found in female samples. Conclusion. The overweight and obese adults had much lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness as compared to their normal weight counterparts. Given the upward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, it is important to help overweight and obese people to become more fit and reach their healthy weight.

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De synchronization (ERD/ERS Study

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    Chien-Heng Chu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977 were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  15. Comparison of two-hand kettlebell exercise and graded treadmill walking: effectiveness as a stimulus for cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James F; Larson, Kurtis L; Hollander, Daniel B; Kraemer, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    Prevailing interest in the use of kettlebell (KB) exercises for rehabilitation and improvement of muscular strength has led to several recent studies, some suggesting that KB exercise may be useful for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KB exercise would produce similar cardiovascular stress to that of walking and thus provide an additional exercise mode for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. It was hypothesized that a moderate-intensity, continuous KB protocol, would produce similar metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses as a brisk bout of graded treadmill (TM) walking, but greater rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten novice volunteers (5 men, 5 women) completed a preliminary session to determine body composition and VO2max and to familiarize participants with standardized KB exercise technique. Subsequently, they completed a 30-minute KB session that included 3 continuous 10-minute sets of 10 KB swings followed by 10 sumo deadlifts, with 3-minute rests between 10-minute exercise periods. The third session was a 30-minute TM regimen that began at the walking speed and 4% grade that matched the VO2 from the KB session and included 3-minute rest intervals after 10-minute TM exercise periods. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, kcal·min, and blood pressure were similar for KB and moderate-intensity TM exercise, but RPE and heart rate were greater during KB exercise. Data indicate that a KB routine consisting of 2-hand swings and sumo deadlifts with 3-minute rest periods produces similar metabolic responses to those of a moderate-intensity TM walking protocol designed for the improvement of aerobic fitness.

  16. Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Maressa P.; Hallage, Tatiane; Gama, Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro; Goss, Fredric L.; Robertson, Robert; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes incidence in people with advanced age is increasing at an alarming rate, and for this reason the screening of high-risk individuals such as elderly women is critically important. Objective: To analyze the association of adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise practice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly Brazilian women. Methods: Participated of this cross sectional study 1,059 elderly women (mean 69.5 yr; SD 6.1), who self-reported family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking status, hypertension, and T2D diagnosed previously by a physician. The following independent variables were assessed: exercise practice, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between each independent variable with T2D using adjusted-models. Results: T2D prevalence was 16%. General and central adiposity were directly associated with T2D, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely related with T2D. The joint effect of exercise practice and central adiposity showed that inactive women had higher odds ratio for T2D when compared with active ones, within the same WC group. Inactive women with WC ≥ 94.0 cm had an odds ratio of 5.8 (95%IC 1.3-25.3). Conclusions: A direct positive association was found between general and central adiposity, as well as an inverse relation between CRF and exercise practice with T2D. Elderly women who practice exercise regularly had lower odds for T2D. Health professionals should encourage individuals of all ages to engage on regular exercise practice, which could reduce body fatness and may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of T2D in older ages. PMID:18071583

  17. Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women

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    Maressa P. Krause, Tatiane Hallage, Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro Gama, Fredric L. Goss, Robert Robertson, Sergio G. da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes incidence in people with advanced age is increasing at an alarming rate, and for this reason the screening of high-risk individuals such as elderly women is critically important. Objective: To analyze the association of adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise practice with type 2 diabetes (T2D in elderly Brazilian women. Methods: Participated of this cross sectional study 1,059 elderly women (mean 69.5 yr; SD 6.1, who self-reported family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking status, hypertension, and T2D diagnosed previously by a physician. The following independent variables were assessed: exercise practice, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between each independent variable with T2D using adjusted-models. Results: T2D prevalence was 16%. General and central adiposity were directly associated with T2D, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely related with T2D. The joint effect of exercise practice and central adiposity showed that inactive women had higher odds ratio for T2D when compared with active ones, within the same WC group. Inactive women with WC ≥ 94.0 cm had an odds ratio of 5.8 (95%IC 1.3-25.3. Conclusions: A direct positive association was found between general and central adiposity, as well as an inverse relation between CRF and exercise practice with T2D. Elderly women who practice exercise regularly had lower odds for T2D. Health professionals should encourage individuals of all ages to engage on regular exercise practice, which could reduce body fatness and may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of T2D in older ages.

  18. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed.

  19. Cardiorespiratory responses to table tennis in low-fit coronary patients and implications for exercise training.

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    Sacks, Roger; deJong, Adam; Brinks, Jenna; Spring, Tom; Sternburgh, Lucille; Franklin, Barry A

    2014-12-15

    Racquet sports may evoke excessive aerobic and/or cardiac demands for many coronary patients with impaired cardiorespiratory fitness. We evaluated the cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic responses to table tennis in clinically stable patients with coronary disease. Low-risk cardiac men (n = 10, mean ± SD, age = 67.6 ± 8.8 years) satisfying inclusion criteria (functional capacity ≤8 metabolic equivalents [METs] without evidence of impaired left ventricular function, significant dysrhythmias, signs and/or symptoms of myocardial ischemia, or orthopedic limitations), completed the study. Patients were monitored for heart rate (HR), blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (6 to 20 scale), and electrocardiographic responses during a 10-minute bout of recreational table tennis. Metabolic data were directly obtained using breath-by-breath measurements of oxygen consumption. Treadmill testing in our subjects revealed an average estimated exercise capacity of 6.8 ± 1.4 METs. Aerobic requirements of table tennis averaged 3.2 ± 0.5 METs; however, there was considerable variation in the oxygen consumption response to play (2.0 to 5.0 METs). Peak HR and systolic blood pressure responses during table tennis were 98.0 ± 8.5 beats/min and 140.4 ± 16.2 mm Hg, respectively. The average HR during table tennis represented 83% of the highest HR attained during treadmill testing. Rating of perceived exertion during table tennis averaged 10.6 ± 1.7, signifying "fairly light" exertion. In conclusion, table tennis represents a relatively safe and potentially beneficial leisure-time activity for cardiac patients with impaired levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The average aerobic requirement of table tennis approximated prescribed exercise training workloads for most of our patients.

  20. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

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    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  1. The effect of Tai Chi training on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Guohua Zheng

    Full Text Available Tai Chi may be efficient for healthy adults to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness, but there is no systematic evaluation for its effectiveness.To systematically assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults.Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception to October 2013. The controlled trails including randomized controlled trial (RCT, non-randomized controlled trial (NRCT, self-controlled trial (SCT, and cohort study (CS testing Tai Chi exercise against non-intervention control conditions in healthy adults that assessed any type cardiorespiratory fitness outcome measures were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies according to predefined criteria. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. RevMan 5.2 software was applied for data analysis.Twenty studies (2 RCTs, 8 NRCTs, 3 SCTs, and 7 CSs with 1868 participants were included, but most of them belonged to low methodological quality. The results of systematic review showed that Tai Chi exercise had positive effect on majority outcomes of cardio function (Blood pressure: n = 536, SPB SMD = -0.93, 95% CI -1.30 to -0.56, P < 0.00001; DBP SMD = -0.54, 95% CI -0.90 to -0.18, P < 0.00001; heart rate at quiet condition: n = 986, SMD = -0.72, 95% CI -1.27 to -0.18, P = 0.010; stroke volume: n = 583, SMD = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61, P < 0.00001; cardio output: n = 583, MD = 0.32 L/min, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.56, P = 0.009, lung capacity (FVC at quiet condition: n = 1272, MD = 359.16 mL, 95% CI 19.57 to 698.75, P = 0.04 for less than one year intervention, and MD = 442.46 mL, 95% CI 271.24 to 613.68, P<0.0001 for more than one year intervention; V·O2peak: n = 246, SMD = 1.33, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.70, P < 0.00001, and cardiorespiratory endurance (O2 pulse at quiet condition: n = 146, SMD = 1.04; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.39; P < 0.00001; stair test index at quiet condition: n = 679, SMD = 1.34, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.40, p = 0

  2. The effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and acute aerobic exercise on executive functioning and EEG entropy in adolescents

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    Michael John Hogan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, identified with a continuous graded cycle ergometry, and aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning and entropy of the electroencephalogram (EEG in 30 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Higher and lower fit participants performed an executive function task after a bout of acute exercise and after rest while watching a film. EEG entropy, using the sample entropy measure, was repeatedly measured during the 1500ms post-stimulus interval to evaluate changes in entropy over time. Analysis of the behavioural data for lower and higher fit groups revealed an interaction between fitness levels and acute physical exercise. Notably, lower fit, but not higher fit, participants had higher error rates for NoGo relative to Go trials in the rest condition, whereas in the acute exercise condition there were no differences in error rates between groups; higher fit participants also had significantly faster reaction times in the exercise condition in comparison with the rest condition. Analysis of EEG data revealed that higher fit participants demonstrated lower entropy post-stimulus than lower fit participants in the left frontal hemisphere, possibly indicating increased efficiency of early stage stimulus processing and more efficient allocation of cognitive resources to the task demands. The results suggest that EEG entropy is sensitive to stimulus processing demands and varies as a function of physical fitness levels, but not acute exercise. Physical fitness, in turn, may enhance cognition in adolescence by facilitating higher functionality of the attentional system in the context of lower levels of frontal EEG entropy.

  3. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

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    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  4. Relationship of cardiac structure and function to cardiorespiratory fitness and lean body mass in adolescents and young adults with Type 2 Diabetes

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    To investigate the relationships of cardiac structure and function with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents with type 2 diabetes in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study Group. Cross-sectional evaluation of 233 participant...

  5. Exercise therapy, cardiorespiratory fitness and their effect on brain volumes: a randomised controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

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    Scheewe, Thomas W; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Sarkisyan, Gayane; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; de Glint, Maria; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Backx, Frank J G; Kahn, René S; Cahn, Wiepke

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine exercise effects on global brain volume, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Irrespective of diagnosis and intervention, associations between brain changes and cardiorespiratory fitness improvement were examined. Sixty-three schizophrenia patients and fifty-five healthy controls participated in this randomised controlled trial. Global brain volumes, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness were estimated from 3-Tesla MRI scans. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a cardiopulmonary ergometer test. Subjects were assigned exercise therapy or occupational therapy (patients) and exercise therapy or life-as-usual (healthy controls) for six months 2h weekly. Exercise therapy effects were analysed for subjects who were compliant at least 50% of sessions offered. Significantly smaller baseline cerebral (grey) matter, and larger third ventricle volumes, and thinner cortex in most areas of the brain were found in patients versus controls. Exercise therapy did not affect global brain and hippocampal volume or cortical thickness in patients and controls. Cardiorespiratory fitness improvement was related to increased cerebral matter volume and lateral and third ventricle volume decrease in patients and to thickening in the left hemisphere in large areas of the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortex irrespective of diagnosis. One to 2h of exercise therapy did not elicit significant brain volume changes in patients or controls. However, cardiorespiratory fitness improvement attenuated brain volume changes in schizophrenia patients and increased thickness in large areas of the left cortex in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates inversely with excess post-exercise oxygen consumption after aerobic-type interval training

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    Matsuo Tomoaki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to reveal any association between cardiorespiratory fitness level and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC using three cycling protocols with varying degrees of exercise intensity, i.e., sprint interval training (SIT, high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT, and continuous aerobic training (CAT. Findings Ten healthy men, aged 20 to 31 years, attended a cross-over experiment and completed three exercise sessions: SIT consisting of 7 sets of 30-s cycling at 120% VO2max with a 15-s rest between sets; HIAT consisting of 3 sets of 3-min cycling at 80~90% VO2max with a 2-min active rest at 50% VO2max between sets; and CAT consisting of 40 min of cycling at 60~65% VO2max. During each session, resting VO2, exercise VO2, and a 180-min post-exercise VO2 were measured. The net exercise VO2 during the SIT, HIAT, and CAT averaged 14.7 ± 1.5, 31.8 ± 4.1, and 71.1 ± 10.0 L, and the EPOCs averaged 6.8 ± 4.0, 4.5 ± 3.3, and 2.9 ± 2.8 L, respectively. The EPOC with SIT was greater than with CAT (P P = 0.12. Correlation coefficients obtained between subjects’ VO2max and the ratio of EPOC to net exercise VO2 for SIT, HIAT, and CAT were −0.61 (P = 0.06, -0.79 (P P = 0.23, respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates negatively with the magnitude of EPOC, especially when performing aerobic-type interval training.

  7. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

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    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  8. CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY, CARDIO-RESPIRATORY FITNESS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    Niyati N Khona

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the hormonal changes in postmenopausal women they are prone for many complications like increased CVD risk factors, osteoporosis, obesity, mood swings and urinary incontinence. Physical inactivity in postmenopausal women leads to higher risk of developing CVD and osteoporosis. The objective was to find out the correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in post-menopausal women Methods: 42 postmenopausal women were included. A detailed clinical evaluation with physical activity level (IPAQ-METS-mins/week, , BMD ( T-Scores, body composition (BMI, waist circumference, BIA & Skin fold calliper for fat %, cardio-respiratory fitness was measured by Balke protocol and VO2peak (ml/kg/min is estimated. Correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition were analysed using “Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient and Spearman’s rho.” Results: Spearman’s rank correlation rho for IPAQ with VO2 peak was 0.420,BMI was -0.388 and visceral fat was -0.384 indicating moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness and weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient of IPAQ with BMD was 0.147, body fat was -0.234 and waist circumference was -0.256 indicating no correlation. P value was significant for correlation of IPAQ with CRF (0.006, BMI (0.011 and Visceral fat (0.012. Conclusion: There is moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness, weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat and no correlation between IPAQ and BMD, body fat and waist circumference

  9. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

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    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  10. The effect of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness on the lung diffusing capacity response to exercise in healthy humans.

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    Coffman, Kirsten E; Carlson, Alex R; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Bryan Joseph

    2017-03-23

    Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (VC) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (Wpeak) in four groups: 1) Young [27 ± 3 y, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 110 ± 18% age-predicted]; 2) Young Highly-Fit (27 ± 3 y, V̇O2max 147 ± 8% age-predicted); 3) Old (69 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 116 ± 13% age-predicted); and 4) Old Highly-Fit (65 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 162 ± 18% age-predicted). At rest and at 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO, and VC were decreased with age. At 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO and VC were greater in Old Highly-Fit vs. Old adults. The slope of the DLCO-cardiac output (Q̇) relationship from rest to end-exercise at 90% Wpeak was not different between Young, Young Highly-Fit, Old and Old Highly-Fit (1.35 vs. 1.44 vs. 1.10 vs. 1.35 mlCO·mmHg(-1)·Lblood(-1), P = 0.388), with no evidence of a plateau in this relationship during exercise; this was also true for DmCO-Q̇ and VC-Q̇. V̇O2max was positively correlated with: 1) DLCO, DmCO, and VC at rest; 2) the rest to end-exercise change in DLCO, DmCO, and VC In conclusion, these data suggest that despite the age-associated deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, expansion of the pulmonary capillary network does not become limited during exercise in healthy individuals regardless of age or cardiorespiratory fitness level.

  11. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

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    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  12. Improved cerebral oxygenation response and executive performance as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women: a fNIRS study

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    Cédric T Albinet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to protect and enhance cognitive and brain functions, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in older adults. In this study, functional NIRS was used to investigate variations in oxyhemoglobin ([HbO2] and in deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb] in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during the performance of an executive control task in older women with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max. Thirty-four women aged 60-77 years were classified as high-fit and low-fit based on VO2max measures. They all performed a control counting task and the Random Number Generation (RNG task at two different paces (1 number / 1 s and 1 number / 1.5 s, allowing to manipulate task difficulty, while hemodynamic responses in the bilateral DLPFCs were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS. The behavioral data revealed that the high-fit women showed significantly better performance on the RNG tasks compared with the low-fit women. The high-fit women showed significant increases in [HbO2] responses in both left and right DLPFCs during the RNG task, while the low-fit women showed significantly less activation in the right DLPFC compared with the right DLPFC of the high-fit women and compared with their own left DLPFC. At the level of the whole sample, increases in the [HbO2] responses in the right DLPFC were found to mediate in part the relationship between VO2max level and executive performance during the RNG task at 1.5 s but not at 1 s. These results provide support for the cardiorespiratory fitness hypothesis and suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness in older women are related to increased cerebral oxygen supply to the DLPFC, sustaining better cognitive performance.

  13. A Systematic Review of the Association Between Physical Fitness and Musculoskeletal Injury Risk: Part 1 - Cardiorespiratory Endurance.

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    Lisman, Peter; de la Motte, Sarah J; Gribbin, Timothy C; Jaffin, Dianna Purvis; Murphy, Kaitlin; Deuster, Patricia A

    2017-02-13

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-I) are a significant health problem for both military and athletic populations. Research indicates MSK-I is associated with physical fitness; however, the association between specific components of physical fitness and MSK-I in military and athletic populations has not been systematically examined. Our goal was to systematically review the literature to provide a best evidence synthesis on the relationship between components of physical fitness and MSK-I risk in military and civilian athletic populations. This first of three manuscripts focuses on cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE). MEDLINE, EBSCO, EMBASE, and the Defense Technical Information Center were searched for original studies published from 1970 through 2015 that examined associations between physical fitness and MSK-I. Forty-nine of 4,229 citations met our inclusion criteria. Primary findings indicate there is 1) strong evidence that poor performance on a set distance run for time is a predictor for MSK-I risk in both genders; 2) strong evidence that poor performance on timed shuttle runs is a predictor for MSK-I risk in males; 3) moderate evidence in males and limited evidence in females that poor performance on a timed step test is a predictor of MSK-I risk; and 4) limited or insufficient evidence that poor performance on the Cooper run test, maximal and submaximal aerobic graded exercise tests, and the Conconi test are predictors of MSK-I risk in males and/or females. Several measures of CRE are risk factors for training-related MSK-I in military and civilian athletic populations, indicating CRE may be an important measure for MSK-I risk stratification.

  14. Fitness knowledge, cardiorespiratory endurance and body composition of high school students

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    Williams Skip M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if high school physical education seniors’ health-related fitness knowledge is related to their aerobic capacity and body composition.

  15. Relation of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of systemic hypertension in men.

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    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Lee, Chong-Do; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the relation between inflammation and incident hypertension, independent of obesity, and tested the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) and indexes of inflammation for the development of hypertension in 2,475 normotensive men. Inflammatory markers were C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake during sign/symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing to volitional fatigue; 266 men (10.7%) developed hypertension during an average of 4 years follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident hypertension in those in the upper tertile versus lower tertile were 1.55 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.09) for CRP and 1.51 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.06) for fibrinogen. Although the association between fibrinogen and incident hypertension persisted after adjusting for body mass index (p = 0.049), the relation between CRP and incident hypertension was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.08). Fit men had a 27% decreased (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.94) risk of incident hypertension compared with unfit men in a multivariable adjusted model. In the joint analysis, unfit men with upper CRP had 1.81 times (95% CI 1.21 to 2.70) and unfit men with upper fibrinogen had 2.03 times (95% CI 1.33 to 3.12) greater risks of incident hypertension compared with fit men with low CRP and fibrinogen, respectively. However, these risks did not significantly increase in fit men with upper CRP (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.63) and fibrinogen (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.85) groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that heightened levels of fibrinogen, but not CRP, are associated with incident hypertension, independent of body weight, and that high fitness attenuates the risk of incident hypertension across upper levels of inflammatory markers in men.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Lynch, Heidi M; Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S

    2016-11-15

    In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220). VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p vegetarian endurance athletes' cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

  17. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

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    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity.

  18. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

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    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made. METHODS: 12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated. RESULTS: CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05. DISCUSSION: SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  19. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Using Cycle Ergometry: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Imboden, Mary T; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established. This report provides newly developed standards for CRF reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) using cycle ergometry in the United States. Ten laboratories in the United States experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed to the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry from April 2014 through May 2016. Data from 4494 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.1) cycle ergometer tests from men and women (20-79 years) from 27 states, without cardiovascular disease, were used to develop these references values. Percentiles of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from age 20 years through age 79 years. Comparisons of VO2max were made to reference data established with CPX data from treadmill data in the FRIEND Registry and previously published reports. As expected, there were significant differences between sex and age groups for VO2max (Pstandard differences from treadmill testing reference values.

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in Luo, Kamba, and Maasai of rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt‐Jepsen, D.; Boit, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitual physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio‐respiratory fitness (CRF) are now well‐established determinants of metabolic disease, there is scarcity of such data from Africa. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured PAEE and CRF in different ethnic...

  1. Obesity and prognosis in chronic diseases--impact of cardiorespiratory fitness in the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Schutter, Alban De; Archer, Edward; McAuley, Paul A; Blair, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The effects of overweight and obesity on chronic diseases, particularly on cardiovascular disease (CVD), and its impact on increasing CVD risk factors and total CVD are reviewed. However despite the adverse effects of obesity on CVD risk factors and CVD, obesity has a surprising association with prognosis in patients with established diseases, often showing an "obesity paradox," [corrected] where overweight (body mass index (BMI), 25 to 29.9 kg·m(-2)) and obese patients (BMI, ≥30 kg·m(-2)) with established CVD frequently have a better prognosis than that of their leaner counterparts (BMI, <25 kg·m(-2)) with the same diseases. Fitness-versus-fatness debate is summarized also, including the critical role that fitness plays to alter the relationship between adiposity and subsequent prognosis.

  2. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A.; Bonomi, Alberto G.; Moore, Jonathan P.; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included. PMID:27959935

  3. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate intensity exercise training alone?

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    Roxburgh, Brendon H; Nolan, Paul B; Weatherwax, Ryan M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). It was 'unclear' if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains 'unclear' whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key PointsBoth continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit 'possibly beneficial' clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  4. Occupational demand and human rights. Public safety officers and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J

    1991-08-01

    The issue of discrimination in physically demanding employment, such as police, firefighters, prison guards and military personnel, is contentious. In terms of oxygen transport, the 'action limit' (calling for personnel selection or task redesign) is a steady oxygen consumption of 0.7 L/min, while the maximum permissible limit is 2.1 L/min. Note is taken of the commonly expressed belief that public safety duties are physically demanding, calling for personnel with an aerobic power of at least 3 L/min, or 42 to 45 ml/kg/min. The actual demands of such work can be assessed on small samples by physiological measurements (using heart rate or oxygen consumption meters), but the periods sampled may not be typical of a normal day. A Gestalt can also be formed as to the heaviness of a given job, or a detailed task analysis can be performed; most such analyses of public safety work list distance running and other aerobic activities infrequently. An arbitrary requirement of 'above average fitness' is no longer accepted by courts, but a further approach is to examine the characteristics of those currently meeting the demands of public safety jobs satisfactorily. Young men commonly satisfy the 3 L/min standard, but this is not usually the case for women or older men; in the case of female employees, it also seems unreasonable that they should be expected to satisfy the same standards as men, since a lower body mass reduces the energy cost of most of the tasks that they must perform. A second criterion sometimes applied to physically demanding work (a low vulnerability to heart attacks) is examined critically. It is concluded that the chances that a symptom-free public safety officer will develop a heart attack during a critical solo mission are so low that cardiac risk should not be a condition of employment. Arbitrary age- and sex-related employment criteria are plainly discriminatory, since some women and 65-year-old men have higher levels of physical fitness than the

  5. Antepartum cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) quantification by estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) in pregnant South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaravertty, Biswajit; Parkavi, K; Coumary, Sendhil A; Felix, A J W

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) for pregnant women of varying trimesters and to quantify the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)with the objective of being able to determine the exercise dose for antenatal women which can be prescribed to achieve optimal exercise benefits during various trimesters. A study group comprising 64 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy and control group with 77 non-pregnant women were subjected to Cooper's 12 minutes walk test. From the distance covered in 12 minutes, Vo2max was calculated. The Vo2max values were statistically analysed between the non-pregnant and pregnant and also its variability among the trimesters. Percentile tables of Vo2max were drawn and multiple comparisons were applied. Results show that the Vo2max values among non-pregnant and first trimester ranges between 18 and 22 ml/kg/minute. Trimesters II and III had a range of Vo2max values between 16-20 and 14-18 ml/kg/minute respectively. The CRF of pregnant women significantly reduced to 6%, 9% and 18% in each trimester respectively when compared with the reference table framed out of non-pregnant Vo2max values. Among the study group the reduction in Vo2max values had no statistical significance between first 2 trimesters but trimester III significantly differs from other trimesters. The exercise prescription cannot be the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women. Even among the pregnant women, III trimester needs separate exercise prescription from the other two trimesters as CRF is markedly compromised towards term.

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Lynch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG and 43 omnivore (OMN athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220. VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p < 0.05 but not for males (62.6 ± 15.4 and 55.7 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min respectively. Peak torque did not differ significantly between diet groups. Results from this study indicate that vegetarian endurance athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

  7. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical activity categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical activity guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p physical activity on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI physical activity compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men and women.

  8. High cardiorespiratory fitness in early to late middle age preserves the cortical circuitry associated with brain-heart integration during volitional exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katelyn N; Luchyshyn, Torri A; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) preserves the cortical circuitry associated with cardiac arousal during exercise in middle- to older-aged individuals. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) images were made in 52 healthy, active individuals (45-73 yr; 16 women, 36 men) across a range of fitness (26-66 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% maximal voluntary contraction force were performed with functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T, with each contraction lasting 20 s and separated by 40 s of rest. HR responses to IHG showed high variability across individuals. Linear regression revealed that cardiorespiratory fitness was not a strong predictor of the HR response (r(2) = 0.09). In a region-of-interest analysis both the IHG task and the HR time course correlated with increased cortical activation in the bilateral insula and decreased activation relative to baseline in the anterior and posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). t-Test results revealed greater deactivation at the MPFC with higher fitness levels beyond that of guideline-based activity. Therefore, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness failed to affect absolute HR responses to IHG in this age range, a select effect was observed in cortical regions known to be associated with cardiovascular arousal.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our first observation suggests that fitness does not strongly predict the heart rate (HR) response to a volitional handgrip task in middle- to older-aged adults. Second, the BOLD response associated with the handgrip task, and with the HR time course, was associated with response patterns in the cortical autonomic network. Finally, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness failed to affect absolute HR responses to isometric handgrip in this age range, a select effect was observed in cortical regions known to be

  9. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  10. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  11. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  12. A Bayesian Approach to Multistage Fitting of the Variation of the Skeletal Age Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of skeletal maturity is important clinically. Skeletal age assessment is usually based on features encoded in ossification centers. Therefore, it is critical to design a mechanism to capture as much as possible characteristics of features. We have observed that given a feature, there exist stages of the skeletal age such that the variation pattern of the feature differs in these stages. Based on this observation, we propose a Bayesian cut fitting to describe features in response to the skeletal age. With our approach, appropriate positions for stage separation are determined automatically by a Bayesian approach, and a model is used to fit the variation of a feature within each stage. Our experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the traditional fitting using only one line or one curve not only in the efficiency and accuracy of fitting but also in global and local feature characterization.

  13. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...... running test. RESULTS: The children had 5% more sedentary time, 23% less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 2% longer sleep duration during winter compared to spring and cardio-respiratory fitness was 4% higher during spring compared to autumn (P Sedentary time was higher...

  14. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...... running test. RESULTS: The children had 5% more sedentary time, 23% less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 2% longer sleep duration during winter compared to spring and cardio-respiratory fitness was 4% higher during spring compared to autumn (P

  15. Variability of cardio-respiratory, electromyographic, and perceived exertion responses at the walk-run transition in a sample of young men controlled for anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Walace D; Farinatti, Paulo T V; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2011-06-01

    The cardio-respiratory (heart rate, HR; oxygen uptake, VO(2;) expired carbon dioxide, VCO(2); ventilation, VE), electromyographic (EMG; medial gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoralis, and anterior tibialis), and perceived exertion (PE) responses during a protocol for the determination of the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) were investigated. From an initial sample of 453 volunteers, 12 subjects matched for age, anthropometric characteristics [height, weight, lower limb length (LLL)], cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption, VO(2peak); ventilatory threshold, VT; maximal HR), and habitual physical activity levels were selected (age = 18.6 ± 0.5 years; height = 174.5 ± 1.4 cm; weight = 66.4 ± 1.1 kg; LLL = 83.3 ± 1.2 cm, VO(2peak) = 52.2 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1); VT = 39.8 ± 2.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The highly reproducible WRTS determination protocol (ICC = 0.92; p running velocities (from 80 to 120% of WRTS) was compared to WRTS variation. The coefficient of variation for WRTS was 7.8%, which was within the range of variability for age, anthropometric variables, VO(2peak), and maximal HR (from 5 to 12%). Cardio-respiratory responses at WRTS had a greater variation (VO(2) about 50%; VE/VCO(2) about 35%; VE/VO(2) about 45%; HR about 30%). The highest variation was found for PE (from 70 to 90%) whereas EMG variables showed the lowest variation (from 25 to 30%). Linear regression between EMG series and VO(2) data showed that VO(2) reflected the increase in muscle activity only before the WRTS. These results support the hypothesis that the walk-run transition phenomenon is determined by mechanical variables such as limb length and its relationship to biomechanical model rather than by metabolic factors.

  16. Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagan Shiri Sherf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Body mass index (BMI is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50 ± 8.8 years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max, as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2 was 27.8 ± 3.7 and 25.5 ± 4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm 94.1 ± 9.7 and 84.3 ± 10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5 hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r = −0.280 and r = −0.377, respectively, p > 0.05 for both and in women (r = −0.514 and r = −0.491, respectively, p > 0.05 for both. In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  17. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline......L/kg/min more than the children from the control school. This VO(2peak) value was adjusted for both sex and baseline VO(2peak). Boys and girls demonstrated similar VO(2peak) responses. The intervention, primarily carried out at a moderate intensity, had the biggest impact in children with low initial CRF levels...

  18. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA......OBJECTIVETo examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe...... used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed-up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle...

  19. APOE genotype and cardio-respiratory fitness interact to determine adiposity in 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A Ellis

    Full Text Available APOE plays a well established role in lipid metabolism. Animal model evidence suggests APOE may also be associated with adiposity, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We measured adiposity (BMI, truncal fat mass, waist circumference, physical activity (PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and APOE genotype (E2, E3, E4 in 292 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (TIHS, an Australian population-based prospective birth cohort. Our aims were to examine the association of APOE with child adiposity, and to examine the interplay between this association and other measured factors. We found that APOE was associated with child lipid profiles. APOE was also associated with child adiposity measures. The association was E4 allele-specific, with adiposity lower in the E4-containing group (BMI: Mean difference -0.90 kg/m²; 95% confidence intervals (CI -1.51, -0.28; p = 0.004. The association of APOE4 with lower BMI differed by fitness status (difference in effect p = 0.002, and was more evident among the less fit (mean difference -1.78 kg/m²; 95% CI -2.74, -0.83; p<0.001. Additionally, associations between BMI and lipids were only apparent in those of lower fitness who did not carry APOE4. Similar overall findings were observed when truncal fat mass and waist circumference were used as alternative adiposity measures. APOE4 and cardiorespitatory fitness could interact to influence child adiposity. In studies addressing the genetic determinants of childhood obesity, the context of child fitness should also be taken into account.

  20. CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS MODULATES THE ACUTE FLOW-MEDIATED DILATION RESPONSE FOLLOWING HIGH-INTENSITY BUT NOT MODERATE-INTENSITY EXERCISE IN ELDERLY MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom G; Perissiou, Maria; Windsor, Mark; Russell, Fraser D; Golledge, Jonathan; Green, Daniel J; Askew, Christopher D

    2017-02-16

    Impaired endothelial function is observed with ageing and with low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) whilst improvements in both are suggested to be reliant on higher-intensity exercise in the elderly. This may be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise of varying intensity. We examined the hypothesis that exercise-intensity alters the FMD response in healthy elderly adults, and would be modulated by VO2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower- (VO2peak = 24.3±2.9 ml.kg(-1)min(-1), n=27) and higher-fit groups (VO2peak = 35.4±5.5 ml.kg(-1)min(-1), n=20) after a test of cycling peak power output (PPO). In randomised order, participants undertook 27 min moderate-intensity continuous (MICE; 40% PPO) or high-intensity interval cycling exercise (HIIE; 70% PPO), or no-exercise control. Brachial FMD was assessed at rest, 10 and 60 min after exercise. In control, FMD reduced in both groups (P=0.05). FMD increased after MICE in both groups [increase of 0.86 % (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.56), P=0.01], and normalised after 60 min. In the lower-fit, FMD reduced after HIIE [reduction of 0.85 % (95% CI, 0.12 to 1.58), P=0.02), and remained decreased at 60 min (P=0.05). In the higher-fit FMD was unchanged immediately after HIIE and increased after 60 min [increase of 1.52 % (95% CI, 0.41 to 2.62), PExercise-intensity alters the FMD response in elderly adults, and VO2peak modulates the FMD response following HIIE, but not MICE. The sustained decrease in FMD in the lower-fit may represent a signal for vascular adaptation or endothelial fatigue.

  1. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  2. Effects of vitamin D and quercetin, alone and in combination, on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function in physically active male adults

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    Scholten SD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shane D Scholten,1 Igor N Sergeev,2 Qingming Song,3 Chad B Birger41Exercise and Sport Sciences, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 3Gold Green Farm Corporation, Hammonton, NJ, 4Center for Health Outcomes and Prevention Research, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD, USAIntroduction: Vitamin D and the antioxidant quercetin, are promising agents for improving physical performance because of their possible beneficial effects on muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased intakes of vitamin D, quercetin, and their combination on antioxidant status, the steroid hormone regulators of muscle function, and measures of physical performance in apparently healthy male adults engaged in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity exercise training.Methods: A total of 40 adult male participants were randomized to either 4,000 IU vitamin D/d, 1,000 mg/d quercetin, vitamin D plus quercetin, or placebo for 8 weeks. Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, blood markers for antioxidant and vitamin D status, and hormones 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 and testosterone were measured pre- and postsupplementation.Results: At enrollment, 88.6% of participants were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D >50 nmol/L and had normal serum testosterone levels. Supplementation with vitamin D significantly increased serum 25(OHD concentration (by 87.3% in the vitamin D group, P<0.001 and was associated with an increasing trend of testosterone concentration. There were no changes in concentration of 1,25(OH2D3 and markers of antioxidant status associated with vitamin D or quercetin supplementation. No improvements in physical performance measures associated with vitamin D and quercetin supplementation were found.Conclusion: The findings obtained demonstrate that long-term vitamin D and

  3. Validity of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Danish cohort 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Lene; Olsen, Anja; Petersen, Kristina Elin Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment. Validity......). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure time physical activity was not correlated with VO2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=0.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=0.......28) and vigorous sports (0.28) alone were positively correlated with VO2 max. Finally, the percentage of misclassification was low for self-rated fitness (women: 9% and men: 13%). Thus, self-rated fitness was found to be a superior method to the Danish step test, as well as being less cost prohibitive and more...

  4. Midlife and Late-Life Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Brain Volume Changes in Late Adulthood: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenski, Stephanie A.; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is cross-sectionally associated with more conserved brain volume in older age, but longitudinal studies are rare. This study examined whether higher midlife CRF was prospectively associated with slower atrophy, which in turn was associated with higher late-life CRF. Methods. Brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging was determined annually from 1994 to 2003 in 146 participants (M baseline age = 69.6 years). Peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill yielded estimated midlife CRF in 138 and late-life CRF in 73 participants. Results. Higher midlife CRF was associated with greater middle temporal gyrus, perirhinal cortex, and temporal and parietal white matter, but was not associated with atrophy progression. Slower atrophy in middle frontal and angular gyri was associated with higher late-life CRF, independent of CRF at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions. Higher midlife CRF may play a role in preserving middle and medial temporal volumes in late adulthood. Slower atrophy in middle frontal and angular gyri may predict late-life CRF. PMID:25896993

  5. Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in childrenand adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with60min...

  6. Both poor cardiorespiratory and weak muscle fitness are related to a high concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosola, J; Ahotupa, M; Kyröläinen, H; Santtila, M; Vasankari, T

    2012-12-01

    Good physical fitness is associated with favorable serum lipids. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) could be even more atherogenic than serum lipids. We studied the association of ox-LDL and serum lipids with physical fitness. Healthy young (mean age 25 years) men (n=846) underwent maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and muscle fitness index (MFI) tests and completed a leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) questionnaire. Age (ANCOVA1), age+waist circumference+systolic blood pressure+fasting blood glucose+smoking (ANCOVA3) were used as covariates. The groups with the lowest VO(2max), MFI and LTPA had 23%, 16% and 8% higher concentrations of ox-LDL than the groups with the highest VO(2max) (PLDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, in all, PLDL/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and with a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA3, in all, PLDL/HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, P=0.001). In conclusion, both poor fitness (both low VO(2max) and low MFI) and low LTPA are associated with a higher concentration of ox-LDL lipids and serum lipids, which may indicate a higher risk for atherosclerosis.

  7. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial — A cross-sectional study

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    Martin Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA, but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years, in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED, low (LIPA, and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA. Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%, and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46–0.82, from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39–0.72. Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348 and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min, and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min−1 × kg−1 than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  8. Muscle strength, power and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with bone mineral density in men aged 31-60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas; Nielsen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    -respiratory fitness with BMD at the spine and hip in men. RESULTS: The association between independent variables maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)), leg power and hand grip strength, and dependent variables BMD at the spine and total hip was explored in a series of linear regression models successively adjusted...... for age, weight and height, smoking, alcohol intake and leisure time physical activity level. In the fully adjusted model we found a significant association of VO(2max) with BMD at the lumbar spine, pVO(2max) (p

  9. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  10. Testing Methods of Adolescents’ Cardiorespiratory Fitness%青少年心肺耐力测试方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶心明; 尹小俭; 季浏; 刘笑

    2014-01-01

    目的::分析和探讨1000(800)米跑和20mSRT对测量青少年心肺耐力的测试效度,为有效地制定评价青少年心肺耐力的测试方法提供参考依据。方法:随机抽取上海市A中学13-15岁共61名(男29名,女32名)初中学生作为研究对象,运用ROC曲线,多重线性回归等方法分析和探讨1000(800)米跑,20mSRT和跑台测试法直接测得的VO2 max之间的相互关系。结果与结论:(1)1000米跑,20mSRT与跑台直接测试法测得的 VO2 max的相关系数男生分别为0.440和0.468,女生(800米跑)为0.513和0.765;在测量青少年心肺耐力方面,20mSRT优于1000米(男生)跑和800米(女生)跑。(2)以跑台测试所得的VO2 max为金标准,男生1000米跑,20mSRT所测得VO2 max的ROC曲线下面积分别为0.571和0.688,女生800米跑,20mSRT的面积分别为0.523和0.661;(3)VO2max与20mSRT次数之间的回归方程式:VO2max=115.54356-(1.93803×年龄)-(7.13359×性别)-(1.86024× BMI)-(0.065772× N)(男生为0,女生为1, N为20mSRT次数),方程式与VO2max的相关系数为0.713。%Objective:This study attempts to investigate the measurement of the validation of cardiorespiratory fit-ness through 1000 (800) -running test and 20mSRT in order to provide reference for the future development of the test method of evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents effectively. Method:61 students (29 males and 32 females) are randomly selected as research objects from middle schools in Shanghai to analyze the relevance of differ-ent VO2 max from 1000(800) -meter running test, 20mSRT and treadmill test respectively by using ROC and multiple linear regression analysis. Results and Conclusion:(1)The correlation coefficient of VO2max from 1000-meter running test (male) and 20mSRT is 0. 440 and 0. 468 respectively while that of 800-meter running test (female) and 20mSRT is 0. 513 and 0. 765 respectively. 20mSRT is better than 1000(800) -running test in terms of measuring the

  11. ASSOCIATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS WITH ELEVATED HEPATIC ENZYME AND LIVER FAT IN JAPANESE PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Mayumi Nagano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far determined whether a favorable level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CF contributes to a reduced risk of elevated hepatic enzymes and a high degree of liver fat in patients having various metabolic risks. This study investigated the association between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and high liver fat, while considering such factors as abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia and the other metabolic risks. The study enrolled newly diagnosed Japanese patients (n = 84; 52 males and 32 females; aged 25-69 years with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2DM who did not receive any intervention or pharmacological therapy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the distribution of the VO2max for each sex. The odds ratios (ORs for the prevalence of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT and high degree of liver fat adjusted for age, sex, disease type, daily ethanol intake, and current smoking were significantly lower in the moderate- and high CF groups in comparison to the low CF group. In addition, a significant OR for AST was maintained in the moderate and high CF group after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. The significant ORs for the prevalence of elevated ALT and a high degree of liver fat were attenuated after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. No significant OR for the prevalence of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT was recognized in all logistic models. These results indicated that CF was negatively and independently associated with the prevalence of elevated AST even in Japanese diabetic patients having various metabolic risks. It was concluded that the AST level might be useful as a simple marker reflecting physical inactivity in such subjects

  12. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with brain structure, cognition, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Elizabeth A; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective measure of habitual physical activity (PA), and has been linked to increased brain structure and cognition. The gold standard method for measuring CRF is graded exercise testing (GXT), but GXT is not feasible in many settings. The objective of this study was to examine whether a non-exercise estimate of CRF is related to gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, objective and subjective memory function, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred and fifteen cognitively healthy adults (mean age =58.58 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent structural MRI scanning, cognitive testing, anthropometric assessment, venipuncture for laboratory tests, and completed a self-reported PA questionnaire. A subset (n = 85) underwent maximal GXT. CRF was estimated using a previously validated equation incorporating sex, age, body-mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported PA. Results indicated that the CRF estimate was significantly associated with GXT-derived peak oxygen consumption, validating its use as a non-exercise CRF measure in our sample. Support for this finding was seen in significant associations between the CRF estimate and several cardiovascular risk factors. Higher CRF was associated with greater GM volumes in several AD-relevant brain regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Increased CRF was also associated with lower WMH and better cognitive performance in Verbal Learning & Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visuospatial Ability. Lastly, CRF was negatively correlated with self- and informant-reported memory complaints, and depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that habitual participation in physical activity may provide protection for brain structure and cognitive function, thereby decreasing future risk for AD.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with brain structure, cognition, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Elizabeth A.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; LaRue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective measure of habitual physical activity (PA), and has been linked to increased brain structure and cognition. The gold standard method for measuring CRF is graded exercise testing (GXT), but GXT is not feasible in many settings. The objective of this study was to examine whether a non-exercise estimate of CRF is related to gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, objective and subjective memory function, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Three hundred and fifteen cognitively healthy adults (mean age = 58.58 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention underwent structural MRI scanning, cognitive testing, anthropometric assessment, venipuncture for laboratory tests, and completed a self-reported PA questionnaire. A subset (n=85) underwent maximal GXT. CRF was estimated using a previously validated equation incorporating sex, age, body-mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported PA. Results indicated that the CRF estimate was significantly associated with GXT-derived peak oxygen consumption, validating its use as a non-exercise CRF measure in our sample. Support for this finding was seen in significant associations between the CRF estimate and several cardiovascular risk factors. Higher CRF was associated with greater GM volumes in several AD-relevant brain regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Increased CRF was also associated with lower WMH and better cognitive performance in Verbal Learning & Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visuospatial Ability. Lastly, CRF was negatively correlated with self- and informant-reported memory complaints, and depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that habitual participation in physical activity may provide protection for brain structure and cognitive function, thereby decreasing future risk for AD

  15. Relationship between exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowgey, Theresa; Peters, Katherine B; Hornsby, Whitney E; Lane, Amy; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E; West, Miranda J; Williams, Christina L; Jones, Lee W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients. Thirty-seven breast cancer patients following completion of chemotherapy (median 16 months) and 14 controls were studied. Cognitive function was assessed using the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs software (CNS Vital Signs, LLC, Morrisville, N.C., USA), a computerized test battery consisting of 9 cognitive subtests. Exercise behavior was evaluated using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and CRF was assessed via a cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess peak oxygen consumption. Patients' mean total exercise was 184 ± 141 min·week(-1) compared with 442 ± 315 min·week(-1) in controls (p exercise guidelines (i.e., ≥150 min of moderate-intensity or vigorous exercise per week) compared with 57% of controls (p = 0.014). Patients' peak oxygen consumption averaged 23.5 ± 6.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) compared with 30.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (p exercise, peak oxygen consumption, and the majority of cognitive subdomain scores; however, there was a significant positive correlation between exercise and visual memory (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). In conclusion, breast cancer patients following the completion of primary adjuvant chemotherapy exhibit, in general, worse cognitive performance than healthy women from the general population, and such performance may be related to their level of exercise behavior.

  16. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  17. The Effect of Aerobic Interval Training and Massage Therapy on C-Reactive Protein and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Cardiovascular Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahare Sheikhsaraf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8 week period of aerobic interval training and massage therapy on changes in C-reactive protein (CRP level and cardiorespiratory fitness in cardiovascular patients after coronary artery bypass graft. The study population consisted of patients who had undergone a coronary artery bypass graft and at least one month had passed since their surgery. 60 patients met the study inclusion criteria and were willing to cooperate; they were divided randomly into three groups (n = 20 as follows; interval, massage therapy and a control. Subjects in groups taking interval training and massage therapy were administered three sessions per week for eight weeks. 48 hours before and after eight weeks of exercise, subjects were measured for peak oxygen consumption and blood samples were taken. Results of the present study show that 8-week programs of regular exercise and massage therapy resulted in significant reduction of CRP of 42% and 25% respectively (P<0.05. Peak oxygen consumption values after eight weeks of regular exercise showed a significant increase (22% in interval exercise and 17% in massage therapy (P<0.05. In general, these findings show that 8-week programs of aerobic interval training and massage therapy significantly reduced serum CRP value and caused a significant increase in peak oxygen consumption in patients with coronary artery bypass graft. These changes can be effective for prevention of sudden death and cardiovascular problems after bypass surgery. Also, interval training was more effective on reducing CRP and increasing peak oxygen consumption than massage therapy.

  18. Longitudinal influence of musculo-skeletal injuries and extra physical education on physical fitness in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L B

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if (A) injuries and (B) increased physical education (PE) influenced the development of physical fitness in schoolchildren. Simultaneously, to investigate if a possible PE effect was modified by sport participation outside school hours. This was a longitudinal controlled school-based study. Six schools with 270 min of PE (extra PE) and four schools with 90 min of PE were followed up for 2.5 years. In total, 1054 children were included for analysis (normal PE = 443, extra PE = 611). Development in fitness was analyzed using composite z-scores from six fitness tests measured four times. Information of injury and sport was derived from weekly automated mobile phone text messages surveying the presence of musculo-skeletal pain and organized sport participation. Injury and extra PE both influenced the development of physical fitness. Injury decreased development of physical fitness with -1.01 composite z-score units (95% CI: -1.57; -0.45). Extra PE increased physical fitness development with 0.80 (95% CI: 0.49; 1.10) composite z-score units. The influence of injury was not dependent on extra PE. No modifying effect was found by mean weekly sport participation outside school hours. In conclusion, extra PE had a positive effect, whereas injuries had a negative effect on physical fitness development in schoolchildren.

  19. Impact of coenzyme Q-10 on parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle performance in older athletes taking statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Richard E; Lavie, Carl J; Dornelles, Adriana C

    2012-11-01

    Many older athletes take statins, which are known to have potential for muscle toxicity. The adverse effects of statins on muscles and the influence thereof on athletic performance remain uncertain. Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10) may improve performance and reduce muscle toxicity in older athletes taking statins. This trial was designed to evaluate the benefits of CoQ10 administration for mitochondrial function in this population. Twenty athletes aged ≥ 50 years who were taking stable doses of statins were randomized to receive either CoQ10 (200 mg daily) or placebo for 6 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the impact of CoQ10 on the anaerobic threshold (AT). Several secondary endpoints, including muscle function, cardiopulmonary exercise function, and subjective feelings of fitness, were also assessed. The mean (SD) change in AT from baseline was -0.59 (1.2) mL/kg/min during placebo treatment and 2.34 (0.8) mL/kg/min during CoQ10 treatment (P = 0.116). The mean change in time to AT from baseline was significantly greater during CoQ10 treatment than during placebo treatment (40.26 s vs 0.58 s, P = 0.038). Furthermore, muscle strength as measured by leg extension repetitions (reps) increased significantly during CoQ10 treatment, with a mean (SD) increase from baseline of 1.73 (2.9) reps during placebo treatment versus 3.78 (5.0) reps during CoQ10 treatment (P = 0.031). Many other parameters also tended to improve in response to CoQ10 treatment. Treatment with CoQ10 improved AT in comparison with baseline values in 11 of 19 (58%) subjects and in comparison with placebo treatment values in 10 of 19 (53%) subjects. Treatment with CoQ10 (200 mg daily) did not significantly improve AT in older athletes taking statins. However, it did improve muscle performance as measured by time to AT and leg strength (quadriceps muscle reps). Many other measures of mitochondrial function also tended to improve during CoQ10 treatment.

  20. Longitudinal influence of musculo-skeletal injuries and extra physical education on physical fitness in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if (A) injuries and (B) increased physical education (PE) influenced the development of physical fitness in schoolchildren. Simultaneously, to investigate if a possible PE effect was modified by sport participation outside school hours. This was a longit......The aims of this study were to investigate if (A) injuries and (B) increased physical education (PE) influenced the development of physical fitness in schoolchildren. Simultaneously, to investigate if a possible PE effect was modified by sport participation outside school hours....... This was a longitudinal controlled school-based study. Six schools with 270 min of PE (extra PE) and four schools with 90 min of PE were followed up for 2.5 years. In total, 1054 children were included for analysis (normal PE = 443, extra PE = 611). Development in fitness was analyzed using composite z-scores from six...... fitness tests measured four times. Information of injury and sport was derived from weekly automated mobile phone text messages surveying the presence of musculo-skeletal pain and organized sport participation. Injury and extra PE both influenced the development of physical fitness. Injury decreased...

  1. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim...... was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...

  2. Medidas antropométricas segundo aptidão cardiorrespiratória em militares da ativa, Brasil Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness of military men in active duty, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Almeida Magalhães Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as diferenças no índice de massa corporal (IMC e no perímetro da cintura segundo a aptidão cardiorrespiratória em militares do sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 50.523 homens da ativa do exército brasileiro. Os dados antropométricos (massa corporal, estatura e perímetro da cintura e de consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max, estimado por meio do teste de corrida de 12 minutos, foram obtidos no teste de aptidão física do ano 2001. RESULTADOS: A idade variou de 18 a 52 anos, porém foi composta em sua maioria por indivíduos jovens (média + DP = 25,8 + 6,6 anos de idade. A faixa de aptidão cardiorrespiratória variou de 22,2 a 82,5 mL O2.kg-1.min-1. Os valores médios do perímetro da cintura foram significativamente menores nos grupos de melhor aptidão cardiorrespiratória, quando comparados com os grupos com menor aptidão (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference according to cardiorespiratory fitness in active military men. METHODS: The study sample comprised 50,523 active military men of the Brazilian army. Anthropometric measures (body mass, height, and waist circumference and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max information, estimated in a 12-min run, were obtained in a fitness test in 2001. RESULTS: Subjects' age ranged between 18 and 52 years, but most were young (mean + SD 25.8 + 6.6 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness varied from 22.2 to 82.5 mL.O2.kg-1.min-1. Waist circumference mean values were significantly lower in those subjects in the highest fitness level compared to those in the lowest level (p<0.001 even after adjusting for age, BMI, and both together. CONCLUSIONS: For the same BMI, military men with better cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly lower waist circumference measures compared to those with lower fitness. These findings suggest that military with better physical fitness have lower abdominal fat accumulation.

  3. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Garces-Arteaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP on health-related quality of life (HRQoL and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT. Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7 years. Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P<0.01. Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  4. Skeletal, neuromuscular and fitness impairments among children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Kirsten K.; Kaste, Sue C.; Zhu, Liang; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima; Nathan, Paul C.; Inaba, Hiroto; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Shah, Durga; Wells, Robert J.; Karlage, Robyn E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Cox, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes skeletal, neuromuscular and fitness impairments among 109 children (median age 10 (range 4–18) years, 65.1% male, 63.3% white) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), enrolled on a physical activity trial from 2009 to 2013. Outcomes were measured 7-10 days after diagnosis and compared to age- and sex-specific expected values. Associations between function and HRQL were evaluated with logistic regression. Children low values for BMD z-scores/height (mean±standard error: −0.53±0.16 vs. 0.00±0.14, p <0.01), body mass index percentile (57.6±3.15 vs. 50.0±3.27%, p=0.02), quadriceps strength (201.9±8.3 vs. 236.1±5.4 Newtons, p<0.01), six minute walk distance (385.0±13.1 vs. 628.2±7.1 meters, p < 0.001), and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (23±2.5 vs. 50±3.4%, p < 0.001). Quadriceps weakness was associated with a 20.9-fold (95% CI 2.5–173.3) increase in poor physical HRQL. Children with newly diagnosed ALL have weakness and poor endurance and may benefit from early rehabilitation that includes strengthening and aerobic conditioning. PMID:25030039

  5. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Carol Ewing; Blissmer, Bryan; Deschenes, Michael R; Franklin, Barry A; Lamonte, Michael J; Lee, I-Min; Nieman, David C; Swain, David P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit

  6. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13 and obese (OB = 18 women, aged 20-45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI. CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05. During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86, VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80, as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05. These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance.

  7. Uma análise entre índices pressóricos, obesidade e capacidade cardiorrespiratória em escolares Comparison analysis of blood pressure, obesity, and cardio-respiratory fitness in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miria Suzana Burgos

    2010-06-01

    diseases, especially obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Early intervention can prevent the development of these complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of cardiovascular risk (obesity and hypertension in schoolchildren and its potential interactions with cardio-respiratory fitness. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a stratified cluster sample of 1,666 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 17 years, 873 (52.4% of them male and 793 (47.6% of them female. The following variables were evaluated: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF %, and cardio-respiratory fitness. SBP and DBP were correlated with waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, sum of skin folds (ΣSF, and cardio-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: A BMI assessment of the students showed that 26.7% of them were overweight or obese, and 35.9% had body fat percentage over moderately high. As to blood pressure, we found that 13.9% and 12.1% of the students were borderline or hypertensive, for SBP and DBP, respectively. There was an association among hypertension, obesity, and cardio-respiratory fitness. There was a significant correlation of SBP and DBP with all variables, and also a weak to moderate correlation with age, weight, height, BMI, and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The presence of hypertension associated with obesity and its effects on cardio-respiratory fitness stress the importance of recommending, since childhood, a more active and healthy lifestyle.

  8. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  9. 不同有氧运动方式对健康人心肺适能影响的研究%Effect of different aerobic exercise modes on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆庆; 曹胜; 金荣疆

    2015-01-01

    目的:本研究旨在比较两种不同有氧锻炼方式对健康人心肺适能水平的影响。方法:将32名健康受试者随机分到跑步平台组和楼梯机组各16名,2组受试者分别进行跑步机及楼梯机有氧锻炼,每次30min ,每天1次,共5d。结果:锻炼后,楼梯机组第1秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)、FEV1/FVC、最大通气量(MVV)、呼气峰流速(PEF)以及6min步行距离(6MWD)均较锻炼前明显提高(P<0.05),用力肺活量(forced vital capacity ,FVC)比较差异无统计学意义;跑步平台组锻炼后FVC、FEV1、FEV1/FVC、6MWD、PEF较锻炼前明显提高(P<0.05),MVV变化差异无统计学意义。锻炼后,楼梯机组 FEV1/FVC、MVV、6MWD、PEF提高幅度明显优于跑步平台组(P<0.05),但FVC、FEV1的提高幅度差异无统计学意义。结论:楼梯机锻炼和跑步平台锻炼对健康人的心肺适能水平都有显著影响,但楼梯机锻炼对健康人的MVV、FEV1/FVC、PEF及6MWD的提高幅度更大,即楼梯机锻炼在短时间内对健康人的心肺适能水平影响更显著。%Objective:To observe the effect of two different aerobic exercise modes (stair‐machine exercise and treadmill exercise) on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy people .Methods:Thirty‐two healthy college students as subjects were divided into two groups randomly :walking group given walk exercise on treadmill (n=16) and stair‐climbing group given stair‐climbing exercise on stair‐machine (n=16) .The subjects from the walking group walked on the treadmill ,30 min per term ,5 terms per week ,and 5 days in all .The subjects from stair‐climbing group climbed stairs on the stair‐machine with the same frequency as that in the walking group .Results:There were sig‐nificant differences in MVV ,FEV1 ,FEV1/FVC ,PEF and 6MWD (P< 0 .05) ,but no significant difference in FVC in stair‐climbing group before and after exercise

  10. 体力活动、心肺耐力与心血管疾病风险因素之间的相关性研究%The Associations of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家仕; 严翊; 苏浩; 赵岩; 郭娴; 谢敏豪

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对246名40~49岁健康中年男性进行体力活动问卷调查和心肺耐力测试,分析二者与心血管疾病相关风险因素之间的相关性。结果:1)随着体力活动总消耗量水平增加,心血管疾病相关风险因素并未出现改善趋势,方差分析无显著性差异,二者之间不存在相关性;2)随着心肺耐力水平等级的提高,心血管相关风险因素出现明显的改善;二者之间呈显著性相关。结论:1)体力活动消耗量水平未引起心血管疾病相关风险因素的改善,并不能作为心血管疾病风险因素的评价指标;2)随着心肺耐力水平的改善,心血管相关的风险因素出现明显改善,心肺耐力要比体力活动更能作为心血管疾病风险因素的评价指标。%Objective: through International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) ergometer exercise test for 246 healthy adult men aged 40 49 years, this study analyzes the associations of PA and CRF with cardiovascular risk factors. Results : 1 ) with the rise on PA, there would be no improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, no significant difference in variance analysis and no correlation between the two fac tors ; 2) With the development of CRF, there is notability descent of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular re lated risk factors have been significantly improved and the two factors are significantly correlated. Conclusion : 1 ) PA does not improve the cardiovascular related risk factors and can not be regarded as the evaluation indicator of the risk factors. 2) With the improvement of CRF, cardiovascular related risk factors are significantly improved, and CRF can be regarded as the evaluation index for predicting cardiovascular risk factors rather than PA.

  11. A preseason cardiorespiratory profile of dancers in nine professional ballet and modern companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Lora, Jennifer Bailey; Southwick, Heather; Kulak, Michelina Cassella; Gamboa, Jennifer; Rooney, Megan; Gilman, Greg; Gibbs, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While studies have investigated the physical demands of dance in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, there are no recent comparisons of cardiorespiratory response to exercise among professional dancers of different genres. Our purpose was to: 1. develop a cardiorespiratory profile of professional dancers; 2. investigate differences in peak and recovery heart rate (HR) between professional modern and ballet dancers using an accelerated 3-minute step test; 3. demonstrate the relationship between cardiorespiratory variables; and 4. investigate the effects of company and work variables on the dancers' cardiorespiratory profiles. We hypothesized greater cardiorespiratory fitness in modern dancers than in ballet dancers, due to the nature of their repertory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that company profiles would reflect differences in work variables. Two hundred and eleven dancers (mean age 24.6 ± 4.7) from nine companies (two modern and seven ballet) performed a 3-minute step test. Demographics, height, mass, blood pressure (BP), smoking history, and resting peak and recovery HR were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) and fitness category were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences in demographics and cardiorespiratory variables due to genre, MANOVA were conducted to compare differences due to company, and correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between cardiorespiratory variables (p ballet dancers (p < 0.03). There were differences between companies in age, experience, BMI, BP, resting, peak, and recovery HR, and fitness category (p < 0.001). The differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels that may be related to rigor of repertory, rehearsal and performance seasons, or off-season exercise training are discussed. Results support the need for comprehensive physical fitness screening to identify dancers who could benefit from aerobic conditioning to enhance overall performance preparedness and to minimize fatigue effects.

  12. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  13. Aptidão cardiorrespiratória de uma amostra regional brasileira distribuída em diferentes tabelas Cardiorespiratory fitness of a Brazilian regional sample distributed in different tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlyse Claudino Belli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A maioria das tabelas de classificação da Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória (ACR utilizadas na prática clínica é internacional e não foi validada para a população brasileira, podendo resultar em discrepâncias importantes, uma vez que essa classificação é extrapolada para a nossa população. Objetivo: Avaliar as principais tabelas de ACR disponíveis em uma amostra populacional brasileira do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados retrospectivos de 2.930 indivíduos, residentes em 36 cidades do Planalto Central do RS. Levaram-se em consideração presença dos fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular e valores estimados do consumo de oxigênio de pico (VO2pico, obtidos por meio de teste de esforço com protocolo de Bruce. Para classificar a ACR, os sujeitos foram distribuídos de acordo com o sexo e inseridos nas respectivas faixas etárias das tabelas de Cooper, American Heart Association (AHA e da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, e classificados conforme seu VO2pico. RESULTADOS: A amostra feminina apresentou valores mais baixos de VO2pico do que a masculina (23,5 ± 8,5 vs. 31,7 ± 10,8 mL.kg-1.min-1, p BACKGROUND: Most classification tables of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF used in clinical practice are international and have not been validated for the Brazilian population. That can result in important discrepancies when that classification is extrapolated to our population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of major CRF tables available in a Brazilian population sample of the Central High Plan of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. METHODS: This study assessed the retrospective data of 2,930 individuals, living in 36 cities of the Central High Plan of the state of RS, and considered the following: presence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak values obtained through exercise test with Bruce protocol. To classify CRF, the

  14. Aptidão cardiorrespiratória, perfil lipídico e metabólico em adolescentes obesos e não-obesos Cardiorespiratory fitness, lipid and metabolic profile in obese and non-obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Leite

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o consumo máximo de oxigênio, perfil lipídico e metabólico em meninas e meninos obesos e não-obesos. Estudo transversal, descritivo e correlacional. A amostra foi composta por 91 obesos e 30 não-obesos, dos 10 aos 16 anos. Avaliou-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC e a circunferência abdominal (CA. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi avaliada de forma direta através da análise do consumo máximo de oxigênio (O2max. Determinaram-se níveis de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C, triglicérides (TG, glicemia e insulinemia após 12 horas de jejum. Analisaram-se os dados pelo teste "t" de student e correlação parcial controlada pela idade, com um nível de significância de pO2max com o IMC (r = -0,540; p O2max com a CT, a fração LDL-C e a glicemia.O menor VO2max correlacionou com maiores adiposidade, TG e insulinemia, bem como redução de HDL. O O2max não correlacionou com o CT, LDL-C e glicemia, sugerindo a importância do controle genético sobre estas variáveis e um menor tempo de influência do sedentarismo na população infanto-juvenil.The aim this study was investigates the relationship between maximum oxygen consumption, lipid and metabolic profile in obese and non-obese girls and boys. Transversal, descriptive and correlational study. 91 obese and 30 non-obese subjects participated, with 10 to 16 years. There were well overall adiposity by body mass index (BMI, and central adiposity by waist circumference (WC. The cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a direct analysis of maximum oxygen consumption (O2max. Are determined levels of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, glucose and insulin after 12 hours of fasting. We analyzed the data by "t" student`s test and partial correlation controlled for age, with a significance level of p

  15. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed Jan. 11, 2016. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. American College of ...

  16. Pontos de corte para a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a triagem de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares na infância Cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points and cardiovascular risk factors screening at infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade e propor novos pontos de corte para aptidão cardiorrespiratória de escolares de sete a 12 anos de idade. A amostra foi constituída por 1.413 escolares. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi medida através do teste de corrida/caminhada de nove minutos. O colesterol total e as pressões arterial sistólica e diastólica foram medidas e através delas foram criadas referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Através da curva receiver operating characteristic entre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e as referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares foram identificados os valores dos pontos de corte. Adicionalmente foi utilizada a análise bivariada seguida do cálculo de razão de chances (odds ratio-OR para identificar quanto os indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos tinham a mais de chance de apresentar fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Os resultados indicaram que, dentre as propostas analisadas, a que foi sugerida neste estudo apresentou melhores ajustamentos entre sensibilidade e especificidade. Os resultados da análise bivariada mostraram que indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos têm maiores chances de apresentarem fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares.The main objective of the study was to analyze and propose news cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points for 7 to 12-year old school students. The sample was composed of 1,413 students. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by the 9-minutes walking/running test. Total cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and with their results cardiovascular risk factors reference were designed. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve between cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors reference identified the cut offs point values. The bivariate analysis and odds ratio (OR calculation was used to

  17. Impact of Resistance Circuit Training on Neuromuscular, Cardiorespiratory and Body Composition Adaptations in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Martínez-Pascual, Miryam; Alcaraz, Pedro E.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in maximal aerobic power and skeletal muscle force production with advancing age are examples of functional declines with aging, which can severely limit physical performance and independence, and are negatively correlated with all cause mortality. It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals. Circuit-based resistance training, where loads are lifted with minimal rest, may be a very effective strategy for increasing oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, strength, and functional capacity while improving body composition. In addition, circuit training is a time-efficient exercise modality that can elicit demonstrable improvements in health and physical fitness. Hence, it seems reasonable to identify the most effective combination of intensity, volume, work to rest ratio, weekly frequency and exercise sequence to promote neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and body composition adaptations in the elderly. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize and update knowledge about the effects of circuit weight training in older adults and elderly population, as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime. PMID:24124631

  18. Efeitos do treinamento neuromuscular na aptidão cardiorrespiratória e composição corporal de atletas de voleibol do sexo feminino Effects of the neuromuscular training in the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of female volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adamoli Simões

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As respostas do organismo humano submetido a estímulos diversos, mensuradas através de parâmetros de performance, têm sido objeto de estudo a fim de aprimorar os métodos de treinamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do treinamento neuromuscular na capacidade cardiorrespiratória e composição corporal de atletas de voleibol. Foram avaliadas 11 mulheres, antes e após 12 semanas de treinamento, referente à fase preparatória do ciclo anual de treinamento. O protocolo experimental constou de avaliação da composição corporal (percentual de gordura, massa magra e a gordura corporal e da aptidão cardiorrespiratória por meio de ergoespirometria em esteira rolante com protocolo contínuo e carga crescente, na qual se determinaram o consumo máximo de oxigênio, a frequência cardíaca máxima, o limiar anaeróbio, a frequência cardíaca do limiar anaeróbio e a velocidade do limiar anaeróbio. O treinamento teve frequência de cinco dias por semana dividido em duas sessões: uma de treinamento de força e outra de treinamento técnico e tático. Após o período estudado ocorreram aumentos (p The responses of the human body submitted to several stimuli measured by performance parameters have been object of studies in order to improve training methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the neuromuscular training in the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of volleyball athletes. Eleven women were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training, concerning the preparatory phase of the annual training cycle. The experimental protocol consisted of assessment of the body composition (fat percentage, lean mass and body fat and of the cardiorespiratory fitness through ergospirometry on treadmill with continuous protocol and increasing load, in which the oxygen maximal uptake, maximum heart rate, anaerobic threshold, heart rate threshold and anaerobic threshold velocity were determined. The

  19. Effect of female sex hormones on cardiorespiratory parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A. R.; Vaidya, Savita M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone regulate various phases of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal changes tend to affect various parameters of physical fitness. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a measure of aerobic power. This study was planned to assess effect of different phases of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max. Methods: 100 female medical students in the age group of 17-22 years were studied for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Weight, resting pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max were measured during premenstrual phase (20th-25th day) and postmenstrual phase (5th to 10th day). Results: It was observed that there was a significant increase in body weight, pulse rate, and respiratory rate during premenstrual phase. There was a decrease in VO2 max during the premenstrual phase. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is decreased cardio-respiratory efficiency during premenstrual phase.

  20. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  1. Efeitos de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em hipertensas Effects of aquatic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Piazza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar a influência de um programa de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em mulheres hipertensas. Dez hipertensas participaram do programa de exercícios aquáticos - aeróbicos, de fortalecimento, alongamento e relaxamento - duas vezes por semana durante 7 semanas, totalizando 14 sessões. Foram avaliadas pelo teste de esforço cardiorrespiratório antes e após o desenvolvimento do programa. A pressão arterial foi mensurada ao repouso e aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício em cada sessão. As variáveis cardiorrespiratórias não apresentaram alterações significativas após o programa, tanto dos valores de limiar de anaerobiose quanto os do pico de esforço. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média de repouso permaneceram estáveis no decorrer do programa. Entretanto, no período pós-exercício, os níveis da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e média (PAM foram significativamente menores, quando comparados aos valores pré-exercício: houve redução média de 6,43 mmHg da PAS e 3,08 mmHg da PAM aos 30 minutos pós-exercício. Assim, o programa de exercícios aquáticos proposto não promove ganho aeróbico efetivo, mas os resultados sugerem que exercícios aquáticos como os propostos, em intensidade próxima ao limiar de anaerobiose, desencadeiam redução dos níveis de pressão arterial no período pós-exercício, em mulheres hipertensas.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women. Ten hypertensive women took part in the study. The program consisted of aquatic aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises in intensity near the anaerobic threshold, besides relaxation, twice a week during 7 weeks, totalling 14 sessions. They were assessed by cardiorespiratory exercise testing before and after program development. Blood pressure was measured at

  2. Effect of robotic gait training on cardiorespiratory system in incomplete spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; van Nunen, Michiel P. M.; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Crins, Martine H. P.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives in this study were to investigate the effect of robot-assisted gait training on cardiorespiratory fitness in subjects with motor incomplete spinal cord injury and document the exercise intensity of robotic walking in comparison with the recommended guidelines. Ten patients followed a

  3. Imagem corporal, estado nutricional, força de resistência abdominal e aptidão cardiorrespiratória de crianças e adolescentes praticantes de esportes Imagen corporal, estado nutricional, fuerza de resistencia abdominal y aptitud cardiorrespiratoria de niños y adolescentes practicantes de deportes Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Schubert

    2013-03-01

    image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001, abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005 and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001. The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. CONCLUSIONS: Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  4. Cardio-respiratory capacity as an important biomarker of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Novák

    2016-12-01

    could be calculated according to the maximal performance (Wmax and Wmax/kg attained on bicycle ergometer. Regular aerobic endurance exercise could reduce biological age of active individuals by 10 to 20 years with a correspondingly decreased likelihood of becoming dependent when a senior and an expressive improvement in the quality of the final years of life (Shephard, 1994. VO2max and VO2max/kg values represent important health quality biomarkers. They also offer feedback information, positive and/or negative, about the effectiveness of physical activity influencing its development. Thus, aerobic fitness level has been strongly and positively associated with reduced morbidity, prevalence and mortality rates of so called civilization diseases, good quality of life, performance level, and functional ability. Thus, if no O2-CO2 analyzer during ergometry examination is available, calculated VO2max and VO2max/kg values can be used for evaluation of cardio-respiratory capacity.

  5. Cardiorespiratory responses to moderate exercise and determination of aerobic power in first year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Kavundapadi Chandrasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Aerobic power or VO2max or physical work capacity which involves a full functional support from cardiorespiratory and metabolic pathways is an appropriate test to study cardiopulmonary fitness. Implication: Astrand 6 minutes cycle test can be used for screening measures before joining in a job or sports training where physical fitness is needed. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1993-1996

  6. Suryanamaskar: An equivalent approach towards management of physical fitness in obese females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal A Jakhotia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: All three methods were effective in weight and physical fitness management. CT and SN were more effective in improving cardio-respiratory fitness and upper limb muscle endurance while only SN was effective in improving body flexibility.

  7. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute-Llorente, A; González-Agüero, A; Gómez-Cabello, A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Casajús, J A

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Comprobar si los adolescentes con síndrome de Down (SD) cumplen las guías de actividad física (AF) y evaluar la relación entre AF y la condición cardiorrespiratoria. Métodos: 42 adolescentes (27 con SD) participaron en este estudio. La AF se midió usando acelerometría. La condición cardiorrespiratoria se evaluó mediante ergoespirometría en tapiz rodante con un protocolo progresivo continuo. Resultados: Los adolescentes con SD pasaron menos tiempo en AF sedentaria, moderada (MAF), vigorosa (VAF) y moderada-vigorosa (MVAF) que los adolescentes sin SD. El VO2peak mostró correlación con minutos totales en AF ligera, MAF, VAF y MVAF en el grupo control (desde r = 0,55 hasta r = 0,61, p adolescentes con SD (desde r = 0,38 hasta r = 0,41, p adolescentes con SD se asoció con una mayor participación en MAF.

  8. Running Mileage, Movement Mileage, and Fitness in Male U.S. Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    related swimming, cycling, and brisk walking. Cardiorespiratory musculoskeletal injuries that result in lost training time, fitness also offers protection...pp. 1033-1038. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between overall fitness improvement and varying...Words: FITNESS IMPROVEMENT, RUN MILEAGE, MOVEMENT MILEAGE N ieman (21) defined cardiorespiratory fitness as "the ally with similar poor exercise habits

  9. Metabolismo de glicose em gêmeos monozigóticos discordantes para aptidão cardiorrespiratória Metabolismo de glucosa en gemelos monocigóticos discordantes para aptitud cardiorrespiratoria Glucose metabolism in discordant monozygotic twins for cardiorespiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Queiroga

    2013-03-01

    L.kg-1.min-1 y fueron divididos en dos grupos, de alta y baja aptitud. Los grupos fueron comparados a partir de la prueba pareada de Wilcoxon, teniendo en vista la asimetría de los datos. RESULTADOS: En promedio, los gemelos del grupo de alta aptitud presentaron consumo máximo de oxígeno el 17% superior (13,5±3,7mL.kg-1.min-1 a sus hermanos menos aptos. No hubo diferencia entre los grupos para las concentraciones de insulina (36,5±34,6 versus 25,3±13,7mg/dL; pOBJECTIVE: To determine if glucose and insulin concentrations are regulated by cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max regardless of their genetic effects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 38 pairs of young monozygotic twins (11 to 18 years-old. All subjects underwent a progressive maximal exercise test on a treadmill to determine the VO2max with gas exchange analysis (MedGraphics VO2000® - Medical Graphics Corp., St. Paul, MN. Blood samples were drawn after fasting to determine glucose and insulin levels. Monozygosity was confirmed by genotyping 15 informative genetic markers. Nine pairs had at least 10mL.kg-1.min-1 difference in VO2max and were divided into the more and less active group, according to their VO2max. Mean differences between more and less active groups were evaluated by Wilcoxon's test for paired data. RESULTS: On average, twins from the more active group presented a 17% (13.5±3.7mL.kg-1.min-1 higher VO2max compared to their less active siblings. No significant differences were observed between the groups for fasting insulin (36.5±34.6 versus 25.3±13.7mg/dL; p<0.813. However, the more active twins had lower fasting glucose than the less active ones (82.9±7.3 versus 86.7±7.6mg/dL; p<0.010. CONCLUSIONS: In this case-control study (discordant monozygotic twins, the less active co-twins were characterized by higher fasting plasma glucose levels. This implies that poor cardiorespiratory fitness can be associated with defective glucose metabolism regardless of genetic factors.

  10. Effect of robotic gait training on cardiorespiratory system in incomplete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Hoekstra, MSc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives in this study were to investigate the effect of robot-assisted gait training on cardiorespiratory fitness in subjects with motor incomplete spinal cord injury and document the exercise intensity of robotic walking in comparison with the recommended guidelines. Ten patients followed a 24-session training program with a robotic gait orthosis in addition to physiotherapy sessions completed within 10 to 16 wk. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined in a graded arm crank exercise test before and after the training program. To assess the intensity of robot-assisted walking, oxygen consumption (VO2 and heart rate (HR were measured during a training session early in and at the end of the training program, and exercise intensity measures (percentage of VO2 reserve [%VO2R], percentage of HR reserve [%HRR], and metabolic equivalents [METs] were calculated. Whereas no changes were found in peak VO2, the resting and submaximal HR at a constant work load were significantly lower after training. Most subjects exercised at low intensity (3.0 METs. In spite of the low exercise intensity of the training program and no changes in peak VO2, robot-assisted gait training induced some improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, as suggested by lower resting and submaximal HR values.

  11. Low muscle fitness is associated with metabolic risk in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    -scores) were systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance, and waist circumference. RESULTS: Muscle fitness was negatively associated with clustered metabolic risk, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness, and after adjustment for age, sex, and pubertal stage......PURPOSE: To examine the independent associations of muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered metabolic risk in youth. METHODS: In 2005-2006, a cohort of 9- and 15-yr-olds (N = 2818) was randomly selected from all regions of Norway. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among...... the 9-and 15-yr-olds, respectively. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Risk factors included in the composite risk factor score (sum of z...

  12. Orexin, cardio-respiratory function, and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Aihua eLi; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focus on the role of orexin in cardio-respiratory functions and its potential link to hypertension. (1) Orexin, cardiovascular function, and hypertension. In normal rats, central administration of orexin can induce significant increases in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which can be blocked by orexin receptor antagonists. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), antagonizing orexin receptors can significantly lower blood pressure under ...

  13. Effect of including fitness testing in preventive health checks on cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Kirsten; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt

    2014-01-01

    Denne artikel beskriver studieprotokollen for et randomiseret kontrolleret studie, som skal undersøge effekten af at udføre konditests som en del af forebyggende helbredsundersøgelser sammenlignet med helbredsundersøgelser uden konditests. I Randers kommune tilbyder man i perioden 2012-2017 alle...... risiko for hjertekarsygdom, kræft (bryst, tyktarm), diabetes og depression. Dette studie undersøger, om konditests ved forebyggende helbredsundersøgelser kan bidrage til at øge kondital og motivation for fysisk aktivitet. Der anvendes et cluster-randomiseret design baseret på bopæl med to parallelle...

  14. Cardiorespiratory Information Dynamics during Mental Arithmetic and Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Devy; Montalto, Alessandro; Vlemincx, Elke; Marinazzo, Daniele; Van Huffel, Sabine; Faes, Luca

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of cardiorespiratory dynamics during mental arithmetic, which induces stress, and sustained attention was conducted using information theory. The information storage and internal information of heart rate variability (HRV) were determined respectively as the self-entropy of the tachogram, and the self-entropy of the tachogram conditioned to the knowledge of respiration. The information transfer and cross information from respiration to HRV were assessed as the transfer and cross-entropy, both measures of cardiorespiratory coupling. These information-theoretic measures identified significant nonlinearities in the cardiorespiratory time series. Additionally, it was shown that, although mental stress is related to a reduction in vagal activity, no difference in cardiorespiratory coupling was found when several mental states (rest, mental stress, sustained attention) are compared. However, the self-entropy of HRV conditioned to respiration was very informative to study the predictability of RR interval series during mental tasks, and showed higher predictability during mental arithmetic compared to sustained attention or rest.

  15. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  16. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Gray; Rebecca Gibbons; Richard Larouche; Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Adam Bienenstock; Mariana Brussoni; Guylaine Chabot; Susan Herrington; Ian Janssen; William Pickett; Marlene Power; Nick Stanger; Margaret Sampson; Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fi...

  17. Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Sjöström, M; Suni, J; Castillo, M J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to investigate whether physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, events and syndromes, quality of life and low back pain later in life. Physical fitness-related components were: cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, motor fitness and body composition. Adiposity was considered as both exposure and outcome. The results of 42 studies reporting the predictive validity of health-related physical fitness for CVD risk factors, events and syndromes as well as the results of five studies reporting the predictive validity of physical fitness for low back pain in children and adolescents were summarised. Strong evidence was found indicating that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood and adolescence are associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile later in life. Muscular strength improvements from childhood to adolescence are negatively associated with changes in overall adiposity. A healthier body composition in childhood and adolescence is associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile later in life and with a lower risk of death. The evidence was moderate for the association between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and CVD risk factors, and between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness. Moderate evidence on the lack of a relationship between body composition and low back pain was found. Due to a limited number of studies, inconclusive evidence emerged for a relationship between muscular strength or motor fitness and CVD risk factors, and between flexibility and low back pain.

  18. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebæk, Heidi Klakk; Fairchild, Timothy J; Heidemann, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may attenuate the association between excessive adiposity and the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to stratify children according to their BMI and adiposity (body fat percentage, BF%) and compare...

  20. A Physical Education Dilemma: Team Sports or Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, G. McKenzie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of 56 fifth graders found the traditional physical education approach (game techniques and fundamentals) was ineffective in improving scores on a health-related physical fitness test. Modification of the same sport (basketball) with conditioning exercises to improve cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal function, produced improvement in…

  1. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume.

  2. Physical fitness and exercise training on individuals with spina bifida: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Jácome, Cristina; Marques, Alda

    2014-05-01

    Spina Bifida (SB) is characterized by several physical impairments; however, data on physical fitness and on the benefits of exercise training in individuals with SB are dispersed in the literature. Thus, this systematic review aimed to describe (i) physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, body composition, flexibility and neuromotor) and (ii) exercise training effects on the physical fitness of individuals with SB. CINAHL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January to March 2013 and updated in December 2013. Twenty-three studies were included. A summary of the results was performed using a best-evidence synthesis. Participants with SB had lower cardiorespiratory endurance (-32 to 54% in VO2 peak) and muscle strength (-58 to 90%) and higher body fat (159%) than their healthy peers. Mobility restrictions were present in 26.3-61% of participants. No data on neuromotor fitness were found. Aerobic and strength training improved participants' cardiorespiratory endurance (effect sizes 0.78-1.4) and muscle strength (effect sizes 0-0.59). Individuals with SB have impaired cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, body composition and flexibility when compared to healthy peers. Exercise training seems to improve two of these fitness components (cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle strength). Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of the studies' designs, methods and instruments used limits the establishment of firm conclusions and highlights the need for further research.

  3. Information dynamics in cardiorespiratory analyses: application to controlled breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Devy; Faes, Luca; Montalto, Alessandro; Van Diest, Ilse; Marinazzo, Daniele; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary adjustment of the breathing pattern is widely used to deal with stress-related conditions. In this study, effects of slow and fast breathing with a low and high inspiratory to expiratory time on heart rate variability (HRV) are evaluated by means of information dynamics. Information transfer is quantified both as the traditional transfer entropy as well as the cross entropy, where the latter does not condition on the past of HRV, thereby taking the highly unidirectional relation between respiration and heart rate into account. The results show that the cross entropy is more suited to quantify cardiorespiratory information transfer as this measure increases during slow breathing, indicating the increased cardiorespiratory coupling and suggesting the shift towards vagal activation during slow breathing. Additionally we found that controlled breathing, either slow or fast, results as well in an increase in cardiorespiratory coupling, compared to spontaneous breathing, which demonstrates the beneficial effects of instructed breathing.

  4. Assessing cardiorespiratory capacity in older adults with major depression and Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Felipe Zanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess cardiorespiratory capacity through subjective and objective tests in older adults diagnosed with major depression (MDD, Alzheimer disease (AD and healthy older adults. Methods Fifty seven subjects (72 ± 7.9 years were divided into three groups: MDD (n = 20, AD (n = 17 and Healthy (n = 20. The subjects answered Hamilton Scale (HAM-D, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ and 2-minute Step test. Results MDD and AD showed lower scores than healthy group for Nomogram VSAQ (p < 0.001 and 2-minute Step (p = 0.009; p = 0.008, respectively. Adjusted for age and educational level, no differences among groups were observed for Step (MDD, p = 0.097; AD, p = 0.102. AD group did not present differences to healthy group for Step, when adjusting for MMSE (p = 0.261. Conclusions Despite the lower cardiorespiratory fitness of elderly patients with DM and DA have been found in both evaluations, the results should be viewed with caution, since the tests showed low correlation and different risk classifications of functional loss. In addition, age, level educational and cognitive performance are variables that can influence the performance objective evaluation.

  5. Cardiorespiratory responses and prediction of peak oxygen uptake during the shuttle walking test in healthy sedentary adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila D C Neves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak in healthy sedentary adult men. METHODS: In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R, and heart rate (HR were evaluated. RESULTS: Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05, R peak (P>0.05 and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05 were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01 and R peak (r = 0.737, P0.05 was found. CONCLUSIONS: The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men.

  6. Health-related fitness profiles in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Wetterslev, Jørn; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigates whether subgroups of different health-related fitness (HrF) profiles exist among girls and boys with complex congenital heart disease (ConHD) and how these are associated with lifestyle behaviors. METHODS: We measured the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength...

  7. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  8. StayFit: a wearable application for Gym based power training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheedhar, Maram; Gaurav, Aman; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive fitness training involves both cardiorespiratory and power components. Often power/muscle strength training is confused with cardiorespiratory endurance training. However, each of them target different physiological aspects of fitness. Although, wearable based fitness trackers designed towards cardiorespiratory endurance training are available in the market, a dedicated wearable based fitness application designed for power training/tracking is still not readily available to fitness enthusiasts. With growing usage of wearable technology to manage and track personal health, it is imperative to develop health/fitness applications for wearables. A wearable based application for power training will allow the user to track build-up of muscle strength unobtrusively over a period of time. This work provides a framework and design for automatic detection, counting repetitions of strength training Gym exercises (covering all the major muscle groups), estimate personalized calories spent in each session and track power on a standalone Gear watch (both analysis and display including User Experience(UX) design). Our proposed method detects activity with ~96% sensitivity and ~96% specificity on an average and count repetitions with an overall accuracy of >95% using motion sensor data (accelerometer, gyroscope) for eight major Gym exercises. Additionally, using heart rate sensor data we have provided a mechanism to individually track the power/muscle strength of a person. This work will give further impetus towards developing wearable based systems for personalized fitness tracking and training. This will also give an option for wearable users to address both the crucial aspects of fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscle strength).

  9. Examination of adolescents' screen time and physical fitness as independent correlates of weight status and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah C; Power, Thomas G; Daratha, Kenn B; Bindler, Ruth C; Steele, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Physical fitness performance is an important health correlate yet is often unrelated to sedentary behaviour in early adolescence. In this study, we examined the association of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time) with weight-related health markers and blood pressure, after controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance. American middle school students (N = 153, 56% females) aged 11-15 years (mean 12.6 years, s = 0.5) completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness performance, screen time, weight status (BMI percentile, waist-to-height ratio), and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance, found those who met the daily recommendation of 2 h or less of screen time (n = 36, 23.5%) had significantly lower BMI (p fitness and sedentary behaviours to maximize early adolescent health because these behaviours are likely to have unique and independent effects on youth health markers.

  10. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovski Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  11. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Skeletal Muscle Sequelae after Stroke: Role of Physical Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Junior, Hélio José; Gambassi, Bruno Bavaresco; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Fernandes, Isabela Maia da Cruz; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in poststroke patients remain poorly understood. Thus, in this study we analyze the candidate mechanisms associated with muscle atrophy in stroke patients, as well as the modulatory effect of inflammation in this condition. Later, we suggest the two strongest anti-inflammatory candidate mechanisms, myokines and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which may be activated by physical exercise and may contribute to a decrease in proinflammatory markers of poststroke patients. PMID:27647951

  12. Cardiorespiratory Information Dynamics during Mental Arithmetic and Sustained Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devy Widjaja

    Full Text Available An analysis of cardiorespiratory dynamics during mental arithmetic, which induces stress, and sustained attention was conducted using information theory. The information storage and internal information of heart rate variability (HRV were determined respectively as the self-entropy of the tachogram, and the self-entropy of the tachogram conditioned to the knowledge of respiration. The information transfer and cross information from respiration to HRV were assessed as the transfer and cross-entropy, both measures of cardiorespiratory coupling. These information-theoretic measures identified significant nonlinearities in the cardiorespiratory time series. Additionally, it was shown that, although mental stress is related to a reduction in vagal activity, no difference in cardiorespiratory coupling was found when several mental states (rest, mental stress, sustained attention are compared. However, the self-entropy of HRV conditioned to respiration was very informative to study the predictability of RR interval series during mental tasks, and showed higher predictability during mental arithmetic compared to sustained attention or rest.

  13. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  14. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  15. [ALPHA-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; España Romero, V; Castro Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Cuenca García, M; Jiménez Pavón, D; Chillón, P; Girela Rejón, Ma J; Mora, J; Gutiérrez, A; Suni, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo, M J

    2011-01-01

    Hereby we summarize the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) Study and describe the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The evidence-based ALPHA-Fitness test battery include the following tests: 1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; 2) the handgrip strength and 3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and 4) body mass index, 5) waist circumference; and 6) skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) to assess body composition. Furthermore, we include two versions: 1) the high priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness; and 2) the extended ALPHA health-related fitness tests battery for children and adolescents, which includes all the evidence-based fitness tests plus the 4 x 10 m shuttle run test to assess motor fitness.

  16. Inference of a nonlinear stochastic model of the cardiorespiratory interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Smelyanskiy, V N; Stefanovska, A; McClintock, P V E

    2005-01-01

    A new technique is introduced to reconstruct a nonlinear stochastic model of the cardiorespiratory interaction. Its inferential framework uses a set of polynomial basis functions representing the nonlinear force governing the system oscillations. The strength and direction of coupling, and the noise intensity are simultaneously inferred from a univariate blood pressure signal, monitored in a clinical environment. The technique does not require extensive global optimization and it is applicable to a wide range of complex dynamical systems subject to noise.

  17. VO2 prediction and cardiorespiratory responses during underwater treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas P; Greene, Elizabeth S; Carbuhn, Aaron F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2011-06-01

    We compared cardiorespiratory responses to exercise on an underwater treadmill (UTM) and land treadmill (LTM) and derived an equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO2) during UTM exercise. Fifty-five men and women completed one LTM and five UTM exercise sessions on separate days. The UTM sessions consisted of chest-deep immersion, with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% water-jet resistance. All session treadmill velocities increased every 3 min from 53.6 to 187.8 m x min(-1). Cardiorespiratory responses were similar between LTM and UTM when jet resistance for UTM was 50%. Using multiple regression analysis, weight-relative VO2 could be estimated as: VO2 (mLO2 c kg(-1) x min(-1)) = 0.19248 x height (cm) + 0.17422 x jet resistance (% max) + 0.14092 x velocity (m x min(-1)) -0.12794 x weight (kg)-27.82849, R2 = .82. Our data indicate that similar LTM and UTM cardiorespiratory responses are achievable, and we provide a reasonable estimate of UTM VO2.

  18. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  19. Effect of low-impact aerobic dance on the functional fitness of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Murrah, B; Hoeger, W W; Rhodes, R C

    1990-04-01

    To determine the effect of low-impact aerobic dance on sedentary elderly women (N = 53), functional fitness was measured by items from the proposed American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) fitness test for older adults. After 12-weeks of low-impact aerobic dance, the group improved significantly on all functional fitness components except motor control/coordination, including cardiorespiratory endurance, strength/endurance, body agility, flexibility, body fat, and balance.

  20. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-ChristophKattenstroth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-months dance class (1 h/week on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group. We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the control group no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline.

  1. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2013-01-01

    During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline.

  2. Less Sitting, More Physical Activity, or Higher Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that time spent in sedentary behaviors, levels of physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness are all associated with mortality rates. They are also related to the risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, aging-associated frailty, and cancer. The evidence is such that the National Institutes of Health recently launched a new Common Fund initiative aimed at identifying the molecular transducers of adaptation to physical activity in various tissues and organs. It has been estimated that 9.4% of all 57 million deaths in the world in 2008 could be attributed to physical inactivity, which translates into more than 5 million deaths worldwide. Physical inactivity has a deleterious effect that is comparable to smoking and obesity. Importantly, this global estimate relates to levels of physical activity and does not take into account sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness. Currently, there are national and international guidelines for physical activity level that are highly concordant. The weekly recommendations include 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity, or some combination of moderate and vigorous activity with 2 days of resistance exercise. However, these guidelines offer no recommendations regarding sedentary time or goals for cardiorespiratory fitness levels. It will be increasingly important for disease prevention, successful aging, and reduction of premature mortality to broaden the focus of the public health message to include not only more physical activity but also less sitting and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. We briefly review the evidence and discuss key issues to be addressed to make this approach a reality.

  3. Physical fitness of 9 year olds in England: related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, S; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the influence of social factors, passive smoking, and other parental health related factors, as well as anthropometric and other measurements on children's cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study. SETTING--The analysis was based on 22 health areas in England. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were 299 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 9 years. Parents did not give positive consent for 15% of the eligible sample. A further 25% of the eligible sample ...

  4. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Cardiorespiratory Response in Overweight Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A S Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effects of an aerobic physical exercise program on the metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in overweight adolescents.Material and Method: This is a randomized study evaluating overweight adolescents divided into intervention and control groups before and after an aerobic exercise program. Pre- and post-intervention aerobic fitness was evaluated by a submaximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer. The training program lasted 12 weeks, when the intervention group exercised three times per week on a cycle ergometer at individual training intensities corresponding to lactate threshold (LT and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. The individual workload was increased by 10% at 2-week intervals.Results: After intervention, an increase in workload levels corresponding to LT (33.3% and OBLA (14.2% was observed in the intervention group. In addition, the intervention group reached LT training intensity at a heart rate higher than that observed before intervention and that of controls (p<0.05. Discussion: The program resulted in positive changes in aerobic fitness and heart rate, improving exercise tolerance. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 14-8

  5. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  6. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  7. [PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES ONLY IMPROVE CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS OF STUDENTS WITH LOWER PHYSICAL FITNESS: A CONTROLLED INTERVENTION STUDY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los profesores de educación física deben llevar a cabo programas de intervención con el fin de mejorar los niveles de capacidad cardiorrespiratoria de sus alumnos. Sin embargo, debido a la baja carga lectiva, dichos programas podrían no mejorar la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria de los estudiantes con mayores niveles iniciales. Objetivos: el objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar el efecto de un programa de acondicionamiento físico realizado durante las dos clases de educación física sobre la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria en función del nivel de condición física inicial de los estudiantes. Métodos: una muestra de 71 estudiantes de educación primaria y 107 de educación secundaria obligatoria fue asignada aleatoriamente (por clases naturales) al grupo control y experimental. Durante las clases de educación física, los estudiantes experimentales realizaron un programa de acondicionamiento físico. Resultados: los resultados del análisis de varianza de un factor mostraron que los estudiantes experimentales con menor nivel de condición física incrementaron estadísticamente su capacidad cardiorrespiratoria con respecto a los estudiantes controles (p estudiantes experimentales con mayor nivel y los controles (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: durante las clases de educación física, solo los estudiantes con menor condición física parecen incrementar su capacidad cardiorrespiratoria. En cambio, los alumnos con mayor nivel de condición física no se benefician de estos programas. Por ello, con el objetivo real de incrementar la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria de todos los jóvenes, parece necesario aumentar la carga lectiva de la asignatura de educación física.

  8. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  9. Cardiorespiratory resistance profile in elderly women with overweight in SESC of Nova Friburgo/Rio de Janeiro - Brasil of physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Furtado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate if one physical activity program promotes significant improvements in the cardiorespiratory capacity in elderly. They had participated of study 71 feminine elderly people, being divided in four groups in the respective age band: : G1 (60-64 years old; n=29, G2 (65-69 years old; n=22, G3 (70-74 years old; n=11 e G4 (75-79 years old; n=09. The cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated through the 6 minutes walked test (Rikli and Jones 1998. After that, for normality verification had been used the Shapiro-Wilk test, with significance level < 0,05, was used program SPSS 10,0 for Windows. Analyzing the covered distance changeable, one got the following averages: G1 = 526 m, G2 = 509,7m, G3 = 491,3 m and G4 = 479,4 m, can be concluded that the G1 did not only get its value inside of the reference band. Considering the possibility of not the specific of the prescription physical exercise for each age band presented by the studied groups, the physical activity program was capable to provide 60.5% elderly, a satisfactory profile for the cardio-respiratory resistance.

  10. Cardiorespiratory resistance profile in elderly women with overweight in SESC of Nova Friburgo/Rio de Janeiro/Brasil of Physical Activity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Lemos Furtado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate if one physical activity program promotes significant improvements in the cardiorespiratory capacity in elderly. They had participated of study 71 feminine elderly people, being divided in four groups in the respective age band: G1 (60-64 years old; n=29, G2 (65-69 years old; n=22, G3 (70-74 years old; n=11 and G4 (75-79 years old; n=09. The cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated through the 6 minutes walked test (Rikli and Jones 1998. After that, for normality verification had been used the Shapiro-Wilk test, with significance level <0,05, was used program SPSS 10,0 for Windows. Analyzing the covered distance changeable, one got the following averages: G1=526 m, G2=509,7 m, G3=491,3 m and G4=479,4 m, can be concluded that the G1 did not only get its value inside of the reference band. Considering the possibility of not the specific of the prescription physical exercise for each age band presented by the studied groups, the physical activity program was capable to provide 60.5% elderly, a satisfactory profile for the cardio-respiratory resistance.

  11. Estimating coupling directions in the cardiorespiratory system using recurrence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Zou, Yong; Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-08-28

    The asymmetry of coupling between complex systems can be studied by conditional probabilities of recurrence, which can be estimated by joint recurrence plots. This approach is applied for the first time on experimental data: time series of the human cardiorespiratory system in order to investigate the couplings between heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and respiration. We find that the respiratory system couples towards the heart rate, and the heart rate towards the mean arterial blood pressure. However, our analysis could not detect a clear coupling direction between the mean arterial blood pressure and respiration.

  12. Delayed hippocampal damage in humans following cardiorespiratory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petito, C K; Feldmann, E; Pulsinelli, W A; Plum, F

    1987-08-01

    Transient ischemia in animals produces delayed cell death in vulnerable hippocampal neurons. To see if this occurs in humans, we reexamined brain slides from all patients with anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and a well-documented cardiorespiratory arrest. Eight patients dying 18 hours or less after cardiac arrest had minimal damage in hippocampus and moderate damage in cerebral cortex and putamen. Six patients living 24 hours or more had severe damage in all four regions. The increase in damage with time postarrest was significant only in the hippocampus. Delayed hippocampal injury now documented in humans provides a target for possible therapy that can be initiated after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  13. Noncontact monitoring of cardiorespiratory activity by electromagnetic coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Daniel; Foussier, Jérôme; Jia, Jing; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the method of noncontact monitoring of cardiorespiratory activity by electromagnetic coupling with human tissue is investigated. Two measurement modalities were joined: an inductive coupling sensor based on magnetic eddy current induction and a capacitive coupling sensor based on displacement current induction. The system's sensitivity to electric tissue properties and its dependence on motion are analyzed theoretically as well as experimentally for the inductive and capacitive coupling path. The potential of both coupling methods to assess respiration and pulse without contact and a minimum of thoracic wall motion was verified by laboratory experiments. The demonstrator was embedded in a chair to enable recording from the back part of the thorax.

  14. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-03-17

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  15. Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using submaximal protocol in older adults with mood disorder and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Alves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown benefits for mental health through aerobic training oriented in percentage of VO2max, indicating the importance of this variable for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for estimating VO2max using a submaximal protocol in elderly patients with clinically diagnosis as major depressive disorder (MDD and Parkinson's disease (PD. METHODS: The sample comprised 18 patients (64.22 ± 9.92 years with MDD (n = 7 and with PD (n = 11. Three evaluations were performed: I disease staging, II direct measurement of VO2max and III submaximal exercise test. Linear regression was performed to verify the accuracy of estimation in VO2max established in ergospirometry and the predicted VO2max from the submaximal test measurement. We also analyzed the correlation between the Bland-Altman procedures. RESULTS: The regression analysis showed that VO2max values estimated by submaximal protocol associated with the VO2max measured, both in absolute values (R² = 0.65; SEE = 0.26; p < 0.001 and the relative (R² = 0.56; SEE = 3.70; p < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plots for analysis of agreement of showed a good correlation between the two measures. DISCUSSION: The VO2max predicted by submaximal protocol demonstrated satisfactory criterion validity and simple execution compared to ergospirometry.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Predicted aerobic capacity (PAC) was estimated by submaximal exercise test and compared with monitored aerobic capacity (MAC) measured by laboratory conditions [maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] in 18 children and adolescents, 10 asthmatics and 8 matched controls. Objectives...

  17. Association between body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness as predictor of health status in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. De Araujo

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The students in this study showed adequate levels of body composition and CRF below the area related to health, according to the criteria of the Fitnessgram®. The proposition of a linear regression equation to estimate VO2max without exercise pointed out an inverse relationship between both variables.

  18. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Unintentional Nonfatal Injury Among the United States Air Force Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    resulting from repetitive, cumulative microtrauma (e.g., tendonitis, stress fractures, patellofemoral syndrome )" (DoD Injury Surveillance and 10...chronic injuries such as low back pain and repetitive trauma disorders among the US military and civilian populations are a function of physical and...sufficient biomechanical stress on their lumbar region to cause enough physical pain to warrant a medical visit. Sub-hypothesis 3 It was not anticipated

  19. Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Baur

    2012-01-01

    We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R2=0.6286. The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

  20. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  1. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  2. The effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on whole-body physical fitness and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in vivo in locally advanced rectal cancer patients--an observational pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm A West

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, patients with locally advanced rectal cancer routinely receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. However, the effects of this on physical fitness are unclear. This pilot study is aimed to investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on objectively measured in vivo muscle mitochondrial function and whole-body physical fitness. METHODS: We prospectively studied 12 patients with rectal cancer who completed standardized neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, recruited from a large tertiary cancer centre, between October 2012 and July 2013. All patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy quadriceps muscle exercise-recovery study before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Data were analysed and reported blind to patient identity and clinical course. Primary variables of interest were the two physical fitness measures; oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold and oxygen uptake at Peak exercise (ml.kg-1.min-1, and the post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (min-1, a measure of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo. RESULTS: Median age was 67 years (IQR 64-75. Differences (95%CI in all three primary variables were significantly negative post-NACRT: Oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold -2.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 (-3.8, -0.9, p = 0.004; Oxygen uptake at Peak -4.0 ml.kg-1.min-1 (-6.8, -1.1, p = 0.011; and post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant -0.34 min-1 (-0.51, -0.17, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The significant decrease in both whole-body physical fitness and in vivo muscle mitochondrial function raises the possibility that muscle mitochondrial mechanisms, no doubt multifactorial, may be important in deterioration of physical fitness following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This may have implications for targeted interventions to improve physical fitness pre-surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01859442.

  3. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.

  4. Physiological monitoring of cardiorespiratory adaptations during rehearsal and performance of contemporary dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Redding, Emma

    2005-08-01

    Previous research has shown that dance class and rehearsal stress different cardiorespiratory energy systems than dance performance. The aim of the present study was to monitor the physiological parameters of a number of dancers during a 12-week rehearsal period and an 8-week performance schedule. Seventeen dancers (8 men and 9 women) from 2 companies undertook the multistage dance specific aerobic fitness test before the rehearsal period, before the performance period, and after the performance period. Heart rate data were collected throughout the test; the mean heart rate during stage 5 and blood lactate levels were measured at the end of the test. No significant changes in heart rate or lactate parameters were noted between the prerehearsal and preperformance tests, but significant decreases during the preperformance and postperformance tests were shown in both parameters (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively), which suggests an increase in the subjects' aerobic capacities during the performance period. Implications from the present study suggest that dancers are not adequately physiologically prepared to perform to the same degree to which their skills are honed. The study suggests that supplemental training is required to bridge this physical gap and better prepare the dancer for performance.

  5. Psychological distress leads to reduced physical activity and fitness in children: the Australian longitudinal LOOK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, L S; Telford, R M; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P; Telford, R D

    2016-08-01

    Stress and depression can affect an individual's level of physical activity and fitness, which may place them at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the longitudinal effects of stress and depression on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among youth. Six hundred and seventy-six children, initially aged 8 years, from the LOOK study completed a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory, the Children's Stress Questionnaire, and objective physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessments on three occasions, every 4 years. Depressive symptoms had a direct effect (longitudinal) on the cardiorespiratory fitness of girls, with a similar trend for boys. In cross-sectional analyses, a child who identified with more symptoms of depression and stress was likely to be less fit and less physically active, which in girls extended to less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Our findings, that both physical activity and fitness are impacted by depression and stress may contribute to strategies directed towards achieving enhanced physical activity and reductions in obesity.

  6. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  7. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.;

    2016-01-01

    ’s fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness....... The role of determinants depended on children’s sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child’s BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity.Conclusions: BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors......Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength...

  8. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  9. The effect of Sub-maximal exercise-rehabilitation program on cardio-respiratory endurance indexes and oxygen pulse in patients with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical or cardio-respiratory fitness are of the best important physiological variables in children with cerebral palsy (CP, but the researches on exercise response of individuals with CP are limited. Our aim was to determine the effect of sub-maximal rehabilitation program (aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse and cardio- respiratory physiological variables of children with moderate to severe spastic cerebral palsy diplegia and compare with able-bodied children. Methods: In a controlled clinical trial study, 15 children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy, were recruited on a voluntarily basis (experimental group and 18 subjects without neurological impairments selected as control group. In CP group, aerobic exercise program performed on the average of exercise intensity (144 beat per minute of heart rate, 3 times a week for 3 months. The time of each exercise session was 20-25 minutes. Dependent variables were measured in before (pretest and after (post test of rehabilitation program through Mac Master Protocol on Tantories cycle ergometer in CP group and compared with the control group. Results: The oxygen pulse (VO2/HR during ergometery protocol was significantly lower in CP group than normal group (P<0.05. No significant statistical difference in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max was found between groups. The rehabilitation program leads to little increase of this variable in CP group. After sub-maximal exercise in pretest and post test, the heart rate of patient group was greater than control group, and aerobic exercise leads to significant decrease in heart rate in CP patients(P<0.05. Conclusion: The patients with spastic cerebral palsy, because of high muscle tone, severe spasticity and involuntarily movements have higher energy cost and lower aerobic fitness than normal people. The rehabilitation exercise program can improve physiological function of muscle and cardio-respiratory endurance in these

  10. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  11. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography

    OpenAIRE

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F.; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents ph...

  12. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Penzel; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Maik Riedl; Jan Krämer; Niels Wessel; Carmen Garcia; Martin Glos; Ingo Fietze; Christoph Schöbel

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents phys...

  13. Acute hernial strangulation following Wii Fit exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, O A; Parvaiz, A C; Vassallo, D J

    2013-01-01

    The Wii Fit is one the most popular fitness games on the market. Although this device has been linked to a number of injuries, the vast majority of these have been relatively minor musculo-skeletal complaints. We present a case of a patient who presented with an acute strangulation of a pre-existing asymptomatic paraumbilical hernia after completing a series of aerobic exercises on her Wii Fit. She required laparotomy and small bowel resection for infarcted bowel. Although a number of minor mechanical and orthopaedic injurieshave been reported with the Wii Fit, this represents the first case of a life-threatening complication associated with the use of this device.

  14. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...... phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...

  15. The effect of different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Melo Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract It is not yet clear which physical exercise protocols have greater potential to mitigate the functional decline in physical fitness (coordination, flexibility, strength, agility and cardiorespiratory capacity. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age and understand which training protocol is more effective for promoting significant improvements in physical fitness. The initial sample consisted of 79 subjects, of which 17 dropped out, resulting in a total of 62 subjects who completed the study and are included in the analysis (n = 62. The average age of the study population was 60.1±5.4 years, divided into five groups: aerobic training, concurrent training, multimodal training, functional training and control group. Physical fitness was analyzed through AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance tests (0 and eighth weeks. The ANOVA analyses (aleatory effect show a main effect of time for coordination (p<0.001, strength (p = 0.004, agility (p<0.001 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p<0.001, and statistically significant interactions for coordination (p = 0.003 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p = 0.033. When comparing the average relative differences between the group (Δ%, significant improvement was observed in coordination and agility (p<0.001 in the multimodal and functional training groups. For cardiorespiratory fitness, there was a significant improvement in the aerobic, concurrent and multimodal training groups (p<0.001 and strength increased in the functional training group (p = 0.04. Functional training was demonstrated to be more effective at promoting significant improvements in physical fitness than the other investigated exercise protocols.

  16. Characterization of Cardiorespiratory Events following Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Juliann; Arko, Marina; Herynk, Brad; Martin, Richard; Hibbs, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize cardiorespiratory events in preterm infants following both acid and non-acid GER as detected by pH and multiple intraluminal impedance (MII). Study Design Twelve hour overnight studies were performed in 71 preterm infants (gestational age 29.4±3.0 wks, birth weight 1319±496 gm). Apnea ≥10 seconds in duration, bradycardia ≤80 bpm and oxygen desaturation ≤85% that occurred within 30 seconds after the initiation of GER were classified as associated with GER. Result 12,957 cardiorespiratory events and 4164 GER episodes were documented. Less than 3% of all cardiorespiratory events were preceded by GER constituting 3.4% of apnea, 2.8% of oxygen desaturation and 2.9% of bradycardia events. GER did not prolong cardiorespiratory event duration or increase severity. In contrast, GER was associated with a shorter duration of oxygen desaturation events (7.8±4.6 vs 6.3±5.6 sec, p<.05). Conclusion GER is rarely associated with cardiorespiratory events, and has no detrimental effect on cardiorespiratory event duration or severity. PMID:20220760

  17. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E. Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Peter Scheiber, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS, and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2, total energy expenditure (EE, heart rate (HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs.

  18. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  19. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  20. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  1. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key pointsDuring cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiingApproximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling.Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit.By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing.Male, fit and young

  2. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  3. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3-12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  4. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1 physical activity, (2 cardiorespiratory fitness, (3 musculoskeletal fitness, (4 sedentary behaviour; or (5 motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  5. Skeletally Dugundji spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  6. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  7. Model and Effectiveness of Endurance Exercise to Increase Physical Fitness in Intellectual Disability Subjects with Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Z Tamin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to design a model and assess the effectiveness of endurance exercise to increase physical fitness in intelectual disability (ID patients with obesity. Methods: a randomized-controlled clinical trial was performed in ID patients with obesity aged 10-30 years old from all Special School in DKI Jakarta, which were randomly allocated into 3 groups and then given 3 different type of exercises: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise for 20 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercise for 24-25 minutes (type I, lower extremity muscles endurance exercises for 10 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercises for 26-27 minutes (type II, and threw a tennis ball with 10 m distance for 10 minutes as control (type III. These program was performed 3 times a week for 4 months. Assesment of the exercise effectiveness was done by measuring maximum load that can be lifted and six-minutes walking test on rectangular track which was converted with the VO2 max prediction formula. Analysis was perfomed with Kruskal Wallis test. Results: two hundred and twelve (212 subjects were included in the study, randomly allocated into three types (I, II, and III of exercises groups. The type II of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing lower extremity muscles endurance level compared to type I and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Meanwhile, type I of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing cardiorespiratory endurance level compared to type II and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Conclusion: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise followed by a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise can be used to increase physical fitness in ID patients with obesity. Key words: intelectual disability patient, obesity, lower extremity muscles and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, lower extremity muscles endurance level, cardiorespiratory endurance level.

  8. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Domínguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO, which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance. The aim of this literature review was to determine the effects of beetroot juice supplementation and the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A keyword search of DialNet, MedLine, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases covered publications from 2010 to 2016. After excluding reviews/meta-analyses, animal studies, inaccessible full-text, and studies that did not supplement with beetroot juice and adequately assess cardiorespiratory endurance, 23 articles were selected for analysis. The available results suggest that supplementation with beetroot juice can improve cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes by increasing efficiency, which improves performance at various distances, increases time to exhaustion at submaximal intensities, and may improve the cardiorespiratory performance at anaerobic threshold intensities and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Although the literature shows contradictory data, the findings of other studies lead us to hypothesize that supplementing with beetroot juice could mitigate the ergolytic effects of hypoxia on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. It cannot be stated that the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements has a positive or negative effect on cardiorespiratory endurance, but it is possible that the effects of supplementation with beetroot juice can be undermined by interaction with other supplements such as caffeine.

  9. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Raúl; Cuenca, Eduardo; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; García-Fernández, Pablo; Serra-Paya, Noemí; Estevan, María Carmen Lozano; Herreros, Pablo Veiga; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente

    2017-01-06

    Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance. The aim of this literature review was to determine the effects of beetroot juice supplementation and the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A keyword search of DialNet, MedLine, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases covered publications from 2010 to 2016. After excluding reviews/meta-analyses, animal studies, inaccessible full-text, and studies that did not supplement with beetroot juice and adequately assess cardiorespiratory endurance, 23 articles were selected for analysis. The available results suggest that supplementation with beetroot juice can improve cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes by increasing efficiency, which improves performance at various distances, increases time to exhaustion at submaximal intensities, and may improve the cardiorespiratory performance at anaerobic threshold intensities and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Although the literature shows contradictory data, the findings of other studies lead us to hypothesize that supplementing with beetroot juice could mitigate the ergolytic effects of hypoxia on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. It cannot be stated that the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements has a positive or negative effect on cardiorespiratory endurance, but it is possible that the effects of supplementation with beetroot juice can be undermined by interaction with other supplements such as caffeine.

  10. Does the MTHFR A1298C Polymorphism Modulate the Cardiorespiratory Response to Training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cięszczyk Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR A1298C polymorphic variant is a candidate to explain the individual differences in trainability and response to exercise training. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify whether the A1298C polymorphism influenced the aerobic and anaerobic performance as well as body and mass composition in young Polish women following low-high impact aerobic exercise training. Two hundred and one women aged 21 ± 1 years (range 19–24 were included in the study. All of them completed a 12-week exercise training program and were measured for selected somatic features, aerobic capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness indices as well as peak anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity, before and after the intervention. A mixed 2 x 2 ANOVA for 20 dependent variables grouped in three categories was conducted. No significant interaction of the genotype with training for body mass and body composition variables was observed. Although, there were three significant genotype x training interactions for maximal oxygen uptake variables, regardless of body mass i.e.: for VO2max (p < 0.05, HRmax (p < 0.0001 and HRAT/HRmax (p < 0.0001. Significantly greater improvement in VO2max was gained by the CC+AC group compared to the AA genotype group. The present results support the hypothesis that individual differences in trainability are at least in part determined by the genetic component and MTHFR A1298C seems to be one of the many polymorphisms involved.

  11. Quantifying interactions between real oscillators with information theory and phase models: Application to cardiorespiratory coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yenan; Hsieh, Yee-Hsee; Dhingra, Rishi R.; Dick, Thomas E.; Jacono, Frank J.; Galán, Roberto F.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between oscillators can be investigated with standard tools of time series analysis. However, these methods are insensitive to the directionality of the coupling, i.e., the asymmetry of the interactions. An elegant alternative was proposed by Rosenblum and collaborators [M. G. Rosenblum, L. Cimponeriu, A. Bezerianos, A. Patzak, and R. Mrowka, Phys. Rev. E 65, 041909 (2002); M. G. Rosenblum and A. S. Pikovsky, Phys. Rev. E 64, 045202 (2001)] which consists in fitting the empirical phases to a generic model of two weakly coupled phase oscillators. This allows one to obtain the interaction functions defining the coupling and its directionality. A limitation of this approach is that a solution always exists in the least-squares sense, even in the absence of coupling. To preclude spurious results, we propose a three-step protocol: (1) Determine if a statistical dependency exists in the data by evaluating the mutual information of the phases; (2) if so, compute the interaction functions of the oscillators; and (3) validate the empirical oscillator model by comparing the joint probability of the phases obtained from simulating the model with that of the empirical phases. We apply this protocol to a model of two coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators and show that it reliably detects genuine coupling. We also apply this protocol to investigate cardiorespiratory coupling in anesthetized rats. We observe reciprocal coupling between respiration and heartbeat and that the influence of respiration on the heartbeat is generally much stronger than vice versa. In addition, we find that the vagus nerve mediates coupling in both directions. PMID:23496550

  12. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of hypoxic sensing disrupts cardiorespiratory homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Jayasri; Makarenko, Vladislav; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Yuan, Guoxiang; Pawar, Anita; Wang, Ning; Khan, Shakil A; Zhang, Xin; Kinsman, Brian; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh K; Fox, Aaron P; Godley, Lucy A; Semenza, Gregg L; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2012-02-14

    Recurrent apnea with intermittent hypoxia is a major clinical problem in preterm infants. Recent studies, although limited, showed that adults who were born preterm exhibit increased incidence of sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension, suggesting that apnea of prematurity predisposes to autonomic dysfunction in adulthood. Here, we demonstrate that adult rats that were exposed to intermittent hypoxia as neonates exhibit exaggerated responses to hypoxia by the carotid body and adrenal chromaffin cells, which regulate cardio-respiratory function, resulting in irregular breathing with apneas and hypertension. The enhanced hypoxic sensitivity was associated with elevated oxidative stress, decreased expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, and increased expression of pro-oxidant enzymes. Decreased expression of the Sod2 gene, which encodes the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2, was associated with DNA hypermethylation of a single CpG dinucleotide close to the transcription start site. Treating neonatal rats with decitabine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation, during intermittent hypoxia exposure prevented oxidative stress, enhanced hypoxic sensitivity, and autonomic dysfunction. These findings implicate a hitherto uncharacterized role for DNA methylation in mediating neonatal programming of hypoxic sensitivity and the ensuing autonomic dysfunction in adulthood.

  14. Autonomic control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish, amphibians and reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.W. Taylor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Control of the heart rate and cardiorespiratory interactions (CRI is predominantly parasympathetic in all jawed vertebrates, with the sympathetic nervous system having some influence in tetrapods. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA has been described as a solely mammalian phenomenon but respiration-related beat-to-beat control of the heart has been described in fish and reptiles. Though they are both important, the relative roles of feed-forward central control and peripheral reflexes in generating CRI vary between groups of fishes and probably between other vertebrates. CRI may relate to two locations for the vagal preganglionic neurons (VPN and in particular cardiac VPN in the brainstem. This has been described in representatives from all vertebrate groups, though the proportion in each location is variable. Air-breathing fishes, amphibians and reptiles breathe discontinuously and the onset of a bout of breathing is characteristically accompanied by an immediate increase in heart rate plus, in the latter two groups, a left-right shunting of blood through the pulmonary circuit. Both the increase in heart rate and opening of a sphincter on the pulmonary artery are due to withdrawal of vagal tone. An increase in heart rate following a meal in snakes is related to withdrawal of vagal tone plus a non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic effect that may be due to humoral factors released by the gut. Histamine is one candidate for this role.

  15. Autonomic control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish, amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E W; Leite, C A C; Skovgaard, N

    2010-07-01

    Control of the heart rate and cardiorespiratory interactions (CRI) is predominantly parasympathetic in all jawed vertebrates, with the sympathetic nervous system having some influence in tetrapods. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been described as a solely mammalian phenomenon but respiration-related beat-to-beat control of the heart has been described in fish and reptiles. Though they are both important, the relative roles of feed-forward central control and peripheral reflexes in generating CRI vary between groups of fishes and probably between other vertebrates. CRI may relate to two locations for the vagal preganglionic neurons (VPN) and in particular cardiac VPN in the brainstem. This has been described in representatives from all vertebrate groups, though the proportion in each location is variable. Air-breathing fishes, amphibians and reptiles breathe discontinuously and the onset of a bout of breathing is characteristically accompanied by an immediate increase in heart rate plus, in the latter two groups, a left-right shunting of blood through the pulmonary circuit. Both the increase in heart rate and opening of a sphincter on the pulmonary artery are due to withdrawal of vagal tone. An increase in heart rate following a meal in snakes is related to withdrawal of vagal tone plus a non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic effect that may be due to humoral factors released by the gut. Histamine is one candidate for this role.

  16. The perception of children of elementary education about cardiorespiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariélli Terassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA is a serious situation that occurs frequently in public environments, which makes assistance training of the general population of great importance. The objective was to understand the perception of children on CRA. Qualitative research conducted with children 8-10 years old enrolled in a private elementary school with a constructive proposal. Data collection occurred between the months of October and November 2013 in a recorded collective interview. As a criterion for inclusion students should be enrolled in the institution and accept to participate in the research with the consent of a guardian. Thirty children participated in the study. The students were divided into four groups: 5th year, 4th year, 3rd year A and 3rd year B, with an average of 08 students per group. The interviews were analyzed using the Bardin content analysis methodology. From the speeches, two categories emerged: Child's prior knowledge on CRA and how to act on the event of a CRA. Children associate the event of sudden CRA to a condition in which the heart and/or lungs suddenly stop acting. Seeking emergency assistance was reported as one of the main actions to be taken if a person is unconscious. It was observed that the 5th graders had best prior knowledge about the topic CRA when compared to students in the 3rd year. The thematic approach of CRA in schools contributes to the exchange of experiences, awareness of children and building new knowledge-oriented health education.

  17. Cardiorespiratory Effects of One-Legged High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia and Hypoxia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Verena; Semsch, Mona; Mosbach, Florian; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-06-01

    A higher-than-average maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), is closely associated with decreased morbidity and mortality and improved quality of life and acts as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness. Although there is no consensus about an optimal training method to enhance VO2max, nevertheless training of small muscle groups and repeated exposure to hypoxia seem to be promising approaches. Therefore, this study was aimed at gaining innovative insights into the effects of small muscle group training in normoxia and hypoxia. Thirteen healthy participants were randomly assigned to the hypoxic (HG, n = 7) or normoxic (NG, n = 6) training group. Both groups completed nine high-intensity interval training sessions in 3 wks. The NG performed the training in normoxia (FiO2: 0.21; ~ 600 m) and the HG in hypoxia (FiO2: 0.126; ~ 4500 m). Each session consisted of 4 x 4 min one-legged cycling at 90% of maximal heart rate separated by 4 min recovery periods. Before and after the intervention period, VO2max and peak power output (Wmax) and responses to submaximal cycling (100 and 150 watts) were assessed in a laboratory cycling test. Peak power output significantly improved within both groups (9.6 ± 4.8% and 12.6 ± 8.9% for HG and NG, respectively) with no significant interaction (p = 0.277). However, VO2max only significantly increased after training in hypoxia from 45.4 ± 10.1 to 50.0 ± 9.8 ml/min/kg (10.8 ± 6.0%; p = 0.002) with no significant interaction (p = 0.146). The maximal O2-pulse improved within the HG and demonstrated a significant interaction (p = 0.040). One-legged cycling training significantly improved VO2max and peak power output. Training under hypoxic conditions may generate greater effects on VO2max than a similar training in normoxia and is considered as a promising training method for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. Key pointsNine sessions of one-legged high-intensity interval training significantly improved physical fitness.One-legged hypoxic

  18. The relationship between active travel to school and health-related fitness in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lubans, David R

    2011-01-26

    Abstract Background Active travel to school (ATS) has been identified as an important source of physical activity for youth. However, the relationship between ATS and health-related fitness (HRF) among youth remains unclear. Methods A systematic search of seven electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and TRIS on line) was conducted in December 2009 and studies published since 1980 were considered for inclusion. Results Twenty seven articles were identified that explored the relationship between ATS and the following aspects of HRF: weight status\\/body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and flexibility. Forty-eight percent of the studies that examined the relationship between ATS and weight status\\/body composition reported significant associations, this increased to 55% once poor quality studies were removed. Furthermore, the findings from five studies, including one longitudinal study, indicate that ATS is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. However, the evidence for the relationships between ATS and muscular fitness or flexibility is equivocal and limited by low study numbers. Conclusions There is some evidence to suggest that ATS is associated with a healthier body composition and level of cardiorespiratory fitness among youth. Strategies to increase ATS are warranted and should be included in whole-of-school approaches to the promotion of physical activity.

  19. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  20. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  1. Long-term exposure to gaseous air pollutants and cardio-respiratory mortality in Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu Wang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association of long-term exposure to gaseous air pollution with cardio-respiratory mortality in Brisbane, Australia, in the period 1996-2004. The pollutant concentrations were estimated using geographical information system (GIS techniques at the statistical local area (SLA level. The generalized estimating equations model was used to investigate the impact of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3 and sulphur dioxide (SO2 on mortality due to cardio-respiratory disease after adjusting for a range of potential confounders. An increase of 4.7% (95% confidence interval = 0.7-8.9% in cardio-respiratory mortality for 1 part per billion (ppb increment in annual average concentration of SO2 was estimated. However, there was no significant association between long-term exposures to NO2 or O3 and death due to cardio-respiratory disease. The results indicate that the annual average concentration of SO2 is associated with cardio-respiratory mortality at the SLA level and this association appears to vary with the geographical area.

  2. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena M. Aguilar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze the association between physical fitness and academic attainment, and to determine the influence of screen time on the association between physical fitness and academic attainment.METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 395 schoolchildren from seven schools of the Maule Region, Chile (mean age 12.1 years; 50.4% boys participated in the autumn of 2014 (March to June. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated. The study measured academic achievement (mean of the grades obtained in several core subjects, physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength, weight, height, parental education, and socioeconomic status. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between physical fitness and academic attainment after adjusting for potential confounders by gender. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in academic attainment according to fitness and screen time categories (< 2 hours/day and ≥ 2 hours/day.RESULTS: In both genders good cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with high language (ß = 0.272-0.153 and mean academic attainment (ß = 0.192-0.156 grades; however, after adjusting for screen time and other potential confounders, these associations disappear. Similarly, no relationship was observed after analyzing those children who spend more hours of screen time (≥ 2 hours/day.CONCLUSIONS: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.

  3. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  4. A Profile of Fitness Parameters and Performance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind B. Taware

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ball games require comprehen-sive ability including physical, technical, men-tal and tactical abilities. Among them, physicalabilities of players exert marked effects on theskill of the players themselves and the tacticsof the team. Therefore players must have thephysical abilities to meet the demand of thesport. Volleyball is one of the most popularlyplayed games in the world. Unfortunately, thelevel of performance of the Indian volleyballplayers lags far behind the international stan-dards. Aim of the Study: The present study wasaimed to assess flexibility, muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance of vol-leyball players and to compare the results withage matched controls. Also, to compare thefindings of the volleyball players with that ofthe international norms from the available lit-erature and to make some suggestions for theimprovement in their performance level. Ma-terial and Methods: The study was carried outin 40 male volleyball players aged between 17to 26 years and 40 ages matched male controls.Physical fitness parameters namely flexibility,muscular endurance, power and cardio-respi-ratory endurance were measured, data was ana-lyzed using unpaired ‘t’-test. Results: It was ob-served that all physical fitness parameters weresignificantly more in players as compared totheir aged-matched controls but when values ofthe subjects were compared to internationalstandards; our subjects were behind the recom-mended norms for the elite volleyball players.Conclusion: The volleyball players have moreadvantage of flexibility muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance.

  5. Cardiorespiratory measurements during field tests in CF: use of an ambulatory monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Judy M; Kent, Lisa; O'Neill, Brenda; Nevill, Alan; Boyle, Lesley; Elborn, J Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory inductive plethysmography (e.g., LifeShirt) may offer in-depth study of the cardiorespiratory responses during field exercise tests. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability, discriminate validity, and responsiveness of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt during field exercise tests in adults with CF. To assess reliability and discriminate validity, participants with CF and stable lung disease and healthy participants performed the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Modified Shuttle Test (MST) on two occasions. To assess responsiveness, participants with CF experiencing an exacerbation performed the 6MWT at the start and end of an admission for intravenous antibiotics. The LifeShirt was worn during all exercise tests. Reliability and discriminate validity were assessed in 18 participants with CF (mean (SD) age: 26 (10) years; FEV1 %predicted: 69.2 (23)%) and 18 healthy participants (age: 24 (5) years, FEV1 % predicted: 92 (8)%). There was no difference in 6MWT and MST performance between days and reliability of cardiorespiratory measures was acceptable (bias: P > 0.05; CV  0.05; CV tests in adults with CF. Reliability and discriminate validity of key cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt were demonstrated. Some information on responsiveness is reported.

  6. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  7. Cardio-Respiratory and Perceived Exertion Responses to Different Cranking Rates during Maximal Arm Ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    This study compared cardio-respiratory and perceived exertion responses for four cranking rates (50, 60, 70 and 80 rpm) during a continuous maximal arm ergometry protocol in order to determine the most efficient cranking rate for maximal testing. Fifteen male volunteers from 18-30 years of age performed a continuous arm ergometry stress test in…

  8. A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.

  9. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  10. VO[subscript 2] Prediction and Cardiorespiratory Responses during Underwater Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas P.; Greene, Elizabeth S.; Carbuhn, Aaron F.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    We compared cardiorespiratory responses to exercise on an underwater treadmill (UTM) and land treadmill (LTM) and derived an equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2]) during UTM exercise. Fifty-five men and women completed one LTM and five UTM exercise sessions on separate days. The UTM sessions consisted of chest-deep immersion,…

  11. The parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis negatively affects cardiorespiratory function in Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Seth, H.; Axelsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis had a negative effect on cardiorespiratory function in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua such that it caused pronounced cardiac dysfunction with irregular rhythm and reduced stroke amplitude compared with uninfected fish. In addition, parasite infection...... depressed the postprandial cardiac output and oxygen consumption...

  12. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  13. Field-based fitness assessment in young people: the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José; España-Romero, Vanesa; Artero, Enrique G; Ortega, Francisco B; Cuenca, Magdalena M; Jimenez-Pavón, David; Chillón, Palma; Girela-Rejón, María J; Mora, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Angel; Suni, Jaana; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2011-05-01

    The present study summarises the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) study and describes the procedures followed to select the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The authors reviewed physical fitness and health in youth findings from cross-sectional studies. The authors also performed three systematic reviews dealing with (1) the predictive validity of health-related fitness, (2) the criterion validity of field-based fitness tests and (3) the reliability of field-based fitness tests in youth. The authors also carried out 11-methodological studies to determine the criterion validity and the reliability of several field-based fitness tests for youth. Finally, the authors performed a study in the school setting to examine the reliability, feasibility and safety of the selected tests. The selected fitness tests were (1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; (2) the handgrip strength and (3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and (4) body mass index, (5) skinfold thickness and (5) waist circumference to assess body composition. When there are time limits, the authors propose the high-priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness. The time required to administer this battery to a group of 20 youth by one physical education teacher is less than 2 h. In conclusion, the ALPHA fitness tests battery is valid, reliable, feasible and safe for the assessment of health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents to be used for health monitoring purposes at population level.

  14. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  15. Associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance in Chilean youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. Methods Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores. Three unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were done in order to analyze the associations of variables. Results Fatness has a negative association with academic performance when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) are assessed independently. When BMI and WHR are assessed jointly and adjusted by cofounders, WHR is more associated with academic performance than BMI, and only the association of WHR is positive. For fitness components, strength was the variable most associated with the academic performance. Cardiorespiratory capacity was not associated with academic performance if fatness and other fitness components are included in the model. Conclusions Fitness and fatness are associated with academic performance. WHR and strength are more related with academic performance than BMI and cardiorespiratory capacity. PMID:27761345

  16. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  17. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDICATORS OF FITNESS, FATNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Strachan Buchan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, fatness and low cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease risk and mortality. The association between measures of physical fitness and fatness upon cardiovascular risk in youth, however, is less clear. The effects of adiposity and physical fitness upon cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth are receiving increasing attention but studies that have examined their independent associations are sparse. The purpose of this study thus was to investigate relationships among cardiovascular disease risk factors, four indicators of physical fitness and three indicators of fatness in a healthy adolescent cohort. Forty-eight boys and ten girls, 16.4±0.7 years, volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Measurements included Blood Pressure (BP, three indicators of fatness and fat distribution Body Mass Index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, four measures of physical fitness (aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, sprinting speed, agility, weekly food intake and Physical Activity (PA levels. Metabolic CVD risk factors included Total Cholesterol (TC, insulin, High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL, high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP, glucose, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, adiponectin, triglyceride and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and adiponectin (r = 0.443 and between muscular power and glucose (r = 0.430 were significant and moderate. Significant inverse correlations were also noted between adiponectin, sprint (r = -0.456 and agility (r = -0.399 performance. Adiponectin was also significantly and inversely correlated with waist circumference (r = - 0.514 and BMI (r = -0.434. From the regression models, a significant percentage of the variance in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, agility and sprint performance (about 74, 53, 46 and 59% was explained by traditional covariates. The

  18. Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, U; Anderssen, S A; Froberg, K

    2007-01-01

    of Europe (n = 1709). We examined the independent associations of subcomponents of PA and CRF with metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, BP, fasting glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol levels). Clustered metabolic risk was expressed as a continuously distributed score calculated...... circumference from the summary score and further adjustment for waist circumference as a confounding factor, the magnitude of the association between CRF and clustered metabolic risk was attenuated (standardised beta = -0.05, 95% CI -0.08, -0.02), whereas the association with total PA was unchanged...... as the average of the standardised values of the six subcomponents. RESULTS: CRF (standardised beta = -0.09, 95% CI -0.12, -0.06), total PA (standardised beta = -0.08, 95% CI -0.10, -0.05) and all other subcomponents of PA were significantly associated with clustered metabolic risk. After excluding waist...

  19. Efficacy of multimodal exercise-based rehabilitation on physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and patient-reported outcomes in cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, J; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Tolver, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary behavior and impaired cardiovascular reserve capacity are common late effects of cancer therapy emphasizing the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors. We examined the efficacy of a 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program on self...

  20. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Clennin

    Full Text Available To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD.Patient data records from 2002-2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively. ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends.A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001 for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only.Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time.

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aerobic work and power on a rope-braked cycle ergometer by direct measurement. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 31(4):392–7. 2006. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA 311( ...

  2. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  3. Economic evaluation of the benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity associated with air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Aslam H

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few assessments of the costs and benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity related to air pollution have employed a comprehensive, explicit approach to capturing the full societal value of reduced morbidity. Methods We used empirical data on the duration and severity of episodes of cardiorespiratory disease as inputs to complementary models of cost of treatment, lost productivity, and willingness to pay to avoid acute cardiorespiratory morbidity outcomes linked to air pollution in epidemiological studies. A Monte Carlo estimation procedure was utilized to propagate uncertainty in key inputs and model parameters. Results Valuation estimates ranged from $13 (1997, Canadian (95% confidence interval, $0–28 for avoidance of an acute respiratory symptom day to $5,200 ($4,000–$6,400 for avoidance of a cardiac hospital admission. Cost of treatment accounted for the majority of the overall value of cardiac and respiratory hospital admissions as well as cardiac emergency department visits, while lost productivity generally represented a small proportion of overall value. Valuation estimates for days of restricted activity, asthma symptoms and acute respiratory symptoms were sensitive to alternative assumptions about level of activity restriction. As an example of the application of these values, we estimated that the observed decrease in particulate sulfate concentrations in Toronto between 1984 and 1999 resulted in annual benefits of $1.4 million (95% confidence interval $0.91–1.8 million in relation to reduced emergency department visits and hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory disease. Conclusion Our approach to estimating the value of avoiding a range of acute morbidity effects of air pollution addresses a number of limitations of the current literature, and is applicable to future assessments of the benefits of improving air quality.

  4. Cardiorespiratory and blood gas alterations during laparoscopic surgery for intra-uterine artificial insemination in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Fabíola B; Malm, Christina; Andrade, Maria Elisa J; Oliveira, Humberto P; Melo, Eliane G; Caldeira, Fátima Maria C; Gheller, Valentim A; Palhares, Maristela S; Macedo, Sabrina P; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Silva, Marcos X

    2011-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory and blood gas alterations were evaluated in 6 healthy dogs that underwent a laparoscopic procedure using isoflurane anesthesia and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum for 30 min. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, venous blood pH, partial pressure of CO(2) and oxygen, oxygen saturation, total carbon dioxide (TCO(2)) and bicarbonate were monitored. Significant alterations were hypercapnia, hypoventilation, and respiratory acidosis.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Mechanical Simulator for In Vitro Testing of Impedance Minute Ventilation Sensors in Cardiac Pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Emanuela; Cercenelli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cardiorespiratory mechanical simulator (CRMS), a system able to reproduce both the cardiac and respiratory movements, intended to be used for in vitro testing of impedance minute ventilation (iMV) sensors in cardiac pacemakers. The simulator consists of two actuators anchored to a human thorax model and a software interface to control the actuators and to acquire/process impedance signals. The actuators can be driven separately or simultaneously to reproduce the cardiac longitudinal shortening at a programmable heart rate and the diaphragm displacement at a programmable respiratory rate (RR). A standard bipolar pacing lead moving with the actuators and a pacemaker case fixed to the thorax model have been used to measure impedance (Z) variations during the simulated cardiorespiratory movements. The software is able to discriminate the low-frequency component because of respiration (Z(R)) from the high-frequency ripple because of cardiac effect (Z(C)). Impedance minute ventilation is continuously calculated from Z(R) and RR. From preliminary tests, the CRMS proved to be a reliable simulator for in vitro evaluation of iMV sensors. Respiration impedance recordings collected during cardiorespiratory movements reproduced by the CRMS were comparable in morphology and amplitude with in vivo assessments of transthoracic impedance variations.

  6. Cardio-respiratory symptoms in panic disorder: a contribution from cognitive-behaviour therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lucia Spear King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia treated with cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT associated with the medication with patients treated only with medication and verify the behaviour of the cardio-respiratory symptoms of both groups. Methods: Randomized sample in the Psychiatry Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, divided in two groups of 25 participants each. Group 1 undertook 10 weekly sessions of CBT with one hour of duration each together with medication. Group 2, Control, were administered medication that only consisted of tricyclic anti-depressants and selective inhibitors of the re-uptake of serotonin. Evaluation instruments were applied at the beginning and to the end of the interventions. Results: According to the applied scales, group 1 showed statistically more significant results than group 2, with: reduction of panic attacks, cardio-respiratory symptoms, anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobia avoidance and fear of bodily sensations. Conclusion: Exposures (in vivo and interoceptive, especially for induction symptom exercises and relaxation, were considered essential to prepare patients with panic disorder to handle future cardio-respiratory symptoms and panic attacks with agoraphobia.

  7. Markers of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and lipid accumulation are moderately associated with the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance in obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz A Samjoo

    Full Text Available Lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL accumulation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance (IR in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of endurance exercise on biochemical and morphological measures of IMCL and mitochondrial content, and their relationship to IR in obese individuals. We examined mitochondrial content (subunit protein abundance and maximal activity of electron transport chain enzymes, IMCL/mitochondrial morphology in both subsarcolemmal (SS and intermyofibrillar (IMF regions by transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular lipid metabolites (diacylglycerol and ceramide in vastus lateralis biopsies, as well as, the homeostasis model assessment index of IR (HOMA-IR prior to and following twelve weeks of an endurance exercise regimen in healthy age- and physical activity-matched lean and obese men. Obese men did not show evidence of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, disproportionate IMCL content in sub-cellular regions, or diacylglycerol/ceramide accretion despite marked IR vs. lean controls. Endurance exercise increased OXPHOS and mitochondrial size and density, but not number of individual mitochondrial fragments, with moderate improvements in HOMA-IR. Exercise reduced SS IMCL content (size, number and density, increased IMF IMCL content, while increasing IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition in both regions. HOMA-IR was inversely associated with SS (r = -0.34; P = 0.051 and IMF mitochondrial density (r = -0.29; P = 0.096, IMF IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition (r = -0.30; P = 0.086, and COXII (r = -0.32; P = 0.095 and COXIV protein abundance (r = -0.35; P = 0.052; while positively associated with SS IMCL size (r = 0.28; P = 0.119 and SS IMCL density (r = 0.25; P = 0.152. Our findings suggest that once physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have been

  8. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  9. Essentials of skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics of skeletal radiology: Positioning of patients for diagnostic radiology and normal anatomy; congenital malformations of skeleton; measurements in radiology; spondylolisthesis; metabolic and endocrine diseases of bone and their diagnostic aspects; image processing of vertebrae, skeleton, bone fractures evaluations and epidemiological and social aspects of some bone diseases. Various modalities as CT scanning, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and biomedical radiography are briefly discussed in relation to bone pathology.

  10. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  11. Physical fitness and physical activity in adolescents with asperger syndrome: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A

    2010-10-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were done using the Eurofit physical fitness test and the Baecke Habitual Physical Activity questionnaire. A 2 x 2 MANOVA indicated that adolescents with AS scored significantly lower than the comparison group on all physical fitness subtests, including balance, coordination, flexibility, muscular strength, running speed, and cardio-respiratory endurance (p < .001). Adolescents with AS were also less physically active (p < .001). Engagement in physical activities is therefore recommended.

  12. Augmented limb blood flow during neurovascular stress in physically fit women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; Jackson, Erica M; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ray, Chester A

    2013-09-01

    The study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies cardiovascular responses by normotensive men and women during the Stroop color-word interference test. Independent of age and an estimate of body fatness, fitness level was positively related (R²  = .39 and .51) to increases in limb blood flow and vascular conductance, coherent with cardiac-vagal withdrawal and a decrease in heart period, among women but not men. Fitness was unrelated to changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The augmented hemodynamic responses among fitter women were not consistent with passive vasodilation via withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone. The results encourage further gender comparisons testing whether fitness augments limb blood flow during mental stress by neurohumoral and flow-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms or by increased cardiac output.

  13. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  14. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  15. Fitness World - Fremtidig overlevelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Kasper; Klink, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Mie; Carlson, Andre; Boy, Mikkel; Hansen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our project is a case study with Fitness World as a baseline. Our project will enhance Fitness Worlds penetration on their current position on the market. Our empiricism includes both qualitative and quantitative methodical approaches by the use of an expert interview and a questionnaire survey. These methods contribute and generate general knowledge about the fitness culture in Denmark and the customers in the fitness industry. We have stated a possible strategic opportunity for Fitness Worl...

  16. Effectiveness of a School-Based Fitness Program on Youths' Physical and Psychosocial Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Maureen R; Phillips, Alison C; Kipp, Lindsay E

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an existing physical fitness program (CHAMPIONS) implemented during physical education on health-related indices (BMI percentile, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory endurance), self-perceptions, academic performance, and behavioral conduct over a school year. Students in 3 intervention (n = 331) and 3 control (n = 745) middle schools participated in the study that included assessments at pre, mid, and postintervention. Multivariate repeated measures analyses indicated that boys and girls in CHAMPIONS compared favorably (p physical health indices among middle school youth.

  17. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  18. The National Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness. Proceedings. (Washington, D.C., April 6-7, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The principal addresses at this Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness were: (1) "Keynote Address" (C. Carson Conrad); (2) "Essential Nature of Fitness" (Lawrence E. Lamb); (3) "Effects of Exercise on Women from 20-50 Years Old" (Sharon Plowman); (4) "Fitness in Older Women" (Everett L. Smith); (5) "Female Musculo-Skeletal System" (Robert P.…

  19. Prediction of Skeletal Medial-Lateral for transfemoral ischial containment sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael P; Fernandez, Richard G D; Erbas, Bircan; Briggs, Chris; Quigley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the pelvis is critical for well-fitting and comfortable ischial containment sockets. The "Skeletal Medial-Lateral (ML)" is intrusive and unreliable to measure in vivo. This study aimed to determine how accurately the Skeletal ML could be predicted and to identify which measurements were significant predictors. Computed tomography scans were randomly sampled from a cadaveric database (n = 200). Inclusion criteria were age > 20 yr; lower-limb alignment that replicated the anatomical position; and no evidence of osteological trauma, implants, or bony growths. Multivariate linear regression models were developed to predict the Skeletal ML based on a suite of independent variables, including sex, body mass, and distance between pelvic landmarks. The regression model explained 76% of the variance in the Skeletal ML (p socket fitting. Further research is needed to test the predictive tool in a real-world setting.

  20. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  1. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105 aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1 morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (% via impedance; 2 musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3 motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run; 4 flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test; 5 cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs and inter-rater (reliability were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias and random error (95% limits of agreement. When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  2. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the "Fuprecol

  3. Fitness-related patterns of genetic variation in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2009-03-01

    The patterning of quantitative genetic descriptions of genetic and residual variation for 15 skeletal and six life history traits was explored in a semi-free-ranging group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta Zimmerman 1780). I tested theoretical predictions that explain the magnitude of genetic and residual variation as a result of 1. strength of a trait's association with evolutionary fitness, or 2. developmental and physiological relationships among traits. I found skeletal traits had higher heritabilities and lower coefficients of residual variation than more developmentally and physiologically dependent life history traits. Total lifetime fertility had a modest heritability (0.336) in this population, and traits with stronger correlations to fitness had larger amounts of residual variance. Censoring records of poorly-performing individuals on lifetime fertility and lifespan substantially reduced their heritabilities. These results support models for the fitness-related patterning of genetic variation based on developmental and physiological relationships among traits rather than the action of selection eroding variation.

  4. Fitness and Adiposity Are Independently Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan S. Buchan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine the independent associations of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered cardiometabolic risk. Methods. A cross-sectional sample of 192 adolescents (118 boys, aged 14–16 years, was recruited from a South Lanarkshire school in the West of Scotland. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were taken. The 20 m multistage fitness test was the indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. A clustered cardiometabolic risk score was constructed from HDL-C (inverted, LDL-C, HOMA, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were also measured and examined relative to the clustered cardiometabolic risk score, CRF, and adiposity. Results. Although significant, partial correlations between BMI and waist circumference (WC and both CRF and adiponectin were negative and weak to moderate, while correlations between the BMI and WC and CRP were positive but weak to moderate. Weak to moderate negative associations were also evident for adiponectin with CRP, IL-6, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. WC was positively associated while CRF was negatively associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk. With the additional adjustment for either WC or CRF, the independent associations with cardiometabolic risk persisted. Conclusion. WC and CRF are independently associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk in Scottish adolescents.

  5. Cardiorespiratory evaluation of juvenile rats experimentally envenomed with Tityus serrulatus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCL Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental envenomation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpions is very common in Brazil and may result in serious cardiorespiratory alterations that are frequently fatal to children. In the present study, the effects of T. serrulatus venom on the cardiorespiratory system of recently weaned male Wistar rats were evaluated. Fifteen animals were distributed into three groups (n = 5. The control group A received 400 μL ultrapure water by subcutaneous injection, while the experimental groups B and C were injected with scorpion venom (100 and 450 μg, respectively, in 400 μL water. Electrocardiogram (ECG traces were obtained prior to the experiment, at five-minute intervals up to 30 minutes after treatment. At 40 minutes after envenomation, the animals had severe acute symptoms and were subsequently anesthetized for blood collection by means of intracardiac puncture. Biochemical profiles for the cardiac muscle were established by colorimetric analysis of creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB isoenzyme. Semiquantitative analysis of troponin was performed using the immunochromatographic assay. Following euthanasia, the lungs and hearts were removed and subjected to histopathological examination. All experimental animals had ECG alterations compatible with electrolytic imbalance, myocarditis and alterations of the cardiac conduction system. Envenomed animals had accentuated bradycardia at 25 and 30 minutes after venom inoculation. All experimental animals had myocardial lesions, which were confirmed by increased serum levels of CK and CK-MB, although there were no alterations in the serum concentration of troponin. Pulmonary hemorrhage was detected in whole lungs and microscopically confirmed by the presence of congested capillaries and erythrocytes in the alveolar parenchyma. In conclusion, T. serrulatus venom caused great cardiorespiratory damage to weaned rats.

  6. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  7. Prediction of Skeletal Medial–Lateral for transfemoral ischial containment sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Dillon, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the pelvis is critical for well-fitting and comfortable ischial containment sockets. The "Skeletal Medial-Lateral (ML" is intrusive and unreliable to measure in vivo. This study aimed to determine how accurately the Skeletal ML could be predicted and to identify which measurements were significant predictors. Computed tomography scans were randomly sampled from a cadaveric database (n = 200. Inclusion criteria were age > 20 yr; lower-limb alignment that replicated the anatomical position; and no evidence of osteological trauma, implants, or bony growths. Multivariate linear regression models were developed to predict the Skeletal ML based on a suite of independent variables, including sex, body mass, and distance between pelvic landmarks. The regression model explained 76% of the variance in the Skeletal ML (p < 0.001. Variables that contributed significantly to the prediction of the Skeletal ML (p < 0.05 included body mass, sex, inter-greater trochanter distance, pelvic depth, and age. Significant predictors of the Skeletal ML dimension characterize variation in subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness and pelvic morphology. The Skeletal ML could be predicted with relatively small errors (standard error of estimate = 7 mm that could be easily and reliably adjusted during socket fitting. Further research is needed to test the predictive tool in a real-world setting.

  8. Change urgent adaptation reaction cardiorespiratory system under the influence of experimental program of the training means in sport dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of increase of function of cardiorespiratory system of dancers are rotined. 24 sportsmen took part in research (12 pair. Directions of strengthening the function of aerobic energy-supply, optimizations of physiological properties of the cardiorespiratory system of organism, are set. The terms of increase of the special capacity are formed. The terms of activation of function of indemnification of increasing acidemia changes and developing on this basis fatigue are offered. Application of the program of trainings facilities specifies on the increase of kinetics and stability of reaction of frequency of heart-throbs.

  9. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio......-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: Both waist circumference and skinfolds were associated with clustered CVD risk. Odds ratios for clustered CVD risk for the upper quartiles compared with the lowest quartile were 9.13 (95% CI: 5.78-14.43) and 11.62 (95% CI: 7.11-18.99) when systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, insulin...... adjustment for fitness and fatness with an odds ratio for the upper quartile of 1.81 (95% CI: 1.18-2.76). CONCLUSION: Physical activity, fitness, skinfold and waist circumference were all independently associated with clustered CVD risk....

  10. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; McAuley, Paul A; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2014-04-15

    Obesity has been increasing in epidemic proportions, with a disproportionately higher increase in morbid or class III obesity, and obesity adversely affects cardiovascular (CV) hemodynamics, structure, and function, as well as increases the prevalence of most CV diseases. Progressive declines in physical activity over 5 decades have occurred and have primarily caused the obesity epidemic. Despite the potential adverse impact of overweight and obesity, recent epidemiological data have demonstrated an association of mild obesity and, particularly, overweight on improved survival. We review in detail the obesity paradox in CV diseases where overweight and at least mildly obese patients with most CV diseases seem to have a better prognosis than do their leaner counterparts. The implications of cardiorespiratory fitness with prognosis are discussed, along with the joint impact of fitness and adiposity on the obesity paradox. Finally, in light of the obesity paradox, the potential value of purposeful weight loss and increased physical activity to affect levels of fitness is reviewed.

  11. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  12. Development of the cardiorespiratory system in dogs from days 16 to 46 of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, A A; Favaron, P O; de Jesus Oliveira, L; Schäfer, B T; Oliveira, F D; Miglino, M A

    2016-10-01

    Dogs have been studied for several reasons, such as the genetic improvement, their use as experimental models, in zoonotic research, cell therapy and as a model for human diseases. However, many features relating to the embryonic development of dogs remain unknown because of the absence of embryological studies. Considering the importance of the cardiorespiratory system in the development of embryos, the aim of this study was to investigate the development of the main cardiorespiratory organs of dog embryos and foetuses with estimated gestational ages from 16 to 46 days using macro- and microscopic descriptions. On day 16 of development, the neural tube and crest were formed, the anterior and posterior neuropore closure had begun and the somites had developed. Between days 22 and 27 of gestation, the lung buds and the initial formation of the primary bronchi and heart chambers were observed. The heart chambers exhibited the endo-, myo- and epicardial layers but did not have obvious differences in thickness among each other. Between days 41 and 46 of gestation, the nasal conchae and septa and trachea were formed, which exhibited characteristic epithelia. The lung formation and lobation were complete. The heart and major vessels exhibited mature histological architecture when their anatomical development was complete. The results of this study contribute to a more accurate definition of the embryonic and foetal developmental stages in dogs.

  13. Cardiorespiratory ontogeny and response to environmental hypoxia of larval spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Ruff, Nicole; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    Cardiorespiratory function is vital to an organism's ability to respond to environmental stress and analysis of cardiorespiratory capacity of species or life stages can elucidate vulnerability to climate change. Spiny lobsters have one of the most complex pelagic larval life cycles of any invertebrate and recently there has been an unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment for a number of species. We conducted the first analysis of the larval ontogeny of oxygen consumption, heart rate, maxilla 2 ventilation rate and oxyregulatory capacity of the spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, to gain insight into their vulnerability to ocean change and to investigate life stage specific sensitivity to temperature-dependent oxygen limitation. In normoxia, heart and maxilla 2 ventilation rates increased in early larval development before declining, which we hypothesise is related to the transition from myogenic to neurogenic cardiac control. Maxilla 2 ventilation rate was sensitive to hypoxia at all larval stages, while heart rate was only sensitive to hypoxia in the late phyllosoma stages. Oxygen consumption conformed to environmental hypoxia at all larval stages. Spiny lobster larvae have limited respiratory control due to immature gas exchange physiology, compounded by their exceptionally large size. The lack of oxyregulatory ability suggests that all development stages are vulnerable to changes in sea temperature and oxygen availability. The synergetic stressors of increased temperature and reduced dissolved oxygen in the marine environment will diminish spiny lobster larval performance, increasing the challenge to achieve their extended larval life cycle, which may contribute to declines in post-larval recruitment.

  14. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential reservoir host of cardiorespiratory parasites in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard

    2016-06-15

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals.

  15. The effect of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnoea on cardiorespiratory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Baumert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of adenotonsillectomy for relieving obstructive sleep apnoea symptoms in children has been firmly established, but its precise effects on cardiorespiratory control are poorly understood. In 375 children enrolled in the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial, randomised to undergo either adenotonsillectomy (n=194 or a strategy of watching waiting (n=181, respiratory rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate were analysed during quiet, non-apnoeic and non-hypopnoeic breathing throughout sleep at baseline and at 7 months using overnight polysomnography. Children who underwent early adenotonsillectomy demonstrated an increase in respiratory rate post-surgery while the watchful waiting group showed no change. Heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were comparable between both arms. On assessing cardiorespiratory variables with regard to normalisation of clinical polysomnography findings during follow-up, heart rate was reduced in children who had resolution of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, while no differences in their respiratory rate or respiratory sinus arrhythmia were observed. Adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea increases baseline respiratory rate during sleep. Normalisation of apnoea–hypopnoea index, spontaneously or via surgery, lowers heart rate. Considering the small average effect size, the clinical significance is uncertain.

  16. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi

    2012-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  17. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  18. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  19. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile, physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw, and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57% were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4% with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs. Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6% students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3% for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18 of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30 of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  20. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  1. Pericapillary basement membrane thickening in human skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Oliver; Bigler, Marius

    2016-09-01

    The basement membrane (BM) surrounding capillaries in skeletal muscles varies physiologically in thickness according to age, physical fitness, and anatomical site in humans. Furthermore, the pericapillary BM thickness (CBMT) increases pathophysiologically during several common disease states, including peripheral arterial disease and diabetes mellitus. This review on CBM thickening in human skeletal muscles is two pronged. First, it addresses the advantages/disadvantages of grid- and tablet-based measuring and morphometric techniques that are implemented to assess the CBMT on transmission electron micrographs. Second, it deals with the biology of CBM thickening in skeletal muscles, particularly its possible causes, molecular mechanisms, and functional impact. CBM thickening is triggered by several physical factors, including diabetes-associated glycation, hydrostatic pressure, and inflammation. Increased biosynthesis of type IV collagen expression or repetitive cycles in pericyte or endothelial cell degeneration/proliferation appear to be most critical for CBM accumulation. A thickened CBM obviously poses a greater barrier for diffusion, lowers the microvascular elasticity, and impedes transcytosis of inflammatory cells. Our own morphometric data reveal the CBM enlargement to be not accompanied by the pericyte coverage. Owing to an overlap or redundancy in the capillary supply, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles might not be such a devastating occurrence as in organs with endarterial circulation (e.g., kidney and retina). CBM growth in skeletal muscles can be reversed by training or administration of antidiabetic drugs. In conclusion, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles is a microvascular remodeling process by which metabolic, hemodynamic, and inflammatory forces are integrated together and which could play a hitherto underestimated role in etiology/progression of human diseases.

  2. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (pcardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  3. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Fill cannot. NEC Fit NEC Fit measures more than the crew’s total skill sets. It also accounts for how these sailors are used by crediting an NEC...Abstract Navy enlisted classifications (NECs) denote special skills beyond those associated with a rating. They are used in defining manpower...requirements and in managing personnel by tracking sailors who have acquired these skills . NEC Fit is one of two primary metrics that Navy leadership

  4. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  5. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  6. The outcomes of a 12-week Internet intervention aimed at improving fitness and health-related quality of life in overweight adolescents: the Young & Active controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Riiser

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents.In this controlled trial, participants (13-15 years were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test.Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04, and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02. Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (-0.39; 95% CI [-0.74;-0.03]; P = 0.03 for the intervention group.The results suggest that the Internet intervention with tailored physical activity counseling

  7. Comparison between Variable and Conventional Volume-Controlled Ventilation on Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Experimental Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Isabela; Padilha, Gisele A; Huhle, Robert; Wierzchon, Caio; Miranda, Paulo J B; Ramos, Isalira P; Rocha, Nazareth; Cruz, Fernanda F; Santos, Raquel S; de Oliveira, Milena V; Souza, Sergio A; Goldenberg, Regina C; Luiz, Ronir R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo G; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung tissue elasticity and destruction of structures supporting alveoli and capillaries. The impact of mechanical ventilation strategies on ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in emphysema is poorly defined. New ventilator strategies should be developed to minimize VILI in emphysema. The present study was divided into two protocols: (1) characterization of an elastase-induced emphysema model in rats and identification of the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, defined as a high specific lung elastance associated with large right ventricular end-diastolic area; and (2) comparison between variable (VV) and conventional volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) on lung mechanics and morphometry, biological markers, and cardiac function at that time point. In the first protocol, Wistar rats (n = 62) received saline (SAL) or porcine pancreatic elastase (ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks, respectively. Evaluations were performed 1, 3, 5, or 8 weeks after the last intratracheal instillation of saline or elastase. After identifying the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, an additional 32 Wistar rats were randomized into the SAL and ELA groups and then ventilated with VV or VCV (n = 8/group) [tidal volume (VT) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 3 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.4] for 2 h. VV was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (mean VT = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. Non-ventilated (NV) SAL and ELA animals were used for molecular biology analysis. The time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, was observed 5 weeks after the last elastase instillation. At this time point, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, amphiregulin, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels were higher in ELA compared to SAL. In ELA animals

  8. Comparison between Variable and Conventional Volume-Controlled Ventilation on Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Experimental Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Isabela; Padilha, Gisele A.; Huhle, Robert; Wierzchon, Caio; Miranda, Paulo J. B.; Ramos, Isalira P.; Rocha, Nazareth; Cruz, Fernanda F.; Santos, Raquel S.; de Oliveira, Milena V.; Souza, Sergio A.; Goldenberg, Regina C.; Luiz, Ronir R.; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo G.; Silva, Pedro L.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung tissue elasticity and destruction of structures supporting alveoli and capillaries. The impact of mechanical ventilation strategies on ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in emphysema is poorly defined. New ventilator strategies should be developed to minimize VILI in emphysema. The present study was divided into two protocols: (1) characterization of an elastase-induced emphysema model in rats and identification of the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, defined as a high specific lung elastance associated with large right ventricular end-diastolic area; and (2) comparison between variable (VV) and conventional volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) on lung mechanics and morphometry, biological markers, and cardiac function at that time point. In the first protocol, Wistar rats (n = 62) received saline (SAL) or porcine pancreatic elastase (ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks, respectively. Evaluations were performed 1, 3, 5, or 8 weeks after the last intratracheal instillation of saline or elastase. After identifying the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, an additional 32 Wistar rats were randomized into the SAL and ELA groups and then ventilated with VV or VCV (n = 8/group) [tidal volume (VT) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 3 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.4] for 2 h. VV was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (mean VT = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. Non-ventilated (NV) SAL and ELA animals were used for molecular biology analysis. The time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, was observed 5 weeks after the last elastase instillation. At this time point, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, amphiregulin, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels were higher in ELA compared to SAL. In ELA animals

  9. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  10. Fitness Test and Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen; Clark

    2005-01-01

    Summer is a time to exercise and keep fit.Ask yourself these quick questions and check your score below.How fit are you? 1.What is your pulse[脉搏]?Find your pulse in your wrist[手腕], count the number of beats[跳动] in one minute,Now

  11. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  12. Experimental evidence for phase synchronization transitions in human cardio-respiratory system

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, R; Kantelhardt, J W; Penzel, T; Bartsch, Ronny; Havlin, Shlomo; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Penzel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Transitions in the dynamics of complex systems can be characterized by changes in the synchronization behavior of their components. Taking the human cardio-respiratory system as an example and using an automated procedure for screening the synchrograms of 112 healthy subjects we study the frequency and the distribution of synchronization episodes under different physiological conditions that occur during sleep. We find that phase synchronization between heartbeat and breathing is significantly enhanced during non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep (deep sleep and light sleep) and reduced during REM sleep. Our results suggest that the synchronization is mainly due to a weak influence of the breathing oscillator upon the heartbeat oscillator, which is disturbed in the presence of long-term correlated noise, superimposed by the activity of higher brain regions during REM sleep.

  13. PM2.5, oxidant defence and cardiorespiratory health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott A; Godri-Pollitt, Krystal; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2013-05-04

    Airborne fine particle mass concentrations (PM2.5) are used for ambient air quality management worldwide based in part on known cardiorespiratory health effects. While oxidative stress is generally thought to be an important mechanism in determining these effects, relatively few studies have specifically examined how oxidant defence may impact susceptibility to particulate air pollution. Here we review studies that explore the impact of polymorphisms in anti-oxidant related genes or anti-oxidant supplementation on PM2.5-induced cardiorespiratory outcomes in an effort to summarize existing evidence related to oxidative stress defence and the health effects of PM2.5. Recent studies of PM-oxidative burden were also examined. In total, nine studies were identified and reviewed and existing evidence generally suggests that oxidant defence may modify the impact of PM2.5 exposure on various health outcomes, particularly heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic function) which was the most common outcome examined in the studies reviewed. Few studies examined interactions between PM2.5 and oxidant defence for respiratory outcomes, and in general studies focused primarily on acute health effects. Therefore, further evaluation of the potential modifying role of oxidant defence in PM2.5-induced health effects is required, particularly for chronic outcomes. Similarly, while an exposure metric that captures the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress may offer advantages over traditional mass concentration measurements, little epidemiological evidence is currently available to evaluate the potential benefits of such an approach. Therefore, further evaluation is required to determine how this metric may be incorporated in ambient air quality management.

  14. Effects of eight-week supplementation of Ashwagandha on cardiorespiratory endurance in elite Indian cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Shenoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids. Purpose: The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. Materials and Methods: Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 500 mg capsules of aqueous roots of Ashwagandha twice daily for eight weeks, whereas the placebo group received starch capsules. Outcome Measures: The baseline treadmill test for the cyclists were performed to measure their aerobic capacity in terms of maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max, metabolic equivalent, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, and total time for the athlete to reach his exhaustion stage. After eight weeks of supplementation, the treadmill test was again performed and results were obtained. Results: There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, whereas the placebo group did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, namely, VO 2 max (t = 5.356; P < 0.001, METS (t = 4.483; P < 0.001, and time for exhaustion on treadmill (t = 4.813; P < 0.001 in comparison to the placebo group which did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. Conclusion: Ashwagandha improved the cardiorespiratory endurance of the elite athletes.

  15. Association between swimming performance, cardiorespiratory morphometry and thermal tolerance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eAnttila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment tested the hypothesis that swimming performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar parr is connected to cardiorespiratory performance and morphology, as well as maximum heart rate (fHmax related measures of thermal tolerance. Moreover, it was hypothesized that the cardiorespiratory differences between poor and strong swimmers will be retained in a later life stage, i.e., 15 weeks post-smoltification and seawater transfer. This experiment screened a population of 3,200 parr (11.2 ± 0.25 g for their swimming performance, classifying them as poor and good swimmers based on their critical swimming speeds (4.4±0.1 body length s-1 and >6.8±0.1 body length s-1, respectively. Compared with poor performing parr, good swimmers had a significantly thicker compact myocardium (by 23.7% and taller gill secondary lamellae (by 16.2%. In contrast, there was no significant difference in maximum oxygen consumption between the two groups as assessed using a ‘chase’ protocol, and the relationship between heart rate specific measures of thermal tolerance and swim performance was variable. For example, three measures did not differ between the two groups, whereas the Arrhenius breakpoint temperature for fHmax and fHmax were higher and lower, respectively, in the poor swimmers. Importantly, the identified morphological and fHmax differences at the parr stage persisted after 15 weeks of common garden rearing in seawater, and they were associated with an increase in relative ventricular mass and a small, but significant, improvement in growth rate. Therefore, it seems that an early assessment of swimming performance can effectively screen for morphological capacities related to oxygen supply and growth rate, but less so for heart rate related measures of thermal tolerance.

  16. Heart rate variability and cardio-respiratory coupling during sleep in patients prior to bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimer, R; Cabiddu, R; Mendes, R G; Costa, F S M; Oliveira, A D; Borghi-Silva, A; Bianchi, A M

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiac risk of morbidly and mortality and for the development and progression of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Severity of obesity negatively affects the heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with indication for bariatric surgery (BS). The purpose of this study is to determine if the severity of obesity alters the autonomic cardiac regulation and the cardio-respiratory coupling during sleep using spectral analysis of HRV and respiration variability signals (RS) in patients prior to BS. Twenty-nine consecutive preoperative BS and ten subjects (controls) underwent polysomnography. The spectral and cross-spectral parameters of the HRV and RS were computed during different sleep stages (SS). Spectral analysis of the HRV and RV indicated lower respiration regularity during sleep and a lower HRV in obese patients (OP) during all SS when compared with controls (p < 0.05). Severely (SO) and super-obese patients (SOP) presented lower values of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and LF power during REM sleep and higher HF power (p < 0.05), while morbidly obese (MO) patients presented lower LF/HF ratio and LF power in SS-S2 and higher HF power when compared to controls (p < 0.05). The cross-spectral parameters showed that SOP presented lower percentage of tachogram power coherent with respiration in SS-S3 when compared to controls (p < 0.05). Patients prior to BS presented altered HRV and RV in all SS. SO, MO, and SOP presented altered cardio-respiratory coupling during sleep, and these alterations are related with severity of obesity and OSA parameters.

  17. Cardio-respiratory and electromyographic responses to ergometer and on-water rowing in elite rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzucchi, I; Sbriccoli, P; Nicolò, A; Passerini, A; Quinzi, F; Felici, F; Sacchetti, M

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle activation and cardio-respiratory response during ergometer and on-water rowing. Nine internationally competitive rowers (five Olympic Games medal winners, age 25.6 ± 4.8 years) were requested to perform a 1,000 m race simulation test in the two conditions. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals from trapezius superior (TRS), latissimus dorsi (LD), biceps brachii (BB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VAM), vastus lateralis (VAL), biceps femoris (BF) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded continuously during the tests together with other cardio-respiratory parameters: heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO₂). On-water, subjects covered the same distance in a longer time (218.4 ± 3.8 s vs. 178.1 ± 5.6 s during ergometer test). TRS, LD, BB, RF, VAM and VAL muscle activation on-water was lower than off-water during the rowing race. VO₂ and VE responses were similar between the two conditions even if the time to complete the 1,000 m race simulation test was higher on-water. The results indicate that for most of the analyzed muscles EMG activation on the ergometer is higher than on-water with the maximal activity at the beginning of the on-water test due reasonably to overcome the forces opposing the forward motion, while the ergometer task elicited increasing muscle activation over time. The present data may be considered by coaches when choosing a rowing ergometer in substitution for the training on-water or when relying on the indoor tests to select the crew.

  18. Slow breathing and hypoxic challenge: cardiorespiratory consequences and their central neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Hugo D; Nicotra, Alessia; Chiesa, Patrizia A; Nagai, Yoko; Gray, Marcus A; Minati, Ludovico; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Controlled slow breathing (at 6/min, a rate frequently adopted during yoga practice) can benefit cardiovascular function, including responses to hypoxia. We tested the neural substrates of cardiorespiratory control in humans during volitional controlled breathing and hypoxic challenge using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned during paced (slow and normal rate) breathing and during spontaneous breathing of normoxic and hypoxic (13% inspired O2) air. Cardiovascular and respiratory measures were acquired concurrently, including beat-to-beat blood pressure from a subset of participants (N = 7). Slow breathing was associated with increased tidal ventilatory volume. Induced hypoxia raised heart rate and suppressed heart rate variability. Within the brain, slow breathing activated dorsal pons, periaqueductal grey matter, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus and lateral and anterior insular cortices. Blocks of hypoxia activated mid pons, bilateral amygdalae, anterior insular and occipitotemporal cortices. Interaction between slow breathing and hypoxia was expressed in ventral striatal and frontal polar activity. Across conditions, within brainstem, dorsal medullary and pontine activity correlated with tidal volume and inversely with heart rate. Activity in rostroventral medulla correlated with beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate variability. Widespread insula and striatal activity tracked decreases in heart rate, while subregions of insular cortex correlated with momentary increases in tidal volume. Our findings define slow breathing effects on central and cardiovascular responses to hypoxic challenge. They highlight the recruitment of discrete brainstem nuclei to cardiorespiratory control, and the engagement of corticostriatal circuitry in support of physiological responses that accompany breathing regulation during hypoxic challenge.

  19. Cardio-respiratory effects of systemic neurotensin injection are mediated through activation of neurotensin NTS₁ receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the cardio-respiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of neurotensin, contribution of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors and the neural pathways mediating the responses. The effects of an intravenous injection (i.v.) of neurotensin were investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in following experimental schemes: (i) control animals before and after midcervical vagotomy; (ii) in three separate subgroups of rats: neurally intact, vagotomized at supranodosal level and initially midcervically vagotomized exposed to section of the carotid sinus nerves (CSNs); (iii) in the intact rats 2 minutes after blockade of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors with SR 142948. Intravenous injection of 10 μg/kg of neurotensin in the intact rats evoked prompt increase in the respiratory rate followed by a prolonged slowing down coupled with augmented tidal volume. Midcervical vagotomy precluded the effects of neurotensin on the frequency of breathing, while CSNs section reduced the increase in tidal volume. In all the neural states neurotensin caused significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure preceded by prompt hypertensive response. The cardio-respiratory effects of neurotensin were blocked by pre-treatment with NTS(1) receptor antagonist. The results of this study showed that neurotensin acting through NTS(1) receptors augments the tidal component of the breathing pattern in a large portion via carotid body afferentation whereas the respiratory timing response to neurotensin depends entirely on the intact midcervical vagi. Blood pressure effects evoked by an intravenous neurotensin occur outside vagal and CSNs pathways and might result from activation of the peripheral vascular NTS(1) receptors.

  20. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  1. Outdoor fitness routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your own backyard, local playground, or park. Benefits of Outdoor Exercise Exercising outside can offer many ... a group. Look for fitness classes, such as yoga, tai chi, or aerobics, offered outside in local ...

  2. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 -- Exercise for Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- Nutrition 2011 -- Winter Health 2010 -- Healthy Aging 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause ...

  3. Fitting Galaxies on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2011-07-01

    Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With ever-growing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementation of the model fitting procedure using freely-available GPU libraries. Early results suggest a speed-up of around 10× over a CPU implementation. We discuss the opportunities such a speed-up could provide, including the ability to use more computationally expensive but better-performing fitting routines to increase the quality and robustness of fits.

  4. The effect of a multi-component camp-based weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many weight-loss programs in children are performed without specific foci on training both physical fitness and motor skills. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of a one-year weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness. METHODS: Participants...... included 115 overweight fifth-grade children (12.0 years) randomized into either a Day-Camp Intervention Arm (DCIA), with a subsequent family-based support program or a low-intense Standard Intervention Arm (SIA). Physical fitness was assessed by vertical jump, hand grip strength, and a progressive cardio...... the DCIA compared to the SIA. Contrary to the expected, children from the SIA improved aiming and catching skills relative to the DCIA children. Overall z-scores of the physical fitness components and cardio-respiratory fitness improved more in children from the DCIA compared to children from the SIA...

  5. Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Search ...

  6. The Association of Weight Status with Physical Fitness among Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Methods. A total of 6929 children aged 6–12 years were selected from 15 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in eastern China. The height and fasting body weight were measured. The age-, sex-specific BMI WHO criteria was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Physical fitness parameters including standing broad jump, 50 m sprint, and 50 m∗8 shuttle run were tested. Results. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 3.1%, 14.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls, and the older children performed better than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness tests. No significant difference in all three physical fitness tests were found between children with underweight and with normal weight, and they both performed better than their counterparts with overweight and obese in all three physical fitness tests. The likelihood of achieving good performance was much lower among overweight and obese children in comparison with their counterparts with normal weight (OR=0.13–0.54. Conclusions. An inverse association of obesity with cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle explosive strength, and speed was identified among Chinese children.

  7. Hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis and sympatho-adrenal medullary system responses to psychological stress were not attenuated in women with elevated physical fitness levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Lambert, Gavin W; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Eikelis, Nina; Turner, Anne I

    2016-02-01

    It is not clear if higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and sympatho-adrenal medullary (SAM) system reactivity to psychological stress in women. The association between cardio-metabolic risk markers and acute physiological responses to psychological stress in women who differ in their cardiorespiratory fitness status has also not been investigated. Women with high (n = 22) and low (n = 22) levels of fitness aged 30-50 years (in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) were subjected to a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at 1500 h. Plasma concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline (Adr), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA) were measured in samples collected every 7-15 min from 1400 to 1700 h. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured at the same time points. Low-fit women had elevated serum triglyceride, cholesterol/HDL ratio, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR levels compared with high-fit women. While cortisol, Adr, NA, HR, and blood pressure all demonstrated a significant response to the TSST, the responses of these variables did not differ significantly between high- and low-fit women in response to the TSST. Dopamine reactivity was significantly higher in the low-fit women compared with high-fit women. There was also a significant negative correlation between VO2 max and DA reactivity. These findings suggest that, for low-fit women aged 30-50 years, the response of HPA axis and SAM system to a potent acute psychological stressor is not compromised compared to that in high-fit women.

  8. Skeletal stem cells in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-15

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration.

  9. [Somatotype-dependent cardiorespiratory system adaption in children and adolsescents in the north-east of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosh, O P; Sokolov, A Ia

    2006-01-01

    The authors have revealed the tension of cardiovascular performance in 11-14-year-old children and adolescents with the macrosomatotype (MaS) and a lower bronchial patency in 13-14-year-old adolescents in the winter-spring period. This points to the decreased reserves of the cardiorespiratory system in the teenagers with MaS during their adaptation the environment of the north-east of Russia.

  10. Lack of Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms with Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Variables in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Hirata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association of estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1 polymorphisms with cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters in young women. In total, 354 healthy women were selected for cardiopulmonary exercise testing and short-term heart rate (HR variability (HRV evaluation. The HRV analysis was determined by the temporal indices rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive R–R intervals (RRi divided by the number of RRi minus one, SDNN (root mean square of differences from mean RRi, divided by the number of RRi and power spectrum components by low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF and LF/HF ratio. Blood samples were obtained for serum lipids, estradiol and DNA extraction. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR and fragment restriction analysis. HR and oxygen uptake (VO2 values did not differ between the ESR1 polymorphisms with respect to autonomic modulation. We not find a relationship between ESR1 T–A, T–G, C–A and C–G haplotypes and cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that VO2, total cholesterol and triglycerides influence HRV (p < 0.05. The results suggest that ESR1 variants have no effect on cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables, while HRV indices are influenced by aerobic capacity and lipids in healthy women.

  11. Excitatory amino acid transporters tonically restrain nTS synaptic and neuronal activity to modulate cardiorespiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matott, Michael P; Ruyle, Brian C; Hasser, Eileen M; Kline, David D

    2016-03-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) is the initial central termination site for visceral afferents and is important for modulation and integration of multiple reflexes including cardiorespiratory reflexes. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the nTS and is removed from the extracellular milieu by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of EAATs in the nTS on basal synaptic and neuronal function and cardiorespiratory regulation. The majority of glutamate clearance in the central nervous system is believed to be mediated by astrocytic EAAT 1 and 2. We confirmed the presence of EAAT 1 and 2 within the nTS and their colocalization with astrocytic markers. EAAT blockade withdl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) produced a concentration-related depolarization, increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency, and enhanced action potential discharge in nTS neurons. Solitary tract-evoked EPSCs were significantly reduced by EAAT blockade. Microinjection of TBOA into the nTS of anesthetized rats induced apneic, sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic responses. These effects mimicked the response to microinjection of exogenous glutamate, and glutamate responses were enhanced by EAAT blockade. Together these data indicate that EAATs tonically restrain nTS excitability to modulate cardiorespiratory function.

  12. Alternative Astronomical FITS imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Varsaki, Eleni E; Fotopoulos, Vassilis; Skodras, Athanassios N

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical radio maps are presented mainly in FITS format. Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) uses a set of tables attached to the output map to include all sorts of information concerning the production of the image. However this information together with information on the flux and noise of the map is lost as soon as the image of the radio source in fits or other format is extracted from AIPS. This information would have been valuable to another astronomer who just uses NED, for example, to download the map. In the current work, we show a method of data hiding inside the radio map, which can be preserved under transformations, even for example while the format of the map is changed from fits to other lossless available image formats.

  13. Fitting Galaxies on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Barsdell, Benjamin R; Fluke, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With evergrowing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementa...

  14. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  15. Differences in muscle strength after ACL reconstruction do not influence cardiorespiratory responses to isometabolic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília S. Andrade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate whether the muscle strength decrease that follows anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction would lead to different cardiorespiratory adjustments during dynamic exercise. Method: Eighteen active male subjects were submitted to isokinetic evaluation of knee flexor and extensor muscles four months after ACL surgery. Thigh circumference was also measured and an incremental unilateral cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed separately for both involved and uninvolved lower limbs in order to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, and ventilatory pattern (breath rate, tidal volume, inspiratory time, expiratory time, tidal volume/inspiratory time at three different workloads (moderate, anaerobic threshold, and maximal. Results: There was a significant difference between isokinetic extensor peak torque measured in the involved (116.5±29.1 Nm and uninvolved (220.8±40.4 Nm limbs, p=0.000. Isokinetic flexor peak torque was also lower in the involved limb than in the uninvolved limb (107.8±15.4 and 132.5±26.3 Nm, p=0.004, respectively. Lower values were also found in involved thigh circumference as compared with uninvolved limb (46.9±4.3 and 48.5±3.9 cm, p=0.005, respectively. No differences were found between the lower limbs in any of the variables of the incremental cardiopulmonary tests at all exercise intensities. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that, four months after ACL surgery, there is a significant deficit in isokinetic strength in the involved limb, but these differences in muscle strength requirement do not produce differences in the cardiorespiratory adjustments to exercise. Based on the hypotheses from the literature which explain the differences in the physiological responses to exercise for different muscle masses, we can deduce that, after 4 months of a rehabilitation program after an ACL reconstruction, individuals probably do not present differences in muscle oxidative and

  16. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.;

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite H...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  17. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  18. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  19. The efficacy of two task-orientated interventions for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: Neuromotor Task Training and Nintendo Wii Fit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, G D; Jelsma, D; Jelsma, J; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2013-09-01

    Neuromotor Task Training (NTT) and Nintendo Wii Fit Training (Wii training) are both task-based interventions used to improve performance in children with motor coordination problems. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two interventions on the motor performance, isometric strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (aerobic and anaerobic capacity) of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) attending mainstream schools in a low-income setting. A pragmatic, quasi-experimental study design was utilized. Children between the ages of 6-10 years, who scored at or below the 16th percentile on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) and whose teacher reported a functional motor problem, were allocated to either NTT (n=37) or Wii training (n=19) groups depending on school of attendance. The MABC-2, a hand-held dynamometer, the Functional Strength Measure, the Muscle Power Sprint Test and the 20m Shuttle Run Test were used to assess performance at baseline and after the intervention. The main findings show that the mean motor performance scores of both groups improved over the study period. However, significant differences in improvement were detected between groups, with the NTT group showing greater improvement in motor performance, functional strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. No improvements in isometric strength were seen in either group. The Wii training group showed significant improvement in anaerobic performance. This study provides evidence to support the use of both the Wii Training and NTT for children with DCD. However, in comparison to Wii training, the NTT approach yields superior results across measures of motor proficiency, cardiorespiratory fitness and functional strength. The decision to use either approach may be influenced by resources and time constraints.

  20. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Donaldson, Gavin; Hassi, Juhani; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among vulnerable groups is not well known. We therefore estimated the prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among the Finnish population and their associations with social and individual vulnerability factors. The data came from the National FINRISK 2007 Study, in which 4007 men and women aged 25-74 answered questions on heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the Oulu Cold and Heat Questionnaire 2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and model-predicted prevalence figures. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms was 12 %. It increased with age, from 3 % at the age of 25 years to 28 % at the age of 75 years. The symptoms were associated with pre-existing lung (OR 3.93; CI 3.01-5.13) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.27; 1.78-2.89); being a pensioner (OR 2.91; 1.65-5.28), unemployed (OR 2.82; 1.47-5.48), or working in agriculture (OR 2.27; 1.14-4.46) compared with working in industry; having only basic vs academic education (OR 1.98; 1.31-3.05); being female (OR 1.94; 1.51-2.50); being heavy vs light alcohol consumer (OR 1.89; 1.02-3.32); undertaking hard vs light physical work (OR 1.48;1.06-2.07); and being inactive vs active in leisure time (OR 1.97; 1.39-2.81). The adjusted prevalence of symptoms showed a wide range of variation, from 3 to 61 % depending on sex, age, professional field, education, and pre-existing lung and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms are commonly perceived among people with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular disease, agricultural workers, unemployed, pensioners, and people having only basic education. This information is needed for any planning and targeting measures to reduce the burden of summer heat.

  1. Fit for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  2. Water Fit to Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  3. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  4. Fitting a Gompertz curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a simple Gompertz curve-fitting procedure is proposed. Its advantages include the facts that the stability of the saturation level over the sample period can be checked, and that no knowledge of its value is necessary for forecasting. An application to forecasting the stoc

  5. Fit for work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorholt, Grete

    "Fit for work - Attraktiv sundhed og sikkerhed på en hospitalsafdeling i Region Hovedstaden" undersøger hvorledes sundhedsvæsenets forandringer påvirker medarbejdere, ledere og organisation. Udgangspunktet for afhandlingen er en interesse for psykisk arbejdsmiljø, og hvordan reformerne i kølvandet...

  6. Finding What Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  7. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, A; Muca, F; Spahi, A; Qefalia, D; Ushtelenca, K; Kasa, A; Caporossi, D; Gallotta, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG intervention programmes were taught by professional PE teachers using station/circuit teaching framework while CG referred to traditional PE school lessons by a general teacher. All programmes ran in parallel and lasted 5 months, having the same frequency (twice weekly) and duration (45 min). Heart rate (HR) monitoring showed that intensity during PE lessons was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with control (P games programmes significantly improved several health- and skill-related fitness indicators compared with traditional PE lessons (e.g. gross motor skill summary score: 9.4 (95% CI 7.9; 10.9) for exercise vs. control and 6.5 (95% CI 5.1; 8.1) for games vs. control, cardiorespiratory fitness: 2.0 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.5; 2.4) for exercise vs. control and 1.4 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.0; 1.8) for games vs. control). Furthermore, compared to games-based PE, exercise-based PE showed more positive changes in some gross motor coordination skills outcomes, coordination skills outcomes and cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from this study show that exercise- and games-based PE represents a useful strategy for improving health- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in improving gross motor function

  8. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  9. Aerobic capacity and its relationship with parameters of health-related fitness in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rosa Guillamón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic capacity and other parameters determining fitness in primary school. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, 298 schoolchildren (139 males and 159 females aged 8-12. Body composition (weight and height and physical fitness (capacity, motor aerobic and musculoskeletal was assessed by ALPHA-Fitness battery. Aerobic capacity and body mass index (under/normal-weight and overweight/obesity were categorized using standard criteria. The variable motor / muscle overall capacity was calculated, and the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max was indirectly estimated.  Results: The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA found that men have better values in the test 4x10m (p <0.001, longitudinal jump (p <0.001, Course-Navette (p <0.001 and in VO2max (p <0.001. The ANOVA test showed that schoolchildren with better aerobic capacity have lower weight and body mass index (p <0.001 for both, better performance in the test longitudinal jump (p <0.001 and better overall motor / muscle capacity, and increased VO2max (p <0.001 for both. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that schoolchildren with healthy cardiorespiratory fitness had better physical fitness and are more likely to have healthy anthropometric parameters.

  10. Effects of exercise intervention on the functional fitness of community elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tsui-Er

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the effects of the 12-week exercise intervention on the functional fitness of community elderly. Total 25 community elderly aged above 65 are proceeded functional fitness tests. The data are analyzed with Descriptive Statistics. The results show that the male elderly significantly enhance the upper limb strength (musculus biceps brachii left arm curling, musculus biceps brachii right arm curling, static balance (open-eye single leg standing, and agility and dynamic balance (chair stand detour and the female elderly make remarkable progress on the upper limb strength (musculus biceps brachii left arm curling, musculus biceps brachii right arm curling, cardiorespiratory endurance (high knees in place, static balance (open-eye single leg standing, and agility and dynamic balance (chair stand detour after the 12-week regular exercise intervention. With functional fitness tests, the research findings reveal that regular exercise presents the effectiveness on distinct physical fitness of community elderly, while the aerobic endurance and upper/lower body flexibility still require improvement. Apparently, it is suggested to practice courses with stages and match fitness test results to adjust types of exercise and exercise intensity in order to achieve the effect.

  11. Health-related physical fitness children with severe and moderate developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Roseane O; Ferreira, Lúcio F; Goulardins, Juliana B; Freudenheim, Andrea M; Marques, Juliana C Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo B; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2013-11-01

    The present study aims to examine physical fitness among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with varying degrees of severity (moderate and severe - mDCD, sDCD), and a group of children without DCD (wDCD), in the city of Manaus, Brazil. Initially, 180 children aged 6-10 years old participated in this study. After being diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR, 63 children were then divided into three groups (21 in each group). Health-related physical fitness was measured by means of the Fitnessgram, which included several core components, namely, body composition, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory resistance. The results showed no statistically significant differences between both groups in any of the assessed components. However, when analyzing the results of each component according to the criteria of the Fitnessgram, we observed that, regardless of the classification group, less than half of the children achieved scores that, according to the motor tests, would classify them as having a healthy fitness. Children with sDCD, mDCD and wDCD presented similar levels of health-related physical fitness, with an unsatisfactory performance for the component strength and muscular endurance. We therefore emphasize the importance of further research in this area, more particularly when it comes to following the development of motor skills and physical fitness in children with DCD, as well as the observation of the interactions between these variables over time.

  12. Physical activity and bone health in schoolchildren: the mediating role of fitness and body fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Torres-Costoso

    Full Text Available The relationship between physical activity (PA and bone health is well known, although the role of percent body fat (%BF and fitness as confounders or mediators in this relationship remains uncertain.To examine whether the association between PA and bone mineral content (BMC is mediated by %BF and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF.In this cross sectional study, BMC, total %BF (by DXA, vigorous PA (VPA, CRF, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8-11 years. ANCOVA was used to test differences in BMC by %BF, CRF and VPA, controlling for different sets of confounders. Simple mediation analyses and serial multiple mediation analyses were fitted to examine whether the relationship between PA and BMC is mediated by %BF and fitness.Children with high %BF had higher total body BMC than their peers after controlling for all sets of confounders. Children with good CRF or VPA had significantly less total body BMC after controlling for age and sex but in children with good CRF this inverse relation disappeared after adjusting by %BF. %BF and CRF both act as a full mediator in the association between VPA and BMC, after inclusion of the potential confounders in the models.Fitness and %BF seem to have a mediator role on the relationship between physical activity and bone mass.

  13. [Mobility of cardiorespiratory system under conditions of tiredness in cycling sprinters and stayers of identical qualification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhikvishvili, M A; Iashvili, G M; Kobelashvili, D A; Chkhartishvili, M N; Pataraia, M P

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this research work was to determine and to compare the dynamics indices of the mobility function of the cardiorespiratory system (CRS) under different conditions of functioning of the cyclist's organism. The indices of mobility of the CRS functioning at various levels of organism functioning were determined and compared on 24 cyclists- sprinters and stayers in each period of annual cycle (at the end of the transition and comparative periods and at the middle of the competition period). It has been revealed that mobility of the CRS functioning straight away after the limbering-up in the initial stage of physical loading is developed in sprinters more than in stayers. Under conditions of light tiredness especially with increasing of sporting form these differences are leveling. Mobility of the CRS functioning in the process of rehabilitation is developed in stayers in greater degree than in sprinters. After loading under conditions of light tiredness the differences in the indices characterizing mobility of the CRS functioning in the period of rehabilitation with the sporting form growth increase.

  14. Ballet dancers cardiorespiratory, oxidative and muscle damage responses to classes and rehearsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Cunha, Giovani Dos Santos; Perin, Diana; Martins, Jocelito B; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Schaun, Maximiliano I; De Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe and compare ballet dancers' cardiorespiratory responses, muscle damage and oxidative stress levels during a ballet class (practice of isolated ballet exercises performed with barre/hand-rail support and across-the-floor movements to improve technical skills) and rehearsal (practice of ballet choreography involving technical-artistic skills to improve dancers' performance for shows). The 12 advanced female ballet dancers undertook three exercise sessions: maximum effort test, class and rehearsal. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were continuously measured. Lactate was determined before 15 min and after class and rehearsal. Blood was sampled pre, post and 48 h after class and rehearsal for creatine kinase (CK), lipid peroxides (LPO) and glutathione analysis (GSSG/GSH). Class was of lower intensity than rehearsal as shown by VO2, HR and lactate values: VO2 (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)): 14.5±2.1 vs. 19.1±1.7 (p Ballet dancers' muscle damage and oxidative stress responses seem not to be dependent on exercise intensity based on VO2 responses.

  15. Opioid microinjection into raphe magnus modulates cardiorespiratory function in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Kevin M; Mendelson, Scott J; Mendez-Duarte, Marco A; Russell, James L; Mason, Peggy

    2009-11-01

    The raphe magnus (RM) participates in opioid analgesia and contains pain-modulatory neurons with respiration-related discharge. Here, we asked whether RM contributes to respiratory depression, the most prevalent lethal effect of opioids. To investigate whether opioidergic transmission in RM produces respiratory depression, we microinjected a mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, or morphine into the RM of awake rodents. In mice, opioid microinjection produced sustained decreases in respiratory rate (170 to 120 breaths/min), as well as heart rate (520 to 400 beats/min). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, indicative of enhanced parasympathetic activity, was prevalent in mice receiving DAMGO microinjection. We performed similar experiments in rats but observed no changes in breathing rate or heart rate. Both rats and mice experienced significantly more episodes of bradypnea, indicative of impaired respiratory drive, after opioid microinjection. During spontaneous arousals, rats showed less tachycardia after opioid microinjection than before microinjection, suggestive of an attenuated sympathetic tone. Thus, activation of opioidergic signaling within RM produces effects beyond analgesia, including the unwanted destabilization of cardiorespiratory function. These adverse effects on homeostasis consequent to opioid microinjection imply a role for RM in regulating the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone.

  16. Currents issues in cardiorespiratory care of patients with post-polio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Post-polio syndrome (PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk. Method A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles were considered. Results and Discussion Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia. Conclusion Only when evaluated and treated promptly, somE patients can obtain the full benefits of the use of respiratory muscles aids as far as quality of life is concerned.

  17. Large hiatal hernia at chest radiography in a woman with cardiorespiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Daniele; Parrinello, Gaspare; Cardillo, Mauro; Pomilla, Marina; Trapanese, Caterina; Michele, Bellanca; Lupo, Umberto; Schimmenti, Caterina; Cuttitta, Francesco; Pietrantoni, Rossella; Vogiatzis, Danai; Licata, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Hiatal hernia (HH) is a frequent entity. Rarely, it may exert a wide spectrum of clinical presentations mimicking acute cardiovascular events such as angina-like chest pain until manifestations of cardiac compression that can include postprandial syncope, exercise intolerance, respiratory function, recurrent acute heart failure, and hemodynamic collapse. A 69-year-old woman presented to the emergency department complaining of fatigue on exertion, cough, and episodes of restrosternal pain with less than 1 hour of duration. Her medical history only included some episodes of bronchitis and no history of hypertension. The 12-lead electrocardiogram demonstrated sinus rhythm with right bundle-branch block. Laboratory tests, including cardiac troponin I, were within normal reference values. Chest radiography showed no significant pulmonary alterations and revealed in mediastinum a huge abnormal shadow overlapping the right heart compatible with a gastric bubble.The gastroscopy confirmed a large HH. A 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram, using all standard and modified apical and parasternal views, revealed an echolucent mass, compatible with HH, compressing the right atrium. Also, it showed an altered left ventricular relaxation and a mild increase of pulmonary artery pressure (35 mm Hg). Spirometry showed a mild obstruction of the small airways, whereas coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries. We concluded that the patient's symptomatology was related to the compressive effects of the large hiatal ernia, a neglected cause of cardiorespiratory symptoms. The surgical repair of HH was indicated.

  18. Information Decomposition in Bivariate Systems: Theory and Application to Cardiorespiratory Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Faes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of information dynamics, the temporal evolution of coupled systems can be studied by decomposing the predictive information about an assigned target system into amounts quantifying the information stored inside the system and the information transferred to it. While information storage and transfer are computed through the known self-entropy (SE and transfer entropy (TE, an alternative decomposition evidences the so-called cross entropy (CE and conditional SE (cSE, quantifying the cross information and internal information of the target system, respectively. This study presents a thorough evaluation of SE, TE, CE and cSE as quantities related to the causal statistical structure of coupled dynamic processes. First, we investigate the theoretical properties of these measures, providing the conditions for their existence and assessing the meaning of the information theoretic quantity that each of them reflects. Then, we present an approach for the exact computation of information dynamics based on the linear Gaussian approximation, and exploit this approach to characterize the behavior of SE, TE, CE and cSE in benchmark systems with known dynamics. Finally, we exploit these measures to study cardiorespiratory dynamics measured from healthy subjects during head-up tilt and paced breathing protocols. Our main result is that the combined evaluation of the measures of information dynamics allows to infer the causal effects associated with the observed dynamics and to interpret the alteration of these effects with changing experimental conditions.

  19. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  20. Fitting manifold surfaces to three-dimensional point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Cindy M; Crisco, Joseph J; Laidlaw, David H

    2002-02-01

    We present a technique for fitting a smooth, locally parameterized surface model (called the manifold surface model) to unevenly scattered data describing an anatomical structure. These data are acquired from medical imaging modalities such as CT scans or MRI. The manifold surface is useful for problems which require analyzable or parametric surfaces fitted to data acquired from surfaces of arbitrary topology (e.g., entire bones). This surface modeling work is part of a larger project to model and analyze skeletal joints, in particular the complex of small bones within the wrist and hand. To demonstrate the suitability of this model we fit to several different bones in the hand, and to the same bone from multiple people.

  1. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  2. Cardiorespiratory response to physical exercise and psychological variables in panic disorder A resposta cardiorrespiratória ao exercício e variáveis psicológicas no transtorno do pânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Caldirola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible influence of psychological variables on cardiorespiratory responses and perceived exertion of patients with Panic Disorder (PD during a submaximal exercise test. METHOD: Ten outpatients with PD and 10 matched healthy subjects walked up on a treadmill slope at a speed of 4 km/h in order to reach 65% of their maximum heart rate. Cardiorespiratory variables were continuously recorded. Before the exercise, the state and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, fear of physical sensations (Body Sensation Questionnaire scores, and fear of autonomic arousal (Anxiety Sensitivity Index scores were assessed; during the exercise, levels of anxiety (VAS-A and exertion (Borg Scale CR 10 were measured. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients reached earlier the target HR and the ventilatory threshold, showed lower oxygen consumption, higher HR and lower within-subject standard deviations of HR (a measure of cardiac variability. Exertion was also higher, and there was a significant correlation between breathing frequency, tidal volume and HR. No significant associations were found between cardiorespiratory response, perceived exertion, and psychological variables in patients with PD. CONCLUSION: Although patients with PD presented poor cardiorespiratory fitness and were required to spend more effort during physical exercise, this did not appear to be related to the psychological variables considered. Further studies with larger groups are warranted.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possível influência de variáveis psicológicas na resposta cardiorrespiratória e percepção de esforço dos pacientes com Transtorno do Pânico (TP durante exercício físico de intensidade submáxima. MÉTODO: Dez pacientes ambulatoriais com TP e dez controles saudáveis foram submetidos a uma caminhada na velocidade de 4 km/h em uma rampa inclinada. A inclinação da rampa foi aumentada até que fosse atingida 65% da frequência card

  3. Return to fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinubile, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The cornerstone of personal health is prevention. The concept of exercise as medicine is a lesson I have preached throughout my career, both with my patients in my private practice as well as through my years working with athletes at all levels including the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Pennsylvania Ballet. It is also a message I relayed as a Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) during the first Bush administration, working closely with my old friend-and fitness advocate and visionary himself-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served as Chairman to the PCPFS. Arnold's impact on our nation's health was an extremely positive one that was felt in communities from coast-to-coast. Exercise, activity, and prevention were key components of his prescription for change and improved health for our country. He has also always personally inspired me to see my role as a physician and "healer" in a much broader context.

  4. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  5. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  6. BESⅢ track fitting algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Ke; MAO Ze-Pu; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HE Kang-Lin; HE Miao; HUA Chun-Fei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JI Xiao-Sin; LI Fei; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIANG Yu-Tie; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Suo; LIU Ying-Jie; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MO Xiao-Hu; PAN Ming-Hua; PANG Cai-Ying; PING Rong-Gang; QIN Ya-Hong; QIU Jin-Fa; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; XU Min; YAN Liang; YOU Zheng-Yun; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Bing-Yun; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Ke-Jun; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZHU Zhi-Li; ZOU Jia-Heng

    2009-01-01

    A track fitting algorithm based on the Kalman filter method has been developed for BESⅢ of BEPCⅡ.The effects of multiple scattering and energy loss when the charged particles go through the detector,non-uniformity of magnetic field (NUMF) and wire sag, etc., have been carefully handled.This algorithm works well and the performance satisfies the physical requirements tested by the simulation data.

  7. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal myogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Saccone, Valentina; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    During embryogenesis a timely and coordinated expression of different subsets of genes drives the formation of skeletal muscles in response to developmental cues. In this review, we will summarize the most recent advances on the “epigenetic network” that promotes the transcription of selective groups of genes in muscle progenitors, through the concerted action of chromatin-associated complexes that modify histone tails and microRNAs (miRNAs). These epigenetic players cooperate to establish fo...

  8. Made to fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerck, Mari; Klepp, Ingun Grimstad; Skoland, Eli

    Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter for handikapp......Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter...... for handikappede. Herunder potensialet for å utvikle spesialtilpassede klær i konseptet «Made to Fit», utprøving av metoder og identifisering av kunnskapsstatus på feltet. Rapporten er således delt inn i tre hoveddeler. Første delen bygger videre på prosjektnotatet til Vestvik, Hebrok og Klepp (2013) fra...

  9. Skeletal muscle microvascular function in girls with Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah L.; O'Gorman, Clodagh S.; Elzibak, Alyaa H.; Caterini, Jessica; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Rayner, Tammy; Hamilton, Jill; Wells, Greg D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is prevalent in individuals with Turner Syndrome (TS). We recently demonstrated that girls with TS have normal aerobic but altered skeletal muscle anaerobic metabolism compared to healthy controls (HC). The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral skeletal muscle microvascular function in girls with TS to HC after exercise. We hypothesized that girls with TS would have similar muscle blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal responses during recovery from exercise compared to HC. Methods Thirteen TS participants and 8 HC completed testing. BOLD MRI was used to measure skeletal muscle microvascular response during 60 second recovery, following 60 s of exercise at 65% of maximal workload. Exercise and recovery were repeated four times, and the BOLD signal time course was fit to a four-parameter sigmoid function. Results Participants were 13.7 ± 3.1 years old and weighed 47.9 ± 14.6 kg. The mean change in BOLD signal intensity following exercise at the end of recovery, the mean response time of the function/the washout of deoxyhemoglobin, and the mean half-time of recovery were similar between the TS and HC groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that compared to HC, peripheral skeletal muscle microvascular function following exercise in girls with TS is not impaired. General significance This study supports the idea that the aerobic energy pathway is not impaired in children with TS in response to submaximal exercise. Other mechanisms are likely responsible for exercise intolerance in TS; this needs to be further investigated. PMID:26676172

  10. Fitness tests and occupational tasks of military interest: a systematic review of correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; DeGroot, David W; Hall, Shane M; Grier, Tyson L; Deaver, Karen D; Hauret, Keith G; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-02-01

    : Physically demanding occupations (ie, military, firefighter, law enforcement) often use fitness tests for job selection or retention. Despite numerous individual studies, the relationship of these tests to job performance is not always clear. : This review examined the relationship by aggregating previously reported correlations between different fitness tests and common occupational tasks. : Search criteria were applied to PUBMED, EBSCO, EMBASE and military sources; scoring yielded 27 original studies providing 533 Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between fitness tests and 12 common physical job task categories. Fitness tests were grouped into predominant health-related fitness components and body regions: cardiorespiratory endurance (CRe); upper body, lower body and trunk muscular strength and muscular endurance (UBs, LBs, TRs, UBe, LBe, TRe) and flexibility (FLX). Meta-analyses provided pooled r's between each fitness component and task category. : The CRe tests had the strongest pooled correlations with most tasks (eight pooled r values 0.80-0.52). Next were LBs (six pooled r values >0.50) and UBe (four pooled r values >0.50). UBs and LBe correlated strongly to three tasks. TRs, TRe and FLX did not strongly correlate to tasks. : Employers can maximise the relevancy of assessing workforce health by using fitness tests with strong correlations between fitness components and job performance, especially those that are also indicators for injury risk. Potentially useful field-expedient tests include timed-runs (CRe), jump tests (LBs) and push-ups (UBe). Impacts of gender and physiological characteristics (eg, lean body mass) should be considered in future study and when implementing tests.

  11. A multilevel analysis of health-related physical fitness. The Portuguese sibling study on growth, fitness, lifestyle and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sara; Todd Katzmarzyk, Peter; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Souza, Michele; Chaves, Raquel Nichele; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Santos, Daniel; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates biological, behavioural and sociodemographic correlates of intra-pair similarities, and estimates sibling resemblance in health-related physical fitness (PF). The sample comprises 1101 biological siblings (525 females) aged 9–20 years. PF components and markers were: morphological [waist circumference (WC) and %body fat (%BF)], muscular [handgrip strength (GS) and standing long jump (SLJ)], motor [50-yard dash (50YD) and shuttle run (SR)], and cardiorespiratory (1-mile run). Biological maturation was assessed; physical activity (PA), TV viewing and socioeconomic status (SES) information was obtained. On average, older and more mature subjects are better performers in all PF components; PA was negatively associated with SR, while SES was negatively associated with SLJ and SR. A pattern was observed in the intraclass correlations (ρ) wherein same sex siblings demonstrate greater resemblance for most PF components (sister-sister: 0.35≤ ρ≤0.55; brother-brother: (0.25≤ρ≤0.60) than brother-sister pairs (BS) (0≤ρ≤0.15), except for %BF (ρBB>ρSS>ρBS), and the 1-mile run (ρSS>ρBS>ρBB). In conclusion, behavioural and sociodemographic correlates play different roles in siblings PF expression. Further, a significant familial PF resemblance was observed with different trends in different sibling types, probably due to variations in shared genetic factors and sociodemographic conditions. PMID:28187195

  12. Effectiveness of a cross-circuit exercise training program in improving the fitness of overweight or obese adolescents with intellectual disability enrolled in special education schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Yang, Yu-Fen; Chu, I-Hua; Hsu, Hsiu-Tao; Tsai, Feng-Hua; Liang, Jing-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a cross-circuit training intervention program on the body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, and muscular strength endurance of overweight or obese students with intellectual disability. A total of 43 students with intellectual disability (aged 13-19 years) were enrolled in this program; 28 overweight/obese students were assigned to either an obesity-control group (n=14) or obesity-exercise group (n=14), and those with normal weight were assigned to a normal weight group (n=15). The experiment was divided into three periods: pretest (involving the three groups), exercise intervention (involving only the obesity-exercise group), and post-test (involving the obesity-exercise and obesity-control groups). The test involved measuring the body composition, 1-min sit-ups, dynamic and static balance, vertical jumps, and modified Bruce treadmill protocols for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness. The exercise program involving the cross-circuit training concept was conducted nonstop with different types of exercise activities. The training program lasted 12 weeks, and it was executed 5days a week, with each daily session lasting 50min. The results revealed that the obesity-exercise group demonstrated reduced weight, BMI, and fat mass after the intervention program. Moreover, the exercise tolerance test (including total exercise time and maximal heart rate), dynamic balance, sit-up, and vertical jump performance of the participants improved significantly. In conclusion, the cross-circuit training program effectively improved cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance, muscular strength and endurance, and weight control in overweight or obese students with intellectual disability enrolled in a special education school.

  13. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  14. The effect of physical fitness and physical exercise training on work productivity among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    diseases and improve work productivity (WP) mediated by physiological variables such as BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The aim of this paper was to examine 1) the relationship between WP and the physiological variables BMI, CRF, and MVC in a cross...... maximal exercise test, and MVC was measured during arm abduction, shoulder elevation, back flexion and extension using a Bofors dynamometer. Partial correlation as well as one-way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD post-hoc testing was used for analyses. Results Cross-sectional analyses at baseline...... inverse relationship between change in WP and change in BMI (r = -.33, p = .004) was found. No corresponding relationships were found between WP and CRF or strength in arm abduction and shoulder elevation. Discussion The present study is the first to examine the relationship between WP and MVC, as well...

  15. Aerobic fitness and cognitive function in midlife: an association mediated by plasma insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Takashi; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Fallow, Bennett; Nualnim, Nantinee; Lee, Jeongseok; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance in midlife increases the risk of dementia in late-life. In contrast, habitual aerobic exercise is an established strategy to ameliorate insulin resistance which may translate into better cognitive outcome. To determine the role of plasma insulin in mediating the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function, fifty-eight adults completed assessments of plasma insulin levels, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and neuropsychological test performance. Endurance-trained subjects demonstrated better cognitive outcome (total composite z-score: 0.21 ± 0.08 versus -0.26 ± 0.10, P = 0.001) and lower concentrations of plasma insulin (12.6 ± 0.6 versus 21.3 ± 1.5 ulU/mL, P cognitive enhancement may be mediated, at least in part, by plasma insulin levels.

  16. Physical Inactivity And Low Fitness Deserve More Attention To Alter Cancer Risk And Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lucia, Alejandro; Yvert, Thomas; Ruiz-Casado, Ana; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lippi, Giuseppe; Bouchard, Claude; Berger, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is associated with elevated cancer risk whereas regular physical activity (PA) and high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have the opposite effect, with several biological mechanisms mediating such associations. There is a need for lifestyle interventions aimed at increasing the PA levels and CRF of the general population and particularly cancer survivors. Further, provocative data suggest a dose-dependent benefit of increasing levels of PA and/or CRF against cancer risk or mortality. Thus, current PA guidelines (≥150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA) may not be sufficiently rigorous for preventing cancer nor for extending cancer survivorship. Research targeting this issue is urgently needed. Promoting regular PA along with monitoring indicators of CRF and adiposity may provide powerful strategies to prevent cancer in populations, help cancer patients more effectively deal with their disease and enhance secondary prevention programs in those who are affected by cancer. PMID:25416409

  17. Moderate Aerobic Training Improves Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Isabela; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Padilha, Gisele A.; Marques, Patrícia S.; Magalhães, Raquel F.; Antunes, Mariana A.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Rocha, Nazareth N.; Silva, Pedro L.; Xisto, Débora G.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the therapeutic effects of aerobic training on lung mechanics, inflammation, morphometry and biological markers associated with inflammation, and endothelial cell damage, as well as cardiac function in a model of elastase-induced emphysema. Methods: Eighty-four BALB/c mice were randomly allocated to receive saline (control, C) or 0.1 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema, ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks. After the end of administration period, once cardiorespiratory impairment associated with emphysema was confirmed, each group was further randomized into sedentary (S) and trained (T) subgroups. Trained mice ran on a motorized treadmill, at moderate intensity, 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Results: Four weeks after the first instillation, ELA animals, compared to C, showed: (1) reduced static lung elastance (Est,L) and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung tissue, (2) increased elastic and collagen fiber content, dynamic elastance (E, in vitro), alveolar hyperinflation, and levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and (3) increased right ventricular diastolic area (RVA). Four weeks after aerobic training, ELA-T group, compared to ELA-S, was associated with reduced lung hyperinflation, elastic and collagen fiber content, TNF-α levels, and RVA, as well as increased Est,L, E, and levels of VEGF. Conclusion: Four weeks of regular and moderate intensity aerobic training modulated lung inflammation and remodeling, thus improving pulmonary function, and reduced RVA and pulmonary arterial hypertension in this animal model of elastase-induced emphysema. PMID:27536247

  18. Selective quantification of the cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems by multisignal analysis of cardiorespiratory variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) power spectral indexes are limited as measures of the cardiac autonomic nervous systems (CANS) in that they neither offer an effective marker of the beta-sympathetic nervous system (SNS) due to its overlap with the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in the low-frequency (LF) band nor afford specific measures of the CANS due to input contributions to HR [e.g., arterial blood pressure (ABP) and instantaneous lung volume (ILV)]. We derived new PNS and SNS indexes by multisignal analysis of cardiorespiratory variability. The basic idea was to identify the autonomically mediated transfer functions relating fluctuations in ILV to HR (ILV-->HR) and fluctuations in ABP to HR (ABP-->HR) so as to eliminate the input contributions to HR and then separate each estimated transfer function in the time domain into PNS and SNS indexes using physiological knowledge. We evaluated these indexes with respect to selective pharmacological autonomic nervous blockade in 14 humans. Our results showed that the PNS index derived from the ABP-->HR transfer function was correctly decreased after vagal and double (vagal + beta-sympathetic) blockade (P < 0.01) and did not change after beta-sympathetic blockade, whereas the SNS index derived from the same transfer function was correctly reduced after beta-sympathetic blockade in the standing posture and double blockade (P < 0.05) and remained the same after vagal blockade. However, this SNS index did not significantly decrease after beta-sympathetic blockade in the supine posture. Overall, these predictions were better than those provided by the traditional high-frequency (HF) power, LF-to-HF ratio, and normalized LF power of HR variability.

  19. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Metscher, Brian D; Poelmann, Robert E; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J; Müller, Gerd B; Richardson, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  20. Effects of sedation during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on endocrine response and cardiorespiratory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yetkin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is often accompanied by tachycardia which is known to be an important pathogenic factor in the development of myocardial ischemia. The pathogenesis of tachycardia is unknown but the condition is thought to be due to the endocrine response to endoscopy. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of sedation on the endocrine response and cardiorespiratory function. Forty patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were randomized into 2 groups. While the patients in the first group did not receive sedation during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, the patients in the second group were sedated with intravenous midazolam at the dose of 5 mg for those under 65 years or 2.5 mg for those aged 65 years or more. Midazolam was administered by slow infusion. In both groups, blood pressure, ECG tracing, heart rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 were monitored during endoscopy. In addition, blood samples for the determination of cortisol, glucose and C-reactive protein levels were obtained from patients in both groups prior to and following endoscopy. Heart rate and systolic arterial pressure changes were within normal limits in both groups. Comparison of the two groups regarding the values of these two parameters did not reveal a significant difference, while a statistically significant reduction in SpO2 was found in the sedation group. No significant differences in serum cortisol, glucose or C-reactive protein levels were observed between the sedated and non-sedated group. Sedation with midazolam did not reduce the endocrine response and the tachycardia developing during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but increased the reduction in SpO2.

  1. Heterochrony and Early Left-Right Asymmetry in the Development of the Cardiorespiratory System of Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J.; Metscher, Brian D.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J.; Müller, Gerd B.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A ‘tracheal lung’ is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution. PMID:25555231

  2. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J van Soldt

    Full Text Available Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right. A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1 fails to develop; (2 elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a or with (2b subsequent development of faveoli; (3 or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  3. Selective optogenetic activation of rostral ventrolateral medullary catecholaminergic neurons produces cardiorespiratory stimulation in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Stephen B G; DePuy, Seth D; Nguyen, Thanh; Coates, Melissa B; Stornetta, Ruth L; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2013-02-13

    Activation of rostral ventrolateral medullary catecholaminergic (RVLM-CA) neurons e.g., by hypoxia is thought to increase sympathetic outflow thereby raising blood pressure (BP). Here we test whether these neurons also regulate breathing and cardiovascular variables other than BP. Selective expression of ChR2-mCherry by RVLM-CA neurons was achieved by injecting Cre-dependent vector AAV2-EF1α-DIO-ChR2-mCherry unilaterally into the brainstem of dopamine-β-hydroxylase(Cre/0) mice. Photostimulation of RVLM-CA neurons increased breathing in anesthetized and conscious mice. In conscious mice, photostimulation primarily increased breathing frequency and this effect was fully occluded by hypoxia (10% O(2)). In contrast, the effects of photostimulation were largely unaffected by hypercapnia (3 and 6% CO(2)). The associated cardiovascular effects were complex (slight bradycardia and hypotension) and, using selective autonomic blockers, could be explained by coactivation of the sympathetic and cardiovagal outflows. ChR2-positive RVLM-CA neurons expressed VGLUT2 and their projections were mapped. Their complex cardiorespiratory effects are presumably mediated by their extensive projections to supraspinal sites such as the ventrolateral medulla, the dorsal vagal complex, the dorsolateral pons, and selected hypothalamic nuclei (dorsomedial, lateral, and paraventricular nuclei). In sum, selective optogenetic activation of RVLM-CA neurons in conscious mice revealed two important novel functions of these neurons, namely breathing stimulation and cardiovagal outflow control, effects that are attenuated or absent under anesthesia and are presumably mediated by the numerous supraspinal projections of these neurons. The results also suggest that RVLM-CA neurons may underlie some of the acute respiratory response elicited by carotid body stimulation but contribute little to the central respiratory chemoreflex.

  4. Implementation of field cardio-respiratory measurements to assess energy expenditure in Arabian endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goachet, A G; Julliand, V

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible.

  5. Moderate aerobic training improves cardiorespiratory parameters in elastase-induced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Henriques

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the therapeutic effects of aerobic training on lung mechanics, inflammation, morphometry and biological markers associated with inflammation and endothelial cell damage, as well as cardiac function in a model of elastase-induced emphysema. Methods: Eighty-four BALB/c mice were randomly allocated to receive saline (control, C or 0.1 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema, ELA intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks. After the end of administration period, once cardiorespiratory impairment associated with emphysema was confirmed, each group was further randomized into sedentary (S and trained (T subgroups. Trained mice ran on a motorized treadmill, at moderate intensity, 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Results: Four weeks after the first instillation, ELA animals, compared to C, showed: 1 reduced static lung elastance (Est,L and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in lung tissue, 2 increased elastic and collagen fiber content, dynamic elastance (E, in vitro, alveolar hyperinflation, and levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and 3 increased right ventricular diastolic area (RVA. Four weeks after aerobic training, ELA-T group, compared to ELA-S, was associated with reduced lung hyperinflation, elastic and collagen fiber content, TNF-α levels, and RVA, as well as increased Est,L, E, and levels of VEGF. Conclusion: Four weeks of regular and moderate intensity aerobic training modulated lung inflammation and remodeling, thus improving pulmonary function, and reduced RVA and pulmonary arterial hypertension in this animal model of elastase-induced emphysema.

  6. Functional mapping of the cardiorespiratory effects of dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarenga R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal (DRN and median (MRN raphe nuclei are important sources of serotonergic innervation to the forebrain, projecting to sites involved in cardiovascular regulation. These nuclei have been mapped using electrical stimulation, which has the limitation of stimulating fibers of passage. The present study maps these areas with chemical stimulation, investigating their influence on cardiorespiratory parameters. Urethane-anesthetized (1.2 g/kg, iv male Wistar rats (280-300 g were instrumented for pulsatile and mean blood pressure (MBP, heart rate, renal nerve activity, and respiratory frequency recordings. Microinjections of L-glutamate (0.18 M, 50-100 nl with 1% Pontamine Sky Blue were performed within the DRN or the MRN with glass micropipettes. At the end of the experiments the sites of microinjection were identified. The majority of sites within the MRN (86.1% and DRN (85.4% evoked pressor responses when stimulated (DRN: deltaMBP = +14.7 ± 1.2; MRN: deltaMBP = +13.6 ± 1.3 mmHg. The changes in renal nerve activity and respiratory rate caused by L-glutamate were +45 ± 11 and +42 ± 9% (DRN; P < 0.05%, +40 ± 10 and +29 ± 7% (MRN, P < 0.05, respectively. No significant changes were observed in saline-microinjected animals. This study shows that: a the blood pressure increases previously observed by electrical stimulation within the raphe are due to activation of local neurons, b this pressor effect is due to sympathoexcitation because the stimulation increased renal sympathetic activity but did not produce tachycardia, and c the stimulation of cell bodies in these nuclei also increases the respiratory rate.

  7. Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.

  8. Mutual antagonism between hypoxia-inducible factors 1α and 2α regulates oxygen sensing and cardio-respiratory homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guoxiang; Peng, Ying-Jie; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Makarenko, Vladislav V; Nanduri, Jayasri; Khan, Shakil A; Garcia, Joseph A; Kumar, Ganesh K; Semenza, Gregg L; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2013-05-07

    Breathing and blood pressure are under constant homeostatic regulation to maintain optimal oxygen delivery to the tissues. Chemosensory reflexes initiated by the carotid body and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla are the principal mechanisms for maintaining respiratory and cardiovascular homeostasis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. Here, we report that balanced activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 is critical for oxygen sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and for their control of cardio-respiratory function. In Hif2α(+/-) mice, partial HIF-2α deficiency increased levels of HIF-1α and NADPH oxidase 2, leading to an oxidized intracellular redox state, exaggerated hypoxic sensitivity, and cardio-respiratory abnormalities, which were reversed by treatment with a HIF-1α inhibitor or a superoxide anion scavenger. Conversely, in Hif1α(+/-) mice, partial HIF-1α deficiency increased levels of HIF-2α and superoxide dismutase 2, leading to a reduced intracellular redox state, blunted oxygen sensing, and impaired carotid body and ventilatory responses to chronic hypoxia, which were corrected by treatment with a HIF-2α inhibitor. None of the abnormalities observed in Hif1α(+/-) mice or Hif2α(+/-) mice were observed in Hif1α(+/-);Hif2α(+/-) mice. These observations demonstrate that redox balance, which is determined by mutual antagonism between HIF-α isoforms, establishes the set point for hypoxic sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and is required for maintenance of cardio-respiratory homeostasis.

  9. Antioxidants and skeletal muscle performance: ’Common knowledge’ vs. experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés eHernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are assumed to provide numerous benefits, including better health, a reduced rate of aging, and improved exercise performance. Specifically, antioxidants are commonly ‘prescribed’ by the media, supplement industry, and ‘fitness experts’ for individuals prior to training and performance, with assumed benefits of improved fatigue resistance and recovery. This has provoked expansion of the supplement industry which responded by creation of a plethora of products aimed at facilitating the needs of the active individual. However, what does the experimental evidence say about the efficacy of antioxidants on skeletal muscle function? Are antioxidants actually as beneficial as the general populous believes? Or, could they in fact lead to deleterious effects on skeletal muscle function and performance? This mini review addresses these questions with an unbiased look at what we know about antioxidant effects on skeletal muscle, and what we still need to know before conclusions can be made.

  10. Simultaneous 31P NMR spectroscopy and EMG in exercising and recovering human skeletal muscle: technical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Sinkjaer, T

    1994-01-01

    . A nonmagnetic ergometer was used for ankle dorsiflexions that activated only the anterior tibial muscle as verified by post exercise imaging. The coil design and the adiabatic sech/tanh pulse improved sensitivity by 45% and 56% respectively, compared with standard techniques. Simultaneous electromyographic......The bioenergetics of human skeletal muscle can be studied by 31P NMR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and by surface electromyography (SEMG). Simultaneous 31P-MRS and SEMG permit accurate and noninvasive studies of the correlation between metabolic and electrical changes in exercising and recovering human...... skeletal muscle, a relationship that is still poorly understood. This study describes the optimization of skeletal muscle 31P-MRS in a whole-body magnet, involving surface coil design, utilization of adiabatic radio frequency pulses and advanced time-domain fitting, to the technical design of SEMG...

  11. Adaptive Vertex Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Frühwirth, R; Vanlaer, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described, using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.

  12. Influência da imersão nas respostas cardiorrespiratórias em repouso Influence of immersion on resting cardiorespiratory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Lima Alberton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos benefícios nos componentes da aptidão física podem ser adquiridos com a prática de exercícios aquáticos. Além disso, a água proporciona um ambiente para a prática de exercícios com reduzido impacto nos membros inferiores e maior ou menor sobrecarga cardiorrespiratória, de acordo com os movimentos realizados. Porém, tais exercícios podem produzir respostas fisiológicas diferentes daquelas ao ar livre, visto que ocorrem alterações fisiológicas importantes durante a imersão, sendo importante a compreensão das mesmas em repouso para melhor prescrição nesse meio. O presente estudo tem como objetivo revisar estudos sobre o comportamento da frequência cardíaca e do consumo de oxigênio durante a imersão em repouso e compreender os fatores que influenciam nesse comportamento. Várias pesquisas indicam que a frequência cardíaca de repouso é reduzida com a imersão em meio aquático, porém, é importante salientar que fatores tais como temperatura da água, posição corporal, profundidade de imersão e frequência cardíaca inicial podem minimizar ou maximizar tais respostas. Os estudos que abordaram as respostas de consumo de oxigênio não são conclusivos; entretanto, ao contrário da frequência cardíaca, os mesmos indicam semelhante ou maior resposta durante a imersão em repouso. Assim, pode-se concluir que, devido às alterações cardiorrespiratórias verificadas com a imersão em ambiente aquático, a prescrição de exercícios nesse meio deve ser diferenciada daquela para exercícios em ambiente terrestre.Several benefits in the physical fitness components can be acquired with the practice of aquatic exercises. Moreover, water provides an environment for the practice of exercises with reduced impact on lower limbs and major or minor cardiorespiratory overload, depending on the movements performed. However, such exercises can produce physiological responses different from those on dry land, since important

  13. Unusual florid skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashebu, Samuel D.; Dahniya, Mohamed H.; Muhtaseb, Sayeed A.; Aduh, Prosper [Department of Radiology, Al-Adan Hospital (Kuwait)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) with advanced and unusual skeletal manifestations - a rare occurrence in developed countries nowadays. The literature is briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C.; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine. School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  15. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yang Lo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI, bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump. Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed

  16. Muscular Imbalance Correction in the Power Fitness Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E. Aftimichuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscular imbalance is one of the manifestations of pathological-biomechanical changes in muscular-skeletal system. It is the result of tonus-power imbalance of short and relaxed muscles. Muscle shortening is the most striking sign of muscular imbalance. Hypodynamia and passive lifestyle can cause such results. The paper justifies the experimental technique of women muscular imbalances correction by means of power training. Selection of exercises, weights and machines was made, taking into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the body of women of second maturity. The indexes, obtained as a result of fitness programs testing, developed within the frameworks of correctional methods.

  17. Physical Activity and Fitness of First Nations Youth in a Remote and Isolated Northern Ontario Community: A Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona; Gates, Allison; Stephen, Judy; Fehst, Andrew; Tsuji, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Among a group of First Nations youth, this research aimed to obtain objective measures of anthropometry, physical activity (PA) and fitness; to identify any group-level differences by sex, body mass index, waist circumference and body fat categories; to assess the barriers and supports to PA. Youth participated in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), PA assessment (3 days of accelerometry) and fitness testing (guided by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach). Barriers and supports were assessed via environmental scan and focus groups. Descriptive statistics were compared to reference data. Group differences by sex, BMI status, waist circumference and body fat categories were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative data were assembled into one file and coded manually for categories and themes. Seventy-two youth (12.1 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% male) participated in at least one measure; 36 completed the accelerometry. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese, 51% were abdominally obese and 21% had excess body fat. Most (86.1%) met Canada's PA guidelines. Boys were more active than girls (p = 0.025) and had greater cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.003). Overweight, obese, or abdominally obese youth had lower cardiorespiratory endurance than normal weight youth (p youth in this community are active, but not sufficiently physically fit, especially among those affected by obesity and abdominal obesity. The findings, in addition to the numerous barriers to PA, support the community's desire for school-based PA programming.

  18. Media device ownership and media use: Associations with sedentary time, physical activity and fitness in English youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Alibrahim, Mohammed; Bellamy, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ownership and use of electronic media were associated with sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) in youth. We also aimed to determine if associations were independent of physical activity (PA). Fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle-run. PA, sedentary time, ownership of media devices and media use were self-reported. Participants (n = 678, age 10-15 years) reported daily sedentary time of 620 (± 210) min. Forty-one percent of participants had low PA and 50.4% had low fitness. Higher weekend sedentary time was associated with low fitness in girls (p = 0.005) and boys (p media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and low fitness in girls. High sedentary time was more likely (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 2.0-14.4) in boys who owned game consoles. Low fitness was more likely in boys who owned digital/satellite TV receivers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.8-3.2). Schoolchildren spent > 10 h or ~ 85% of each waking day sedentary. Use of social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and with low fitness in girls. Reducing social media use in youth offers one potential target for intervention. Behaviours associated with sedentary time differed from predictors of low fitness. The complex and often sex-specific interactions identified between sedentary time, PA and fitness suggest the need for carefully targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time and improve fitness in English youth.

  19. The challenge of preserving cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive patients with colon or breast cancer during adjuvant chemotherapy: a randomised feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Christian; Andersen, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    to enter a randomised three-armed feasibility study comparing a 12-week supervised hospital-based moderate to high intensity exercise intervention or alternate an instructive home-based12-week pedometer intervention, with usual care.Results Using a recommendation based physical activity screening...... patients.Trial Registration: ISRCTN24901641...

  20. Fully non-linear hyper-viscoelastic modeling of skeletal muscle in compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Benjamin B; Pietsch, Renée B; Haut Donahue, Tammy L; Williams, Lakiesha N

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of skeletal muscle is critical to implementing computational methods to study how the body responds to compressive loading. This work presents a novel approach to studying the fully nonlinear response of skeletal muscle in compression. Porcine muscle was compressed in both the longitudinal and transverse directions under five stress relaxation steps. Each step consisted of 5% engineering strain over 1 s followed by a relaxation period until equilibrium was reached at an observed change of 1 g/min. The resulting data were analyzed to identify the peak and equilibrium stresses as well as relaxation time for all samples. Additionally, a fully nonlinear strain energy density-based Prony series constitutive model was implemented and validated with independent constant rate compressive data. A nonlinear least squares optimization approach utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was implemented to fit model behavior to experimental data. The results suggested the time-dependent material response plays a key role in the anisotropy of skeletal muscle as increasing strain showed differences in peak stress and relaxation time (p 0.05). The optimizing procedure produced a single set of hyper-viscoelastic parameters which characterized compressive muscle behavior under stress relaxation conditions. The utilized constitutive model was the first orthotropic, fully nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic model of skeletal muscle in compression while maintaining agreement with constitutive physical boundaries. The model provided an excellent fit to experimental data and agreed well with the independent validation in the transverse direction.

  1. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  2. SE-FIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  3. Sympathetic actions on the skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates several functions in skeletal muscle fibers, including metabolism, ionic transport across the membrane, and contractility. These actions, together with the sympathetic control of other organ systems, support intense motor activity. However, some SNS actions on skeletal muscles may not always be functionally advantageous. Implications for motor control and sport performance are discussed.

  4. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  5. A novel land use approach for assessment of human health: The relationship between urban structure types and cardiorespiratory disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence shows that in addition to lifestyle factors, environmental aspects are an important risk factor for human health. Numerous approaches have been used to estimate the relationship between environment and health. For example, the urban characteristics, especially the types of land use, are considered a potential proxy indicator to evaluate risk of disease. Although several studies have used land use variables to assess human health, none of them has used the concept of Urban Morphology by Urban Structure Types (USTs) as indicators of land use. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between USTs and cardiorespiratory disease risks in the Federal District, Brazil. Toward this end, we used a quantile regression model to estimate risk. We used 21 types of UST. Income and population density were used as covariates in our sensitivity analysis. Our analysis showed an association between cardiorespiratory diseases risk and 10 UST variables (1 related to rural area, 6 related to residential area, 1 recreational area, 1 public area and 1 commercial area). Our findings suggest that the conventional land use method may be missing important information about the effect of land use on human health. The use of USTs can be an approach to complement the conventional method. This should be of interest to policy makers in order to enhance public health policies and to create future strategies in terms of urban planning, land use and environmental health.

  6. Physical demands at work, physical fitness, and 30-year ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen male study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: No previous long-term prospective studies have examined if workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to high physical work demands. We tested this hypothesis. Method: We carried out a 30-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study...... risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality if exposed to high physical work demands. Ours observations suggest that, among men with high physical work demands, being physically fit protects against adverse cardiovascular effects....... of 5249 employed men aged 40-59 years. We excluded from follow-up 274 men with a history of myocardial infarction, prevalent symptoms of angina pectoris, or intermittent claudication. We estimated physical fitness [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Max)] using the Åstrand cycling test and determined physical...

  7. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured......-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake...

  8. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  9. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma......Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  10. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo M.L. Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1 coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2 coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO217.5 and 24.5 ml/kg/min. All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05. After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency.

  11. Physical fitness can partly explain the metabolically healthy obese phenotype in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelkens, F; Eijsvogels, T M H; Brussee, P; Verheggen, R J H M; Tack, C J; Hopman, M T E

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether physical fitness and/or fat distribution and inflammation profile may explain why approximately 30% of the women with obesity are protected against obesity-related disorders.10 metabolically healthy obese women and 10 age- and weight-matched women with the metabolic syndrome were enrolled. Physical fitness (VO2max), daily physical activity levels (METs, steps per day), insulin sensitivity (clamp), body fat distribution (DXA scan) and, inflammation markers and adipokines were determined.The metabolically healthy obese women had a 17% higher VO2max (25.1±3.9 vs. 21.5±3.1 ml ∙ min-1 ∙ kg-1, p=0.04) and tended to take more steps per day (7 388±1 440 vs. 5 927±1 301, p=0.06) than women with the metabolic syndrome. Despite equivalent levels of fat mass, metabolically healthy obese women had significantly lower circulating TNF-α levels compared to women with the metabolic syndrome (3.55±3.83 vs. 0.43±0.97 ng/ml, p=0.03). No differences were seen in insulin sensitivity, adipokines, and inflammatory markers between both groups.Metabolically healthy obese women have a higher cardio-respiratory fitness and lower TNF-α levels, which may partly explain why these women are protected from the detrimental effects of obesity compared to obese women with the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Physical activity and physical fitness in African-American girls with and without obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D S; Trost, S G; Felton, G; Saunders, R; Parsons, M A; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

    1997-11-01

    Lack of physical activity and low levels of physical fitness are thought to be contributing factors to the high prevalence of obesity in African-American girls. To examine this hypothesis, we compared habitual physical activity and physical fitness in 54 African-American girls with obesity and 96 African-American girls without obesity residing in rural South Carolina. Participation in vigorous (> or = 6 METs) (VPA) or moderate and vigorous physical activity (> or = 4 METs) (MVPA) was assessed on three consecutive days using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the PWC 170 cycle ergometer test. Upper body strength was determined at two sites via isometric cable tensiometer tests. Relative to their counterparts without obesity, girls with obesity reported significantly fewer 30-minute blocks of VPA (0.90 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.14) and MVPA (1.2 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.16) (p obesity demonstrated absolute scores that were similar to, or greater than, those of girls without obesity; however, when scores were expressed relative to bodyweight, girls with obesity demonstrated significantly lower values (p obesity in African-American girls.

  13. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise-induced PDH...... in arm than leg muscles during exercise in humans may be the result of lower PDH-E1? content and not a muscle type dependent difference in PDH regulation. Both low muscle glycogen and increased plasma FFA are associated with upregulation of PDK4 protein and less exercise-induced increase in PDHa activity...... in human skeletal muscle. It may be noted that the increased PDK4 protein associated with elevated plasma FFA occurs already 2 hours after different dietary intake. A week of physical inactivity (bed rest), leading to whole body glucose intolerance, does not affect muscle PDH-E1? content, or the exercise...

  14. Respostas cardio-respiratórias em pacientes com traumatismo raquimedular Cardiorespiratory responses of patients with spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rossi Paolillo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar as variáveis cardio-respiratórias (Pa, FC, VO2, VCO2 e Ve durante a Estimulação Elétrica Neuromuscular (EENM do quadríceps em portadores de lesão medular. Participaram da pesquisa dez pacientes (cinco paraplégicos e cinco tetraplégicos. O protocolo do teste consistiu em 10 minutos de repouso, 20 minutos de EENM dos quadriceps e 10 minutos de recuperação. Durante a EENM foram constatados baixos valores de VO2 e VCO2. Os paraplégicos apresentaram rápida cinética dos gases e os tetraplégicos lenta cinética dos gases. Houve o aumento da Pa sistólica e da FC. Ainda, os valores das variáveis cardio-respiratórias foram inversamente relatadas para o nível de lesão, ou seja, quanto maior o nível de lesão, menor os valores. Portanto, a maioria dos pacientes apresentaram algumas limitações nas respostas cardio-respiratórias, indicando realização de exercício exaustivo, mas apresentaram capacidade de realização de exercício induzido artificialmente, possivelmente devido aos benefícios da EENM.The objective of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses (Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, VO2, VCO2 e Ve to Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES of the quadriceps in patients with spinal cord injury. Ten patients (five paraplegics and five tetraplegics participated in this study. The protocol of the test consisted of ten minutes of rest, twenty minutes of NMES of the quadriceps and ten minutes of recovery. The findings in this study indicated that, during NMES, the patients demonstrated low levels of VO2 and VCO2 and slow gas kinetics for tetraplegic individuals, and a fast gas kinetics for paraplegic individuals. Moreover, there were increases in blood pressure and heart rate. Cardiorespiratory responses increased with descending spinal cord injury level, meaning that the more severe the lesion, the lower the values. Therefore, most of the patients presented some limitations

  15. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.; White, S.J.; Rasmussen, J.E.

    1987-08-01

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized.

  16. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....... One group (n = 13) were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF) while the other group (n = 13) where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. RESULTS: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively....... Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05) difference...

  17. Developmental origins of physical fitness: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40 and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28 higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m(2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with -0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI -0.91 to -0.24 lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF.

  18. Developmental Origins of Physical Fitness: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Forsén, Tom; Ylihärsilä, Hilkka; Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Barker, D. J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. Methods/Principal Findings This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study) includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40) and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with −0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI −0.91 to −0.24) lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. Conclusion/Significance We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF. PMID:21799817

  19. Functional state of the cardiorespiratory system of women with postmastectomy syndrome with different types of attitude to the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Briskin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the peculiarities of the functional state of cardiorespiratory system in women with postmastectomy syndrome with different types of attitude to the disease. Material and Methods: analysis of the literature and empirical data; rheography, spirography, the definition of the type of attitude to the disease of personality questionnaires of Institute of Behtereva; methods of mathematical statistics. 115 women with postmastectomy syndrome on clinical stage of rehabilitation were involved in this study. Results: in women with intra- and interpsychic types of attitude to the disease decreased reserve capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems respectively. Conclusions: It was proved that women with a rational relationship to the type of disease show significantly better results of the cardiovascular system compared to interpsychic and intrapsychic.

  20. [Comparative analysis of gas exchange and cardiorespiratory systems reactions to increasing normobaric hypoxia and physical load of swimmers and skiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshchekin, S G; Divert, V E; Mel'nikov, V N; Vodianitskiĭ, S N; Girenko, L A

    2013-01-01

    Qualification comparable groups of young men engaged in cyclic kinds of sports were tested with stepwise accruing loads on bicycle ergometer and 25-minute exponential increasing normobaric hypoxia to final concentration of 10% oxygen. Group of skiers, having the greatest values of the maximal oxygen consumption at muscular work, show the relaxed cardiorespiratory reactions and more falling of blood oxygen in the hypoxia. The swimmers, having restrictions of ventilatory function in the course of trainings, form preadaptation to hypoxia with changes of external respiration and gas exchange functions that allows at hypoxia to better oxygen sate the blood in lungs. The joint assessment of aerobic capacity at physical work and physiological reactions to hypoxia shows the direct relation between individual maximal oxygen consumption and the descent rate of blood oxygen saturation at accruing hypoxia that can be useful at an assessment of a sportsman functional state and its correction at training processes.

  1. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva;

    2016-01-01

    during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion, and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable, and thus one of the few organ systems which can be experimentally manipulated (e.g. by exercise) to study physiologic regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  2. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  3. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  4. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  5. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  6. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  7. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac......, skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), psmooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p

  8. The position of a standard optical computer mouse affects cardiorespiratory responses during the operation of a computer under time constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Sako

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the association between task-induced stress and fatigue by examining the cardiovascular responses of subjects using different mouse positions while operating a computer under time constraints. Material and Methods: The study was participated by 16 young, healthy men and examined the use of optical mouse devices affixed to laptop computers. Two mouse positions were investigated: (1 the distal position (DP, in which the subjects place their forearms on the desk accompanied by the abduction and flexion of their shoulder joints, and (2 the proximal position (PP, in which the subjects place only their wrists on the desk without using an armrest. The subjects continued each task for 16 min. We assessed differences in several characteristics according to mouse position, including expired gas values, autonomic nerve activities (based on cardiorespiratory responses, operating efficiencies (based on word counts, and fatigue levels (based on the visual analog scale – VAS. Results: Oxygen consumption (VO2, the ratio of inspiration time to respiration time (Ti/Ttotal, respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (VE, and the ratio of expiration to inspiration (Te/Ti were significantly lower when the participants were performing the task in the DP than those obtained in the PP. Tidal volume (VT, carbon dioxide output rates (VCO2/VE, and oxygen extraction fractions (VO2/VE were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. No significant difference in VAS was observed between the positions; however, as the task progressed, autonomic nerve activities were lower and operating efficiencies were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the DP has fewer effects on cardiorespiratory functions, causes lower levels of sympathetic nerve activity and mental stress, and produces a higher total workload than the PP. This suggests that the DP is preferable to the PP when

  9. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  10. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses in Kettlebell High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Sprint Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian M; Kraemer, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed 2 preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, 3 circuits of 4 exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4 minutes of recovery in between the first 2 sprints and 2.5 minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects' design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (VE), caloric expenditure rate (kcal·min), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group × time interaction were found for V[Combining Dot Above]O2, RER, and TV, with V[Combining Dot Above]O2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared with the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group × time interaction were found for f, VE, kcal·min, and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of this study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance.

  11. Muscle fibre conduction velocity and cardiorespiratory response during incremental cycling exercise in young and older individuals with different training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, M; De Vito, G; Sbriccoli, P; Scotto di Palumbo, A; Sacchetti, M

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effect of ageing and training on muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) and cardiorespiratory response during incremental cycling exercise. Eight young (YT; 24+/-5 yrs) and eight older (OT; 64+/-3 yrs) cyclists, together with eight young (YU; 27+/-4 yrs) and eight older (OU; 63+/-2 yrs) untrained individuals underwent to an incremental maximal test on a cycle ergometer. Ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) were identified and MFCV recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using surface electromyography with linear arrays electrodes. In YT MFCV increased with the exercise intensity, reaching a peak of 4.99+/-1.02 [m/s] at VT. Thereafter, and up to VO(2)max, MFCV declined. In YU MFCV showed a similar trend although the peak [4.55+/-0.53m/s] was observed, at 75% of VO(2)max an intensity higher than VT (66% of VO(2)max). In both YT and YU MFCV did not decline until RPC, which occurred at 78% VO(2)max in YU and at 92% VO(2)max (P<0.01) in YT. Differently from young individuals, MFCV in older subjects did not increase with exercise intensity. Moreover, maximal MFCV in OU was significantly lower [3.53+/-0.40 m/s;] than that of YT (P<0.005) and YU (P<0.05). The present study shows that, especially in young individuals, MFCV reflects cardiorespiratory response during incremental dynamic cyclic exercise and hence can be used to investigate motor unit recruitment strategies.

  12. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies.

  13. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  14. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  15. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on ... the most of your exercise routine. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Activity Count Physical activity is ...

  16. Optimization of military garment fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Dutch armed forces clothing sizes are determined using 3D body scans. To evaluate if the predicted size based on the scan analysis matches the best fit, 35 male soldiers fitted a combat jacket and combat pants. It was shown that the predicted jacket size was slightly too large. Therefore, an

  17. ProFit: Bayesian Profile Fitting of Galaxy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Robotham, A S G; Tobar, R; A,; Moffett,; Driver, S P

    2016-01-01

    We present ProFit, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. ProFit consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (ProFit) and Python (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/ libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit respectively). R ProFit is also available pre-built from CRAN, however this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two- dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sersic, Core-Sersic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Serrsic profile for the most common values of the Serrsic index n (0.5 < n < 8). The high-level fitting code Pr...

  18. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  19. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.

  20. The influence of aerobic fitness on cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive function in older adults: results of a one-year exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Heo, Susie; Prakash, Ruchika S; Erickson, Kirk I; Alves, Heloisa; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; Wójcicki, Thomas R; White, Siobhan M; Gothe, Neha; McAuley, Edward; Sutton, Bradley P; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral white matter (WM) degeneration occurs with increasing age and is associated with declining cognitive function. Research has shown that cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise are effective as protective, even restorative, agents against cognitive and neurobiological impairments in older adults. In this study, we investigated whether the beneficial impact of aerobic fitness would extend to WM integrity in the context of a one-year exercise intervention. Further, we examined the pattern of diffusivity changes to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms. Finally, we assessed whether training-induced changes in WM integrity would be associated with improvements in cognitive performance independent of aerobic fitness gains. Results showed that aerobic fitness training did not affect group-level change in WM integrity, executive function, or short-term memory, but that greater aerobic fitness derived from the walking program was associated with greater change in WM integrity in the frontal and temporal lobes, and greater improvement in short-term memory. Increases in WM integrity, however, were not associated with short-term memory improvement, independent of fitness improvements. Therefore, while not all findings are consistent with previous research, we provide novel evidence for correlated change in training-induced aerobic fitness, WM integrity, and cognition among healthy older adults.

  1. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Villa-González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting (walking or cycling to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain, aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048 and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016. However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body.

  2. Effect of step height on cardiorespiratory responses during aerobic step test in young Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Step aerobics is practiced in health centres, fitness training gyms, and academic institutions in India. This exercise module is gaining popularity day by day. But, these kind of aerobic exercise tests are less investigated for Indian women population. Objective: A widely practiced aerobic step test was applied to a group of young female to explore the effect of step height on physiological responses and suggest the best height of stepping. Method: Eight physically fit and active female university students with mean age 19.7 (±2.3 yrs, height 156.2 (±6.5 cm, weight 51.2 (±7.9 kg, and VO2max 35.7 (±4.8 ml.min-1.kg-1 volunteered for the study. Each subject performed 30 minutes of step test in two Reebok steps heights (6 inch and 8 inches with a rhythm of 120 beats.min-1. At this cadence 30 cycles of stepping up and down were completed in 1 min. Relative work load (% VO2 max, energy expenditure (EE, Heart rate (HR, percentage of age predicted maximum HR were measured using K4b2 Cosmed system. Result: The results showed that eight inch step is offering a significant higher value across most of the parameters investigated compared to six inch step. So it can be inferred that the higher the step height the higher will be the physiological responses. Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates that aerobic stepping on 6 inch bench height for 30 minutes with a cadence of 120 beats. min-1 may be more suitable and safe exercise module to improve cardio respiratory fitness for Indian young females. Further investigations are required to identify suitable exercise modules in terms of bench height, cadence and duration for different age groups and according to their fitness level (trained/untrained and height on larger sample size.

  3. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-09-29

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria.

  4. Skeletal development in Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, Elizabeth H.

    1984-08-01

    Monthly linear extension and calcium carbonate accretion were measured over a year in the Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. X-radiographs were made of cross sections of branches to analyze radial growth. Correlations were made between parameters of skeletal growth and four environmental parameters monitored over the same sampling periods: temperature, daylight hours, sun hours, plankton abundance. The results indicate that linear extension does not change during the year with the possible exception of April. It is suggested that temperatures outside an optimal range (ca. 26° 29°C for staghorn Acroporas) might cause a decrease in linear extension, however. Specific accretion (mg. mm-1) does show significant variations through the year. Calcium carbonate accretion (mean specific accretion times mean linear extension, mg. tip-1) is most strongly correlated with number of sun hours. A comparison is made between diel patterns of extension and accretion and longer term measurements. It is suggested that the accretion process is probably most influenced by some activity influenced by light. There are no annual growth bands in X-radiographs of cross-sections of the branches of A. cervicornis. This may result from secondary infilling in the skeleton.

  5. Fitness consultations in routine care of patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice: an 18-month non-randomised intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmann, H.; Siersma, V.; Olivarius, Niels de Fine

    2010-01-01

    of motivational interviewing combined with fitness tests in the type 2 diabetes care programme was followed by a change in cardio-respiratory fitness expressed by VO2max, muscle strength of upper and lower extremities, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and HDL-cholesterol. METHODS: Uncontrolled 18-month intervention study...... with follow-up and effect assessment every 3 months in a primary care unit in Denmark with six general practitioners (GPs). Of 354 eligible patients with type 2 diabetes, 127 (35.9%) were included. Maximum work capacity was tested on a cycle ergometer and converted to VO2max. Muscle strength was measured...... of study, 102 (80.3%) participants remained in the intervention. Over 18 months, VO2max increased 2.5% (p = 0.032) while increases of 33.2% (p

  6. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  7. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, Anders; Muca, F

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years......- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in improving gross motor function and cardiorespiratory fitness.......This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years......) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG...

  8. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  9. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  10. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Better heart health Stronger muscles Better balance and coordination Stronger bones Lower risk of dementia Improved memory Reduced stress More energy Improved mood Types of Dance There are dance styles to fit almost anyone ...

  11. The fitness value of information

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstrom, Carl T

    2007-01-01

    Biologists measure information in different ways. Neurobiologists and researchers in bioinformatics often measure information using information-theoretic measures such as Shannon's entropy or mutual information. Behavioral biologists and evolutionary ecologists more commonly use decision-theoretic measures, such the value of information, which assess the worth of information to a decision maker. Here we show that these two kinds of measures are intimately related in the context of biological evolution. We present a simple model of evolution in an uncertain environment, and calculate the increase in Darwinian fitness that is made possible by information about the environmental state. This fitness increase -- the fitness value of information -- is a composite of both Shannon's mutual information and the decision-theoretic value of information. Furthermore, we show that in certain cases the fitness value of responding to a cue is exactly equal to the mutual information between the cue and the environment. In gen...

  12. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    situations, deal with the day to day duty demands, and maintain a trim physical appearance. But if it has been years since you exercised , do not run right...how much exercise is required to achieve and maintain a fit unit and secondly, how is this fitness requirement modified by age and sex . The Training...as the activity in which you are involved becomes easier, increase the amount. You can do 7 this by varying the intensity (how hard you exercise as

  13. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor s