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Sample records for cardiorespiratory fitness measurementerror

  1. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  2. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...... with individuals with higher SRCF, within each strata of leisure time physical activity and self-rated health, and SRCF significantly predicted CVD mortality independently of self-rated health and walking pace. A net reclassification improvement of 30.5% (95% CI, 22.1% to 38.9%) for CVD mortality was found when...

  3. LIFESTYLE INDICATORS AND CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victo, Eduardo Rossato de; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Silva, João Pedro da; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the lifestyle indicators associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents from Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents (53% male) from the Mixed Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development, and Physical Fitness of Ilhabela. Body composition (weight, height, and body mass index, or BMI), school transportation, time spent sitting, physical activity, sports, television time (TV), having a TV in the bedroom, sleep, health perception, diet, and economic status (ES) were analyzed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the submaximal progressive protocol performed on a cycle ergometer. Linear regression models were used with the stepwise method. The sample average age was 14.8 years, and the average cardiorespiratory fitness was 42.2 mL.kg-1.min-1 (42.9 for boys and 41.4 for girls; p=0.341). In the total sample, BMI (unstandardized regression coefficient [B]=-0.03), height (B=-0.01), ES (B=0.10), gender (B=0.12), and age (B=0.03) were significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. In boys, BMI, height, not playing any sports, and age were significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. In girls, BMI, ES, and having a TV in the bedroom were significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Lifestyle indicators influenced the cardiorespiratory fitness; BMI, ES, and age influenced both sexes. Not playing any sports, for boys, and having a TV in the bedroom, for girls, also influenced cardiorespiratory fitness. Public health measures to improve lifestyle indicators can help to increase cardiorespiratory fitness levels.

  4. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities-A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels have been found in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), which puts them at higher risk for

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Profile of Undergraduate Biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male students had significantly higher CRF compared with female students. The study showed that most of the students had excellent CRF according to ACSM age and sex matched classification, but further study may be needed to monitor the trend of CRF over time. KEY WORDS: cardiorespiratory fitness, biomedical ...

  7. Assessing cardiorespiratory fitness without performing exercise testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurca, R.; Jackson, A.S.; LaMonte, M.J.; Morrow, J.R.; Blair, S.N.; Wareham, N.J.; Haskell, W.L.; van Mechelen, W.; Church, T.S.; Jakicic, J.M.; Laukkanen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality; however, CRF assessment is usually not performed in many healthcare settings. The purpose of this study is to extend previous work on a non-exercise test model to predict CRF from

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and death from cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer...... using a bicycle ergometer test and analysed in multivariable Cox models including conventional risk factors, social class and self-reported physical activity. Death from cancer and all-cause mortality was assessed using Danish national registers. Follow-up was 100% complete. RESULTS: In total, 5131 men...

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness and incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Gyntelberg, Finn; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Increases in prevalence have led to a diabetes pandemic. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are considered to be central mechanisms. We investigated if the effect of CRF on diabetes risk was equivalent across levels of fatness among healthy men. METHODS: In total 4988 middle-ag.......76-1.23). CONCLUSION: High CRF has a stronger protective effect on diabetes among obese than among normal weight men, supporting the recommendation of fitness-enhancing physical activity for preventing diabetes among the obese.......AIMS: Increases in prevalence have led to a diabetes pandemic. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are considered to be central mechanisms. We investigated if the effect of CRF on diabetes risk was equivalent across levels of fatness among healthy men. METHODS: In total 4988 middle......-aged Caucasian employed men free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer were included from the Copenhagen Male Study starting in 1970-71. CRF was assessed using a sub-maximal bicycle ergometer test and body mass index (BMI) was measured by height and weight. Their interaction and stratified associations...

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Blood Pressure: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis-Sobrinho, César; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Lopes, Luís; Oliveira-Santos, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular indices 2 years later, and to determine whether changes in cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with cardiovascular indices at a 2-year follow-up in adolescents. The sample comprised 734 adolescents (349 girls) aged 12-18 years followed for 3 years from the LabMed Physical Activity Study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Height, weight, waist circumference, and resting blood pressure (BP) were measured according to standard procedures. Regression analyses showed a significant inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline and systolic BP (B = -0.126; P = .047) and rate pressure product (B = -29.94; P = .016), at follow-up after adjustments for age, sex, height, pubertal stage, socioeconomic status, and waist circumference. Significant differences were found between cardiorespiratory fitness groups (fit vs unfit) at baseline and systolic BP and rate pressure product at follow-up (P fitness changes and systolic BP (P = .024) and rate pressure product (P = .014), after adjustment for age, sex, height, pubertal status, socioeconomic status, and waist circumference. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness during adolescence were associated with cardiovascular indices over a 2-year period. Adolescents with persistently low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness exhibited the highest levels of systolic BP and rate pressure product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-reported occupational physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards...

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness and age-related arterial stiffness in lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán-Méndez, Cristina; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Vargas-Hitos, José Antonio; Sáez-Urán, Luis Manuel; Rosales-Castillo, Antonio; Morillas-de-Laguno, Pablo; Gavilán-Carrera, Blanca; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2018-01-10

    The aim of the present study was twofold: 1) to examine the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with arterial stiffness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus; 2) to assess the potential interaction of cardiorespiratory fitness with age on arterial stiffness in this population. A total of 49 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean age 41.3 [Standard deviation 13.8] years) and clinical stability during the previous 6 months were included in the study. Arterial stiffness was assessed through pulse wave velocity (Mobil-O-Graph® 24h pulse wave velocity monitor). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with the Siconolfi step test and the six-minute walk test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with pulse wave velocity in crude analyses (Pfitness×age interaction effect on pulse wave velocity, regardless of the test used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (Pfitness was associated with a lower increase in pulse wave velocity per each year increase in age. The results of the present study suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the age-related arterial stiffening in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and might thus contribute to the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in this population. Since the cross-sectional design precludes establishing causal relationships, future clinical trials should confirm or contrast these findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness and attentional control in the aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika S Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature provides evidence for the prophylactic influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on cognitive decline in older adults. This study examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and recruitment of the neural circuits involved in an attentional control task in a group of healthy older adults. Employing a version of the Stroop task, we examined whether higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with an increase in activation in cortical regions responsible for imposing attentional control along with an up-regulation of activity in sensory brain regions that process task-relevant representations. Higher fitness levels were associated with better behavioral performance and an increase in the recruitment of prefrontal and parietal cortices in the most challenging condition, thus providing evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with an increase in the recruitment of the anterior processing regions. There was a top-down modulation of extrastriate visual areas that process both task-relevant and task-irrelevant attributes relative to the baseline. However, fitness was not associated with differential activation in the posterior processing regions, suggesting that fitness enhances attentional function by primarily influencing the neural circuitry of anterior cortical regions. This study provides novel evidence of a differential association of fitness with anterior and posterior brain regions, shedding further light onto the neural changes accompanying cardiorespiratory fitness.

  14. Brief Intense Stair Climbing Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mary K; Baglole, Jessica H; Martin, Brian J; Macinnis, Martin J; Gurd, Brendon J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-02-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) is a time-efficient strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); however, most protocols have been studied in laboratory settings and require specialized equipment. We investigated the efficacy of brief intense stair climbing as a practical model of SIT to improve CRF. Two separate studies, each consisting of an acute and chronic phase, were conducted in a total of 31 sedentary women (age = 24 ± 10 yr, body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg·m). The acute phase of study 1 established that the mean HR, blood [lactate], and RPE were similar when participants (n = 8) performed an SIT protocol that involved 3 × 20-s "all-out" efforts of either continuously ascending stairs or cycling. The chronic phase demonstrated that CRF, as determined by peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), increased by 12% or ~1 MET (8.27 ± 1.05 to 9.25 ± 1.01 METs, P = 0.002) when participants (n = 12) performed the 3 × 20-s stair climbing protocol 3 d·wk for 6 wk. The acute phase of study 2 established that HR and RPE were similar when participants (n = 11) performed three different stair climbing protocols: the 3 × 20-s continuous ascent model used in study 1 and two 3 × 60-s models of ascending and descending either one or two flights of stairs (P > 0.05). The chronic phase demonstrated that V˙O2peak increased by 7% (8.91 ± 1.30 to 9.51 ± 1.52 METs, P = 0.01) when the same group of participants performed the one-flight 3 × 60-s protocol 3 d·wk for 6 wk. The Cederholm index determined from an oral glucose tolerance test was 57 ± 17 and 64 ± 21 mg·L·mmol·mU·min before and after training, respectively (P = 0.056). Brief, intense stair climbing is a practical, time-efficient strategy to improve CRF in previously untrained women.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Dorothea; Tjaden, Christine; Hackert, Thilo; Schneider, Lutz; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim; Steindorf, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience reduced physical fitness due to the disease itself as well as treatment-related side effects. However, studies on physical fitness in pancreatic cancer patients are missing. Therefore, we assessed cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength of pancreatic cancer patients. We included 65 pancreatic cancer patients, mostly after surgical resection. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Hand-held dynamometry was used to evaluate isometric muscle strength. Physical fitness values were compared to reference values of a healthy population. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables with patients' physical fitness were analyzed using multiple regression models. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, 20.5 ± 6.9 ml/min/kg) was significantly lower (-24%) compared to healthy reference values. In the 6MWT pancreatic cancer patients nearly reached predicted values (555 vs. 562 m). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the upper (-4.3%) and lower extremities (-13.8%) were significantly lower compared to reference values. Overall differences were larger in men than those in women. Participating in regular exercise in the year before diagnosis was associated with greater VO2peak (p fitness with regard to both cardiorespiratory function and isometric muscle strength, already in the early treatment phase (median 95 days after surgical resection). Our findings underline the need to investigate exercise training in pancreatic cancer patients to counteract the loss of physical fitness.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Risk, and Inflammation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios D. Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and C-reactive protein (CRP in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years. Data was obtained for children’s anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (<0.001 and CRP (<0.007, compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood.

  17. Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Homeschool versus Public School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Laura S; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis

    2017-08-01

    The growth and unregulated structure of homeschooling creates an unknown population in regard to muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this research was to compare muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness between elementary school aged homeschool and public school children. Homeschool children ages 8-11 years old (n = 75) completed the curl-up, 90° push-up, and Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER) portions of the FitnessGram to assess abdominal and upper body strength and endurance as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. Comparisons to public school children (n = 75) were made using t tests and chi-square tests. Homeschool children showed significantly lower abdominal (t(148) = -11.441, p fitness by total PACER laps (t(108) = 0.879, p = .381) or estimated VO2max (t(70) = 1.187, p = .239; χ2 (1) = 1.444, p = .486). Homeschool children showed significantly lower levels of both abdominal and upper body muscular fitness compared with their age and gender matched public school peers but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness.

  18. Physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine physical fitness differences in students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels, a study was conducted on a sample of students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education at the University of Nis. The sample was divided into two subsamples, where the first subsample comprised 27 female students and the other 35 male students. Physical fitness was assessed using eight tests from the Eurofit battery of tests: the single-leg balance test - for the assessment of general balance, plate tapping - for the assessment of speed of movement, sit-and-reach - for the assessment of flexibility, the standing broad jump - for the assessment of explosive strength, the handgrip test - for the assessment of static strength, sit-ups - for the assessment of repetitive trunk strength, the bent arm hang - for the assessment of muscular endurance and the 10x5 meter shuttle run - for the assessment of the speed/agility. Cardiorespiratory endurance was estimated with the aid of 20 m endurance shuttle-run test. Based on the level of cardiorespiratory endurance, the participants in each subsample, were divided into three groups using a cluster analysis: high (VKRI, average (PKRI and low level (NKRI. The physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels were calculated using the one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that there were no differences in physical fitness of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels. Based on the results it can be concluded that the level of cardiorespiratory endurance does not affect the components of physical fitness among students of both sexes.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren: 30-year evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis de; Bracco, Mario Maia; Matsudo, Victor K Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    To compare the changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in evaluations performed every ten years since 1978/1980, according to the nutritional status and gender of students in the city of Ilhabela, Brazil. The study is part of the Mixed Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development and Physical Fitness of Ilhabela. The study included 1,291 students of both genders, aged 10 to 11 years old. The study periods were: 1978/1980, 1988/1990, 1998/2000, and 2008/2010. The variables analyzed were: body weight, height, and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max - L.min-1 and mL.kg-1.min-1) performed using a submaximal progressive protocol on a cycle ergometer. Individuals were classified as normal weight and overweight according to curves proposed by the World Health Organization of body mass index for age and gender. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with three factors followed by the Bonferroni method were used to compare the periods. The number of normal weight individuals (61%) was higher than that of overweight. There was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in both genders. Among the schoolchildren with normal weight, there was a decrease of 22% in males and 26% in females. In overweight schoolchildren, males showed a decrease of 12.7% and females, of 18%. During a 30-year analysis with reviews every ten years from 1978/1980, there was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren of both genders, which cannot be explained by the nutritional status. The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness was greater in individuals with normal weight than in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness testing in Setswana-speaking community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness is important for observing changes induced by exercise interventions. To obtain accurate measurements, the testing protocol should be acceptable to participants so as to ensure a high level of compliance. The purpose of this study therefore was to compare individual and ...

  1. Evaluation Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Of Inmates In Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incarceration has been associated with reduced physical activity. Also, physical inactivity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of inmates in Kano-Nigeria prisons. A cross-sectional study was design to determine the prevalence of low CRF of ...

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness of inmates of a maximum security prison in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prisoners are a special population group who have limited freedom and are subjected to restrictions. They may not be able to enjoy health enhancing leisure and recreational activities or exercise of their choice or at a time they desire. The aim of this study is to determine the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of inmates ...

  3. Self-reported occupational physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards......) and cardiorespiratory fitness (low, same and higher as peers) at baseline. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 257 and 852 individuals died from CVD and any cause, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, an increased risk for CVD mortality was found for those with low compared to high self......-reported cardiorespiratory fitness [hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-3.38), for those with high compared to low OPA (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05-2.00), and for those with high compared to low OPA within the strata of low self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.46). Moreover...

  4. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory fitness of Nigerians with Low back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of Nigerians with low back pain (LBP) and apparently healthy counterparts. A total of Seventy (70) subjects participated in the study; 35 of them were low back pain patients, while the remaining 35 were apparently healthy adults. For low back pain ...

  5. Cardio-respiratory fitness markers among Kenyan university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess Cardio-respiratory fitness (CF) markers among university students using a 20m shuttle run test (SRT). Methods: Markers of CF were assessed in 80 males aged 21.4±1.8 years, randomly selected from Moi University, Kenya. Assessed at different stages of SRT protocol included heart rate (HR), systolic and ...

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Katja I; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Takken, Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/184586674; Huisman, Jaap; Bierings, Marc B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074759620; Merks, Johannes H M; van de Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Veening, Margreet A

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB), as well as factors associated with these outcomes in children during or shortly after cancer treatment. METHODS: Cross-sectionally, CRF data, obtained by the cardiopulmonary exercise

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Katja I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Takken, Tim; Huisman, Jaap; Bierings, Marc B.; Merks, Johannes H. M.; van de Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Veening, Margreet A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB), as well as factors associated with these outcomes in children during or shortly after cancer treatment. Cross-sectionally, CRF data, obtained by the cardiopulmonary exercise test, and PA and SB

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.I. Braam (Katja I.); E.M. Van Dijk-Lokkart (Elisabeth M.); G.J. Kaspers (Gertjan J.); T. Takken (Tim); J. Huisman; M. Bierings (Marc); J.H.M. Merks (Johannes); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); E. van Dulmen–den Broeder (Eline); M.A. Veening (Margreet A.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: This study assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB), as well as factors associated with these outcomes in children during or shortly after cancer treatment. Methods: Cross-sectionally, CRF data, obtained by the cardiopulmonary

  9. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatto, Giseli; Sousa, Thiago Ferreira de; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes de; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1,223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the Economic Level (EL) (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by EL, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and EL. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness and short-term complications after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Gallagher, Michael J; Dejong, Adam T; Sandberg, Keisha R; Trivax, Justin E; Alexander, Daniel; Kasturi, Gopi; Jafri, Syed M A; Krause, Kevin R; Chengelis, David L; Moy, Jason; Franklin, Barry A

    2006-08-01

    Morbid obesity is associated with reduced functional capacity, multiple comorbidities, and higher overall mortality. The relationship between complications after bariatric surgery and preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness has not been previously studied. We evaluated cardiorespiratory fitness in 109 patients with morbid obesity prior to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Charts were abstracted using a case report form by reviewers blinded to the cardiorespiratory evaluation results. The mean age (+/- SD) was 46.0 +/- 10.4 years, and 82 patients (75.2%) were female. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 48.7 +/- 7.2 (range, 36.0 to 90.0 kg/m(2)). The composite complication rate, defined as death, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, renal failure, or stroke, occurred in 6 of 37 patients (16.6%) and 2 of 72 patients (2.8%) with peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) levels 15.8 mL/kg/min (lowest tertile), respectively (p = 0.02). Hospital lengths of stay and 30-day readmission rates were highest in the lowest tertile of peak Vo(2) (p = 0.005). There were no complications in those with BMI or= 15.8 mL/kg/min. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender found peak Vo(2) was a significant predictor of complications: odds ratio, 1.61 (per unit decrease); 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 2.18 (p = 0.002). Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with increased, short-term complications after bariatric surgery. Cardiorespiratory fitness should be optimized prior to bariatric surgery to potentially reduce postoperative complications.

  11. Longitudinal changes in cardiorespiratory fitness: measurement error or true change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew S; Kampert, James B; Barlow, Carolyn E; Morrow, James R; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2004-07-01

    This study examined the thesis that the reported Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) mortality reductions associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness were because of measurement error of serial treadmill tests. We tested the research hypothesis that longitudinal changes in cardiorespiratory fitness of the ACLS cohort were a multivariate function of changes in self-report physical activity (SR-PA), resting heart rate, and body mass index (BMI). We used the results of three serial maximal treadmill tests (T1, T2, and T3) to evaluate the serial changes in cardiorespiratory fitness of 4675 men. The mean duration between the three serial tests examined was: T2 - T1, 1.9 yr; T3 - T2, 6.1 yr; and T3 - T1, 8.0 yr. Maximum and resting heart rate, BMI, SR-PA, and maximum Balke treadmill duration were measured on each occasion. General linear models analysis showed that with change in maximum heart rate statistically controlled change in treadmill time performance was a function of independent changes in SR-PA, BMI, and R-HR. These variables accounted for significant (P heart rate gained the most fitness between serial tests. These results support the research hypothesis tested. Variations in serial ACLS treadmill tests are not just due to measurement error alone, but also to systematic variation linked with changes in lifestyle.

  12. Longitudinal Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Academic Achievement.

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    Sardinha, Luís B; Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Claudia; Palmeira, António; Martins, Sandra; Santos, Diana A; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and academic achievement in the youth. The sample included 1286 fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade students, age 11 to 14 yr (Mage = 11.3 ± 1.1), from 14 schools followed for 3 yr. Academic achievement was assessed using the students' marks at baseline and at follow-up 3 yr apart, in Portuguese, mathematics, foreign language (English), and science. CRF was assessed by the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run test from the Fitnessgram battery. Students were classified as fit-fit, unfit-fit, fit-unfit, and unfit-unfit according to the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run test results at baseline and follow-up. Ordinal regression analyses were performed to examine associations between CRF and academic achievement. Being persistently fit (fit-fit), compared with those classified unfit-unfit, increased the odds of having high levels of academic achievement in Portuguese (odds ratio (OR) = 3.49; 95% CI, 1.97-6.20; P < 0.001) and foreign language (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.39-4.14; P < 0.01) at follow-up. Students that improved their CRF and became fit (unfit-fit) had also higher odds of achieving better marks than those persistently unfit-unfit in Portuguese (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.42-4.45; P < 0.01) and foreign language (OR = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.23-3.67; P < 0.01). Consistently high and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness are prospectively associated with better academic achievement especially in mother tongue and foreign language.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children - a review.

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    Haapala, Eero A

    2013-03-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies.

  14. Television viewing time and measured cardiorespiratory fitness in adult women.

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    Tucker, Larry A; Arens, Peter J; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between television viewing time and measured cardiorespiratory fitness and the influence of various potential confounders. Cross-sectional. Intermountain West. The sample was composed of 302 nonsmoking women aged 40.2 ± 3.0 years, with ~90% Caucasian and 82% married. TV viewing was assessed by using a questionnaire, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by using a graded, maximum treadmill test. Physical activity (PA) was evaluated by using accelerometers for 7 days, and body fat percentage (BF%) was measured by using the Bod Pod. Analysis of variance and partial correlation. VO2max of Frequent (≥3 h/d) TV viewers (32.6 ± 6.4 mL/kg/min) was significantly lower than that of both Moderate (1-2 h/d) (36.2 ± 7.2 mL/kg/min) or Infrequent (<1 h/d) (36.5 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min) viewers (F = 8.0, p = .0004). The Infrequent and Moderate groups did not differ in VO2max. Age, education, body mass index, and season of assessment had no influence on the relationship when controlled statistically. Adjusting for PA (F = 4.2, p = .0157) and BF% (F = 5.0, p = .0071) weakened the relationship by 59% and 58%, respectively, but the relationships remained significant. After controlling for both PA and BF% simultaneously (F = 2.9, p = .0572), the relationship was weakened by 81% and was only borderline significant. Female Frequent TV viewers have significantly lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels than Moderate or Infrequent viewers. This association appears to be largely a function of differences in levels of PA and BF%.

  15. Genetic modifiers of cardiorespiratory fitness response to lifestyle intervention.

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    Peter, Inga; Papandonatos, George D; Belalcazar, L Maria; Yang, Yao; Erar, Bahar; Jakicic, John M; Unick, Jessica L; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Lipkin, Edward W; Delahanty, Linda M; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Wing, Rena R; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Huggins, Gordon S

    2014-02-01

    Numerous prospective studies indicate that improved cardiorespiratory fitness reduces type 2 diabetes risk and delays disease progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants modify fitness response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) randomized clinical trial, aimed to detect whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with a standard of care. Polymorphisms in established fitness genes and in all loci assayed on the Illumina CARe iSelect chip were examined as predictors of change in MET level, estimated using a treadmill test, in response to a 1-yr intervention in 3899 participants. We identified a significant signal in previously reported fitness-related gene RUNX1 that was associated with 1-yr METs response in ILI (0.19 ± 0.04 MET less improvement per minor allele copy; P = 1.9 × 10(-5)) and genotype-intervention interaction (P = 4.8 × 10(-3)). In the chipwide analysis, FKBP7 rs17225700 showed a significant association with ILI response among subjects not receiving beta-blocker medications (0.47 ± 0.09 METs less improvement; P = 5.3 × 10(-5)) and genotype-treatment interaction (P = 5.3 × 10(-7)). The Gene Relationships Among Implicated Loci pathway-based analysis identified connections between associated genes, including those influencing vascular tone, muscle contraction, cardiac energy substrate dynamics, and muscle protein synthesis. This is the first study to identify genetic variants associated with fitness responses to a randomized lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. RUNX1 and FKBP7, involved in erythropoesis and muscle protein synthesis, respectively, are related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness in response to exercise.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness in groups with different physical activity levels.

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    Dyrstad, S M; Anderssen, S A; Edvardsen, E; Hansen, B H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine how different categorizations of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity (PA) reflect variations in cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max ). A total of 759 individuals (366 women) with a mean age of 48.5 years (SD 14.4) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days and answered the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). VO2max was directly measured during a continuous graded exercise treadmill test until exhaustion. Men and women categorized as highly active by IPAQ had 9% and 13% higher VO2max , respectively, than those reporting a low PA level (P differences in average sedentary time, analyzed in total min/day and in bouts of 10 and 30 min, were found between participants with high or low cardiorespiratory fitness. However, women spent less time than men in bouts of sedentary behaviors. Self-reported PA by IPAQ and objectively measured PA by accelerometer were both useful instruments for detecting differences in VO2max . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fitness training for cardiorespiratory conditioning after traumatic brain injury.

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    Hassett, Leanne; Moseley, Anne M; Harmer, Alison R

    2017-12-29

    Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiorespiratory deconditioning) is a common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fitness training may be implemented to address this impairment. The primary objective of this updated review was to evaluate whether fitness training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in people who have sustained a TBI. The secondary objectives were to evaluate whether fitness training improves body function and structure (physical and cognitive impairments, psychological responses resulting from the injury), activity limitations and participation restrictions in people who have sustained a TBI as well as to evaluate its safety, acceptance, feasibility and suitability. We searched 10 electronic databases (the Cochrane Injuries Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Embase; PubMed (MEDLINE); CINAHL; AMED; SPORTDiscus; PsycINFO; PEDro and PsycBITE) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for relevant trials. In addition we screened reference lists from systematic reviews related to the topic that we identified from our search, and from the included studies, and contacted trialists to identify further studies. The search was run in August 2017. Randomised controlled studies with TBI participants were eligible if they compared an exercise programme incorporating cardiorespiratory fitness training to usual care, a non-exercise intervention, or no intervention. Two authors independently screened the search results, extracted data and assessed bias. We contacted all trialists for additional information. We calculated mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous data, and odds ratio with 95% CI for dichotomous data. We pooled data when there were sufficient studies with homogeneity. Two new studies incorporating 96 participants were identified in this update and were added to the six previously included studies. A total of

  18. A stair-climb test of cardiorespiratory fitness for Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, K C; Aziz, A R

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a stair-climb test of cardiorespiratory fitness for adult Singaporeans, particularly those staying in Singapore Housing and Development Board (HDB) flats. 103 subjects [56 males, of mean (SD) age 44.8 (13.9) years and Body Mass Index, or BMI, 23.3 (3.2); and 47 females, of age 43.2 (12.9) years and BMI 21.9 (2.8)] were first assessed for their cardiorespiratory fitness, measured using maximal oxygen uptake (or VO2max) on a treadmill, before undergoing a stair-climb test up to the 12th storey (11 floors) of a typical HDB flat (180 steps, vertical height 27.0 metres). The mean (SD) time taken for the climb (CT) and heart rate at the end of the climb (HRend) averaged 111.3 (16) seconds and 154.4 (13.4) beats.min-1 respectively for males, and 121.0 (18.1) seconds and 164.6 (15.7) beats.min-1 respectively for females. Regression equations were developed to predict VO2max from age (years), BMI, CT (seconds), HRend (beats.min-1): For males: VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) = 133 - 0.273 (Age) - 0.672 (BMI) - 0.236 (CT) - 0.232 (HRend). For females: VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) = 66.69 - 0.135 (Age) - 0.249 (BMI) - 0.128 (CT) - 0.021 (HRend). Validation of the regression equations conducted on a different sample consisting of 18 subjects (11 male and 7 female) showed significant correlations between the predicted and directly measured VO2max (males, r = 0.81 and females, r = 0.90; p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the means of predicted and directly measured VO2max. A stair-climb test using HDB stairs was developed which was able to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness with reasonable accuracy.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity level in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Schultz Straatmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p21   More objective methods to detect inactive adolescents may help identify young people that are vulnerable to obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the association between classifications obtained with the cardiorespiratory fitness test and physical activity level in adolescents, as well as the agreement between tertiles and z-score distribution of the variables generated with these methods (distance covered and total physical activity score. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 639 adolescents (61% girls aged 12 to 19 years (mean age of 16 ± 1.8 and categorized into two age groups: 12-13 and 14-19 years, from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 9-min run/walk test (T9 and physical activity level by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The chi-square test (or Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied for the evaluation of associations, and the weighted kappa coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to investigate agreement between variables. A level of significance of p<0.05 was adopted. A significant association between the classifications obtained with the two methods was only observed for adolescents aged ≥ 14 years. However, there was agreement between the variables generated with the two methods in both age groups. The median distance covered in the T9 increased according to tertiles of total physical activity score. An association between the classifications obtained with the IPAQ and T9 was only found for older adolescents. However, the continuous variables and variables categorized into tertiles generated with the methods were associated and showed agreement in both age groups.

  20. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence - Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-04-20

    Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory

  1. The association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output in a maximal cycle exercise test. A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self-rated health increased with increasing categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, and vice versa. Hence, participants who were moderately/vigorously physically active and had a high cardiorespiratory fitness had the highest odds ratio for optimal self-rated health compared with sedentary participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (odds ratio=12.2, 95% confidence interval: 9.3-16.1). Although reluctant to conclude on causality, this study suggests that an active lifestyle as well as good cardiorespiratory fitness probably increase self-rated health. © 2013.

  2. A review of cardiorespiratory fitness-related neuroplasticity in the aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Hayes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and the brain in older adults has increased rapidly, with 30 of 34 studies published since 2008. Here we review cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies in older adults examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain structure and function, typically assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Studies of patients with Alzheimer’s disease are discussed when available. The structural MRI studies revealed a consistent positive relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume in cortical regions including anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. Support for a positive relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and medial temporal lobe volume was less consistent, although evident when a region-of-interest approach was implemented. In fMRI studies, cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults was associated with activation in similar regions as those identified in the structural studies, including anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex, despite heterogeneity among the functional tasks implemented. This comprehensive review highlights the overlap in brain regions showing a positive relationship with cardiorespiratory fitness in both structural and functional imaging modalities. The findings suggest that aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to healthy brain aging, although additional studies in Alzheimer’s disease are needed.

  3. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome in youth.

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    Steele, Rebekah M; Brage, Soren; Corder, Kirsten; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2008-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is defined as the coexistence of multiple cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, the prevalence of which has increased dramatically in adult populations in the last decades. More recently, the same cluster of metabolic risk factors has also been recognized in children and adolescents. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity are associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in adults. However, in youth the role of these factors is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to examine the recent evidence between objectively measured habitual physical activity and CRF with clustered metabolic risk in youth. In general, it appears that both physical activity and CRF are separately and independently associated with metabolic risk factors in youth, possibly through different causal pathways. Further research is necessary to quantify how much physical activity is needed to prevent the metabolic syndrome and the diseases with which it is associated. Public health approaches that encourage increased physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors may prove useful in reducing the population burden associated with metabolic risk.

  4. Brazilian Cardiorespiratory Fitness Classification Based on Maximum Oxygen Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdy, Artur Haddad; Caixeta, Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is the most complete tool available to assess functional aerobic capacity (FAC). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), an important biomarker, reflects the real FAC. Objective To develop a cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification based on VO2 max in a Brazilian sample of healthy and physically active individuals of both sexes. Methods We selected 2837 CEPT from 2837 individuals aged 15 to 74 years, distributed as follows: G1 (15 to 24); G2 (25 to 34); G3 (35 to 44); G4 (45 to 54); G5 (55 to 64) and G6 (65 to 74). Good CRF was the mean VO2 max obtained for each group, generating the following subclassification: Very Low (VL): VO2 105%. Results Men VL 105% G1 53.13 G2 49.77 G3 47.67 G4 42.52 G5 37.06 G6 31.50 Women G1 40.85 G2 40.01 G3 34.09 G4 32.66 G5 30.04 G6 26.36 Conclusions This chart stratifies VO2 max measured on a treadmill in a robust Brazilian sample and can be used as an alternative for the real functional evaluation of physically and healthy individuals stratified by age and sex. PMID:27305285

  5. Brazilian Cardiorespiratory Fitness Classification Based on Maximum Oxygen Consumption

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    Artur Haddad Herdy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is the most complete tool available to assess functional aerobic capacity (FAC. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max, an important biomarker, reflects the real FAC. Objective: To develop a cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF classification based on VO2 max in a Brazilian sample of healthy and physically active individuals of both sexes. Methods: We selected 2837 CEPT from 2837 individuals aged 15 to 74 years, distributed as follows: G1 (15 to 24; G2 (25 to 34; G3 (35 to 44; G4 (45 to 54; G5 (55 to 64 and G6 (65 to 74. Good CRF was the mean VO2 max obtained for each group, generating the following subclassification: Very Low (VL: VO2 105%. Results: Men VL 105% G1 53.13 G2 49.77 G3 47.67 G4 42.52 G5 37.06 G6 31.50 Women G1 40.85 G2 40.01 G3 34.09 G4 32.66 G5 30.04 G6 26.36 Conclusions: This chart stratifies VO2 max measured on a treadmill in a robust Brazilian sample and can be used as an alternative for the real functional evaluation of physically and healthy individuals stratified by age and sex.

  6. Lack of age-related increase in carotid artery wall viscosity in cardiorespiratory fit men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Gando, Yuko; Tanimoto, Michiya; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2013-12-01

    Age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of arterial elasticity are attenuated in individuals with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Viscosity is another mechanical characteristic of the arterial wall; however, the effects of age and cardiorespiratory fitness have not been determined. We examined the associations among age, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid arterial wall viscosity. A total of 111 healthy men, aged 25-39 years (young) and 40-64 years (middle-aged), were divided into either cardiorespiratory fit or unfit groups on the basis of peak oxygen uptake. The common carotid artery was measured noninvasively by tonometry and automatic tracking of B-mode images to obtain instantaneous pressure and diameter hysteresis loops, and we calculated the effective compliance, isobaric compliance and viscosity index. In the middle-aged men, the viscosity index was larger in the unfit group than in the fit group (2533 vs. 2018 mmHg·s/mm, respectively: Pviscosity index was increased with advancing age, but these parameters were unaffected by cardiorespiratory fitness level. These results suggest that the wall viscosity in the central artery is increased with advancing age and that the age-associated increase in wall viscosity may be attenuated in cardiorespiratory fit men.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness: relationship with the immune system of adolescents

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    Anderson Zampier Ulbrich

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness with count of cells in the immune system (IS in adolescents. The sample was composed by 102 boys (B and 131 (G girls (12 to 17 years-old. BMI was calculated and categorized (Cole et al. and absolute and relative VO2máx was obtained through the shuttle run test (Léger et al. and categorized according to Rodrigues et al. Maturation stage was assessing (Tanner. The cells of IS by leukogram was obtained. It was hypothesized (H that individuals with higher VO2máx could present a higher ratio of chances in the counting of cells in the SI. Was used frequency distribution, Student t test, ANOVAs one-way and binary logistic regression (p< 0.05. The overweight was demonstrated that 27.8% (B 13.2% (G. The values of VO2máx were between 29 to 59 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 25 to 53 ml.kg-1.min-1 to B and G, respectively. The average of IS cells differ between B and G, and in greater range in the: Leukocytes (B = 5697.1 cel.ml and G = 6496.9 cel.ml; t= 3,959 p = 0,000, Segmented (B= 3288,1 cel.ml and G= 4023,8 cel.ml; t= 4,145; p= 0,000, and neutrophils (B = 3306,9 cel.ml and G = 4101.2 cel.ml; t= 4,431 , p= 0,000 in G, while Eosinophils (B = 286.1 cel.ml and G = 211.1 cel.ml; t= 2,644; p= 0,009 had a higher count for B. There were differences between the maturational stages only between puberty stage and pos puberty for Leukocytes and Segmented in G. The analyses of relative VO2máx indicated the M with low cardiorespiratory fitness is 4,6; 2,76; 3,57 respectively have more chances of eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes below the 50th percentile, as well as to observe the absolute VO2máx, the R with regular fitness is 9,0; 5,16; 9,65 respectively have more chances of leukocytes, monocytes and neutrophils below the 50th percentile. The M showed that the regular fitness has 3.0 times more chances to have leukocytes and neutrophils below the 50th percentile. It is concluded that the

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness: relationship with the immune system of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Zampier Ulbrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p478 This work to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness with count of cells in the immune system (IS in adolescents. The sample was composed by 102 boys (B and 131 (G girls (12 to 17 years-old. BMI was calculated and categorized (Cole et al. and absolute and relative VO2máx was obtained through the shuttle run test (Léger et al. and categorized according to Rodrigues et al. Maturation stage was assessing (Tanner. The cells of IS by leukogram was obtained. It was hypothesized (H that individuals with higher VO2máx could present a higher ratio of chances in the counting of cells in the SI. Was used frequency distribution, Student t test, ANOVAs one-way and binary logistic regression (p< 0.05. The overweight was demonstrated that 27.8% (B 13.2% (G. The values of VO2máx were between 29 to 59 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 25 to 53 ml.kg-1.min-1 to B and G, respectively. The average of IS cells differ between B and G, and in greater range in the: Leukocytes (B = 5697.1 cel.ml and G = 6496.9 cel.ml; t= 3,959 p = 0,000, Segmented (B= 3288,1 cel.ml and G= 4023,8 cel.ml; t= 4,145; p= 0,000, and neutrophils (B = 3306,9 cel.ml and G = 4101.2 cel.ml; t= 4,431 , p= 0,000 in G, while Eosinophils (B = 286.1 cel.ml and G = 211.1 cel.ml; t= 2,644; p= 0,009 had a higher count for B. There were differences between the maturational stages only between puberty stage and pos puberty for Leukocytes and Segmented in G. The analyses of relative VO2máx indicated the M with low cardiorespiratory fitness is 4,6; 2,76; 3,57 respectively have more chances of eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes below the 50th percentile, as well as to observe the absolute VO2máx, the R with regular fitness is 9,0; 5,16; 9,65 respectively have more chances of leukocytes, monocytes and neutrophils below the 50th percentile. The M showed that the regular fitness has 3.0 times more chances to have leukocytes and neutrophils below

  9. [Aerobic fitness and cardiorespiratory function of pediatric cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Azar, Meital; Reuveny, Ronen; Constantini, Naama W; Katz, Uriel

    2012-02-01

    Overall, more than 80% of children diagnosed with cancer will survive their immediate disease. This growing group of childhood cancer survivors is at an increased risk for several chronic diseases and increased mortality. Physical activity is a well-known and powerful means to reduce such complications, yet many children are not active as recommended. Furthermore, the complex treatments might adversely affect the heart and lungs, possibly limiting physical performance. To measure aerobic fitness among childhood cancer survivors, while assessing maximal cardiac and respiratory functions. Eighteen children (mean age 11.5 +/- 2.1 years, 50% males) who had completed medical treatment for cancer, and 16 healthy children, performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a bicycle ergometer until exhaustion. Peak oxygen uptake, O2 pulse and several ventilatory parameters were measured and compared between the groups. The mean maximal load obtained by the cancer survivor group was lower than expected, compared with controls (89% +/- 19 vs. 101/% +/- 18, p = 0.055). Peak oxygen consumption was also lower, with a marginal statistical significance (33.3 +/- 7.5 vs. 38.9 +/- 9.7 ml O2/kg/min, p = 0.075), yet was significantly lower when expressed as a percent of age- and sex- appropriate norms [78% +/- 15 vs. 94% +/- 16, p = 0.0081. Cardiac and respiratory functions were normal in all children, with no between-group differences. We conclude that aerobic fitness is lower in children who have survived cancer, with no evidence of significant cardiac or lung damage. Given the importance of regular physical activity for this at-risk population, it should be continuously encouraged, while administering a personally tailored exercise prescription.

  10. Cardiorespiratory responses of Hi Fit and Low Fit subjects to mental challenge during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, E O; Webb, H E; Weldy, M L; Fabianke, E C; Orndorff, G R; Starks, M A

    2006-12-01

    The influence of psychological states on physiological responses during exercise is of considerable importance to individuals for which the efficiency of energy production is critical to occupational performance. Numerous studies have shown that aerobic fitness is associated with enhanced cardiovascular efficiency at rest and that responses to mental stress demonstrate evidence of increased sensitivity (relative increase in HR response) and enhanced efficiency (a decrease in absolute HR). However, the effect of aerobic fitness and its impact on cardiorespiratory (CR) responses to psychological stress during exercise has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was three-fold; (1) to examine during exercise, anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses to a mental challenge, (2) to examine anxiety and heart rate (HR) responses from rest to exercise with mental challenge between below average fitness (Low Fit) and well-above average fitness (Hi Fit) individuals (exercising at similar relative intensities), and (3) to examine anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses of Low Fit and Hi Fit individuals to a mental challenge during exercise at a similar relative intensity. Twelve Low Fit and eleven Hi Fit subjects participated in two, 32-minute cycle ergometer rides at 65 % of VO2max. In the mental challenge condition (MCC), subjects rode while participating in mentally challenging tasks (Stroop Color-Word task and mental arithmetic) from min 6 to min 14 of the protocol. In the no mental challenge condition (NMCC), subjects exercised at the same intensity and duration without a stressor. Subjects were counter-balanced between fitness levels and condition. HR, VE, VE/VO2, RR, VO2, RER, effort sense (RPE), and state anxiety (SAI) were assessed at 5, 14, 24, and 30 min. SAI was also assessed at - 5 min before exercise and after 15 min of recovery. In addition, the NASA task load index (NTLX) was used to assess perceived overall workload. SAI increased

  11. Correlation between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Platelet Function in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Stefan; Assinger, Alice; Pokan, Rochus; Volf, Ivo

    2016-06-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) represents a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, and platelets play a key role in the development of this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between CRF and platelet function. CRF and different aspects of platelet function were assessed in healthy, young, nonsmoking women. Results were compared between groups of low (LF), medium (MF) and high CRF (HF). Measurements were repeated in group LF after a supervised endurance training program lasting two menstrual cycles and obtained results were compared with groups MF and HF. CRF was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) determined by an incremental treadmill exercise test. V˙O2max criteria for groups were (mL·min·kg bodyweight): LF 55. Platelet activation state and platelet reactivity were assessed by basal and agonist-induced surface expression of CD62P and CD40L as well as the intraplatelet amount of reactive oxygen species. In group LF, basal platelet activation as well as agonist-induced platelet reactivity were increased compared with groups MF and HF. Between groups MF and HF parameters of platelet function were roughly equal despite a pronounced difference regarding CRF. Exercise training improved CRF in group LF and aligned platelet function to levels observed in groups MF and HF, although CRF still markedly differed. Low levels of CRF favor a proinflammatory platelet phenotype. A relatively low dose of exercise is sufficient to normalize platelet function, whereas superior levels of physical activity and CRF do not provide any further substantial benefit, but also no appreciable adverse effects.

  12. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Sasaki, Jeffer E; Mascarenhas, Luis P G; Boguszewski, Margaret C S; Bozza, Rodrigo; Ulbrich, Anderson Z; da Silva, Sergio G; de Campos, Wagner

    2011-08-30

    In adults, there is a substantial body of evidence that physical inactivity or low cardiorespiratory fitness levels are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Although this association has been studied extensively in adults, little is known regarding this association in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness levels with metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents. A random sample of 223 girls (mean age, 14.4 ± 1.6 years) and 233 boys (mean age, 14.6 ± 1.6 years) was selected for the study. The level of physical activity was determined by the Bouchard three-day physical activity record. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the Leger 20-meter shuttle run test. The metabolic syndrome components assessed included waist circumference, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose levels. Independent Student t-tests were used to assess gender differences. The associations between physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in inactive adolescents (males, 11.4%; females, 7.2%) and adolescents with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels (males, 13.9%; females, 8.6%). A significant relationship existed between metabolic syndrome and low cardiorespiratory fitness (OR, 3.0 [1.13-7.94]). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among adolescents who are inactive and those with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Prevention strategies for metabolic syndrome should concentrate on enhancing fitness levels early in life.

  13. Participation in vigorous sports, not moderate sports, is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Pratt, Charlotte; Charneco, Eileen Y; Dowda, Marsha; Phillips, Jennie A; Going, Scott B

    2014-03-01

    There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass. The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure. Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls.

  14. Graded associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness, and blood pressure in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klasson-Heggebø, L.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wennlöf, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and sum of skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in the European youth heart study. Methods: The participants were 4072 children and adolescents (aged 9 and 15) from......: A curvilinear graded relation was found between cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference, sum of skinfolds, and systolic blood pressure. The greatest difference in these health variables was observed between low and moderate fitness levels....... Denmark, Portugal, Estonia, and Norway. Cardiorespiratory fitness was indirectly determined using a maximal ergometer cycle test. The sum of four skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure were assessed with a standardised protocol. Linear regression analysis was used to test the graded relation...

  15. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire de; Prado, Wagner Luiz do

    2014-01-01

    To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness as a Predictor of Dementia Mortality in Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Sui, Xuemei; Laditka, James N.; Church, Timothy S.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that physical activity may reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. However, few reports have examined the physical activity-dementia association with objective measures of physical activity. Cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter called fitness) is an objective reproducible measure of recent physical activity habits.

  17. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  18. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientzek, A.; Diaz, M.J.T.; Castano, J.M.H.; Amiano, P.; Arriola, L.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Charles, M.A.; Fagherazzi, G.; Palli, D.; Bendinelli, B.; Skeie, G.; Borch, K.B.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Hollander, de E.L.; May, A.M.; Ouden, den M.E.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Valanou, E.; Soderberg, S.; Franks, P.W.; Brage, S.; Vigl, M.; Boeing, H.; Ekelund, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of overweight in youth: the Healthy Hearts Longitudinal Study of Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavock, Jonathan M; Torrance, Brian D; McGuire, K Ashlee; Wozny, Paul D; Lewanczuk, Richard Z

    2009-09-01

    The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of overweight status in youth. To accomplish this aim we analyzed data from annual school-based surveys of cardiorespiratory fitness and anthropometry conducted between 2004 and 2006. The first analysis was performed on a cohort of 902 youth aged 6-15 years followed for 12 months to assess the association between cardiorespiratory fitness levels determined from a graded maximal field test and the risk of becoming overweight. The second analysis was conducted on a cohort of 222 youth followed for 2 years to assess the continuous association between annual changes fitness and weight gain. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness were characterized by higher waist circumference and disproportionate weight gain over the 12-month follow-up period (P confidence = 2.0-6.0, P youth with low cardiorespiratory fitness, relative to fit peers. A time series mixed effects regression model revealed that reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly and independently associated with increasing BMI (r = -0.18, P youth. Accordingly, low cardiorespiratory fitness and reductions in fitness over time are significantly associated with weight gain and the risk of overweight in children 6-15 years old. An assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using a common field test may prove useful for the identification of youth at risk of overweight and serve as a potential target for obesity prevention.

  20. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were...... measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...

  1. The association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. METHOD: Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish...... municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output...... in a maximal cycle exercise test. RESULTS: A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self...

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness and incident diabetes: the FIT (Henry Ford ExercIse Testing) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P; Blaha, Michael J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Brawner, Clinton; Qureshi, Waqas; Keteyian, Steven J; Schairer, John; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-06-01

    Prior evidence has linked higher cardiorespiratory fitness with a lower risk of diabetes in ambulatory populations. Using a demographically diverse study sample, we examined the association of fitness with incident diabetes in 46,979 patients from The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project without diabetes at baseline. Fitness was measured during a clinician-referred treadmill stress test performed between 1991 and 2009. Incident diabetes was defined as a new diagnosis of diabetes on three separate consecutive encounters derived from electronic medical records or administrative claims files. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards models and were adjusted for diabetes risk factors. The mean age was 53 years with 48% women and 27% black patients. Mean metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved was 9.5 (SD 3.0). During a median follow-up period of 5.2 years (interquartile range 2.6-8.3 years), there were 6,851 new diabetes cases (14.6%). After adjustment, patients achieving ≥12 METs had a 54% lower risk of incident diabetes compared with patients achieving <6 METs (hazard ratio 0.46 [95% CI 0.41, 0.51]; P-trend < 0.001). This relationship was preserved across strata of age, sex, race, obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These data demonstrate that higher fitness is associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes regardless of demographic characteristics and baseline risk factors. Future studies should examine the association between change in fitness over time and incident diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici B; Casonatto, Juliano; Sonoo, Christi Noriko

    2013-01-01

    To verify the association between nutritional status, physical fitness, and body image in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 401 students (236 boys and 165 girls) aged between 8 and 16 years that were regularly enrolled in sports in the local clubs. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index. Students were assessed for satisfaction with body image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001), abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001). The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  4. Screen time and passive school travel as independent predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ogunleye, Ayodele A

    2012-05-01

    The most prevalent sedentary behaviours in children and adolescents are engagement with small screen media (screen-time) and passive travel (by motorised vehicle). The objective of this research was to assess the independence of these behaviours from one another and from physical activity as predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness in n=6819 10-16 year olds (53% male) who self-reported their physical activity (7-day recall) school travel and screen time habits. Travel was classified as active (walking, cycling) or passive; screen time as 4 h. The multivariate odds of being fit were higher in active travel (Boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; Girls: OR 1.46, 1.15-1.84) than in passive travel groups. Boys reporting low screen time were more likely to be fit than those reporting >4 h (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.68-2.63) as were girls (OR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.24-2.20). These odds remained significant after additionally controlling for physical activity. Passive travel and high screen time are independently associated with poor cardiorespiratory fitness in youth, and this relationship is independent of physical activity levels. A lifestyle involving high screen time and habitual passive school travel appears incompatible with healthful levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum Adiponectin Levels and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Nonoverweight and Overweight Portuguese Adolescents: The LabMed Physical Activity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis-Sobrinho, César; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Lopes, Luís; Oliveira-Santos, José; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the independent associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating adiponectin concentration in adolescents, controlling for several potential covariates. This is a cross-sectional study in Portuguese adolescents. A sample of 529 (267 girls) aged 12-18 years were included and categorized as overweight and nonoverweight. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 20 meters shuttle run test. We measured serum adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting glucose, insulin and HDL-cholesterol. After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, socioeconomic status, body fat percentage, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein, regression analysis showed a significant inverse association between adiponectin and cardiorespiratory fitness in nonoverweight participants (B=-0.359; p < .042). Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference between the highest cardiorespiratory fitness Healthy zone (above healthy zone) and the Under and the Healthy cardiorespiratory fitness zones in nonoverweight adolescents (p = .03) (F (2, 339) = 3.156, p < .001). Paradoxically, serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in nonoverweight, but not in overweight adolescents. In nonoverweight adolescents, those with highest levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (above healthy zone) presented lower levels of adiponectin compared with those in Under and Healthy cardiorespiratory fitness zones.

  6. Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, U; Anderssen, S A; Froberg, K

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with a favourable metabolic risk profile. However, there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contributions of cardiorespiratory fitness and subcomponents of activity (total PA...

  7. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are beneficial for white matter in low-fit older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zofia Burzynska

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60-78. Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle.

  8. Differential cross-sectional associations of work- and leisure-time sitting, with cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness among working adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke K

    2014-01-01

    of cardiorespiratory fitness (step test estimated VO 2Max, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and muscular fitness (handgrip strength, lower limb extension power). Associations were explored by linear regression. Results Leisure-time sitting time was significantly (P

  9. Physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

    2014-07-16

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.

  10. The Sexual Dimorphic Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Working Memory in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Davis Moore, R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the sexual dimorphic patterns of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in preadolescent children (age range: 7.7-10.9). Data were collected in three separate studies (Study 1: n = 97, 42 females; Study 2: n = 95, 45 females; Study 3: n = 84, 37 females). All participants completed a cardiorespiratory…

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function in children with cancer from diagnosis throughout treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Larsen, Hanne Bækgaard; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    programme with no dropouts. Strenuous physical exercise and physiological testing during paediatric cancer treatment was safe and feasible, with only five minor adverse events during the intervention. Cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly lower in children with cancer than norms for healthy age...

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in United States Veterans on Statin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Peter; Faselis, Charles; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Nylen, Eric; Sui, Xuemei; Zhang, Jiajia; Lavie, Carl J

    2017-10-01

    Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on statin-related incidence of type 2 diabetes has not been assessed. We assessed the cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes incidence association in dyslipidemic patients on statins. We identified dyslipidemic patients with a normal exercise test performed during 1986 and 2014 at the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Washington, DC or Palo Alto, Calif. The statin-treated patients (n = 4092; age = 58.8 ± 10.9 years) consisted of 2701 Blacks and 1391 Whites. None had evidence of type 2 diabetes prior to statin therapy. We formed 4 fitness categories based on age and peak metabolic equivalents achieved: Least-fit (n = 954), Low-fit (n = 1201), Moderate-fit (n = 1242), and High-fit (n = 695). The non-statin-treated cohort (n = 3001; age = 57.2 ± 11.2 years) with no evidence of type 2 diabetes prior to the exercise test served as controls. Diabetes incidence was 24% higher in statin-treated compared with non-statin-treated patients (P fit, adjusted risk decreased progressively with increasing fitness and was 34% lower for High-fit patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.82; P fit (HR 1.50; 95% CI, 1.30-1.73; P fit patients (HR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41; P = .006). Risk of diabetes in statin-treated dyslipidemic patients was inversely and independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. The increased risk was evident only in relatively low-fitness patients. Improving fitness may modulate the potential diabetogenic effects of statins. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Type 2 Diabetes is Associated with Lower Cardiorespiratory Fitness Independent of Pulmonary Function in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Britta; Ernst, Barbara; Thurnheer, Martin; Spengler, Christina M; Schultes, Bernd

    2017-05-01

    Both severe obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with reduced pulmonary function and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness. We investigated whether T2DM further aggravates the impaired pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory fitness in subjects with severe obesity. In this cross-sectional study pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume within 1 s, FEV1; vital capacity, VC) was assessed in 65 severely obese subjects with T2DM (T2DM group) and 65 severely obese subjects without T2DM (non-T2DM group), pairwise matched for sex, age, weight, and height. In 30 of the matched pairs, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by an incremental bicycle test (peak workload, Wpeak, oxygen uptake, V̇O2,peak). FEV1 and VC did not differ between the T2DM and non-T2DM group (all p≥0.110), whereas Wpeak and V̇O2,peak - absolute values as well as relative to body mass - were significantly lower in subjects with T2DM compared to those without T2DM (all p≤0.030). Objective markers of maximal exertion, i. e., maximal heart rate and respiratory exchange ratio, did not differ between the 2 groups (both p≥0.245). The presence of T2DM in subjects with severe obesity is associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness but with no further reduction in pulmonary function compared to subjects with severe obesity but without T2DM. While the cause-effect relationship of this association is not yet clear, these findings highlight the interplay between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic health, even in subjects with severe obesity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness in urban adolescent girls: associations with race and pubertal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Kazanis, Anamaria; Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness affords health benefits to youth. Among females, weight-relative fitness declines during puberty and is lower among African American (AA) than Caucasian girls. Data indicate racial differences in pubertal timing and tempo, yet the interactive influence of puberty and race on fitness, and the role of physical activity (PA) in these associations have not been examined. Thus, independent and interactive associations of race and pubertal development with fitness in adolescent girls, controlling for PA were examined. Girls in grades 5-8 (n = 1011; Caucasian = 25.2%, AA = 52.3%, Other Race group = 22.5%) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (pubertal stage assessment) and Fitnessgram® Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test (cardiorespiratory fitness assessment). PA was assessed by accelerometry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine associations among race, pubertal stage and fitness, controlling for vigorous PA, AA, and pubertally advanced girls demonstrated lower fitness than Caucasian and less mature counterparts. Puberty and race remained significantly associated with fitness after controlling for vigorous PA. The interaction effect of race and puberty on fitness was non-significant. The pubertal influence on fitness is observed among AA adolescents. Associations between fitness and race/puberty appear to be independent of each other and vigorous PA. Pubertally advanced AA girls represent a priority group for fitness interventions.

  15. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...... of fitness and MC through developmentally appropriate physical activities, as the synergistic interactions of all three variables impacted body fatness....

  16. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence – Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaana Tikanmäki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methods Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986, 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg−1·min−1. Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother’s and father’s body mass index (BMI, maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother’s or father’s overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring’s physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent’s own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother’s but not the father’s overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Change and Mortality Risk Among Black and White Patients: Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Keteyian, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the relationship of change in cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality risk in Black patients. This study assessed change in cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with all-cause mortality risk in Black and White patients. This is a retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of 13,345 patients (age = 55 ± 11 years; 39% women; 26% black) who completed 2 exercise tests, at least 12 months apart at Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. All-cause mortality was identified through April 2013. Data were analyzed in 2015-2016 using Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk of mortality associated with change in sex-specific cardiorespiratory fitness. Mean time between the tests was 3.4 years (interquartile range 1.9-5.6 years). During 9.1 years (interquartile range 6.3-11.6 years) of follow-up, there were 1931 (14%) deaths (16.5% black, 13.7% white). For both races, change in fitness from Low to the Intermediate/High category resulted in a significant reduction of death risk (HR 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49-0.87] for Black; HR 0.41 [95% CI, 0.34-0.51] for White). Each 1-metabolic-equivalent-of-task increase was associated with a reduced mortality risk in black (HR 0.84 [95% CI, 0.81-0.89]) and white (HR 0.87 [95% CI, 0.82-0.86]) patients. There was no interaction by race. Among black and white patients, change in cardiorespiratory fitness from Low to Intermediate/High fitness was associated with a 35% and 59% lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness and incident heart failure: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsky, Daniel F; Ahmed, Amjad M; Sakr, Sherif; Qureshi, Waqas T; Brawner, Clinton A; Blaha, Michael J; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-03-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to be a strong marker of cardiovascular health. However, there are limited data investigating the association between CRF and risk of progression to heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between CRF and incident HF. We included 66,329 patients (53.8% men, mean age 55 years) free of HF who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing at Henry Ford Health Systems between 1991 and 2009. Incident HF was determined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from electronic medical records or administrative claim files. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to determine the association between CRF and incident HF. A total of 4,652 patients developed HF after a median follow-up duration of 6.8 (±3) years. Patients with incident HF were older (63 vs 54 years, P<.001) and had higher prevalence of known coronary artery disease (42.3% vs 11%, P<.001). Peak metabolic equivalents (METs) of task were 6.3 (±2.9) and 9.1 (±3) in the HF and non-HF groups, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients able to achieve ≥12 METs had an 81% lower risk of incident HF compared with those achieving <6 METs (hazard ratio 0.19 [95% CI 0.14-0.29], P for trend < .001). Each 1 MET achieved was associated with a 16% lower risk (hazard ratio 0.84 [95% CI 0.82-0.86], P<.001) of incident HF. Our analysis demonstrates that higher level of fitness is associated with a lower incidence of HF independent of HF risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function in children with cancer from diagnosis throughout treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with cancer experience severe reductions in physical fitness and functionality during and following intensive treatment. This may negatively impact their quality of life. PURPOSE: To describe the physical capacity and functionality of children with cancer during and after...... or Langerhans cell histiocytosis, all treated with chemotherapy. Seventy-five of 78 consecutively eligible children (96.2%) were included. Median age was 11 years (range 6‒18). The physical capacity and function were assessed based on testing of physical strength, balance and cardiorespiratory fitness. Children...... programme with no dropouts. Strenuous physical exercise and physiological testing during paediatric cancer treatment was safe and feasible, with only five minor adverse events during the intervention. Cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly lower in children with cancer than norms for healthy age...

  20. The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, & electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Moore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems, which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs. No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d’ scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170 and late ERP components (P3, N400 were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3 and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

  1. Hyperuricemia is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and excess weight in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luiza N; Renner, Jane D P; Reuter, Cézane P; Horta, Jorge A; Paiva, Dulciane N; Valim, Andréia R de M; Sehn, Ana P; de Mello, Elza D; Burgos, Miria S

    To evaluate the possible association between hyperuricemia and cardiorespiratory fitness levels/nutritional profile, grouped into a single variable, in schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study of 2335 students from Elementary schools, aged 7-17 years of both genders, stratified by conglomerates of a municipality in Southern Brazil. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed by the 6-minute run/walk test. The BMI and CRF were grouped into a single variable, considering: (1) low and normal weight/fit; (2) low and normal weight/unfit; (3) overweight-obesity/fit; (4) overweight-obesity/unfit. The Poisson regression (prevalence ratio, PR) was used for the association between hyperuricemia and BMI/CRF ratio with 95% confidence intervals and differences were considered significant when p<0.05. There is an association, although subtle, between the presence of hyperuricemia with low levels of CRF and the presence of excess weight, when grouped into a single variable. Boys and girls with this condition have higher prevalence of hyperuricemia (PR: 1.07; p=0.007 for boys; PR: 1.10; p<0.001 for girls). Together, excess weight and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with the presence of hyperuricemia in schoolchildren. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of achievement goals on cardiorespiratory fitness: does self-efficacy make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-09-01

    The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 x 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 x 2 achievement goals and cardiorespiratory fitness A sample of 276 middle school students (115 boys and 161 girls; 91 sixth graders, 87 seventh graders, and 98 eighth graders), aged 12 to 15 years (Mage = 13.34, SD = 0.96), responded to the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (Conroy, Elliot, & Hofer, 2003) and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (Gao, Newton, & Carson, 2008) referenced to the fitness test. Their cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) 3 days later. Structural equation modeling demonstrated an acceptable model fit to the data, Chi2 (2, N = 105) = 1.66. Self-efficacy had a statistically significant direct effect on the PACER after controlling for the effects of the achievement goals (gamma(self-efficacy))-PACER = .21). MAv and PAp also had direct effects on PACER performance (gammaMAv-PACER = -.24, and gammaPAp-PACER = .24, respectively). MAp failed to exert direct effect on the PACER. However, the indirect effect of MAp on the PACER via self-efficacy was small although it was statistically significant. Additionally, the indirect effects of MAv and PAp on PACER through self-efficacy were not significant. Students' self-efficacy fully mediated the effect of MAp on fitness performance, as well as partially mediated the effects of MAv and PAp on cardiorespiratory fitness performance. Study implications are provided for educators and practitioners.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness protects against stress-related symptoms of burnout and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Lindwall, Magnus; Lindegård, Agneta; Börjesson, Mats; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-10-01

    To examine how cardiorespiratory fitness and self-perceived stress are associated with burnout and depression. To determine if any relationship between stress and burnout/depression is mitigated among participants with high fitness levels. 197 participants (51% men, mean age=39.2 years) took part in the study. The Åstrand bicycle test was used to assess cardorespiratory fitness. Burnout was measured with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), depressive symptoms with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). A gender-matched stratified sample was used to ensure that participants with varying stress levels were equally represented. Participants with moderate and high fitness reported fewer symptoms of burnout and depression than participants with low fitness. Individuals with high stress who also had moderate or high fitness levels reported lower scores on the SMBQ Tension subscale and the HAD-D than individuals with high stress, but low fitness levels. Better cardiovascular fitness seems to be associated with decreased symptoms of burnout and a better capacity to cope with stress. Promoting and measuring cardiorespiratory fitness can motivate employees to adopt a more physically active lifestyle and thus strengthen their ability to cope with stress exposure and stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viinamäki Heimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67% more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being.

  5. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, and low-grade inflammation in middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Benoit J; Cartier, Amélie; Côté, Mélanie; Lemieux, Isabelle; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the respective contributions of visceral adipose tissue (AT) accumulation and cardiorespiratory fitness to variation of inflammatory markers in men and women. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and adiponectin were obtained with visceral AT (computed tomography) and fitness (physical working capacity test) levels in a sample of healthy men (n = 120) and women (n = 152) covering a wide range of adiposity. An inflammation score was developed based on gender-specific percentile values of each inflammatory marker (0 or 1), which yielded a score ranging from 0 (low) to 4 (high). Visceral AT was positively associated with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels (r > or =0.35, p fitness. After adjusting for visceral AT, fitness was not associated with variation in inflammatory markers in women and only with adiponectin in men (r = -0.20, p = 0.03). In participants with low visceral AT (fitness, whereas in subjects with increased visceral AT, prevalences of a high inflammation score were 60.0% and 61.7%, respectively, for participants with high and low fitness. In conclusion, these results suggest that the previously reported association between poor fitness and low-grade inflammation may be largely attributable to increased visceral AT accumulation and its associated state of insulin resistance, conditions frequently observed in subjects with poor cardiorespiratory fitness.

  6. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Lung Health from Young Adulthood to Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benck, Lillian R; Cuttica, Michael J; Colangelo, Laura A; Sidney, Stephen; Dransfield, Mark T; Mannino, David M; Jacobs, David R; Lewis, Cora E; Zhu, Na; Washko, George R; Liu, Kiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Kalhan, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Beyond the risks of smoking, there are limited data on factors associated with change in lung function over time. To determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness was longitudinally associated with preservation of lung health. Prospective data were collected from 3,332 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study aged 18-30 in 1985 who underwent treadmill exercise testing at baseline visit, and 2,735 participants with a second treadmill test 20 years later. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and covariate adjusted decline in lung function was evaluated. Higher baseline fitness was associated with less decline in lung function. When adjusted for age, height, race-sex group, peak lung function, and years from peak lung function, each additional minute of treadmill duration was associated with 1.00 ml/yr less decline in FEV1 (P fitness was associated with greater annual decline in lung function. Each 1-minute decline in treadmill duration between baseline and Year 20 was associated with 2.54 ml/yr greater decline in FEV1 (P fitness over 20 years were associated with preservation of lung health. Greater cardiopulmonary fitness in young adulthood, less decline in fitness from young adulthood to middle age, and achieving increased fitness from young adulthood to middle age are associated with less decline in lung health over time. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00005130).

  7. Restless legs syndrome in adolescents: relationship with sleep quality, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos D. Giannaki

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between restless legs syndrome (RLS and cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and sleep quality in a sample of adolescents. Methods: One hundred fifty seven volunteer adolescents (16.6 ± 0.7 yrs participated in the study. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburg sleep quality index. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: The prevalence of RLS was 5.1%. The adolescents with RLS were found to exhibit significantly higher body fat levels (p=0.019 and poorer sleep quality score (p=0.000 compared with their free-RLS counterparts. Conclusions: Adolescents with RLS are subjects of higher body fat and impaired sleep quality compared with adolescents without RLS. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of RLS is essential in the adolescents.

  8. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  9. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  10. Agreement of physical activity questionnaire with cardiorespiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Glaner

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many health benefi ts are associated with physical activity level (PAL, but no standardized approaches to measurement exist, and comparisons and surveillance are problematic. The aim of this study was to verify the level ofagreement between the results of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ: short and the Habitual Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ with true cardiorespiratory fi tness (VO2max, in order to classify young men and women ashaving PAL that is either adequate or inadequate for good health. A convenience sample was studied, composed of 105 young adults (43 male physical education students; 28 female physical education students; 34 males not studying physicaleducation. Both questionnaires were self-administered under the identical conditions. Values for VO2max were obtained using Cooper’s 12 min running test. Subjects were classifi ed as having PAL and VO2max that were adequate or inadequatefor good health. The cut off points used to defi ne adequate VO2max ≥44 ml/kg/min-1 for men and ≥33 ml/kg/min-1 for women. Agreement was assessed using a 2x2 contingency table. Percentage agreement ranged from 51.10% to 64.70% for theHPAQ and was 47.06% for the IPAQ. Agreement was higher for the HPAQ than for the IPAQ. Women overestimated their PAL by HPAQ and men underestimated their PAL by both questionnaires. The fi ndings of this study suggest that the HPAQ tends to be more accurate than the IPAQ. RESUMOMuitos benefícios à saúde são associados ao nível de atividade física (NAF, mas não existem medidas padronizadas para tal e, comparações e monitorações são difíceis. O propósito deste estudo foi verifi car a concordância do Questionário Internacional para Atividades Físicas (IPAQ – curto e do Questionário de Atividades Físicas Habituais (QAFH com a aptidão cardiorrespiratória (VO2max, para classifi car homens e mulheres jovens, com níveis de atividade física (NAF recomendado, ou não, para a sa

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eero A. Haapala

    2013-01-01

    .... The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age...

  12. Tracking of BMI, fatness and cardiorespiratory fitness from adolescence to middle adulthood: the Zagreb Growth and Development Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorić, Maroje; Jembrek Gostović, Mirjana; Gostović, Mladen; Hočevar, Marija; Mišigoj-Duraković, Marjeta

    2014-01-01

    Effective intervention strategies aiming to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and to decrease body fatness are needed. However, long-term stability of these traits is not well understood. To assess long-term tracking of cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness from late adolescence to middle adulthood. The sample consisted of 50 participants (31 boys) from the Zagreb Growth and Development Longitudinal Study who were followed up in adulthood (median age = 43). Fatness was evaluated through BMI and skin-folds, while cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Inter-age partial correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate tracking. Body mass index and skin-folds showed moderate tracking from age 15 years to middle adulthood (partial r = 0.55, p adolescents, irrespective of their cardiorespiratory fitness status. Conversely, strategies aiming at obesity prevention should focus on high-risk groups of adolescents.

  13. A preliminary study of smokeless tobacco on cardio-respiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smokeless tobacco has been advocated as a substitute for cigarette smoking. On the contrary, the use of smokeless tobacco is fraught with health risk and needs to be discouraged. Although previous reports have described long-term harmful effects of smokeless tobacco on various body parameters, little is known about short-term effects of smokeless tobacco on cardio-respiratory parameters. Very few studies have been undertaken on the effect of short-term use of smokeless tobacco in India on cardio-respiratory parameters of youngsters. This aspect of use of smokeless tobacco needs to be attended to. Material and Methods: The present study has been undertaken to study the effect of smokeless tobacco on cardio-respiratory fitness tests in young healthy tobacco chewers compared to age- and sex-matched nontobacco chewing healthy controls. Various cardio-respiratory parameters like resting HR, delta HR, MVV, VE max, VO 2 max were studied by using treadmill exercise testing and computerized spirometry. Results: In the present study no statistically significant difference was found in any parameter studied that can be attributed to the residual effect of short-term use of smokeless tobacco. Conclusion: This is the reason enough to discourage smokeless tobacco from this unhealthy habit at this early stage itself before permanent residual effects on health is seen.

  14. Target heart rates for the development of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P; Abernathy, K S; Smith, C S; Lee, S J; Bunn, S A

    1994-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends the use of 40%, 60%, 80%, and 85% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) as target values in developing exercise prescriptions. Further, the ACSM states that 55%, 70%, 85%, and 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) may be used as indices of these respective levels of % VO2max for the general population. The current study evaluated this relationship between %HRmax and %VO2max in apparently healthy, young adults. Eighty-one men and 81 women between the ages of 18 and 34 engaged in an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Linear regressions of %HRmax and %VO2max were performed on each subject. From these regressions, target values of %HRmax were computed for each individual. Mean percentages of HRmax were 63%, 76%, 89%, and 92% at 40%, 60%, 80%, and 85% of VO2max, respectively. At all of these values of %VO2max, the values obtained for %HRmax were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those used by the ACSM. Fitness affected these results, particularly among men. High fit men averaged 2% higher in %HRmax than low fit men at any given value of %VO2max.

  15. Associations between sports participation, cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity in young adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, L; Latvala, A; Pietiläinen, K H; Piirilä, P; Sovijärvi, A R; Kujala, U M; Rissanen, A; Kaprio, J

    2011-03-01

    Exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity are strongly influenced by genetic factors. By studying young adult twins, we examined to what extent these interrelated traits have shared genetic and environmental etiologies. We studied 304 twin individuals selected from the population-based FinnTwin16 study. Physical activity was assessed with the Baecke questionnaire, yielding three indexes: sport index, leisure-time index, and work index. In this study, we focused on sport index, which describes sports participation. Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cardiorespiratory fitness using a bicycle ergometer exercise test with gas exchange analysis. The Baecke sport index was associated with high maximal oxygen uptake adjusted for lean body mass (Vo(2max)[adj]) (r = 0.40), with low body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.44) and low waist circumference (WC) (r = -0.29). Heritability estimates for the key traits were as follows: 56% for sport index, 71% for Vo(2max)[adj], 77% for body mass index, 66% for WC, and 68% for BF%. The association between sport index and Vo(2max) was mostly explained by genetic factors (70%), as were both the association between sport index and BF% (71%) and that between sport index and WC (59%). Our results suggest that genetic factors explain a considerable part of the associations between sports participation, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity.

  16. Screen time, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity among school-age children from Monteria, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Carlos M; Parra, Diana C; Gómez, Luis F; Lema, Lucía; Lobelo, Felipe; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-09-01

    To explore the association between electronic media exposure (television viewing time, personal computer/video game use, total screen time), and waist circumference and body mass index, and study whether this association is independent of cardiorespiratory fitness, in a representative sample of adolescents from Montería, Colombia. Cross-sectional study analyzing data from 546 students aged 11-18 years, from fourteen randomly selected schools. Z-scores for WC and BMI were calculated. The physical activity module of the Global School Health Survey 2007 was used to determine EME, and the shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. Linear regression models adjusted by age, school location, physical activity level, type of institution (public or private), consumption of sweetened beverages, fast food, and fried food were used. Among boys, independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, high television viewing time (≥ 2 h/day) (β=+0.22; p3h/day) was positively associated with waist circumference (β=+0.34; pnegatively associated with body mass index. These findings support the evidence on the negative impact of excessive electronic media exposure and low cardiorespiratory fitness, and highlight the need for interventions and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-selection accounts for inverse association between weight and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    Men and women who exercise regularly and who are physically fit tend to be leaner than those who are sedentary and not fit. Although exercise is known to attenuate weight gain and promote weight loss, there may also be a propensity for leaner men and women to choose to exercise vigorously (self-selection). Pre-exercise body weights have been shown to account for all the weight differences between fast and slow walkers, but seem to account for only a portion of the weight differences associated with walking distances. Whether these results apply to maximum exercise performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness) as well as to doses of vigorous exercise (metabolic equivalents >6) remains to be determined. Assess whether the cross-sectional relationships of BMI to cardiorespiratory fitness and vigorous activity are explained by BMI prior to exercising. Cross-sectional study of the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness (running speed during 10 km foot race) and vigorous physical activity (weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMI(current)) and BMI at the start of running (BMI(starting)) in 44,370 male and 25,252 female participants of the National Runners' Health Study. BMI(starting) accounted entirely for the association between fitness and BMI(current) in both sexes, but only a quarter of the association between vigorous physical activity levels and BMI(current) in men. In women, BMI(starting) accounted for 58% of the association between BMI(current) and vigorous activity levels. Self-selection based on pre-exercise BMI accounts entirely for the association found between fitness and BMI (and possibly a portion of other health outcomes).

  18. The Effect of Tai Chi Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Zheng; Shuzhen Li; Maomao Huang; Feiwen Liu; Jing Tao; Lidian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Tai Chi may be efficient for healthy adults to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness, but there is no systematic evaluation for its effectiveness. Objective To systematically assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception to October 2013. The controlled trails including randomized controlled trial (RCT), non-randomized controlled trial (NRCT), self-controlled trial (SCT), and ...

  19. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen Henrik; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-08-13

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  3. Associations of sedentary behaviour, physical activity, blood pressure and anthropometric measures with cardiorespiratory fitness in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Hensey, Owen; McLoughlin, Brenda; Lyons, Alan; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP. This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD) age 11.3 (0.2) yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥10 min bouts) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (β = 0.339, prun test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (prun test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01), waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001), waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05) after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is associated with high cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A

    2009-01-01

    , children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among......AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256...

  5. Associations between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galavíz, Karla I; Tremblay, Mark S; Colley, Rachel; Jáuregui, Edtna; López y Taylor, Juan; Janssen, Ian

    2012-10-01

    To examine the independent relation of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) with measures of obesity in Mexican children. Children (N=193) in 5th and 6th grade from Guadalajara participated. Body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SS) and waist circumference (WC) were measured. PA was measured over four days using pedometry and fitness was measured using the 20 meter shuttle-run test. Fitness and PA were negatively related to the obesity measures in boys and girls (r=-0.57 to -0.64 and r=-0.18 to -0.23 respectively). Age adjusted significant differences in WC, BMI, and SS were observed between the lowest and highest fitness tertiles for boys and girls (pobesity than PA in this sample.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness in 16 025 adults aged 18-91 years and associations with physical activity and sitting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, L; Grønbaek, M; Helge, J W; Tolstrup, J S

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who were sedentary. Among sedentary or lightly physically active participants, inverse associations between total daily sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness were found, while there was no association between sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness among moderately or vigorously physically active participants. These data on cardiorespiratory fitness can serve as useful reference material. Although reluctant to conclude on causality, sitting time might impact cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with low levels of leisure time physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias; Søgaard, Karen; Skotte, Jørgen H; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness, suggesting that there is a need for further investigations.

  8. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness among refugee Somali women living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Pauline B; Elmi, Fatuma Hussein; Corrigan, Callie

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness Walk Test was used to estimate the women's cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Thirty-one women between 12 and 66 years old participated in this study. There was a significantly greater proportion (71.4%) of participants with a BMI in the overweight or obese range (>or=25 kg/m2) compared to normative New Zealand women's data (49.3%; p = 0.015). The proportion of Somali women (42%) with a waist-to-hip ratio in excess of 0.8 was higher than that of New Zealand women (35.6%), but not statistically so. All women over 30 years of age (n = 12) had an estimated VO2max below the 50th percentile with eight participants below the 10th percentile. The extent of overweight and obesity and low fitness levels, particularly among the older Somali women in this study, suggests that Somali women are at increased risk of developing lifestyle related diseases.

  9. A Method by Which to Assess the Scalability of Field-Based Fitness Tests of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domone, Sarah; Mann, Steven; Sandercock, Gavin; Wade, Matthew; Beedie, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has reported the validity and reliability of a range of field-based tests of children's cardiorespiratory fitness. These two criteria are critical in ensuring the integrity and credibility of data derived through such tests. However, the criterion of scalability has received little attention. Scalability determines the degree to which tests developed on small samples in controlled settings might demonstrate real-world value, and is of increasing interest to policymakers and practitioners. The present paper proposes a method by which the scalability of cardiorespiratory field-based tests suitable for school-aged children might be assessed. We developed an algorithm to estimate scalability based on a six-component model; delivery, evidence of operating at scale, effectiveness, costs, resource requirements and practical implementation. We tested the algorithm on data derived through a systematic review of research that has used relevant fitness tests. A total of 229 studies that had used field based cardiorespiratory fitness tests to measure children's fitness were identified. Initial analyses indicated that the 5-min run test did not meet accepted criteria for reliability, whilst the 6-min walk test likewise failed to meet the criteria for validity. Of the remainder, a total of 28 studies met the inclusion criteria, 22 reporting the 20-m shuttle-run and seven the 1-mile walk/run. Using the scalability algorithm we demonstrate that the 20-m shuttle run test is substantially more scalable than the 1-mile walk/run test, with tests scoring 34/48 and 25/48, respectively. A comprehensive analysis of scalability was prohibited by the widespread non-reporting of data, for example, those relating to cost-effectiveness. Of all sufficiently valid and reliable candidate tests identified, using our algorithm the 20-m shuttle run test was identified as the most scalable. We hope that the algorithm will prove useful in the examination of scalability in either new

  10. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Franklin, Barry; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) phenotype and carotid intima-media thickness. We evaluated 3838 men (mean age, 51 ± 6 years) who participated in the general health examination program at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, between January 2, 2008, and December 31, 2008. Participants were divided into 4 groups on the basis of body habitus and metabolic health status using the Asia-Pacific criteria. On the basis of Asian criteria, MHO was defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m(2) with less than 3 metabolic abnormalities. Cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) was directly measured by using peak oxygen uptake and divided into unfit (lower tertile of fitness) and fit (middle and upper tertiles of fitness) categories on the basis of age-specific peak oxygen uptake percentiles. The prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean carotid intima-media thickness greater than the 75th percentile. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), MHO was associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.72) after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the MHO unfit group had 2.00 times (95% CI, 1.48-2.73) and the metabolically unhealthy obesity unfit group had 1.84 times (95% CI, 1.26-2.67) higher risk of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis as compared with the MHNW fit group (reference group). However, MHO fit (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.97-1.62) and metabolically unhealthy obesity fit (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.90-1.92) groups had odds ratios for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis similar to those of the MHNW fit group. Metabolically healthy obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, but this association was attenuated by increasing levels of cardiorespiratory

  11. Association between health behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents: results from the cross-sectional MoMo-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhans, Eliane; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescent and familial health behavioral factors and cardiorespiratory fitness in German adolescent boys and girls. This study is based on a large nationwide cross-sectional study and its substudy on physical activity and fitness of children and adolescents ("Motorik-Modul"). For 1,328 adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age, data on cardiorespiratory fitness (Physical working capacity 170, PWC(170)) and familial and adolescent health behavioral factors were collected. Health behavior was assessed using psychometric questionnaires (socioeconomic status, pubertal stage, daily physical activity, sports-club time, parental physical activity habits, etc.). A hierarchical multiple regression model was used to quantify the association between relative PWC(170) values and health behavior. The relationship between adolescents' health behavioral factors and cardiorespiratory fitness was stronger than the relationship between age, social status, familial health behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness. Familial health behavioral factors explained 4.1% and 2.1% of variance in cardiorespiratory fitness in girls and boys, respectively. Adolescents' health behavioral factors explained 15.2% of variance in girls and 25.7% of variance in boys. For both girls (β = .273) and boys (β = .400), being normal weight had the greatest effect on relative PWC(170) values. The difference in explained variance in cardiorespiratory fitness by familial and adolescents' health behavioral factors between girls and boys indicates that different predictors for cardiorespiratory fitness are important for girls and boys. Hence, sex specific research and interventions aimed at improving familial and adolescent health behavior may be important. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  13. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels on the Risk of Developing Atherogenic Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, Charity B; Polinski, Kristen; Sarzynski, Mark A; Lavie, Carl J; Kokkinos, Peter F; Ahmed, Ali; Sui, Xuemei

    2016-10-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity. However, research about the impact of fitness on lipid abnormalities, including atherogenic dyslipidemia, has produced mixed results. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the influence of baseline fitness and changes in fitness on the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. All participants completed at least 3 comprehensive medical examinations performed by a physician that included a maximal treadmill test between 1976 and 2006 at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as a triad of lipid abnormalities: low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol ([HDL-C] dyslipidemia during an average of 8.85 years of follow-up. High baseline fitness was protective against the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia in comparison with those with low fitness (odds ratio [OR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.89); however, this relationship became nonsignificant after controlling for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels. Participants who maintained fitness over time had lower odds of developing atherogenic dyslipidemia than those with a reduction in fitness (OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91) after adjusting for baseline confounders and changes in known risk factors. High fitness at baseline and maintenance of fitness over time are protective against the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness in 16 025 adults aged 18-91 years and associations with physical activity and sitting time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Grønbæk, M; Helge, J W

    2016-01-01

    fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher...... cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who......Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory...

  15. Gut microbiota composition associated with alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jesseca A; Ptacek, Travis S; Carter, Stephen J; Liu, Nianjun; Kumar, Ranjit; Hyndman, LaKeshia; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Morrow, Casey D; Rogers, Laura Q

    2017-05-01

    In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses. Cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and sleep dysfunction were assessed at M0 and M3 via the submaximal treadmill test, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Increased fatigue interference in BCS was associated with increased mean within-sample Shannon diversity (organism richness and evenness) (p = 0.009). Weighted UniFrac analysis (shifts in taxa relative abundance) revealed significant differences in between-sample (beta) diversity for changes in fatigue interference (p = 0.01) and anxiety (p = 0.022), with a trend observed for fatigue intensity and sleep dysfunction (p gut bacteria genera (e.g., Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, Bacteroides) (p gut microbiota composition and longitudinal changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue, and anxiety in BCS. Further research examining the role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in exercise-induced effects on psychosocial outcomes in BCS is warranted.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K.; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m−2) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO2: 150 mmHg, FIO2: 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO2: 117 mmHg, FIO2: 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake (V·O2peak), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in V·O2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min−1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min−1 (+26.1%)] and peak O2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM (p < 0.05). Although the 5-wk HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C (p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C (p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C ( p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C ( p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group

  18. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners between...... 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were...

  19. Physical activity versus cardiorespiratory fitness: two (partly) distinct components of cardiovascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Willis, Benjamin L; Barlow, Carolyn E; Finley, Carrie E; Levine, Benjamin D; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) both have inverse relationships to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recent position papers and guidelines have identified the important role of both of these factors in CV health. The benefits of PA and CRF in the prevention of CV disease and risk factors are reviewed. In addition, assessment methodology and utilization in the research and clinical arenas are discussed. Finally, the benefits, methodology, and utilization are compared and contrasted to better understand the two (partly) distinct components and their impact on CV health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim...... opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity.Trial registrationThe study is registered as ISRCTN86682076.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...

  1. Physical activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcala-Sanchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua......, Me´xico including 64 adult Tarahumara, mean (SD) age 40.7 (12.9) years. Using a combined accelerometer and heart rate sensor, PAEE was measured over three consecutive days and nights and a sub-maximal step test was carried out in order to (1) calibrate heart rate at the individual level and (2...

  2. Validity of a cardiorespiratory fitness test for men with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, P; Dunn, J M; McCubbin, J A; Quinn, C

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a field test of cardiorespiratory fitness for men with mental retardation. The subjects were 19 healthy young men (26 +/- 6 yr) with moderate mental retardation (IQ = 48 +/- 11). Each subject underwent a maximal treadmill test after a three-phase familiarization process. Each subject also completed a 1-mile walk test twice (Rockport Fitness Walking Test = RFWT). The correlation coefficients between peak VO2 on the treadmill and the two 1-mile walks varied from 0.78 to 0.83. When weight, height, age, heart rates of 1-mile walks, and their combinations were held constant, the correlations were strengthened. Using multiple correlation analysis the best equation for predicting peak VO2 was: Peak VO2 = 101.92 - 2.356(mile-1 time) - 0.42(weight). This model accounted for 85% of total variance. The standard error of estimate was 4.06 ml.kg-1.min-1. The test-retest reliability of the RFWT for the 19 subjects used in this study was very high (R = 0.97). This finding suggests that the RFWT is a valid and reliable field test for this population and appears to be a valid indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness for these men with mental retardation.

  3. High levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with good self-rated health in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Tammelin, Tuija; Ebeling, Hanna; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Taanila, Anja

    2015-02-01

    Adolescent self-rated health is a strong predictor of future illness. In this study we investigated whether physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with self-rated health among adolescents aged 16 years. The study sample comprised 7,063 adolescents from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) who responded to a postal questionnaire in 2001 to 2002. Self-rated health was measured by a single-item question, while physical activity was evaluated by a set of questions concerning the intensity and volume of physical activity outside school hours. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for good self-rated health were obtained from multinomial logistic regression. High levels of physical activity (boys: OR 5.50, 95% CI 3.16 to 9.58; girls: OR 4.25, 95% CI 2.37 to 7.61) and cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.24; girls: OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.66) were associated with very good self-rated health in adolescents. High levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are positively associated with adolescents' self-rated health. Public health promotion activities that foster physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness may benefit young people's overall health and well-being.

  4. Resilience as a mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the relationship between resilience, cardiorespiratory fitness, and mental health-related quality of life, and examined whether resilience acts as a mediator between the latter two. The study included 770 university students, aged 18-30 years, from Cuenca, Spain. Anthropometric, sociodemographic, cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run test), biochemical parameters, resilience, and mental health-related quality of life measurements were analyzed. The results showed that mental health-related quality-of-life values were significantly higher in students who had good cardiorespiratory fitness and a high level of resilience. Moreover, resilience acted as a partial mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life at 33.79%. Therefore, in young adults, resilience mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life. These findings should be taken into account by nurses and other public health professionals, because in addition to the development of physical activity interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life, it is necessary to implement measures that increase resilience to achieve mental wellness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Alzheimer Disease Alters the Relationship of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Brain Activity During the Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayed, Matthew R.; Honea, Robyn A.; Savage, Cary R.; Hobbs, Derek; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite mounting evidence that physical activity has positive benefits for brain and cognitive health, there has been little characterization of the relationship between cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness and cognition-associated brain activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The lack of evidence is particularly glaring for diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) that degrade cognitive and functional performance. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between regional brain activity during cognitive tasks and CR fitness level in people with and without AD. Design A case-control, single-observation study design was used. Methods Thirty-four individuals (18 without dementia and 16 in the earliest stages of AD) completed maximal exercise testing and performed a Stroop task during fMRI. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with anterior cingulate activity in the participants without dementia (r=−.48, P=.05) and unassociated with activation in those with AD (P>.7). Weak associations of CR fitness and middle frontal cortex were noted. Limitations The wide age range and the use of a single task in fMRI rather than multiple tasks challenging different cognitive capacities were limitations of the study. Conclusions The results offer further support of the relationship between CR fitness and regional brain activity. However, this relationship may be attenuated by disease. Future work in this area may provide clinicians and researchers with interpretable and dependable regional fMRI biomarker signatures responsive to exercise intervention. It also may shed light on mechanisms by which exercise can support cognitive function. PMID:23559521

  6. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): effects on strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzelsberger, B; Stöggl, T; Lindinger, S J; Dirnberger, J; Stadlmann, M; Buchecker, M; Hofstaedter, T; Gordon, K; Müller, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-week recreational skiing intervention on lower limb muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in participants with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-seven older adults (70 ± 5 years) were assigned to the intervention (n = 13) or control group (n = 14) after surgery (2.5 ± 1 years). Leg muscle strength was measured using an IsoMed 2000 dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by cycle ergometry before and after the intervention as well as after an 8-week retention period. The skiing intervention led to increased muscle strength in the operated leg during unilateral single joint isometric extension (maximal force: 11%; P skiing in individuals with TKA seem adequate and effective to increase quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength in the initially weaker operated leg and to reduce an augmented post-operative asymmetry index. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Fisioterapia, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lopes, S.L.B. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Benze, B.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Estatística, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR{sub peak}: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO{sub 2peak}: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO{sub 2VT}: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  8. Determinants of exercise blood pressure response in normotensive and hypertensive women: role of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Peter F; Andreas, Pittaras E; Coutoulakis, Emmanuel; Colleran, John A; Narayan, Puneet; Dotson, Charles O; Choucair, Wassim; Farmer, Colleen; Fernhall, Bo

    2002-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response during physical exertion is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. Furthermore, it may be the predisposing factor for myocardial infarction triggered by physical exertion. The authors have shown that systolic BP achieved after 6 minutes of exercise is the strongest predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, a 37 mm Hg increase in systolic BP above resting BP at 6 minutes of exercise was the threshold for left ventricular hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of exercise BP response in normotensive and hypertensive women. An exercise tolerance test (Bruce) was performed by 1411 normotensive (resting BP or = 140/90 mm Hg) women. These women were faculty, students, and staff at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, and the George Washington University Medical Center, as well as patients undergoing a routine exercise tolerance test at West Coast Cardiology, Pinellas Park, Florida. Two fitness categories (low-fit and high-fit) were established on the basis of treadmill time to exhaustion adjusted for age. Significant associations were observed among the 6-minute exercise BP and age, body mass index, resting systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, and exercise time to exhaustion. In a stepwise multiple-regression analysis, the determinants of BP after 6 minutes of exercise were resting systolic BP and treadmill time to exhaustion (R2 = 0.36) for normotensive women and treadmill time to exhaustion and resting systolic BP (R2 = 0.30) for hypertensive women. When fitness categories were contrasted, low-fit women in both the normotensive and hypertensive categories had higher BP and rate-pressure product after 6 minutes of exercise than the high-fit women (P fitness are determinants of a submaximal exercise BP response for both hypertensive and normotensive women. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a higher BP response during submaximal exercise

  9. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with inflammatory biomarkers in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunduck; Meininger, Janet C; Kang, Duck-Hee; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Padhye, Nikhil S

    2017-05-06

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) has been inversely associated with inflammation, but whether the association is attributed to fitness itself or lower levels of adiposity remains uncertain in young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of fitness and adiposity with inflammation in young adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 88 participants aged 20-34 years. Fitness was assessed by a submaximal treadmill walking test. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Inflammation was measured by plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels using immunoassays. Biological data were log10 transformed. A separate multiple regression analysis was conducted with each inflammatory biomarker as a dependent variable. Covariates (sex, oral contraceptive use, and education level) were adjusted. Fitness was inversely associated with log10 CRP after adjustment for covariates but not after adjusting for BMI or WC. Fitness was inversely associated with log10 IL-6 after adjustment for WC and covariates (β = -0.341, P = .049) but not after adjusting for BMI. Fitness × WC interaction (partial eta(2)  = 0.056, P = .033) indicated that high fitness was more strongly associated with low log10 IL-6 in young adults with high WC than those with low WC. Although adiposity has a stronger association than fitness with CRP and IL-6, higher levels of fitness could be essential for maintaining low levels of IL-6, especially in the presence of high levels of central adiposity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could...... reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... associates with CRF. Methods: Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles...

  11. Associations between sleep quality with cardiorespiratory fitness and BMI among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Vale, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the association between sleeping quality with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity status (BMI) This was a cross-sectional study of 1,726 adolescent girls, aged 10 to 18 years. CRF was predicted by maximal multistage 20 m shuttle-run test according to procedures described from FITNESSGRAM. Children's BMI was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and sleeping quality was assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 21.2% and 5.7%, respectively. Sleeping quality was significantly associated with CRF (Rho = 0.17; P BMI. Girls who were classified as fit were more likely (OR: 2.25; P sleep quality compared to their unfit peers. Poor sleep quality was associated with lower CRF although no associations have been shown with BMI.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscular Strength as Mediators of the Influence of Fatness on Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Olloquequi, Jordi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-08-01

    To examine the combined association of fatness and physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF] and muscular strength) with academic achievement, and to determine whether CRF and muscular strength are mediators of the association between fatness and academic achievement in a nationally representative sample of adolescents from Chile. Data were obtained for a sample of 36 870 adolescents (mean age, 13.8 years; 55.2% boys) from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011, 2013, and 2014. Physical fitness tests included CRF (20-m shuttle run) and muscular strength (standing long jump). Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed, and body mass index and waist circumference-to-height ratio were calculated. Academic achievement in language and mathematics was assessed using standardized tests. The PROCESS script developed by Hayes was used for mediation analysis. Compared with unfit and high-fatness adolescents, fit and low-fatness adolescents had significantly higher odds for attaining high academic achievement in language and mathematics. However, in language, unfit and low-fatness adolescents did not have significantly higher odds for obtaining high academic achievement. Those with high fatness had higher academic achievement (both language and mathematics) if they were fit. Linear regression models suggest a partial or full mediation of physical fitness in the association of fatness variables with academic achievement. CRF and muscular strength may attenuate or even counteract the adverse influence of fatness on academic achievement in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity in metabolically healthy overweight and obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Martin; Wicklow, Brandy; Wittmeier, Kristy; Hay, Jacqueline; MacIntosh, Andrea C; Eskicioglu, Pinar; Venugopal, Niranjan; McGavock, Jonathan M

    2013-07-01

    Controversy exists surrounding the contribution of fitness and adiposity as determinants of the Metabolically Healthy Overweight(MHO) phenotype in youth. This study investigated the independent contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity to the MHO phenotype among overweight and obese youth. This cross-sectional study included 108 overweight and obese youth classified as MHO (no cardiometabolic risk factors) or non-MHO (≥1 cardiometabolic risk factor), based on age- and gender specific cut-points for fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hepaticsteatosis. Twenty-five percent of overweight and obese youth were classified as MHO. This phenotype was associated with lower BMIz-score (BMI z-score: 1.8 ± 0.3 vs 2.1 ± 0.4, P = .02) and waist circumference (99.7 ± 13.2 vs 106.1 ± 13.7 cm, P = .04) compared with non-MHO youth. When matched for fitness level and stratified by BMI z-score (1.6 ± 0.3 vs 2.4 ± 0.2), the prevalence of MHO was four fold higher in the low BMI z-score group (27% vs 7%; P = .03).Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the best predictor of MHO was the absence of hepatic steatosis even after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.40–0.80) or BMI z-score (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.43–0.80). The MHO phenotype was present in 25% of overweight and obese youth and is strongly associated with lower levels of adiposity,and the absence of hepatic steatosis, but not with cardiorespiratory fitness.

  14. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1 to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020. Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Alirhayim, Zaid; Blaha, Michael J; Juraschek, Stephen P; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-05-26

    Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between CRF and atrial fibrillation (AF) is less clear. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between CRF and incident AF in a large, multiracial cohort that underwent graded exercise treadmill testing. From 1991 to 2009, a total of 64 561 adults (mean age, 54.5±12.7 years; 46% female; 64% white) without AF underwent exercise treadmill testing at a tertiary care center. Baseline demographic and clinical variables were collected. Incident AF was ascertained by use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 427.31 and confirmed by linkage to medical claim files. Nested, multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent association of CRF with incident AF. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years (interquartile range, 3-9 years), 4616 new cases of AF were diagnosed. After adjustment for potential confounders, 1 higher metabolic equivalent achieved during treadmill testing was associated with a 7% lower risk of incident AF (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.94; P<0.001). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for incident coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.93; P<0.001). The magnitude of the inverse association between CRF and incident AF was greater among obese compared with nonobese individuals (P for interaction=0.02). There is a graded, inverse relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and incident AF, especially among obese patients. Future studies should examine whether changes in fitness increase or decrease risk of atrial fibrillation. This association was stronger for obese compared with nonobese, especially among obese patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Associations of sedentary behaviour, physical activity, blood pressure and anthropometric measures with cardiorespiratory fitness in children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Ryan

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk.The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP.This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD age 11.3 (0.2 yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥10 min bouts were calculated.Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (β = 0.339, p<0.01, sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (β = 0.250, p<0.05 and total activity (β = 0.238, p<0.05 were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05. Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01, waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001, waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05 after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level.Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness and TV viewing in relation to metabolic risk factors in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Martins, Clarice; Gaya, Anelise; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Vale, Susana

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents who have high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) co-existing with low levels of television (TV) viewing present a better metabolic risk profile compared to their low fit and high TV viewing counterparts. A total of 372 students (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (body mass index and waist circumference) was collected. CRF was calculated based upon the 20 metres shuttle run test. A questionnaire was used to estimate weekly TV viewing. Information about biological maturity and parental education was collected. Participants were then categorized into one of four category profiles according to the scores they achieved: low TV-Fit; high TV-Fit; low TV-Unfit and high TV-Unfit. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated based on the sum of the Z-scores of all the metabolic variables analysed. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the high TV-Unfit group was almost 3-times more likely to be assigned to the high MRS group (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.08-7.50) compared to their low TV-Fit group counterparts. The data showed that the high TV-Unfit group was associated with an increased metabolic risk in adolescents after adjustment for gender, age, biological maturity and parental education.

  18. Daily energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Valletta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Encouraging daily physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, increasing physical activity often creates a challenge for people with type 1 diabetes, because of difficulties maintaining euglycemia in the face of altered food intake and adjustments to insulin doses. Our aim was to examine the triangular relationship between glucose control measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (TEE recorded by a multi-sensory monitoring device, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, in free-living subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-three individuals (12 women with type 1 diabetes who were free from micro- and macrovascular complications were recruited. TEE and glucose control were monitored simultaneously for up to 12 days, using a multi-sensory device and CGMS respectively. CRF was recorded as V02 max from a maximal treadmill test with the Bruce protocol. RESULTS: Subjects (mean±SD were aged 37±11 years, with BMI = 26.5±5.1 kg.m⁻², HbA1c = 7.7±1.3% (61±14 mmol/mol and V02 max (ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹  = 39.9±8.4 (range 22.4-58.6. TEE (36.3±5.5 kcal.kg⁻¹.day⁻¹ was strongly associated with CRF(39.9±8.4 ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹ independently of sex (r = 0.63, p<0.01. However, neither TEE (r = -0.20, p = 0.36 nor CRF (r = -0.20, p = 0.39; adjusted for sex, were significantly associated with mean glycaemia measured by CGMS. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of energy expenditure (due to a more active lifestyle are associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness, but not necessarily better glycaemic control. Since increased levels of energy expenditure and good glycaemic control are both needed to protect against diabetes-related complications our data suggest they need to be achieved independently.

  19. A comparison of field methods to assess cardiorespiratory fitness among neophyte exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Marbach, Kate; Vincent, Linda

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence to suggest that aerobic fitness levels among adults have declined markedly over the past 2 to 3 decades. Submaximal field measures of aerobic fitness, such as step tests, may now be seen as aversive by contemporary neophyte exercisers. In this study, a single-factor within-subjects (repeated measures) factorial design was used to compare three field measures of cardiorespiratory fitness among sedentary women: (a) the Queen's College step test (QCST), (b) the Rockport 1-mile walk (RW), and (c) a nonexercise estimation of VO(2) max (NE). The sample consisted of 31 racially and ethnically diverse female college students (mean age of 24.8 years). No significant within-subjects differences were found in the three measures of V0(2) max (F = 1.89, p = .17) among Black, Hispanic, White non-Hispanic, or Asian women, but relative perceived exertion scores were significantly higher for the QCST than for the RW (t = 9.79, p test and the NE test are comparable to the QCST as valid and reliable field measures of aerobic fitness and appear to be good alternatives to step testing among sedentary individuals.

  20. Reduced Cardiorespiratory Fitness after Stroke: Biological Consequences and Exercise-Induced Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Billinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies consistently shows decline in cardiorespiratory (CR fitness and physical function after disabling stroke. The broader implications of such a decline to general health may be partially understood through negative poststroke physiologic adaptations such as unilateral muscle fiber type shifts, impaired hemodynamic function, and decrements in systemic metabolic status. These physiologic changes also interrelate with reductions in activities of daily living (ADLs, community ambulation, and exercise tolerance, causing a perpetual cycle of worsening disability and deteriorating health. Fortunately, initial evidence suggests that stroke participants retain the capacity to adapt physiologically to an exercise training stimulus. However, despite this evidence, exercise as a therapeutic intervention continues to be clinically underutilized in the general stroke population. Far more research is needed to fully comprehend the consequences of and remedies for CR fitness impairments after stroke. The purpose of this brief review is to describe some of what is currently known about the physiological consequences of CR fitness decline after stroke. Additionally, there is an overview of the evidence supporting exercise interventions for improving CR fitness, and associated aspects of general health in this population.

  1. Secular change in cardiorespiratory fitness of men: Cooper Center Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Benjamin L; Morrow, James R; Jackson, Allen W; Defina, Laura F; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2011-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to be an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, as well as health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. During the last four decades, national guidelines for physical activity and fitness have emerged in an ongoing effort to improve health outcomes through enhanced CRF risk profiles. The purpose of the study was to describe the secular trend in CRF as a function of decade and age in a large cohort of men during the past 40 yr. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline fitness data collected during comprehensive medical examinations of 52,785 men age 20-74 yr evaluated at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX, from 1970 to 2009 who completed a maximum treadmill exercise test for estimation of aerobic capacity was conducted. Comparisons were made between mean fitness levels in each decade stratified by five age groups. Mean CRF in MET from estimated V·O 2max has increased overall approximately 1 MET during a 40-yr period for each of the five age groups (P < 0.0001). The greatest change occurred during the 1970s to 1980s with minimal subsequent increase and a small decline commencing in the last decade especially in younger men. In a large cohort of men, average CRF has improved during the last 40 yr with a slight decline in the favorable trend notable in the most recent decade.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness in primary education pupils: the association with anthropometric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Gašparović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to determine cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF among primary school male and female pupils and its association with their anthropometric characteristics. The sample consisted of 112 boys and 136 girls, primary school pupils, aged 7 to 10. The Eurofit test battery was used to evaluate anthropometric characteristics (body height, body mass, body mass index (BMI and CRF (Beep test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. The results indicate stagnation in the CRF with chronological age, in both sexes. A statistically significant association (p = 0.001 was shown for all CRF variables and anthropometric variables except for body height, which was not significantly associated with CRF. An increase in body mass and BMI was associated with a significant (p = 0.001 decrease in male and female pupils' CRF.

  3. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well...... as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four...... muscle groups. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30 kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25 kg/m. CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four muscle groups. Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30  kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25  kg/m. This study suggests that actions that decrease BMI and increase MVC decrease the amount of sickness presenteeism.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity as Determinants of Metabolic Health-Pooled Analysis of Two Twin Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukarainen, Sakari; Holst, René; Dalgård, Christine

    2017-01-01

    their associations with CRF and FFMI were at most weak (|β| 0.02 to 0.15). The results of the monozygotic intrapair differences analysis showed the same pattern. Conclusions: Although FMI is strongly associated with worsening of metabolic health traits, even after controlling for genetic and shared environmental......Context: The joint effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition on metabolic health are not well known. Objective: To examine the associations of CRF, fat-free mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI) with metabolic health in individual twins and controlling for genetic......: CRF was defined as VO2max divided by fat-free mass. Insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response indices were derived from an oral glucose tolerance test. A continuous metabolic syndrome score was calculated. Visceral and liver fat were measured in the Finnish sample. Associations were analyzed...

  6. Prospective association of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, H; Grøntved, A; Møller, N C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prospective association of three different measures of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with 2-year change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. Two-year longitudinal data in schoolchildren aged 7-11 years (n = 365-729) was used...... at baseline was associated with increased CVD risk factor levels at follow-up. The magnitudes of associations were similar regardless of adiposity measure [TBF%: β 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.39; BMI: β 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14-0.33; WC: β 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.31], and no evidence of nonlinear...... relationships was observed. We found less strong associations of CRF with increase in CVD risk factor levels after adjusting for adiposity; however, increasing CRF was still favorably associated with decrease in CVD risk factor levels among boys. Results suggest that any effort to shift the population...

  7. Physical activity energy expenditure vs cardiorespiratory fitness level in impaired glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Lærke P; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Johansen, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis: Little is known about the relative roles of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as determinants of glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of PAEE and CRF with markers of glucose metabolism, and to test...... the hypothesis that CRF modifies the association between PAEE and glucose metabolism. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data from 755 adults from the Danish ADDITION-PRO study. On the basis of OGTT results, participants without known diabetes were classified as having normal glucose tolerance, isolated...... impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG + IGT or screen-detected diabetes mellitus. Markers of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were determined. PAEE was measured using a combined heart rate and movement sensor. CRF (maximal oxygen uptake...

  8. Obesity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Self-Reported Sleep Patterns in Chilean School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, A; Aguilar, M M; Vergara, F A; Velásquez, E J A; Marina, R

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to examine the association of sleep patterns with being overweight or obese and to analyze the association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with sleep patterns in children. The study involved 395 schoolchildren (12-13 years old). Sleep patterns were assessed with the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire, grouped into four subscales: sleep quality, sleep-related anxiety, bedtime refusal, and sleep routines. CRF was predicted by the 20-m shuttle-run test. Logistic regression models showed that sleep-related anxiety problems predicted being overweight or obese in both sexes, and sleep quality problems predicted being overweight or obese in girls. Also, girls who had better CRF levels were less susceptible to sleep-related anxiety problems. Studies are required to determine if increasing CRF could be a possible strategy for improving sleep quality.

  9. Effect of low-intensity continuous training on lung function and cardiorespiratory fitness in both cigarette and hookah smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness and lung function was higher in smokers. Training method could mitigate some of the negative consequences of smoking among smokers unable or unwilling to quit. To examine the effects of continuous training on lungs functional capability and cardiorespiratory fitness in smokers. Fifteen cigarette smokers, 14 hookah smokers, and 14 nonsmokers were assigned to low-intensity continuous training (20-30 minutes of running at 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (O2max)). Lung function and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were determined using respectively spirometer and treadmill maximal exercise test. Continuous training improved forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50 %) in all participants, smokers and nonsmokers (p training improves cardiorespiratory fitness and reduces lung function decline in both cigarette and hookah smokers. It seems to be beneficial in the prevention programs of hypertension. It could have important implications in prevention and treatment programs in smokers unable or unwilling to quit.

  10. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of heart failure: a population-based follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassan; Kunutsor, Setor; Rauramaa, Rainer; Savonen, Kai; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Butler, Javed; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2014-02-01

    To examine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and risk of incident heart failure (HF). Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), was assessed at baseline in a prospective cohort of 1873 men aged 42-61 years without HF or chronic respiratory disease. During a mean follow-up of 20.4 years, 152 incident HF events were recorded. Within-person variability was calculated using data from repeat measurements taken 11 years apart. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per unit increase (1 mL/kg/min of VO2 max) in CRF was 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.93], which was minimally attenuated to 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.98) after further adjustment for established HF risk factors (body mass index, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, heart rate, and LV hypertrophy) and incident coronary events as a time-varying covariate. In a comparison of extreme quartiles of CRF levels (VO2 max ≥35.4 vs. ≤25.7 mL/kg/min), the corresponding HRs were 0.27 (0.15-0.50) and 0.48 (0.25-0.92), respectively. Each 1 MET (metabolic equivalent of oxygen consumption) increment in CRF was associated with a 21% (7-33%) reduction in multivariable adjusted risk of HF. Addition of CRF to a HF risk prediction model containing established risk factors did not significantly improve risk discrimination (C-index change = 0.0164, P = 0.07). In this Finnish population, there is a strong, inverse, and independent association between long-term CRF and HF risk, consistent with a dose-response relationship. The protective effect of CRF on HF risk warrants further evaluation. © 2013 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2013 European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nonfatalcardiovascular events: A population-based follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassan; Jaffar, Nabil; Rauramaa, Rainer; Kurl, Sudhir; Savonen, Kai; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prognostic value of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with risk of first major nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF) events. Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, was assessed at baseline in a prospective cohort of 2,089 men aged 42 to 61years. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 19.1(8.4) years, 522 nonfatal acute MI events, 198 acute all-cause nonfatal stroke events, and 221 nonfatal HF events were recorded. The hazard ratio per 1-metabolic-equivalent increase in CRF was 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) for nonfatal MI, 0.94 (95% CI0.87-1.01) for nonfatal stroke, and 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.91) for nonfatal HF events after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, serum creatinine, low-density lipoprotein levels, physical activity, and socioeconomic status). Further adjustment for left ventricular hypertrophy and resting heart rate did not attenuate these associations. Addition of CRF to conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors significantly improved both discrimination (C index) and category free net reclassification index (cf-NRI) for nonfatal MI (change in C index, 0.015 [95% CI 0.010-0.020] and change in cf-NRI 0.27, P<.01) and HF (change in C index 0.040 [95% CI 0.010-0.060] and change in cf-NRI 0.88, P<.01). In this Finnish population, there is a strong, inverse, and independent association between CRF and acute nonfatal MI and HF risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on the obesity paradox in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrienne L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2015-01-15

    Although high body mass index (BMI) is associated with improved outcomes in established heart failure (HF), the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on this obesity paradox is less clear. We studied 1,675 patients with systolic HF who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at a single university center (77.4% men, mean age 52.2 ± 11.6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 23.2 ± 7.1% and New York Heart Association class III or IV in 79.1%). We evaluated 2-year survival in patients stratified by both BMI (normal 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)[reference], overweight 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), obese ≥30.0 kg/m(2)) and by peak oxygen uptake (PKVO2; high >14 ml/kg/minute, low ≤14 ml/kg/minute). At 2 years, BMI category was significantly associated with outcomes for the low PKVO2 group (p obese patients had decreased risk of death free from urgent status 1A heart transplant or ventricular assist device placement after multivariate adjustment compared with normal BMI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44 to 0.91, p = 0.01); no significant difference was observed for overweight patients (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.25, p = 0.5). In the high PKVO2 group, no relation was seen (overweight BMI HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.32, p = 0.3; obese HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.75, p = 0.7). In conclusion, the obesity paradox was only observed in patients with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in this advanced systolic HF cohort, indicating that improved functional capacity may attenuate the obesity paradox. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein predicted by low cardio-respiratory fitness and being overweight in African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, T; Konkol, K; Biccard, B; Dudose, K; McKune, A J

    2012-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between salivary CRP, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in a paediatric population. This was a cross-sectional study of 170 black South African children (age 9.41 ± 1.55 years, 100 females, 70 males) in grades 3 to 7. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained for the analysis of CRP. Height, mass, skin-fold thickness, resting blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference measurements were obtained. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 20-m multi-stage shuttle run. Children were classified as overweight/obese according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking, and meeting percentage body fat recommendations, if percentage body fat was ≤ 25% in boys and ≤ 32% in girls. The cut-off point for low cardio-respiratory fitness was a predicted aerobic capacity value ≤ the 50th percentile for the group. Contributions of low cardio-respiratory fitness, overweight/obesity, and not meeting percentage body fat recommendations, to elevated salivary CRP (≥ 75th percentile) concentration and secretion rate were examined using binary logistic regression analysis with a backward stepwise selection technique based on likelihood ratios. Poor cardio-respiratory fitness was independently associated with elevated salivary CRP concentration (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-8.9, p = 0.001). Poor cardio-respiratory fitness (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-6.1, p = 0.02) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of elevated salivary CRP secretion rate. The results suggest a strong association between poor cardio-respiratory fitness and/or overweight/obesity and inflammatory status in children, based on elevated salivary CRP levels.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Heng Chu; Kao-Teng Kao; Tai-Fen Song; Jing-Hao Liu; Tsung-Min Hung; Yu-Kai Chang

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, w...

  16. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run...... consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max......). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior...

  17. Level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of higher education institution servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vidal Andreato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.

  18. Exploring the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness as a population health surveillance indicator for children and youth: An international analysis of results from the 20-m shuttle run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Justin J

    2018-02-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated the strong link between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physiological, physical, psychosocial, cognitive), independent of physical activity, among school-aged children and youth. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a trait that does not vary substantially from day-to-day, and provides an indication of recent physical activity levels, making it an important possible indicator of population health. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured using the 20-m shuttle run test, as a broad, holistic health indicator for population health surveillance among children and youth. To achieve this objective we completed 7 manuscripts, all prepared for submission to peer-reviewed, scientific journals: (1) Systematic review of the relationship between 20-m shuttle run performance and health indicators among children and youth. (2) Review of criterion-referenced standards for cardiorespiratory fitness: what percentage of 1 142 026 international children and youth are apparently healthy? (3) Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with physical literacy in a large sample of Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years. (4) International variability in 20-m shuttle run performance in children and youth: Who are the fittest from a 50-country comparison? A systematic review with pooling of aggregate results. (5) Making a case for cardiorespiratory fitness surveillance among children and youth. (6) International normative 20-m shuttle run values from 1 142 026 children and youth representing 50 countries. (7) Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents representing 19 high-income and upper middle-income countries between 1981 and 2014. Combined, this dissertation provides support for the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness for health surveillance among school-aged children and youth. Results from the international analysis

  19. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with more time spent sedentary in first episode psychosis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Winkel, Ruud; Firth, Joseph; Van Damme, Tine; Probst, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Patients with a psychotic disorder show lower cardiorespiratory fitness and higher mortality rates compared to healthy individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether in patients with first-episode psychosis a low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with decreased physical activity and increased sedentary levels. Twenty-nine outpatients (21 men; 22.8±5.1 years) performed a maximal exercise test to assess their maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), wore a Senswear armband for five consecutive days and were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Twenty-four patients (82.8%) scored below the normative cardiorespiratory values. The percent-predicted VO2max ranged from 47% to 109%. In a backward regression analysis, less time spent sedentary (min/day) was the only independent predictor of a higher VO2max. The model explained 28.0% of the variance in the VO2max-score. The current study indicates that future research should explore whether reducing sedentary behaviour (e.g. time spent napping or prolonged sitting during waking hours) might improve cardio-respiratory fitness levels. Interventions targeting recreational screen time (watching television, computer use, playing video games, etc.) or replacing passive to more active video games should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise. Copyright

  1. Relation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Men With Cardiometabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Franklin, Barry A; Schmidt-Trucksass, Arno; Kim, Do Kyung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and that moderate-to-high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) attenuate this relation. Our study population (n = 2,107 men) participated in a health screening program that included measures of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a CAC score >0 and a mean CIMT more than the seventy-fifth percentile. Fitness was directly measured through peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing to volitional fatigue/exhaustion. The presence of CMS was defined as having ≥3 relevant risk factors based on the Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP-III) criteria. After adjusting for confounding variables, participants with CMS demonstrated a higher odds ratio (OR) of having a positive CAC (OR 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.89) and CIMT (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.52) compared with those without CMS. Upper levels of fitness were associated with a lower prevalence of CAC (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.88) and CIMT (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.71) compared with lower fitness. In the joint analysis, unfit participants with CMS were 1.47 times (95% CI 1.09 to 1.96 for CAC) and 2.35 times (95% CI 1.70 to 3.26 for CIMT) more likely to exhibit these indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with fit participants without CMS. Fit participants with CMS had ORs for the prevalence of CAC (OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.47) and CIMT (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.53) that were similar to those of the fit cohort without CMS. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CMS is associated with an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis but that high fitness appears to attenuate these associations in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (r p = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (r p = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger's protocol was statistically higher for adults (r p = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (r p = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key pointsOverall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness.The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly

  3. Arterial stiffness is associated to cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in young Swedish adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernberg, Ulrika; Fernström, Maria; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

    2017-11-01

    Background Early changes in the large muscular arteries are already associated with risk factors as hypertension and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The present study examines the association between arterial stiffness measurements, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index and lifestyle-related factors, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, in young, healthy, Swedish adults. Design This study used a population-based cross-sectional sample. Methods The 834 participants in the study were self-reported healthy, non-smoking, age 18-25 years. Augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured with applanation tonometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by ergometer bike test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated and categorised according to classification by the World Health Organisation. Results Young Swedish adults with obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly higher pulse wave velocity and augmentation index than non-obese young adults with medium or high cardiorespiratory fitness. The observed U-shaped association between pulse wave velocity and body mass index categories in women indicates that it might be more beneficial to be normal weight than underweight when assessing the arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. The highest mean pulse wave velocity was found in overweight/obese individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness. The lowest mean pulse wave velocity was found in normal weight individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a stronger effect than body mass index on arterial stiffness in multiple regression analyses. Conclusions The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness is observed already in young adults. The study result highlights the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness, but also that underweight individuals may be a possible risk group that needs to be further studied.

  4. Assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder.

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    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Cairney, John; Hsairi, Ines; Triki, Chahinez; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-12-01

    The decreased participation in physical activity by children with probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD) has raised concerns about their aerobic fitness and lung function levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness, using laboratory-based tests during an incremental treadmill protocol in healthy children with and without pDCD. Twenty sex children ages 6-9 years took part in this study. Motor coordination was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). All participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometric measurements (forced vital capacity: FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1s: FEV1) and walking distance (6MWD) was assessed using the 6-min walking test. The children with pDCD had lower VO2max than children without pDCD (p children without pDCD than in children with the disorder (p children with pDCD had poorer performance on the 6MWD than children without pDCD (p children. Moreover, a significant correlation between VO2max and FEV1 (r = 0.668, p children with pDCD. Overall, the reduced aerobic capacity of DCD was associated with decreased of lung function, as well as an alteration of peripheral muscle responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Normative Values for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Testing Among US Children Aged 6-11 years.

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    Gahche, Jaime J; Kit, Brian K; Fulton, Janet E; Carroll, Dianna D; Rowland, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Nationally representative normative values for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have not been described for US children since the mid 1980s. To provide sex- and age-specific normative values for CRF of US children aged 6-11 years. Data from 624 children aged 6-11 years who participated in the CRF testing as part of the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey, a cross-sectional survey, were analyzed. Participants were assigned to one of three age-specific protocols and asked to exercise to volitional fatigue. The difficulty of the protocols increased with successive age groups. CRF was assessed as maximal endurance time (min:sec). Data analysis was conducted in 2016. For 6-7, 8-9, 10-11 year olds, corresponding with the age-specific protocols, mean endurance time was 12:10 min:sec (95% CI: 11:49-12:31), 11:16 min:sec (95% CI: 11:00-11:31), and 10:01 min:sec (95% CI: 9:37-10:25), respectively. Youth in the lowest 20th percentile for endurance time were more likely to be obese, to report less favorable health, and to report greater than two hours of screen time per day. These data may serve as baseline estimates to monitor trends over time in CRF among US children aged 6-11 years.

  6. Is cardiorespiratory fitness impaired in PCOS women? A review of the literature.

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    Donà, S; Bacchi, E; Moghetti, P

    2017-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and heterogeneous endocrine disorder, affecting 8-12% of reproductive-aged women. Insulin resistance and body fat excess are common features in these subjects. Increased physical activity and diet modifications are the first recommended approach in the management of these women, at least in overweight/obese subjects. Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is important in assessing exercise performance and in monitoring the effects of physical exercise interventions. Several studies have shown that CRF may be impaired in metabolic and endocrine disorders. However, there are little data on this issue in PCOS women. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate whether aerobic capacity is altered in PCOS women, focusing on maximal oxygen uptake. An updated search of the literature was performed, identifying papers with maximal oxygen consumption measurements in women with PCOS compared to healthy controls. We have identified six studies on this specific topic: four of them showed an alteration of maximal oxygen consumption in PCOS women, whereas two did not. However, taken together these studies suggest that CRF may be strikingly impaired in both normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects with this condition. Women with PCOS appear to be characterized by a reduced cardiopulmonary fitness. However, further research on this topic is needed. This information may hopefully help clinicians and exercise specialist in planning individualized exercise programs aimed at improving the metabolic and endocrine outcomes in these women.

  7. Construct validation of a non-exercise measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults.

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    Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Szabo, Amanda N; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2010-02-08

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality but is rarely assessed in medical settings due to burdens of time, cost, risk, and resources. The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a regression equation developed by Jurca and colleagues (2005) to estimate CRF without exercise testing in community dwelling older adults. Participants (n = 172) aged 60 to 80 years with no contraindications to submaximal or maximal exercise testing completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) and the submaximal Rockport 1-mile walk test on separate occasions. Data included in the regression equation (age, sex, body mass index, resting heart rate, and physical activity) were obtained via measurement or self-report. Participants also reported presence of cardiovascular conditions. The multiple R for the regression equation was .72, p testing (r = 0.67). All three CRF indices were significantly and inversely associated with reporting more cardiovascular conditions. This research provides preliminary evidence that a non-exercise estimate of CRF is at least as valid as field test estimates of CRF and represents a low-risk, low-cost, and expedient method for estimating fitness in older adults.

  8. Construct validation of a non-exercise measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults

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    Kramer Arthur F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality but is rarely assessed in medical settings due to burdens of time, cost, risk, and resources. The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a regression equation developed by Jurca and colleagues (2005 to estimate CRF without exercise testing in community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants (n = 172 aged 60 to 80 years with no contraindications to submaximal or maximal exercise testing completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT and the submaximal Rockport 1-mile walk test on separate occasions. Data included in the regression equation (age, sex, body mass index, resting heart rate, and physical activity were obtained via measurement or self-report. Participants also reported presence of cardiovascular conditions. Results The multiple R for the regression equation was .72, p and CRF estimated from this equation was significantly correlated with the MET value from the GXT (r = 0.66 and with CRF estimated from submaximal field testing (r = 0.67. All three CRF indices were significantly and inversely associated with reporting more cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence that a non-exercise estimate of CRF is at least as valid as field test estimates of CRF and represents a low-risk, low-cost, and expedient method for estimating fitness in older adults.

  9. Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness in people with depression: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

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    Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Ward, Philip B; Schuch, Felipe B

    2016-01-15

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. CRF improves in response to exercise interventions, yet the effectiveness of such interventions to improve CRF among people with depression is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether CRF improves in people with depression in exercise randomized control trials (RCTs). Three authors identified RCTs from a recent Cochrane review and conducted updated searches of major electronic databases. We included RCTs of exercise interventions in people with depression (including major depressive disorder (MDD) and above-threshold depressive symptoms) that reported CRF (defined as predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max predicted) or peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)) versus a control condition. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. Seven unique RCTs including 8 aerobic exercise interventions for depression were eligible, including 293 people allocated to exercise (mean age=40.3 years, range=27.2-64.7 years and 35-100% female) and 205 allocated to control conditions. Across all studies exercise results in a significant increase in CRF (g=0.64, 95%CI=0.32-0.96, pdepression can achieve clinically relevant improvements in CRF in response to exercise interventions. Targeting 'fitness' rather than 'fatness' may be another feasible intervention strategy in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary artery calcification: Complementary cardiovascular risk predictors in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics.

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    Zafrir, Barak; Azaiza, Mohanad; Gaspar, Tamar; Dobrecky-Mery, Idit; Azencot, Mali; Lewis, Basil S; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Halon, David A

    2015-08-01

    Despite its well-established prognostic value, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not incorporated routinely in risk assessment tools. Whether low CRF provides additional predictive information in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics beyond conventional risk scores and coronary artery calcification (CAC) is unclear. We studied 600 type 2 diabetics aged 55-74 years without known coronary heart disease. CRF was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) by maximal treadmill testing and categorized as tertiles of percent predicted METs (ppMETs) achieved. CAC was calculated by non-enhanced computed tomography scans. The individual and joint association of both measures with an outcome event of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, was determined over a mean follow-up period of 80 ± 16 months. There were 72 (12%) events during follow-up. Low CRF was independently associated with event risk after adjustment for traditional risk factors and CAC (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.41-3.57, p = 0.001). CRF (unfit/fit) allowed further outcome discrimination both amongst diabetics with low CAC scores (9.5% versus 2.0% event rate), and amongst diabetics with high CAC scores (23.5% versus 12.4% event rate), p mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, despite low CAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Overweight With Academic Performance in 12-Year-Old Brazilian Children.

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    de Almeida Santana, Carla Caroliny; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Azevedo, Liane Beretta; Hill, James O; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Botero, João Paulo; do Prado, Edna Cristina; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2017-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with poor academic achievement, while cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been linked to academic success. To investigate whether CRF is associated with academic performance in Brazilian students, independently of body mass index (BMI), fatness and socioeconomic status (SES). 392 5th and 6th grade students (193 girls) (12.11 ± 0.75 years old) were evaluated in 2012. Skinfold thickness measures were performed, and students were classified according to BMI-percentile. CRF was estimated by a 20-meter shuttle run test, and academic achievement by standardized math and Portuguese tests. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between academic performance and CRF, adjusted for SES, skinfold thickness or BMI-percentile. Among girls CRF was associated with higher academic achievement in math (β = 0.146;p = .003) and Portuguese (β = 0.129;p = .004) in crude and adjusted analyses. No significant association was found among boys. BMI was not associated with overall academic performance. There was a weak negative association between skinfold thickness and performance in mathematics in boys (β =- 0.030;p = .04), but not in girls. The results highlight the importance of maintaining high fitness levels in girls throughout adolescence a period commonly associated with reductions in physical activity levels and CRF.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition of Soccer Referees; Do These Correlate With Proper Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Reza; Halabchi, Farzin; Seif Barghi, Tohid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    The elite-level referee is exposed to similar physical demands to those placed on a midfield soccer player. They have an important responsibility to implement the rules of the game. So, good health and performance of soccer referees have a great importance. The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of all 78 soccer referees officiating at the Iranian Premier League and determine the correlation between these parameters and performance. In a cross-sectional study, all referees selected for the competitions were enrolled. Participants underwent exercise stress test, pulmonary function test and body composition assessment. Then the weekly scores of each referee, assessed by qualified supervisors of national federation were obtained using the FIFA standard form throughout the season (34 weeks) and registered. Among 78 participants (including 32 center and 46 side referees), mean and standard deviation of age, body mass index, percent of body fat, VO2max and performance scores were 37 ± 3.8, 23.6 ± 2.1, 20.7 ± 3.9, 59.9 ± 7.1 and 85.8 ± 0.25, respectively. No significant correlation between referees' mean score and selected parameters were found. It seems that the acquired scores of top-class referees may be influenced by multiple factors other than the laboratory findings of cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition.

  13. The resistance evaluation: Effects of a specific training program on professional fire-fighter cardio-respiratory fitness

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    P.J. Mourão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire-fighters have an increased risk for developing cardiac pathologies and also a higher index of premature death than other individuals that perform high risk jobs. In this way, low physical fitness obviously limits fire-fighter performance, as well as degrades their health. However this fact not only damages the individual fire-fighter but also the institution that he represents hence severely questioning property and general public safety. The cardio-respiratory fitness had been identify as the most important physical fitness component. In this way, we developed a 12 weeks training program, to improve the cardio-respiratory fitness in a Professional fire-fighters corporation. According to reference values, before training these fire-fighters did not have enough cardio-respiratory fitness to adequately perform their job requirements with efficacy and safety (VO2máx=44,17ml/kg/min. However after training there was great improvement (VO2máx=52,69 ml/kg/min, providing a safe and more qualified service for the general population.

  14. Maximal heart rate declines linearly with age independent of cardiorespiratory fitness levels.

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    Ozemek, Cemal; Whaley, Mitchell H; Finch, W Holmes; Kaminsky, Leonard A

    2017-06-01

    There have been many conflicting observations between the linear or curvilinear decline in maximal heart rate (HR max ) with age. The aim of this study was to determine if linear or curvilinear equations would better describe the decline in HR max with age in individuals of differing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels. Treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) results from participants (1510 men and 1134 women; 18-76 years) free of overt cardiovascular disease were retrospectively examined using cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. Participants completing ≥2 CPX with ≥1 year between test dates were included in the longitudinal analysis (325 men and 150 women). Linear and quadratic regressions were applied to age and HR max for the whole cohort and respective CRF groups (high, moderate, and low, relative to age and gender normative values). To test for differences among linear, quadratic, and polynomial equations, the change in R 2 (cross-sectional analysis) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) (longitudinal analysis) from the linear to the more complex models were calculated. The quadratic or polynomial regression in the cross-sectional analysis, marginally improved the variance in HR max explained by age compared to the linear regression for the whole cohort (0.2%), moderate fit group (0.3%), and low fit group (0.8%). With no improvements in the high fit group. BIC did not improve for any CRF category in the longitudinal analysis. In conclusion, the minimal differences among linear, quadratic, and polynomial equations in the respective CRF groups, emphasizes the use of linear prediction equations to estimate HR max .

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.

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    Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Rosengren, Annika; Hallsten, Mattias; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared. The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively. Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs). Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition. Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1), in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90) and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61), as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48), were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs. The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.

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    Örjan Ekblom

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared.The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively.Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs. Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition.Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1, in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90 and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48, were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs.The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  17. Metabolic risk in schoolchildren is associated with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, obesity, and parents' nutritional profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todendi, Pâmela Ferreira; Valim, Andréia Rosane de Moura; Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Mello, Elza Daniel de; Gaya, Anelise Reis; Burgos, Miria Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Verify the association between metabolic risk profile in students with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index, as well as the nutritional status of their parents. A cross-sectional study comprising 1.254 schoolchildren aged between seven and 17 years. The metabolic risk profile was calculated by summing the standardized values of high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and systolic blood pressure. The parents' nutritional status was evaluated by self-reported weight and height data, for body mass index calculating. The body mass index of schoolchildren was classified as underweight/normal weight and overweight/obesity. The cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 9-minute running/walk test, being categorized as fit (good levels) and unfit (low levels). Data were analyzed using prevalence ratio values (PR). The data indicates a higher occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren whose mother is obese (PR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.23), and even higher for those whose father and mother are obese (PR: 2, 79, 95% CI: 1.41; 5.51). Students who have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity have higher occurrence of presenting metabolic risk profile (PR: 5.25; 95% CI: 3.31; 8.16). the occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren increase when they have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity, and the presence of parental obesity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. How Much Walking Is Needed To Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness? An Examination of the 2007 ACSM/AHA Physical Activity Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Duncan, Glen E.; Limacher, Marian C.; Martin, A. Daniel; Perri, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2007 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) physical activity guidelines recommend adults engage in either 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 60 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity per week to derive health benefits. Purpose In a 6-month clinical trial, we examined whether walking programs of moderate (leisurely-paced) and vigorous (fast-paced) intensity produced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness as predicted by the ACSM/AHA guidelines. Methods Participants (N = 155) were instructed to walk 30 minutes per day on 5 or more days per week, at either a moderate or vigorous intensity level (45–55% or 65–75% of maximum heart rate reserve [HRres ], respectively). Within each condition, we categorized participants based on their mean weekly amounts of exercise as reflected in written self-monitoring logs. Fitness was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test at pre- and post-treatment. This trial was conducted in Gainesville, FL between 1999 and 2003. Results Mean minutes of walking were related to changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in the vigorous (r = .47; p = ACSM/AHA physical activity recommendations regarding vigorous, but not moderate, intensity physical activity for cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:21699118

  19. The effect of Tai Chi training on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Shuzhen; Huang, Maomao; Liu, Feiwen; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi may be efficient for healthy adults to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness, but there is no systematic evaluation for its effectiveness. To systematically assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults. Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception to October 2013. The controlled trails including randomized controlled trial (RCT), non-randomized controlled trial (NRCT), self-controlled trial (SCT), and cohort study (CS) testing Tai Chi exercise against non-intervention control conditions in healthy adults that assessed any type cardiorespiratory fitness outcome measures were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies according to predefined criteria. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. RevMan 5.2 software was applied for data analysis. Twenty studies (2 RCTs, 8 NRCTs, 3 SCTs, and 7 CSs) with 1868 participants were included, but most of them belonged to low methodological quality. The results of systematic review showed that Tai Chi exercise had positive effect on majority outcomes of cardio function (Blood pressure: n = 536, SPB SMD = -0.93, 95% CI -1.30 to -0.56, P fitness in healthy adults. However, concerning the low methodological quality in the included studies, more larger-scale well-designed trails are needed till the specific and accurate conclusions can be perorated.

  20. Is physical education an effective way to increase physical activity in children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness?

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    Calahorro-Cañada, F; Torres-Luque, G; López-Fernández, I; Carnero, E A

    2017-11-01

    Several findings revealed the importance of accruing moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to improve health. Physical education (PE) may play an important role on promoting children's MVPA. However, it remains unknown whether PE might be effective when increasing physical activity (PA) levels in children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess children's PA during PE and during days with and without PE with a special focus on CRF status. One hundred and fifty Spanish children and adolescents from 3rd to 12th grade were recruited. PA levels were assessed with GT3X accelerometers. Peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) was estimated using a portable breath by breath Metamax 3B. Participants were classified as healthy aerobic fitness (HAF) and unhealthy aerobic fitness (UHAF) according to standardized cut-off point criteria. During PE, students with HAF accrued more MVPA than those with UHAF (8.7 vs 5.7 min/session; P ≤ 0.001). MVPA was higher on PE days than days without for both UHAF (50.0 vs 42.7 min/day; P ≤ 0.05) and HAF students (56.9 vs 49.4 min/day; P ≤ 0.05). Although less active during PE, students with lower CRF accumulated more MVPA and total PA on PE days than days without PE. An increase in PE days might be a smart policy to raise the recommended PA levels, regardless of CRF status. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Associations between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity in Mexican children

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    Karla I Galavíz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent relation of physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness with measures of obesity in Mexican children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children (N=193 in 5th and 6th grade from Guadalajara participated. Body mass index (BMI, sum of skinfolds (SS and waist circumference (WC were measured. PA was measured over four days using pedometry and fitness was measured using the 20 meter shuttle-run test. RESULTS: Fitness and PA were negatively related to the obesity measures in boys and girls (r=-0.57 to -0.64 and r=-0.18 to -0.23 respectively. Age adjusted significant differences in WC, BMI, and SS were observed between the lowest and highest fitness tertiles for boys and girls (pOBJETIVO: Examinar la relación independiente entre actividad física (AF y acondicionamiento cardiorrespiratorio (fitness con obesidad en niños mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Participaron 193 niños de Guadalajara en 5to y 6to grado de primaria. Se midieron índice de masa corporal (IMC, suma de pliegues cutáneos (SP y circunferencia de cintura (CC. La AF se midió con podometría durante cuatro días y acondicionamiento usando la prueba de 20 metros shuttle-run. RESULTADOS: Acondicionamiento y AF estuvieron negativamente relacionados con obesidad en niños y niñas (r=-0.57 a -0.64 y r=-0.18 a -0.23 respectivamente. Ajustando por edad, se observaron diferencias significativas en CC, IMC y SP entre los terciles de acondicionamiento bajo y alto en niños y niñas (p<.01. Ajustando por edad, género y AF, el acondicionamiento explicó de 23 a 34% de la varianza en CC (r²=0.23, p<.01, IMC (r²=0.23, p<.01 y SP (r²=0.34, p<.01. CONCLUSIÓN: El acondicionamiento es un mejor predictor de obesidad que la AF en esta muestra.

  2. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status, Family Income, and Measures of Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Colombian Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Lobelo, Felipe; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Tovar, Gustavo; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Knies, Gundi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-06-01

    To determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical fitness in a sample of Colombian youth. Prueba SER is cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia. Mass, stature, muscular fitness (standing long-jump, handgrip), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run) were measured in 52?187 schoolchildren 14-16 years of age. Area-level SES was categorized from 1 (very low) to 4 (high) and parent-reported family income was categorized as low, middle, or high. Converting measures into z scores showed stature, muscular, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly (z?=?0.3-0.7) below European values. Children in the mid- and high SES groups jumped significantly further than groups with very low SES. Differences were independent of sex but became nonsignificant when adjusted for anthropometric differences. Participants in the mid-SES and high-SES groups had better handgrip scores when adjusted for body dimension. There were, however, no significant between-group differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, which was strongly clustered by school and significantly greater in students from private schools. Area-level SES is associated with measures of muscular fitness in Colombian schoolchildren. These associations were largely explained by the large differences in body dimensions observed between SES groups. When area-level SES is considered, there was no evidence that family income influenced fitness. The clustering of outcomes reaffirms the potential importance of schools and area-level factors in promoting fitness through opportunities for physical activity. Interventions implemented in schools, can improve academic attainment; a factor likely to be important in promoting the social mobility of children from poorer families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Markers of Insulin Resistance in Young, Normal Weight, Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Chantal A; Van Guilder, Gary P; Dalleck, Lance C

    2016-06-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and its decline over time are predictors of the development of diabetes in black and Caucasian women, independent of obesity. It is unclear, however, if the adverse effect of low CRF on the risk of diabetes in Hispanic women is mediated by obesity. Our purpose was to determine the associations of CRF with markers of insulin resistance in 68 normal weight Hispanic women. Obesity indicators included body mass index (BMI), body composition by DXA, and waist circumference. CRF was measured by indirect calorimetry. A glucose tolerance test was used to measure markers of insulin resistance: homeostasis model assessment, fasting insulin, 2-hr insulin, area under the curve insulin, qualitative insulin sensitivity check, and insulin sensitivity index. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to identify associations between CRF and markers of insulin resistance. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare markers of insulin resistance over quartiles of CRF. Low CRF was significantly associated with all markers of insulin resistance (P  0.05). All markers of insulin resistance improved linearly across CRF quartiles (P diabetes risk in Hispanic women and that fat-free mass rather than overall body adiposity mediates these relationships.

  4. The Effectiveness of a Pre-Exercise Performance Drink (PRX on Indices of Maximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Lori

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the effectiveness of a pre-exercise drink (PRX called EM·PACT on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-four males (n = 12 and females (n = 12 ages 18–24 years (20.25 + 1.42, volunteered as subjects. Each subject performed two randomized trials of a VO2max treadmill test within a week of each other. Subjects in this randomized, placebo controlled, counter balanced, crossover design, ingested either a placebo (water or PRX 20 minutes before each exercise bout. VO2max and time to exhaustion (Time during graded exercise testing were evaluated. Using paired samples t-tests, significantly greater mean values were found in VO2max and Time for the PRX trial compared to the placebo trial (p 2max and Time are enhanced by ingestion of PRX prior to exercise testing. The combined results of this investigation may provide meaningful practical applications for coaches and athletes alike regarding ergogenic hydration options.

  5. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  6. The effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on age-related lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F; Lavie, Carl J; Hardin, James W; Blair, Steven N

    2015-05-19

    Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. This study sought to assess the longitudinal aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 health examinations (mean 3.5 examinations) between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until age mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p lipoproteins in young to middle-age men than in older men. Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    between VO2max and these determinants of glycemic control were examined. RESULTS: A low VO2max was associated with high HbA1c (r = -0.33), high fasting glucose (r = -0.34), high 2-h OGTT glucose (r = -0.33), low SiOGTT (r = 0.73), and high early-phase (r = -0.34) and late-phase (r = -0.36) GSISOGTT......OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion......, and the disposition index, a measure of compensatory pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity, in subjects representing the entire range of the glucose tolerance continuum. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of subjects (N = 313) with heterogeneous age, sex, BMI, and glycemic control...

  8. Unobtrusive Estimation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Daily Activity in Healthy Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness, no practical method exists to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) without a specific exercise protocol. We developed an estimation model of VO2max, using maximal activity energy expenditure (aEEmax) as a new feature to represent the level of physical activity. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and acceleration data were recorded for 4 days in 24 healthy young men, and reference VO2max levels were measured using the maximal exercise test. aEE was calculated using the measured acceleration data and body weight, while heart rate (HR) was extracted from the ECG signal. aEEmax was obtained using linear regression, with aEE and HR as input parameters. The VO2max was estimated from the aEEmax using multiple linear regression modeling in the training group (n = 16) and was verified in the test group (n = 8). High correlations between the estimated VO2max and the measured VO2max were identified in both groups, with a 15-hour recording being sufficient to produce a highly accurate VO2max estimate. Additional recording time did not significantly improve the accuracy of the estimation. Our VO2max estimation method provides a robust alternative to traditional approaches while only requiring minimal data acquisition time in daily life. PMID:29115075

  9. Cumulative incidence of youth obesity is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and with maternal overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reis Gaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This longitudinal study evaluated the association between the incidence of youth overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF over 4 years and youths' and their parents' demographic and nutritional characteristics. The randomized sample comprised 398 youth, aged 7-17 years at baseline, from a city in southern Brazil. Subjects were classified as being Ow/Ob according to international body mass index (BMI parameters. Parental weight and height were determined by direct questioning. Youth CRF was measured by a 9-minute walk-and-run test. The cumulative incidences of Ow/Ob and of low CRF levels were 25.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Relative to other youth, youth who were classified as "unhealthy" at baseline (with respect to CRF and by the fourth year were more likely to be classified as Ow/Ob (relative risks: 1.12 and 1.10, respectively. Youth whose mothers were categorized as Ow/Ob were at higher risk of being classified as Ow/Ob than youth whose mothers had normal BMIs (relative risks: 1.19 at baseline and 1.20 in the fourth year. The incidence of Ow/Ob among the former youth was associated with low CRF levels and with maternal Ob.

  10. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and psychosocial variables in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Deborah L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Pakiz, Bilgé; Bardwell, Wayne A; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer survivors not only experience distressing physical symptoms associated with treatments, but also are faced with psychosocial challenges. Despite growing scientific evidence that physical activity (PA) may mitigate psychosocial distress experienced by women treated for breast cancer, the literature is equivocal. This study investigated the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), PA, and psychosocial factors in breast cancer survivors. Data involving overweight or obese breast cancer survivors (N = 260) were examined. CRF was determined by a submaximal graded exercise test. PA, depressive symptoms, total fatigue, and global self-esteem were assessed with self-report measures. Pearson's correlations were conducted to determine associations among CRF, PA, depressive symptoms, total fatigue, and global self-esteem. Multiple regression models, with age and body mass index as covariates, were performed using continuous levels for CRF and PA. Bivariate correlations suggested that CRF and PA were unrelated to the psychosocial variables. One of the regression models identified a marginally significant (P = 0.06) inverse association between depressive symptoms and PA. CRF and PA were not associated with psychosocial factors in this sample of breast cancer survivors. However, minimal PA was reported by the majority of participants, so low PA variability likely influenced these findings.

  11. VALIDITY OF FIELD TESTS TO ESTIMATE CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Mariana Biagi; Romanzini, Catiana Leila Possamai; Castro-Piñero, José; Ronque, Enio Ricardo Vaz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To systematically review the literature to verify the validity of field-tests to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in children and adolescents. Data sources: The electronic search was conducted in the databases: Medline (PubMed), SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, in addition to the Latin American databases LILACS and SciELO. The search comprised the period from the inception of each database until February 2015, in English and Portuguese. All stages of the process were performed in accordance with the PRISMA flow diagram. Data synthesis: After confirming the inclusion criteria, eligibility, and quality of the studies, 43 studies were analyzed in full; 38 obtained through the searches in the electronic databases, and 5 through private libraries, and references from other articles. Of the total studies, only 13 were considered high quality according to the adopted criteria. The most commonly investigated test in the literature was the 20-meter shuttle run (SR-20 m), accounting for 23 studies, followed by tests of distances between 550 meters and 1 mile, in 9 studies, timed tests of 6, 9, and 12 minutes, also 9 studies, and finally bench protocols and new test proposals represented in 7 studies. Conclusions: The SR-20-m test seems to be the most appropriate to evaluate the CRF of young people with the equation of Barnett, recommended to estimate VO2 peak. As an alternative for evaluating CRF, the 1-mile test is indicated with the equation proposed by Cureton for estimating VO2 peak. PMID:28977338

  12. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

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    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OHD, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OHD concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01 but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OHD concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OHD concentration (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OHD concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.

  13. Depressive symptomology in multiple sclerosis: Disability, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, I; Pilutti, L A; Motl, R W

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether neurological disability status, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) explained the variance in depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS). Associations between CRF (via maximal oxygen uptake; VO 2peak ), HRV indices of normalized ultra-low (nULF) and very low frequency domains (nVLF), neurological disability status and depressive symptoms (using the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; HADS-D) were assessed in 53 participants with MS and 17 matched controls. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted within the MS subsample to examine the variance explained by neurological disability alone and CRF. The groups were similar in mean age (MS=52.0 years, Control=51.1 years) and sex (MS=72% female, Control=77% female). Among individuals with MS, HADS-D scores significantly correlated with disability status (sample mean score=4) and VO 2peak (r=-.62, Plinear regression indicated that VO 2peak (P.05). Heart rate variability does not seem to significantly differ between individuals with MS and healthy controls. When accounting for CRF, disability status no longer explains significant variance in depressive symptoms in MS. Accordingly, targeting CRF might be an effective approach for effectively managing depressive symptoms in individuals with MS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness, but not physical activity, is associated with academic achievement in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tânia; Pizarro, Andreia; Costa, Manuela; Fernandes, Luís; Silva, Gustavo; Mota, Jorge; Ribeiro, José Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) seem to have positive effects on academic achievement (AA), although in most studies, objective methods of assessment have not been used. To examine the associations of CRF and PA with AA. A sample of 640 youngsters (10-18 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. CRF was estimated with the 20-metre shuttle run test and PA was measured using accelerometers. School grades were used to describe AA using mathematics and native language final grades. The relationship between CRF and PA with AA was analysed using ANCOVA. Results show a significant effect of CRF levels on native language grades, after adjustment for confounders [F(3,414) = 3,99 p  0.05]. No significant effects of PA levels on AA were found. CRF is associated with moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and higher levels of CRF may influence AA. CRF is positively correlated with MVPA, suggesting that higher amounts of MVPA might improve CRF and indirectly influence AA. Since CRF is dependent on higher intensities of PA, we can suggest a focus on implementing improvement strategies to increase the intensity of physical education lessons.

  15. Lower serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

    2012-01-01

    Lower levels of serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap have been associated with insulin resistance and hypertension in the general population. Whether these associations extend to other cardiovascular disease risk factors is unknown. To clarify this, we examined the association of serum bicarbonate and anion gap with cardiorespiratory fitness in 2714 adults aged 20–49 years in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.6 mEq/L and the mean anion gap was 10.26 mEq/L, with fitness determined by submaximal exercise testing. After multivariable adjustment, gender, length of fasting, soft drink consumption, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphate, and hemoglobin were independently associated with both the serum bicarbonate and the anion gap. Low fitness was most prevalent among those in the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate or highest quartile of anion gap. After multivariable adjustment, a one standard deviation higher serum bicarbonate or anion gap was associated with an odds ratio for low fitness of 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.91) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.48), respectively. The association of bicarbonate with fitness may be mediated by differences in lean body mass. Thus, lower levels of serum bicarbonate and higher levels of anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in adults aged 20–49 years in the general population. PMID:22297677

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammatory profile on cardiometabolic risk in adolescents from the LabMed Physical Activity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis-Sobrinho, César A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Luís, Lopes; Oliveira-Santos, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the combined effect of cardiorespiratory fitness and the clustered score of inflammatory biomarkers (InflaScore) on the cardiometabolic risk score in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional analysis with 529 adolescents (267 girls) aged 12-18 years. The shuttle run test was used to assess cardiorespiratory fitness. Continuous scores of clustered inflammatory biomarkers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, complement factors C3 and C4, fibrinogen and leptin); cardiometabolic risk score (systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, ratio total cholesterol/HDL, HOMA-IR and waist circumference) were computed. Adolescents with a higher inflammatory profile had the highest cardiometabolic risk score; adolescents with high InflaScore and low fitness had the highest odds of having a high cardiometabolic risk (OR 16.5; 95% CI 7.8-34.5), followed by adolescents with a higher InflaScore but fit (OR 7.5; 95% CI 3.7-8.4), and then by adolescents with a low InflaScore and unfit (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.6-8.4) when compared to those with low InflaScore and fit, after adjustments for age, sex, pubertal stage, adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and socioeconomic status. The findings of our study suggest that the combination of high inflammatory state and low cardiorespiratory fitness is synergistically associated with a significantly higher cardiometabolic risk score and thus supports the relevance of early targeted interventions to promote physical activity and preservation as part of primordial prevention.

  17. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been diagnosed in adolescents and among the associated factors are low levels of physical activity, sedentary behavior over long periods and low cardiorespiratory fitness. However, specifically in adolescents, studies present conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, in order to map the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness and MetS in adolescents. Methods A search was performed in the databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. For the meta-analysis, the odds ratio (OR) was calculated together with the respective confidence intervals (95% CI), in which the measures of effect were analyzed by dichotomous data (exposure variables) with MetS used as events. Results Eighteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Primary analysis demonstrated that low levels of physical activity (OR = 1.35 [1.03 to 1.79]; p = 0.03) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (OR = 4.05 [2.09 to 7.87]; p 2 hours/day, a significant association was not identified (OR = 1.20 [0.91 to 1.59]; p = 0.20). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the association between low physical activity and MetS was dependent on the use of the accelerometry technique (OR = 2.93 [1.56 to 5.47]; p 2 hours/day was significantly associated with MetS only on weekends (OR = 2.05 [1.13 to 3.73]; p = 0.02). With respect to cardiorespiratory fitness, a significant association with MetS was found independent of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurement method. Conclusions Low levels of physical activity, low indices of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior, represented by screen time > 2 hours/day on weekends, were significantly associated with the development of MetS in adolescence. PMID:27997601

  18. Effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status on knowledge of physical activity and fitness, attitude toward physical education, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Gu, Xiangli

    2018-02-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status on knowledge of physical activity and fitness (PAF knowledge), attitude toward physical education (PE), and physical activity. A total of 343 middle school students participated in the study (Age: M/SD = 12.76/.94, ranging from 11 to 14 years old). PE Metrics™ was used to measure PAF knowledge, and Attitude toward Physical Education Questionnaire and Youth Activity Profile were used to measure attitude, physical activity and sedentary behavior. Fitness and weight status were assessed using FitnessGram and converted to in Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or Not in HFZ. Two-way multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA; gender and grade as covariates) showed a significant group effect for cardiorespiratory fitness (Λ Pilla  = .07, F 4,255  = 5.03, p = .001, [Formula: see text] = .07) but not for weight status (p = .57). PAF knowledge (F 1,258  = 9.49, p < .01, [Formula: see text]= .04), attitude (F 1,258  = 4.45, p < .05, [Formula: see text]= .02) and sedentary behavior (F 1,258  = 6.89, p < .01, [Formula: see text]= .03) all favored the HFZ group. The findings reinforce the importance of promoting cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school PE as students acquire attitude, knowledge, and behaviors needed for active-living.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

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    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  20. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

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    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  1. [Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in preschool children: adaptation of the 20 metres shuttle run test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Alcántara-Moral, Francisco; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Femia, Pedro; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong indicator of present and future health in children and adolescents, however it is unknown whether it is for pre-schoolers, from 3 to 5 years. In the present study, we described the adaptation of the original 20m shuttle run test, it feasibility and acceptance in children from 3 to 5 years and its maximality and reliability. A total of 130 students (4.91 ± 0.89 years; 77 boys) performed the test twice, two weeks apart. The test adaptation consisted mainly in reducing the initial speed of 8.5 km/h to 6.5 km/h. The test was feasible and was well accepted in both boys and girls and the three age groups, 3, 4 and 5 years. The maximum heart rate (MHR) achieved for the entire sample was 199.4 ± 12.5 beats/min, equivalent to 97% of the estimated theoretical MHR, and no significant differences by gender or age. Mean test-retest difference (systematic error) in the number of laps achieved was 2 laps, with no significant differences between sex or age. There was no evidence of heteroscedasticity. Our results suggest the test is maximum and reliable in this age group. Future longitudinal or intervention studies using this test should take into account that changes in the test performance of 2 laps may be due to the variability of the measure, while wider changes would be attributable to the intervention or changes associated with age. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

  3. Use of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in identifying cardiovascular risk factors in male brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Messias Sampaio Brito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n6p678   The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF levels on the prevalence of overweight and high blood pressure levels in adolescents. In this observational, cross-sectional study, 614 boys aged 10-14 years were assessed for height, body mass, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP. CRF was assessed using a run test (Léger Test and subjects were then grouped according to their CRF level. PA level was assessed through a questionnaire (The Three Day Physical Activity Recall and classified into two groups, namely > 300 minutes of PA/week and < 300 minutes of PA/week. Maturational stage was evaluated according to the development of pubic hair (self-assessment as proposed by Tanner. We used statistical descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses in the total participants and subjects were divided by age. Fifty percent of the sample performed < 300 minutes of PA/week and 67.6% had unsatisfactory CRF levels. There was a higher prevalence of unsatisfactory CRF levels among subjects with altered BMI (overweight, WC (abdominal obesity or BP (high blood pressure for all age groups. PA history, however, did not show any significance. A total of 31% of participants were overweight, 24.8% had abdominal obesity and 15.4% had increased BP. Unsatisfactory CRF levels were found to be a better predictor for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CV risk factors than PA history, regardless of age group.

  4. Sympathetic neural activity, metabolic parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redón, Pau; Grassi, Guido; Redon, Josep; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Lurbe, Empar

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess the cardiac autonomic neural activity in the presence of abnormally increased body weight in youths and its relationship to metabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Sixty-four overweight and obese patients, aged 9-17 years, of both sexes, stratified according to the international BMI cut-off, were enrolled. Continuous ECG was recorded during 15 min in resting conditions, and the heart rate variability (HRV) was measured in the time domain, frequency domain and for nonlinear dynamics. In addition, cardiometabolic risk factors and CRF in effort conditions were assessed. Among the overweight and obese youths, no significant differences were observed regarding metabolic parameters and heart rate, although CRF was the lowest in the severely obese youths. Likewise, no significant differences were observed in HRV, independent of how it was assessed. A positive and significant relationship, independent of the degree of obesity, pubertal stage and breathing rate under resting conditions, has been observed among sympathovagal balance, insulin and the homeostatic model assessment index. Furthermore, CRF assessed by volume oxygen peak was associated with insulin levels (r = -0.273; P < 0.05), the SD of the NN interval series (r = 0.268, P < 0.05) and the long-term variation using the Poincaré plot (PS1: r = 0.275, P < 0.05; PS2: r = 0.273, P < 0.05). The key findings of the present study were the presence of a link among fasting insulin, HRV and CRF independent of the degree of obesity, indicating the heterogeneity of obese children and adolescents.

  5. Effect of including fitness testing in preventive health checks on cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høj, Kirsten; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2014-10-10

    Preventive health checks may identify individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle and motivate them to change behaviour. However, knowledge about the impact of the different components included in preventive health checks is deficient. The aim of this trial is to evaluate whether including cardiorespiratory fitness testing in preventive health checks 1) increases cardiorespiratory fitness level and motivation to change physical activity behaviour and 2) reduces physical inactivity prevalence and improves self-rated health compared with preventive health checks without fitness testing. An open-label, household-cluster, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design is used. The trial is embedded in a population-based health promotion program, "Check your Health Preventive Program", in which all 30-49 year-old citizens in a Danish municipality are offered a preventive health check. In each arm of the trial, 750 citizens will be recruited (1,500 in total). The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed by submaximal cycle ergometer testing after one year. An intermediate outcome is the percentage of participants increasing motivation for physical activity behaviour change between baseline and two-weeks follow-up assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Secondary outcomes include changes from baseline to one-year follow-up in physical inactivity prevalence measured by a modified version of the questions developed by Saltin and Grimby, and in self-rated health measures using the Short-Form 12, Health Survey, version 2. This trial will contribute to a critical appraisal of the value of fitness testing as part of preventive health checks. The conduction in real-life community and general practice structures makes the trial findings applicable and transferable to other municipalities providing support to decision-makers in the development of approaches to increase levels of physical activity and improve health. Clinical

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Light-Intensity Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Urban Black South African Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Kasha; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Chantler, Sarah; Lambert, Estelle V; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    Low levels of physical activity, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and a sedentary lifestyle have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Few studies have examined their independent associations in an urban black sub-Saharan African population. To examine the independent associations of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors for CVD and T2D in black South African women. A subsample (n = 76; 18-45 years) was recruited, as part of a cross-sectional study. Accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and blood pressure were measured. Light- but not moderate- to vigorous intensity physical activity was inversely associated with trunk fat mass (r = -0.25, P = 0.03). Sedentary time was associated with triglyceride (TG) (r = 0.36, P = 0.01) and TG/HDL-C (r = 0.34, P = 0.04), and these relationships were independent of body fat. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with body fat % (r = -0.34, P = 0.02), central fat mass (r = -0.31, P = 0.03), visceral adipose tissue (VAT, r = -0.47, P physical activity, but not VAT. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with sedentary time (r = -0.31, P = 0.03), but not with any of the physical activity variables (P > 0.05). Both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with reduced total and central fat mass, VAT, and reduced cardiometabolic risk for CVD and T2D. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether the promotion of increasing light physical activity, while reducing sedentary time and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk for obesity, CVD and T2D.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De synchronization (ERD/ERS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977 were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  8. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  9. Determinant factors of cardiorespiratory fitness in Portuguese adolescents of different ethnicities. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p243

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    Diana Aguiar Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important health indicator in young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender, body adiposity, and ethnicity on cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample consisted of 266 adolescents aged 12-18 years [112 boys (80 Caucasians and 32 African-Portuguese, AP and 154 girls (109 Caucasians and 45 AP]. Percent body fat was estimated with a hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance device (BF300, OMROM. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a shuttle run test (Fitnessgram battery. Multiple regression models were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that girls presented lower maximal oxygen consumption and higher percent body fat than boys. Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in Caucasian than in AP girls. Multiple regression analysis showed that percent body fat, age and the interaction of age with being Caucasian and age with female gender were significant determinants that were negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. The results suggest that maximal oxygen consumption is lower in adolescents with higher adiposity and in older adolescents. The findings highlight the importance of promoting physical fitness in schools across ages, especially in older adolescents, adjusting for determinant factors such as gender and ethnicity

  10. Determinant factors of cardiorespiratory fitness in Portuguese adolescents of different ethnicities. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aguiar Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important health indicator in young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender, body adiposity, and ethnicity on cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample consisted of 266 adolescents aged 12-18 years [112 boys (80 Caucasians and 32 African-Portuguese, AP and 154 girls (109 Caucasians and 45 AP]. Percent body fat was estimated with a hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance device (BF300, OMROM. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a shuttle run test (Fitnessgram battery. Multiple regression models were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that girls presented lower maximal oxygen consumption and higher percent body fat than boys. Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in Caucasian than in AP girls. Multiple regression analysis showed that percent body fat, age and the interaction of age with being Caucasian and age with female gender were significant determinants that were negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. The results suggest that maximal oxygen consumption is lower in adolescents with higher adiposity and in older adolescents. The findings highlight the importance of promoting physical fitness in schools across ages, especially in older adolescents, adjusting for determinant factors such as gender and ethnicity

  11. Examining the Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Weight Status: Empirical Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Adults in Taiwan

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    Tai-Hsiung Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Meanwhile, obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic. This study aims to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with body mass among adult males and females in Taiwan. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative dataset consisting of 68,175 adults aged 18–60, including 31,743 males and 36,432 females, was used. Several multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status, after controlling for adults’ sociodemographic status. Results. A one-unit increase in the BMI lowered the cardiorespiratory fitness score by 0.316 and 0.368 points for adult males and females, respectively. Among adult males, compared to those of normal weight, adult males who were underweight, overweight, or obese had a lower cardiorespiratory fitness score by 1.287, 0.845, and 3.353 points, respectively. Similar results could be found in female samples. Conclusion. The overweight and obese adults had much lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness as compared to their normal weight counterparts. Given the upward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, it is important to help overweight and obese people to become more fit and reach their healthy weight.

  12. Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness using three field tests in obese adolescents: validity, sensitivity and prediction of peak VO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinart, Sylvain; Mougin, Fabienne; Simon-Rigaud, Marie-Laure; Nicolet-Guénat, Marie; Nègre, Véronique; Regnard, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents is necessary to develop personalised retraining programmes. We aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness using 3 field tests, and to evaluate their validity and sensitivity compared to values obtained by laboratory tests. Longitudinal interventional study in obese adolescents admitted to a rehabilitation centre for a 9-month programme of obesity management. A 12-min walk/run test, an adapted 20 m shuttle walk-run test (starting speed 4 km h(-1), increments of 0.5 km h(-1)min(-1)) and a 4-level submaximal cycle ergometer test were performed to estimate respectively distance covered in 12 min, maximum speed and maximal aerobic power. Thirty adolescents aged 14.2 ± 1.6 years were included. After 9 months intervention, we observed a significant reduction in body mass index, and an increase in peak VO2 and field test results. We observed significant correlations between pre- and post-intervention values of peak VO2 and distance covered in 12 min (r=0.70 pre; r=0.82 post), maximum speed (r=0.80 pre; r=0.83 post) and maximal aerobic power (r=0.71 pre; r=0.84 post). Multiple linear regression made it possible to estimate peak VO2 based on results from the 3 field tests using prediction equations specific to a population of obese adolescents. These field tests, including the adapted 20 m shuttle walk-run test, adequately assess cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents, and are sensitive to changes over time. Predictive equations including BMI are useful in clinical practice to predict peak VO2 in these patients. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of two-hand kettlebell exercise and graded treadmill walking: effectiveness as a stimulus for cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James F; Larson, Kurtis L; Hollander, Daniel B; Kraemer, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    Prevailing interest in the use of kettlebell (KB) exercises for rehabilitation and improvement of muscular strength has led to several recent studies, some suggesting that KB exercise may be useful for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KB exercise would produce similar cardiovascular stress to that of walking and thus provide an additional exercise mode for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. It was hypothesized that a moderate-intensity, continuous KB protocol, would produce similar metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses as a brisk bout of graded treadmill (TM) walking, but greater rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten novice volunteers (5 men, 5 women) completed a preliminary session to determine body composition and VO2max and to familiarize participants with standardized KB exercise technique. Subsequently, they completed a 30-minute KB session that included 3 continuous 10-minute sets of 10 KB swings followed by 10 sumo deadlifts, with 3-minute rests between 10-minute exercise periods. The third session was a 30-minute TM regimen that began at the walking speed and 4% grade that matched the VO2 from the KB session and included 3-minute rest intervals after 10-minute TM exercise periods. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, kcal·min, and blood pressure were similar for KB and moderate-intensity TM exercise, but RPE and heart rate were greater during KB exercise. Data indicate that a KB routine consisting of 2-hand swings and sumo deadlifts with 3-minute rest periods produces similar metabolic responses to those of a moderate-intensity TM walking protocol designed for the improvement of aerobic fitness.

  14. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter; Krause, Niklas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. We randomized 116 cleaners between 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were collected at baseline and after four months. A repeated measure 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences in an intention-to-treat analysis. Between-group differences (P<0.01) were found: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.2 [standard error (SE) 0.8] ml O 2 × min -1 × kg -1 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-3.8], aerobic workload - 3.5 (SE 1.2) % HRR (95% CI - 5.9- -1.0), resting HR -3.8 (SE 1.2) bpm (95 % CI -6.1- - 1.4), sleeping HR -3.8 (SE 1.1) bpm (95% CI - 5.9- - 1.7), and systolic BP 3.6 (SE 1.3) mmHg (95% CI 1.1-6.0). Worksite aerobic exercise seems to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, aerobic workload, and resting and sleeping HR, but increase systolic BP among cleaners. Beneficial physiological cardiovascular effects are seen from aerobic exercise, but also a harmful effect is evident. Therefore, recommendations should take into consideration the potential cardiovascular overload from additional aerobic exercise on workers with high levels of occupational physical activity.

  15. Gestational Age and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals Born At Term: A Life Course Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Gbatu, Pei T; Boreham, Colin A

    2017-09-27

    In contrast to the effects of preterm birth, the extent to which shorter gestational age affects the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels of individuals who were born at term (ie, between 37 and 42 weeks) is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether life-course CRF levels varied across different gestational ages within the at-term range. The association between gestational age (in weeks) obtained from Child Health Services records and CRF, estimated from field and laboratory tests and expressed by maximal oxygen uptake level through adolescence to young adulthood, was examined in 791 participants in the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Study, all singletons born at term. Longitudinal data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations, accounting for important potential confounders. Mean levels of CRF were 45.6, 43.7, and 33.0 mL/kg per minute when participants were aged 12, 15, and 22 years, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, each week increase in gestational age was associated with 0.46 mL/kg per minute (95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.79) in CRF. Compared with individuals born full term (39-40 weeks, n=533) or late term (41-42 weeks, n=148), those who were born early term (37-38 weeks, n=110) had a higher incidence of poor CRF (risk ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.16). The changes in CRF through adolescence to young adulthood were similar across groups, with those born early term consistently displaying the lowest CRF. These findings suggest that early-term births within the at-term range are linked to poorer CRF through adolescence to young adulthood, and may have important clinical and public health implications for policies about (avoidable) early-term deliveries given their recent increasing trends. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Does clinical rehabilitation impose sufficient cardiorespiratory strain to improve aerobic fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, A.D.; Eken, M.M.; van Bezeij, T.; Valent, L.; Houdijk, J.H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cardiorespiratory strain experienced by patients over a day and during different types of rehabilitation therapies during a clinical rehabilitation programme. In addition, to investigate the use of the Borg scale as an instrument to monitor exercise intensity. Design:

  17. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  18. The effectiveness of two energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes

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    Nader Rahnama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of energy drinks has become widespread among athletes. The effectiveness of Red Bull and Hype energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes was examined in this study. Methods: Ten male student athletes (age: 22.4 ± 2.1 years, height: 180.8 ± 7.7 cm, weight: 74.2 ± 8.5 kg performed three randomized maximal oxygen consumption tests on a treadmill. Each test was separated by four days and participants were asked to ingest Red Bull, Hype or placebo drinks 40 minutes before the exercise bout. The VO 2max , time to exhaustion, heart rate and lactate were measured to determine if the caffeine-based beverages influence performance. ANOVA test was used for analyzing data. Results: A greater value was observed in VO 2max and time to exhaustion for the Red Bull and Hype trial compared to the placebo trial (p 0.05. For blood lactate levels no significant changes were observed before and two minute after the test (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Ingestion of Red Bull and Hype prior to exercise testing is effective on some indices of cardiorespira-tory fitness but not on the blood lactate levels.

  19. The effect of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness on the lung diffusing capacity response to exercise in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Kirsten E; Carlson, Alex R; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Bryan J

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (Wpeak) in four groups: 1) Young [27 ± 3 yr, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max): 110 ± 18% age predicted]; 2) Young Highly Fit (27 ± 3 yr, V̇o2max: 147 ± 8% age predicted); 3) Old (69 ± 5 yr, V̇o2max: 116 ± 13% age predicted); and 4) Old Highly Fit (65 ± 5 yr, V̇o2max: 162 ± 18% age predicted). At rest and at 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO, and Vc were decreased with age. At 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO, and Vc were greater in Old Highly Fit vs. Old adults. The slope of the DLCO-cardiac output (Q̇) relationship from rest to end exercise at 90% Wpeak was not different between Young, Young Highly Fit, Old, and Old Highly Fit (1.35 vs. 1.44 vs. 1.10 vs. 1.35 mlCO·mmHg-1·liter blood-1, P = 0.388), with no evidence of a plateau in this relationship during exercise; this was also true for DmCO-Q̇ and Vc-Q̇. V̇o2max was positively correlated with 1) DLCO, DmCO, and Vc at rest; and 2) the rest to end exercise change in DLCO, DmCO, and Vc. In conclusion, these data suggest that despite the age-associated deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, expansion of the pulmonary capillary network does not become limited during exercise in healthy individuals regardless of age or cardiorespiratory fitness level.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Healthy aging is a crucial area of research. This article details how differences in age and cardiorespiratory fitness level affect lung diffusing capacity, particularly during high-intensity exercise. We conclude that highly fit older adults do not experience a limit in lung diffusing capacity during high-intensity exercise. Interestingly, however, we

  20. The effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and acute aerobic exercise on executive functioning and EEG entropy in adolescents

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    Michael John Hogan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, identified with a continuous graded cycle ergometry, and aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning and entropy of the electroencephalogram (EEG in 30 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Higher and lower fit participants performed an executive function task after a bout of acute exercise and after rest while watching a film. EEG entropy, using the sample entropy measure, was repeatedly measured during the 1500ms post-stimulus interval to evaluate changes in entropy over time. Analysis of the behavioural data for lower and higher fit groups revealed an interaction between fitness levels and acute physical exercise. Notably, lower fit, but not higher fit, participants had higher error rates for NoGo relative to Go trials in the rest condition, whereas in the acute exercise condition there were no differences in error rates between groups; higher fit participants also had significantly faster reaction times in the exercise condition in comparison with the rest condition. Analysis of EEG data revealed that higher fit participants demonstrated lower entropy post-stimulus than lower fit participants in the left frontal hemisphere, possibly indicating increased efficiency of early stage stimulus processing and more efficient allocation of cognitive resources to the task demands. The results suggest that EEG entropy is sensitive to stimulus processing demands and varies as a function of physical fitness levels, but not acute exercise. Physical fitness, in turn, may enhance cognition in adolescence by facilitating higher functionality of the attentional system in the context of lower levels of frontal EEG entropy.

  1. Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women

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    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155 were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI 25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6% and recovery heart rate (5 bpm. Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. These results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women.

  2. Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in childrenand adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation...... · day(-1) in MVPA (OR = 2.612; 95%confidence interval [CI] = 1.614-4.225) in comparison with those who do not. Participation in competitive sports at club levels increased the chances of being fit (OR = 13.483; 95%CI = 4.560-39.864), independently of MVPA levels. There were positive and significant...... trends in CRF and objectively measured PA across the levels of engagement in competitive sports (P sports at club level is more effective than other organised or non-organised sports to reach healthier levels of CRF and recommend levels of MVPA....

  3. The effect of Tai Chi training on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Guohua Zheng

    Full Text Available Tai Chi may be efficient for healthy adults to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness, but there is no systematic evaluation for its effectiveness.To systematically assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults.Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception to October 2013. The controlled trails including randomized controlled trial (RCT, non-randomized controlled trial (NRCT, self-controlled trial (SCT, and cohort study (CS testing Tai Chi exercise against non-intervention control conditions in healthy adults that assessed any type cardiorespiratory fitness outcome measures were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies according to predefined criteria. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. RevMan 5.2 software was applied for data analysis.Twenty studies (2 RCTs, 8 NRCTs, 3 SCTs, and 7 CSs with 1868 participants were included, but most of them belonged to low methodological quality. The results of systematic review showed that Tai Chi exercise had positive effect on majority outcomes of cardio function (Blood pressure: n = 536, SPB SMD = -0.93, 95% CI -1.30 to -0.56, P < 0.00001; DBP SMD = -0.54, 95% CI -0.90 to -0.18, P < 0.00001; heart rate at quiet condition: n = 986, SMD = -0.72, 95% CI -1.27 to -0.18, P = 0.010; stroke volume: n = 583, SMD = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61, P < 0.00001; cardio output: n = 583, MD = 0.32 L/min, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.56, P = 0.009, lung capacity (FVC at quiet condition: n = 1272, MD = 359.16 mL, 95% CI 19.57 to 698.75, P = 0.04 for less than one year intervention, and MD = 442.46 mL, 95% CI 271.24 to 613.68, P<0.0001 for more than one year intervention; V·O2peak: n = 246, SMD = 1.33, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.70, P < 0.00001, and cardiorespiratory endurance (O2 pulse at quiet condition: n = 146, SMD = 1.04; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.39; P < 0.00001; stair test index at quiet condition: n = 679, SMD = 1.34, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.40, p = 0

  4. Low level of objectively measured physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, and high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Pakistani male immigrants in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Andersen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The level of physical fitness in south Asian immigrants living in Norway is largely unknown, but the level of physical activity seems to be low, possibly in part explaining their high prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, previous studies have used self-reported measures of physical activity, and it might be questioned whether the previous data reflect the true physical activity level.Aim: To describe objectively measured physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes risk in a group of Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway.Methods: One hundred and fifty Pakistani immigrant men in the age group 25-60 years were included. Physical activity level was assessed with an accelerometer. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured until exhaustion on a treadmill, and diabetes risk was evaluated with an oral glucose tolerance test.Results: Mean age was 37.3 years (SD=7.7. Total physical activity level was 308 counts/min (SD=131, and peak oxygen uptake was 34.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 (SD=5.6. Fifty percent of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, and 76% were obese. Physical activity level and cardiorespiratory fitness level were lower, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome higher in a subgroup of taxi drivers as compared with those inother occupations (P<0.05.Conclusions: Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness levels are low and diabetes risk high among Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, especially in taxi drivers

  5. Periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness in younger adults: results from continuous national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Thai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. METHODS: The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max . Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20-49 years, 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99. Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28. Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00. The odds ratio (OR for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64-1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51-1.15]. CONCLUSION: Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults.

  6. Effect of exercise training and detraining in autonomic modulation and cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Reis, Andréa; Silva Garcia, João B; Rodrigues Diniz, Renata; Silva-Filho, Antonio C; Dias, Carlos J; Leite, Richard D; Mostarda, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Heart rate variability (HRV) has attracted scientific community attention in different pathologies, becoming thus an ultimate importance tool in both clinical and research setting, being a good predictor of cardiac events and mortality risk and also used in physical exercise and sports in general. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 12 weeks of exercise training and six weeks of detraining in cardiorespiratory capacity, and autonomic modulation in breast cancer patients. The sample was composed of 18 females (9 controls and 9 exercised), (aged 30-60 years). The HRV in the time and frequency domain was performed using an electrocardiogram before, after 12 weeks of the session of exercise training and after six weeks of detraining. Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests were made. No significant changes in time domain were found. In the frequency domain, 12 weeks of exercise training promote a decrease in LF (nu) and decrease in HF (nu) Index. The exercise training period promoted a decrease in LF/HF. The autonomic data returned to baseline levels after the detraining period. However, cardiorespiratory capacity remained increased after the detraining period. These data demonstrated that exercise training can be used to prevent autonomic dysfunction in breast cancer patients, but detraining promotes loss of all autonomic benefits.

  7. Muscle strength, power and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with bone mineral density in men aged 31-60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas; Nielsen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures represent a growing economical burden to society, not only because of fractures in women, but also because of an increasing number of fractures in men. AIMS: In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the association of muscular and cardio-respiratory......BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures represent a growing economical burden to society, not only because of fractures in women, but also because of an increasing number of fractures in men. AIMS: In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the association of muscular and cardio.......011) with BMD at total hip. CONCLUSIONS: We found that cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with BMD in men. Furthermore, hand grip strength and leg power were associated with increasing BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip in men, respectively. Further prospective studies are needed to further investigate...

  8. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-06-26

    Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Relationship of cardiac structure and function to cardiorespiratory fitness and lean body mass in adolescents and young adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the relationships of cardiac structure and function with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents with type 2 diabetes in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study Group. Cross-sectional evaluation of 233 participant...

  10. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  11. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  12. Less sitting, more physical activity and higher cardiorespiratory fitness: associations with weight status among a national sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have evaluated the independent and combined associations of sedentary behavior (SB, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF on obesity. Our recent work has evaluated this paradigm in the adult population,but no study has evaluated this paradigm in the child population, which was the purpose of this study. Methods: A national sample of children (N=680, 6-11 years were evaluated via the National Youth Fitness Survey; this study was conducted in 2012, employing a nationally representative sample, occurring across 15 different geographic regions in the United States. SB and MVPA were assessed via parental recall, with CRF objectively measured via a treadmill-based aerobic test. Obesity was determined for measured body mass index. A PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary score was created ranging from 0-3, indicating each child’s number of positive characteristics (PA, CRF, SB. Results: Meeting MVPA guidelines (OR adjusted=0.47; 95% CI: 0.29-0.77 and above-median CRF (OR adjusted=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21, but not SB (OR adjusted=0.62; 95% CI: 0.35-1.10,were associated with reduced odds of obesity. Compared to those with a PACS score of 0, the odds of obesity for PACS scores of 1-3, respectively, were: 0.31 (0.18-0.53, 0.12 (0.04-0.34,and 0.05 (0.02-0.10. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need for public health strategies to promote child MVPA and CRF, and to reduce SB.

  13. Effect of E-Bike Versus Bike Commuting on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Adults: A 4-Week Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchsmann, Christoph; Meister, Steffen; Gehrig, Damiana; Gordon, Elisa; Li, Yanlei; Nussbaumer, Monique; Rossmeissl, Anja; Schäfer, Juliane; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2017-06-29

    To assess if active commuting with an electrically assisted bicycle (e-bike) during a 4-week period can induce increases in cardiorespiratory fitness measured as peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) in untrained, overweight individuals, and if these changes are comparable with those induced by a conventional bicycle. Four-week randomized pilot study. Controlled laboratory. Thirty-two volunteers (28 men) participated. Seventeen {median age 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 34, 45], median body mass index [BMI] 29 kg/m [IQR 27, 31]} were randomized to the E-Bike group and 15 [median age 43 years (IQR 38, 45), median BMI 28 kg/m (IQR 26, 29)] to the Bike group. Participants in both groups were instructed to use the bicycle allocated to them (e-bike or conventional bicycle) for an active commute to work in the Basel (Switzerland) area at a self-chosen speed on at least 3 days per week during the 4-week intervention period. V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak was assessed before and after the intervention in an all-out exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased by an average of 3.6 mL/(kg·min) [SD 3.6 mL/(kg·min)] in the E-Bike group and by 2.2 mL/(kg·min) [SD 3.5 mL/(kg·min)] in the Bike group, with an adjusted difference between the 2 groups of 1.4 mL/(kg·min) [95% confidence interval, -1.4-4.1; P = 0.327]. E-bikes may have the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness similar to conventional bicycles despite the available power assist, as they enable higher biking speeds and greater elevation gain.

  14. The introduction of simple cardiorespiratory fitness testing in overweight/obese type 2 diabetics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibičková, Ľubica; Karásek, David; Lukeš, Jiří; Cibiček, Norbert

    2018-01-14

    Low level of cardiorespiratory fitness has been recognized as an important independent and modifiable risk factor of increased morbidity and mortality. However, in standard outpatient settings, patients are not routinely screened for fitness and advantages of such testing for the management of type 2 diabetes have not been defined. Aim To describe the toleration of a fast, simple and practicable fitness test (2-min step-in-place test) by overweight/obese type 2 diabetics and their performance indicated by 2-min step-in-place test score (STS). To study short-term anthropometric, functional and metabolic changes following the implementation of the test in the selected population. A total of 33 overweight/obese type 2 diabetics underwent, besides routine examination at the outpatient clinic, the fitness test (group A). Patients were asked to increase their regular physical activity with focus on walking without change in diet and chronic medication. Three to four months later, the subjects were tested again. An identical number of age- and sex-matched obese diabetics followed in our outpatient clinic (without fitness testing), was randomly selected from the Hospital Information System (control group B). Findings All patients subjected to fitness testing completed the protocol successfully. STS score was found to have a considerable range with differences between males and females at the borderline of statistical significance. The data are compliant with lower aerobic endurance of obese diabetics compared with healthy population. Within study period, the tested group presented with improvements in STS (referring especially to the males) as well as in several laboratory parameters of glucose and lipid homeostasis, glomerular function and subclinical inflammation with no reflection in anthropometry. Group B demonstrated no significant change. In conclusion, 2-min step-in-place test is fast, undemanding and well-tolerated by patients and personnel. Following its

  15. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  16. CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY, CARDIO-RESPIRATORY FITNESS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    Niyati N Khona

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the hormonal changes in postmenopausal women they are prone for many complications like increased CVD risk factors, osteoporosis, obesity, mood swings and urinary incontinence. Physical inactivity in postmenopausal women leads to higher risk of developing CVD and osteoporosis. The objective was to find out the correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in post-menopausal women Methods: 42 postmenopausal women were included. A detailed clinical evaluation with physical activity level (IPAQ-METS-mins/week, , BMD ( T-Scores, body composition (BMI, waist circumference, BIA & Skin fold calliper for fat %, cardio-respiratory fitness was measured by Balke protocol and VO2peak (ml/kg/min is estimated. Correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition were analysed using “Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient and Spearman’s rho.” Results: Spearman’s rank correlation rho for IPAQ with VO2 peak was 0.420,BMI was -0.388 and visceral fat was -0.384 indicating moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness and weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient of IPAQ with BMD was 0.147, body fat was -0.234 and waist circumference was -0.256 indicating no correlation. P value was significant for correlation of IPAQ with CRF (0.006, BMI (0.011 and Visceral fat (0.012. Conclusion: There is moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness, weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat and no correlation between IPAQ and BMD, body fat and waist circumference

  17. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of VO2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (≤ 12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ≤ 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The VO2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance.

  18. INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC DISEASES IN CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN ADULTS OVER 40 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Pereira Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dead associated with corporal composition in elderly should be mediated with physical fitness, in particular with cardiorrespiratory fitness. Using a sample of 60 men and 81 women aged above 40 years was assessed cardiorrespiratory fitness (VO2max, abdominal obesity, overall obesity and lean body mass, comparisons were made between men and women and between levels of cardiorrespiratory fitness, evaluated the association between age, cardiorrespiratory fitness and obesity rates and calculated the ROC curve and odds ratio for risk of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia of each variable. There was an inverse association between VO2max, age and indicators of obesity,whether abdominal or general. Abdominal obesity and the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia was higher in the less able, beyond what the chance of developing these diseases was also associated with lower cardiorrespiratory fitness.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Gait Changes among Firefighters after a Live Burn Training Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Colburn

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: A 14-MET criterion failed to distinguish gait or balance characteristics in this group. However, less fit firefighters did require more time to complete the balance test (p = 0.003. Aerobic fitness alone does not predict gait changes among firefighters following a live burn evolution but does appear to influence functional balance.

  20. Improved cerebral oxygenation response and executive performance as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women: a fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric T Albinet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to protect and enhance cognitive and brain functions, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in older adults. In this study, functional NIRS was used to investigate variations in oxyhemoglobin ([HbO2] and in deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb] in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during the performance of an executive control task in older women with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max. Thirty-four women aged 60-77 years were classified as high-fit and low-fit based on VO2max measures. They all performed a control counting task and the Random Number Generation (RNG task at two different paces (1 number / 1 s and 1 number / 1.5 s, allowing to manipulate task difficulty, while hemodynamic responses in the bilateral DLPFCs were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS. The behavioral data revealed that the high-fit women showed significantly better performance on the RNG tasks compared with the low-fit women. The high-fit women showed significant increases in [HbO2] responses in both left and right DLPFCs during the RNG task, while the low-fit women showed significantly less activation in the right DLPFC compared with the right DLPFC of the high-fit women and compared with their own left DLPFC. At the level of the whole sample, increases in the [HbO2] responses in the right DLPFC were found to mediate in part the relationship between VO2max level and executive performance during the RNG task at 1.5 s but not at 1 s. These results provide support for the cardiorespiratory fitness hypothesis and suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness in older women are related to increased cerebral oxygen supply to the DLPFC, sustaining better cognitive performance.

  1. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  2. Pilot testing of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary adults: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E C; Galloway-Williams, N; Cox, M G; Winett, R A

    2015-10-01

    Vigorous physical activity (PA) has been promoted for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, therapeutic techniques designed to engage participants in vigorous PA have fallen short; one reason for this may be the unpleasant physical sensations associated with vigorous exercise (e.g., temporary shortness of breath and mild muscle soreness). Mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be helpful at improving adherence to vigorous PA levels. In this open clinical trial, we sought to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing CRF in sedentary adults and to generate initial outcomes data. Participants (N=24) engaged in a 10-week fitness walking program while attending regular group sessions based on ACT. The feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated through high levels of walking adherence (89.30%) and group session attendance (85.50%). A large significant decrease in total 1-mile walk test time [t(18)=4.61, p=.0002, d=.64] and a moderate significant increase in estimated VO2max [t(18)=-4.05, p=.0007, d=-.43] were observed. Analyses indicated a large significant increase in exercise-related experiential acceptance [t(18)=-9.19, p <.0001, d=-2.09]. This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of an ACT-based intervention for supporting participation in vigorous PA in sedentary individuals.

  3. Racial Differences in the Prognostic Value of Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Results from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qureshi, Waqas T; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Alam, Mohsin; Dardari, Zeina; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine whether racial differences exist in the prognostic value of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in black and white patients undergoing stress testing. We included 53,876 patients (mean age 53 ± 13, 49% women) from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing project free of established coronary disease or heart failure who completed a maximal exercise test from 1991 to 2009. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 11.5 years for all-cause mortality, ascertained by linkage with the Death Master File. Follow-up over mean 6.2 years was also available for incident myocardial infarction. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used adjusting for demographic variables, risk factors, medications, and reason for stress test referral, including formal interaction testing by race (black vs white). Black patients (n = 16,725) were younger (54 ± 13 vs 52 ± 13, p 0.10). CRF is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in both white and black patients, with no significant interaction observed between race, fitness, and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  5. Influence of chronic diseases in cardiorespiratory fitness in adults over 40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Pereira Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dead associated with corporal composition in elderly should be mediated with physical fitness, in particular with cardiorrespiratory fitness. Using a sample of 60 men and 81 women aged above 40 years was assessed cardiorrespiratory fitness (VO2max, abdominal obesity, overall obesity and lean body mass, comparisons were made between men and women and between levels of cardiorrespiratory fitness, evaluated the association between age, cardiorrespiratory fitness and obesity rates and calculated the ROC curve and odds ratio for risk of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia of each variable. There was an inverse association between VO2max, age and indicators of obesity, whether abdominal or general. Abdominal obesity and the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia was higher in the less able, beyond what the chance of developing these diseases was also associated with lower cardiorrespiratory fitness. Our results indicate that the use of indicators of obesity should be associated with cardiorrespiratory fitness for the assessment of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in relation to diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in people over 40 years.

  6. Secular change in cardiorespiratory fitness of men: Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, Benjamin L; Morrow, Jr, James R; Jackson, Allen W; Defina, Laura F; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2011-01-01

    .... A cross-sectional analysis of baseline fitness data collected during comprehensive medical examinations of 52,785 men age 20-74 yr evaluated at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX, from 1970 to 2009...

  7. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness predict changes in body composition from childhood to adolescence: findings from the European Youth Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Rui T; Silva, Analiza M; Minderico, Cláudia S; Sardinha, Luís B

    2011-05-01

    Several variables, such as waist circumference (WC) and trunk skinfolds (TS), are indicators of body fat. There is interest in evaluating the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measures on changes in these markers from childhood to adolescence. To examine CRF as a potential predictor of changes in body fat over an 8-year follow-up period in a pediatric population. A cohort study of 86 children (44 girls, 42 boys) with a mean age of 9.8 ± 0.3 years who participated in the Portuguese arm of the European Youth Heart Study in 2000 completed a follow-up evaluation in 2008 at a mean age of 17.0 ± 0.4 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), was assessed during an incremental multistage bicycle test to exhaustion. Physical activity (PA) was objectively measured by accelerometry at both periods of evaluation. Fat mass (FM) was assessed using anthropometric models, sum of TS, and WC. Changes were expressed as a percentage of the baseline value. Comparison of means and linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. While CRF significantly increased among boys (P < 0.05) and decreased in girls (P < 0.01), the percentage of body fat decreased over time in boys (P < 0.01) and increased among girls. Alone, CRF explained 39%, 26%, and 25% of the total variance in WC, FM, and TS, respectively (P < 0.01). Adjusting for PA, sex, and maturation changes, CRF remained a significant predictor of WC (β = -0.335; P < 0.01), FM (β = -2.084; P < 0.01), and TS (β = -1.500; P < 0.01). Changes in CRF are a significant predictor of changes in body fat percentage from childhood to adolescence. School-based PA interventions are encouraged to maintain or improve CRF from childhood and throughout adolescence to prevent increased percentages of body fat, particularly in the abdominal region.

  8. The Effect of Tai Chi on Cardiorespiratory Fitness for Coronary Disease Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-li Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tai Chi that originated in China as a martial art is an aerobic exercise with low-to-moderate intensity and may play a role in cardiac rehabilitation.Aim: To systematically review the effect of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness for coronary disease rehabilitation.Methods: We performed a search for Chinese and English studies in the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Wanfang Data, and China Science and Technology Journal Database. The search strategy included terms relating to or describing Tai Chi and coronary disease, and there were no exclusion criteria for other types of diseases or disorders. Further, bibliographies of the related published systematic reviews were also reviewed. The searches, data extraction, and risk of bias (ROB assessments were conducted by two independent investigators. Differences were resolved by consensus. RevMan 5.3.0 was used to analyze the study results. We used quantitative synthesis if the included studies were sufficiently homogeneous and performed subgroup analyses for studies with different control groups. To minimize bias in our findings, we used GRADEpro to grade the available evidence.Results: Five studies were enrolled—two randomized controlled trials (RCTs and three nonrandomized controlled trials (N-RCTs—that included 291 patients. All patients had coronary disease. ROB assessments showed a relatively high selection and detection bias. Meta-analyses showed that compared to other types of low- or moderate-intensity exercise, Tai Chi could significantly improve VO2max [MD = 4.71, 95% CI (3.58, 5.84, P < 0.00001], but it seemed less effective at improving VO2max as compared to high-intensity exercise. This difference, however, was not statistically significant [MD = −1.10, 95% CI (−2.46, 0.26, P = 0.11]. The GRADEpro showed a low level of the

  9. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Using Cycle Ergometry: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Imboden, Mary T; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established. This report provides newly developed standards for CRF reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) using cycle ergometry in the United States. Ten laboratories in the United States experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed to the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry from April 2014 through May 2016. Data from 4494 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.1) cycle ergometer tests from men and women (20-79 years) from 27 states, without cardiovascular disease, were used to develop these references values. Percentiles of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from age 20 years through age 79 years. Comparisons of VO2max were made to reference data established with CPX data from treadmill data in the FRIEND Registry and previously published reports. As expected, there were significant differences between sex and age groups for VO2max (Pstandard differences from treadmill testing reference values. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in Luo, Kamba, and Maasai of rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt‐Jepsen, D.; Boit, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitual physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio‐respiratory fitness (CRF) are now well‐established determinants of metabolic disease, there is scarcity of such data from Africa. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured PAEE and CRF in different ethnic...

  11. In 6- to 8-year-old children, cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Endes, Katharina; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Hanssen, Henner; Pühse, Uwe; Zahner, Lukas

    2017-03-01

    In children, the pathways by which physical activity and fitness are associated with physical and psychological wellbeing are still not fully understood. The present study examines for the first time in young children whether high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity moderate the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life. Three hundred and seventy-eight children (188 girls, 190 boys, M age  = 7.27 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Parental education, gender, age, severity of life events, health-related quality of life and physical activity were assessed via parental questionnaires. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with the 20 m shuttle run test. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test whether physical activity and fitness interacted with critical life events to explain health-related quality of life. When exposed to critical life events, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher levels of psychological wellbeing, relative to their less fit peers. On the other hand, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher physical wellbeing and more positive friendship relationships when severity of life events was low. A similar moderation effect was found for physical activity with overall quality of life as outcome. Recent stressful experiences alone were not sufficient to explain negative health outcomes in young children. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels experienced lower psychological wellbeing when they were exposed to critical life events. More research is needed to find out whether similar findings emerge with objective physical activity measurements and when critical life events are assessed over longer periods of time.

  12. Sex Differences in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and All-Cause Mortality: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Juraschek, Stephen P; Whelton, Seamus; Dardari, Zeina A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Michos, Erin D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Qureshi, Waqas T; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether sex modifies the relationship between fitness and mortality. We included 57,284 patients without coronary artery disease or heart failure who completed a routine treadmill exercise test between 1991 and 2009. We determined metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) and linked patient records with mortality data via the Social Security Death Index. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the association between sex, fitness, and all-cause mortality. There were 29,470 men (51.4%) and 27,814 women (48.6%) with mean ages of 53 and 54 years, respectively. Overall, men achieved 1.7 METs higher than women (Pmortality rate for men in each MET group was similar to that for women, who achieved an average of 2.6 METs lower (P=.004). Fitness was inversely associated with mortality in both men (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84 per 1 MET; 95% CI, 0.83-0.85) and women (HR, 0.83 per 1 MET; 95% CI, 0.81-0.84). This relationship did not plateau at high or low MET values. Although men demonstrated 1.7 METs higher than women, their survival was equivalent to that of women demonstrating 2.6 METs lower. Furthermore, higher MET values were associated with lower mortality for both men and women across the range of MET values. These findings are useful for tailoring prognostic information and lifestyle guidance to men and women undergoing stress testing. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Heidi M; Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S

    2016-11-15

    In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220). VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p vegetarian endurance athletes' cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

  14. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzak, Dorota E; Konkol, Kristen F; McKune, Andrew J

    2016-07-30

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30-8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p < 0.01). SIgA secretion rate was significantly lower in obese and overweight vs. normal weight children (p < 0.01). Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of sAA with CRF acting as a mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.05) with BMI (p < 0.001) found to be an independent predictor of SIgA secretion rate. Obesity, based on BMI, was associated with elevated SNS activity and lowered mucosal immunity. CRF-mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Heidi M.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Johnston, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220). VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p vegetarian endurance athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes. PMID:27854281

  16. Fostering autonomous motivation, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in rheumatoid arthritis: protocol and rationale for a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Peter C; Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, Jet J C S; Metsios, George S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Yu, Chen-an; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fenton, Sally A M; Coast, Joanna; Mistry, Hema; Kitas, George D; Duda, Joan L

    2014-12-19

    People with rheumatoid arthritis are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease than the general population. Sustained physical activity increases cardio-respiratory fitness and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, little is known about how we can effectively promote long-term participation in physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The literature consistently calls for physical activity interventions, and their implementation, to be theoretically-grounded. This paper documents the protocol of a randomised control trial that investigates whether a Self-determination Theory-based intervention fosters the adoption and maintenance of physical activity (3, 6 and 12 months) sufficient to provide sustained cardiovascular and personal well-being benefits in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be determined. The trial is registered as Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04121489. Results from this trial will provide guidance regarding key social environmental factors that can be manipulated to support motivational processes conducive to positive health behaviour change and optimal functioning in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

  17. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made.12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated.CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05.SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  18. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Evaluation of an Exercise Field Test Using Heart Rate Monitors to Assess Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Heart Rate Recovery in an Asymptomatic Population

    OpenAIRE

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L; Anderson, Ivan B.; Wilson, Machelle D.; David A Hawkins; Amsterdam, Ezra A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and heart rate recovery (HRR) can improve risk stratification for cardiovascular disease, but these measurements are rarely made in asymptomatic individuals due to cost. An exercise field test (EFT) to assess CRF and HRR would be an inexpensive method for cardiovascular disease risk assessment in large populations. This study assessed 1) the predictive accuracy of a 12-minute run/walk EFT for estimating CRF ([Formula: see text]) and 2) the ...

  20. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8-11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hjorth, Mads F; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim; Astrup, Arne; Tetens, Inge; Sjödin, Anders

    2013-01-01

    .... The primary aim was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8-11 year-old children...

  1. A lower cardiorespiratory fitness is associated to an unhealthy status among children and adolescents from Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualteros, Julián Alberto; Torres, Jorge Andrés; Umbarila-Espinosa, Luz Marina; Rodríguez-Valero, Francisco Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have shown that low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a significant independent risk factor for future cardiometabolic disease in adult life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between CRF and health status in children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 921 children and adolescents aged 9-17 years living in the metropolitan area of the District of Bogotá, Colombia (2,480m asl). CRF was assessed with the 20m shuttle run test (Course-Navette) according to ALPHA-FITNESS and FITNESSGRAM standards. Blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference, body composition (body fat percentage, fat body mass, and fat-free mass by bioimpedance), skin fold calipers, body mass index, and sexual maturity (Tanner) were used as indicators of physical health. After adjusting for sex, age, and sexual maturity, significant inverse relationships were seen between CRF and body mass index (r=-0.107), body fat percentage (r=-0.197), fat body mass (r=-0.159), skin fold (r=-0.246), and waist circumference (r=-0.169); P<.001. Schoolchildren with low CRF levels showed OR 6.06 (95% CI 3.98-9.24) increase in body fat by bioimpedance; OR 4.04 (95% CI 1.83-9.11) risk of overweight/obese by body mass index and OR 2.47 (95% CI 1.14-5.37) abdominal obesity due to increased waist circumference. Approximately two thirds of participants had a CRF level suggesting future cardiovascular disease. Early identification of children and adolescents with low CRF levels will allow for implementing interventions to prevent cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness is negatively associated with metabolic risk factors independently of the adherence to a healthy dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, C; Santos, R; Moreira, P; Lobelo, F; Ruiz, J R; Vale, S; Santos, P C; Abreu, S; Mota, J

    2013-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and diet have been involved as significant factors towards the prevention of cardio-metabolic diseases. This study aimed to assess the impact of the combined associations of CRF and adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEADiet) on the clustering of metabolic risk factors in adolescents. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 468 adolescents aged 15-18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, waits circumference and height. HOMA, TC/HDL-C ratio and waist-to-height ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was constructed by summing the Z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥ 1 SD of this score. CRF was measured with the 20 m-Shuttle-Run-Test. Adherence to SEADiet was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression showed that, after adjusting for potential confounders, unfit adolescents with low adherence to SEADiet had the highest odds of having MRS (OR = 9.4; 95%CI:2.6-33.3) followed by the unfit ones with high adherence to the SEADiet (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 1.9-22.5) when compared to those who were fit and had higher adherence to SEADiet. Unfit adolescents showed higher odds of having high MRS, regardless of the adherence to SEADiet suggesting that high CRF may overcome the deleterious effects of low adherence to a healthy dietary pattern in adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High and low contact frequency cardiac rehabilitation programmes elicit similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHaye, Stephen A; Lacombe, Shawn P; Koppikar, Sahil; Lun, Grace; Parsons, Trisha L; Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a proven intervention that substantially improves physical health and decreases death and disability following a cardiovascular event. Traditional CR typically involves 36 on-site exercise sessions spanning a 12-week period. To date, the optimal dose of CR has yet to be determined. This study compared a high contact frequency CR programme (HCF, 34 on-site sessions) with a low contact frequency CR programme (LCF, eight on-site sessions) of equal duration (4 months). A total of 961 low-risk cardiac patients (RARE score cardiovascular risk factors were measured on admission and discharge. Similar proportions of patients completed HCF (n = 346) and LCF (n = 351) (p = 0.398). Patients who were less fit (<8 METs) were more likely to drop out of the LCF group, while younger patients (<60 years) were more likely to drop out of the HCF group. Both groups experienced similar reductions in weight (-2.3 vs. -2.4 kg; p = 0.779) and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (+1.5 vs. +1.4 METs; p = 0.418). Patients in the LCF programme achieved equivalent results to those in the HCF programme. Certain subgroups of patients, however, may benefit from participation in a HCF programme, including those patients who are predisposed to prematurely discontinuing the programme and those patients who would benefit from increased monitoring. The LCF model can be employed as an alternative option to widen access and participation for patients who are unable to attend HCF programmes due to distance or time limitations. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  5. Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Li, J. X.; Robinson, P

    2000-01-01

    Background—Tai Chi Chuan (TTC) exercise has beneficial effects on the components of physical condition and can produce a substantial reduction in the risk of multiple falls. Previous studies have shown that short term TCC exercise did not improve the scores in the single leg stance test with eyes closed and the sit and reach test. There has apparently been no research into the effects of TCC on total body rotation flexibility and heart rate responses at rest and after a three minute step test. Methods—In this cross sectional study, 28 male TCC practitioners with an average age of 67.5 years old and 13.2 years of TCC exercise experience were recruited to form the TCC group. Another 30 sedentary men aged 66.2 were selected to serve as the control group. Measurements included resting heart rate, left and right single leg stance with eyes closed, modified sit and reach test, total body rotation test (left and right), and a three minute step test. Results—Compared with the sedentary group, the TCC group had significantly better scores in resting heart rate, three minute step test heart rate, modified sit and reach, total body rotation test on both right and left side (pleg standing with eyes closed (p<0.05). According to the American Fitness Standards, the TCC group attained the 90th percentile rank for sit and reach and total body rotation test, right and left. Conclusion—Long term regular TCC exercise has favourable effects on the promotion of balance control, flexibility, and cardiovascular fitness in older adults. Key Words: Tai Chi; balance; falls; flexibility; cardiovascular fitness; aged PMID:10690447

  6. Importance of Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Clinical Practice: A Case for Fitness as a Clinical Vital Sign: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert; Blair, Steven N; Arena, Ross; Church, Timothy S; Després, Jean-Pierre; Franklin, Barry A; Haskell, William L; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Levine, Benjamin D; Lavie, Carl J; Myers, Jonathan; Niebauer, Josef; Sallis, Robert; Sawada, Susumu S; Sui, Xuemei; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-12-13

    Mounting evidence has firmly established that low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality rates attributable to various cancers. A growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates not only that CRF is a potentially stronger predictor of mortality than established risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but that the addition of CRF to traditional risk factors significantly improves the reclassification of risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this statement is to review current knowledge related to the association between CRF and health outcomes, increase awareness of the added value of CRF to improve risk prediction, and suggest future directions in research. Although the statement is not intended to be a comprehensive review, critical references that address important advances in the field are highlighted. The underlying premise of this statement is that the addition of CRF for risk classification presents health professionals with unique opportunities to improve patient management and to encourage lifestyle-based strategies designed to reduce cardiovascular risk. These opportunities must be realized to optimize the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and hence meet the American Heart Association's 2020 goals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Associations between accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior, physical activity and objectively-measured cardiorespiratory fitness with red blood cell distribution width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-10-15

    Emerging work identifies red blood cell distribution width (RDW) as a unique biomarker independently associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. Encouragingly, recent research demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with RDW. However, no study has evaluated their independent and combined associations on RDW, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N=627 adults 20-49yrs). Sedentary behavior and MVPA were objectively assessed (accelerometry) with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test. Participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters, with a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score ranging from 0 to 3, indicating the participant number of these three positive characteristics. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess RDW. Only above median MVPA (OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.68) was independently associated with a reduced odds of having an elevated RDW. With regard to the additive model, and after adjustment, the odds ratio (95% CI) for the PACS score of 1 (vs. 0), 2 (vs. 0), and 3 (vs. 0), respectively, were 0.81 (0.45-1.45; P=0.46), 0.66 (0.44-0.99; P=0.04) and 0.35 (0.18-0.68; P=0.004). When considering sedentary behavior, MVPA, and cardiorespiratory fitness, only MVPA was associated with reduced odds of elevated RDW, but those with all three characteristics had the lowest odds of elevated RDW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of some pulmonary parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness status in Nepalese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, R; Upadhyay Dhungel, K; Pramanik, T; Ghosh, A; Roychowdhury, P

    2008-03-01

    Some pulmonary function tests along with cardio respiratory fitness test were performed to assess the health status of the young (19-21 years) non-smokers Nepalese medical students. Results revealed that the vital capacity was 3.46 liters and 2.40 liters among the boys and girls respectively. PEFR was found to be 597.98 l/min among the boys and 456.53 l/min among the girls. Likewise, VO2 max among the boys and girls were 54.32 ml/kg/min and 44.88 ml/kg/min respectively. It was evident from the result that the health status of the Nepalese medical students ill the present study group was fairly well. It might be due to their health awareness, balanced-nutritious diet and the habits of occasional physical exercise.

  9. Profile of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Flexibility and Fat Percentage of Junior High School Students in Jatinangor

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    Gemuruh Putra Akbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable disease and global mortality in adolescent. Lack of physical activity will lead the condition into poor physical fitness, measured by cardio respiratory fitness (maximum oxygen volume, VO2 max, and other components such as flexibility. The study aimed to describe VO2 max, flexibility and fat percentage among junior high school students in Jatinangor. Methods: The study was a descriptive observational study using descriptive analysis.  VO2 max was assessed using Astrand Ryhming step test, flexibility was measured using flexometer sit and reach test, and fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. The subjects were junior high school students who were study in 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade in Jatinangor Junior High School based on stratification sampling method. It was conducted from September–October 2013. Results: Total subjects were 110 students consisted of male (n=52 and female (n=58.  The VO2 max were in good and above category, 57.69% of male (50.37 ± 9.80 ml/kg/min, and 60.34% of female (37.66±7.03 ml/kg/min. The flexibility for both males and females were within excellent category (67.31%, 26.56 ±7.14 cm and 67.24%, 27.29±6.64 cm respectively. The fat percentage in females were within healthy category (67.24%, 25.28 ± 6.85 %, meanwhile male were within underfat category (48.08%, 11.66 ± 5.83 %. Conclusions: The majority of VO2 max, and flexibility both in male and female were good. The fat percentages were good in female students, while in male students were under normal range. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1085

  10. The Role of Body Habitus in Predicting Cardiorespiratory Fitness: The FRIEND Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynard, T; Arena, R A; Myers, J; Kaminsky, L A

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to validate and cross-validate a non-exercise prediction model from a large and apparently healthy US cohort of individuals who underwent an analysis of body habitus (waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI)) with measured CRF. The large cohort (5 030 individuals) was split into validation (4 030) and cross-validation (1 000) groups, whereby waist circumference and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were assessed by rigorously approved laboratories. VO2max was estimated in 2 multiple regression equations using age, sex and either WC (r=0.77; standard error of the estimate (SEE) 6.70 mLO2∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) or BMI (r=0.76; SEE 6.89 mLO2∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)).Cross-validation yielded similar results. However, as VO2max increased, there was increased bias, suggesting VO2max may be underestimated at higher values. Both WC and BMI prediction models yielded similar findings, with WC having a slightly smaller SEE. These measures of body habitus appear to be adequate in predicting CRF using non-exercise parameters, even without a measure of physical activity. Caution should be taken when using these equations in more fit individuals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in adolescents: role of cardiorespiratory fitness levels--the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Moreno, Sara; Urzanqui, Alejandro; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnár, Dénes; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the association between objectively assessed physical activity (PA) and markers of insulin resistance (IR) in European adolescents and to examine whether the association of objectively assessed PA and markers of IR is modified by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). A cross-sectional study at school setting was conducted in 1053 (554 girls) adolescents (12.5-17.5 yr). Weight, height, waist circumference, total body fat, PA (accelerometry), and CRF (20-m shuttle run test) were measured. Fasting insulin and glucose concentrations were measured, and homeostasis model assessment as well as quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were computed. In males, vigorous PA (VPA) was negatively associated with markers of IR after adjusting for confounders including waist circumference (all p < 0.05). In females, moderate PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and average PA were negatively associated with markers of IR after adjusting for confounders (all p < 0.05). Moreover, when the sample was segmented by CRF levels all the PA intensities were significantly associated with the markers of IR in females with low CRF but not in those with middle-high CRF after adjusting for confounders. The findings suggest that PA is negatively associated with markers of IR after adjusting for confounders including total and central body fat in both sexes, but this relationship is modified by the CRF levels being especially important in those females with low CRF. Preventive strategies should focus not only on increasing the volume of PA but also on enhancing CRF through VPA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Antepartum cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) quantification by estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) in pregnant South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaravertty, Biswajit; Parkavi, K; Coumary, Sendhil A; Felix, A J W

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) for pregnant women of varying trimesters and to quantify the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)with the objective of being able to determine the exercise dose for antenatal women which can be prescribed to achieve optimal exercise benefits during various trimesters. A study group comprising 64 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy and control group with 77 non-pregnant women were subjected to Cooper's 12 minutes walk test. From the distance covered in 12 minutes, Vo2max was calculated. The Vo2max values were statistically analysed between the non-pregnant and pregnant and also its variability among the trimesters. Percentile tables of Vo2max were drawn and multiple comparisons were applied. Results show that the Vo2max values among non-pregnant and first trimester ranges between 18 and 22 ml/kg/minute. Trimesters II and III had a range of Vo2max values between 16-20 and 14-18 ml/kg/minute respectively. The CRF of pregnant women significantly reduced to 6%, 9% and 18% in each trimester respectively when compared with the reference table framed out of non-pregnant Vo2max values. Among the study group the reduction in Vo2max values had no statistical significance between first 2 trimesters but trimester III significantly differs from other trimesters. The exercise prescription cannot be the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women. Even among the pregnant women, III trimester needs separate exercise prescription from the other two trimesters as CRF is markedly compromised towards term.

  13. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  14. Cardio-respiratory fitness markers among Kenyan university students using a 20m shuttle run test (SRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magutah, K

    2013-03-01

    To assess Cardio-respiratory fitness (CF) markers among university students using a 20m shuttle run test (SRT). Markers of CF were assessed in 80 males aged 21.4±1.8 years, randomly selected from Moi University, Kenya. Assessed at different stages of SRT protocol included heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP). VO2max was also determined. Data were analyzed using Stata v10. Comparisons were based on subjects exercise regimes. Subjects with either regular or irregular regimes attained lower HR in 4(th) minute of SRT compared to non-exercise group (174.5±11.6 and 172.2±10.8 vs 182.8±6.8 b/m; p=0.04 and p=0.01 respectively). Lower HRs were maintained among irregularly exercising after 5(th) minute (176.5±10.1 vs 186.7±6.3 b/m; p=0.02). Regularly exercising subjects obtained lowest DBP at exhaustion compared to irregular and non-exercising (58.58±15.0, 62.43±12.9 and 64.1±8.8 mmhg respectively). VO2maxpredictors included year of study (r=-0.40), age (r=-0.41) and weight (r=-0.23). The regularly exercising had higher VO2max than irregular (p<0.01) and non-exercising (p<0.001). No demonstrable difference in VO2max existed between irregular and non-exercise subjects. Exercise regimes should be emphasized amongst university students, albeit with less regard to regularity, which should be encouraged for those in higher study years and those with higher DBP at exhaustion.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Heidi M. Lynch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG and 43 omnivore (OMN athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220. VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p < 0.05 but not for males (62.6 ± 15.4 and 55.7 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min respectively. Peak torque did not differ significantly between diet groups. Results from this study indicate that vegetarian endurance athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

  16. Cross-sectional association of exercise, strengthening activities, and cardiorespiratory fitness on generalized anxiety, panic and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Addoh, Ovuokerie; Wong Sarver, Nina; Espinoza, Ingrid; Mann, Joshua R

    2017-09-01

    Limited research has evaluated the individual and combined associations of physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle strengthening activities (MSA) on generalized anxiety, panic and depressive symptoms. We evaluated this topic in a representative sample of young (20-39 years) adults, with considerations by sex. Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 2088) were used. Generalized anxiety, panic and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report as well as using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Depressive Disorders modules of the automated version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-Auto 2.1). PA and MSA were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires and CRF was determined via a submaximal treadmill-based test. An index variable was created summing the number (range = 0-3) of these parameters for each participant. For example, those meeting PA guidelines, MSA guidelines and having moderate-to-high CRF were classified as having an index score of 3. MSA was not independently associated with generalized anxiety, panic and depressive symptoms, but those with higher levels of PA and CRF had a reduced odds of these symptoms (ranging from 40 to 46% reduced odds). Compared to those with an index score of 0, those with an index score of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, had a 39%, 54% and 71% reduced odds of having generalized anxiety, panic and depressive symptoms. Results were consistent across both sexes. PA and CRF, but not MSA, were independently associated with generalized anxiety, panic and depressive symptoms. There was evidence of an additive association between PA, CRF, and MSA on these symptoms.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of site-specific cancers: a long-term prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robsahm, Trude E; Falk, Ragnhild S; Heir, Trond; Sandvik, Leiv; Vos, Linda; Erikssen, Jan; Tretli, Steinar

    2017-04-01

    Based on self-reported physical activity, there is epidemiologic evidence for a beneficial relation between physical activity and colon cancer in men, but findings for other cancers are inconclusive. Measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can provide knowledge about the cancer-preventive value of physical activity. We aimed to assess relationships between CRF and risk of site-specific cancers. A cohort of 1997 healthy Norwegian men, aged 40-59 years at inclusion in 1972-1975, was followed for cancer throughout 2012 using data from the Cancer Registry of Norway. CRF was measured by a maximal exercise bicycle test at inclusion. Relationships between CRF and site-specific cancers were estimated using Cox regression, adjusted for age, body mass index, and smoking. During follow-up, 898 cancer cases were diagnosed in 758 men. When comparing men in CRF tertile 1 with men in tertiles 2 and 3, respectively, we found decreased risk of proximal colon cancer in tertile 2 (HR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.13-0.73) and decreased risk of cancers of lung (0.39 95% CI: 0.22-0.66), pancreas (0.32 95% CI: 0.10-1.00), and bladder (HR: 0.40 95% CI: 0.21-0.74) in tertile 3. Furthermore, a significant trend for lower risk by increasing CRF tertile was found for cancers of proximal colon, lung, and bladder (P-value for trend cancer sites, no significant association was found. Our results indicate that high midlife CRF may have cancer-preventive value. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates inversely with excess post-exercise oxygen consumption after aerobic-type interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Seino, Satoshi; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2012-11-21

    The purpose of this study was to reveal any association between cardiorespiratory fitness level and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) using three cycling protocols with varying degrees of exercise intensity, i.e., sprint interval training (SIT), high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT), and continuous aerobic training (CAT). Ten healthy men, aged 20 to 31 years, attended a cross-over experiment and completed three exercise sessions: SIT consisting of 7 sets of 30-s cycling at 120% VO2max with a 15-s rest between sets; HIAT consisting of 3 sets of 3-min cycling at 80~90% VO2max with a 2-min active rest at 50% VO2max between sets; and CAT consisting of 40 min of cycling at 60~65% VO2max. During each session, resting VO2, exercise VO2, and a 180-min post-exercise VO2 were measured. The net exercise VO2 during the SIT, HIAT, and CAT averaged 14.7 ± 1.5, 31.8 ± 4.1, and 71.1 ± 10.0 L, and the EPOCs averaged 6.8 ± 4.0, 4.5 ± 3.3, and 2.9 ± 2.8 L, respectively. The EPOC with SIT was greater than with CAT (P EPOC to net exercise VO2 for SIT, HIAT, and CAT were -0.61 (P = 0.06), -0.79 (P EPOC, especially when performing aerobic-type interval training.

  19. High cardiorespiratory fitness in early to late middle age preserves the cortical circuitry associated with brain-heart integration during volitional exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katelyn N; Luchyshyn, Torri A; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) preserves the cortical circuitry associated with cardiac arousal during exercise in middle- to older-aged individuals. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) images were made in 52 healthy, active individuals (45-73 yr; 16 women, 36 men) across a range of fitness (26-66 ml·kg-1·min-1). Seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% maximal voluntary contraction force were performed with functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T, with each contraction lasting 20 s and separated by 40 s of rest. HR responses to IHG showed high variability across individuals. Linear regression revealed that cardiorespiratory fitness was not a strong predictor of the HR response (r2 = 0.09). In a region-of-interest analysis both the IHG task and the HR time course correlated with increased cortical activation in the bilateral insula and decreased activation relative to baseline in the anterior and posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). t-Test results revealed greater deactivation at the MPFC with higher fitness levels beyond that of guideline-based activity. Therefore, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness failed to affect absolute HR responses to IHG in this age range, a select effect was observed in cortical regions known to be associated with cardiovascular arousal.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our first observation suggests that fitness does not strongly predict the heart rate (HR) response to a volitional handgrip task in middle- to older-aged adults. Second, the BOLD response associated with the handgrip task, and with the HR time course, was associated with response patterns in the cortical autonomic network. Finally, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness failed to affect absolute HR responses to isometric handgrip in this age range, a select effect was observed in cortical regions known to be associated

  20. Obesity, Underweight, and Smoking Are Associated with Worse Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Finnish Healthy Young Men: A Population-Based Study

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    Georgios Nikolakaros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObesity and smoking are strongly associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. Most previous studies that have examined the association of body composition with CRF have neither assessed non-linearity nor separately examined the effects of underweight. Thus, very little is known on how underweight affects CRF. Possible joint effects of obesity and smoking on CRF have not been adequately explored.AimsWe examined the association between body mass index (BMI and smoking with CRF in 1,629 Finnish army conscripts. We focused on non-linear effects of BMI in order to assess the importance of underweight. We also examined whether the cooccurrence of obesity and smoking potentiates their deleterious effects on CRF.MethodsWe used the Cooper’s 12-minute run test (12MR to measure CRF. The 12MR score was analyzed as continuous (linear, polynomial, and restricted cubic spline regression and categorical. In categorical analyses, we used binary logistic regression with the 12MR score in two groups (low = lowest quintile vs. intermediate/high = quintiles 2–5 and multinomial logistic regression with the 12MR score in three groups (low = lowest quintile, intermediate = quintiles 2 and 3, and high = quintiles 4 and 5.ResultsNon-linearity in the spline model was statistically significant (p < 0.001. In addition, the non-linear models had a clearly better fit than the linear one in terms of Akaike Information Criterion and R-squared values. There was a statistically significant interaction between smoking and BMI (p < 0.01. In the categorical analysis, overweight/obese regular smokers were at a particularly high risk of not achieving high CRF.ConclusionIn healthy young men, not only overweight/obesity but also underweight may be associated with worse CRF. This provides a potential mechanism for the previously reported association between underweight and increased mortality. The cooccurrence of overweight/obesity and

  1. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  2. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. Results From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42–0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73–0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72–0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. Conclusions When the evaluation of an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26987118

  3. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42-0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73-0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. When the evaluation of an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  4. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayorga-Vega

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults.Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min.From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42-0.79, with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73-0.85 and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.83 having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests.When the evaluation of an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  5. Evaluation of Cooper 12-minute walk/run test as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness in young urban children with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Michael; Danduran, Michael; Meurer, John; Hartmann, Kathryn; Berger, Stuart; Flores, Glenn

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate Cooper 12-minute run/walk test (CT12) as a one-time estimate of cardiorespiratory fitness and marker of fitness change compared with treadmill fitness testing in young children with persistent asthma. A cohort of urban children with asthma participated in the asthma and exercise program and a subset completed pre- and postintervention fitness testing. Treadmill fitness testing was conducted by an exercise physiologist in the fitness laboratory at an academic children's hospital. CT12 was conducted in a college recreation center gymnasium. Forty-five urban children with persistent asthma aged 7 to 14 years participated in exercise interventions. A subset of 19 children completed pre- and postintervention exercise testing. Participants completed a 9-week exercise program where they participated in either swimming or golf 3 days a week for 1 hour. A subset of participants completed fitness testing by 2 methods before and after program completion. CT12 results (meters), maximal oxygen consumption ((.)Vo2max) (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and treadmill exercise time (minutes). CT12 and maximal oxygen consumption were moderately correlated (preintervention: 0.55, P = 0.003; postintervention: 0.48, P = 0.04) as one-time measures of fitness. Correlations of the tests as markers of change over time were poor and nonsignificant. In children with asthma, CT12 is a reasonable one-time estimate of fitness but a poor marker of fitness change over time.

  6. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  7. Reliability and minimal detectable change of a new treadmill-based progressive workload incremental test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in manual wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Cindy; Arel, Jasmine; Brosseau, Rachel; Hicks, Audrey L; Gagnon, Dany H

    2017-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness training is commonly provided to manual wheelchair users (MWUs) in rehabilitation and physical activity programs, emphasizing the need for a reliable task-specific incremental wheelchair propulsion test. Quantifying test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of key cardiorespiratory fitness measures following performance of a newly developed continuous treadmill-based wheelchair propulsion test (WPTTreadmill). Twenty-five MWUs completed the WPTTreadmill on two separate occasions within one week. During these tests, participants continuously propelled their wheelchair on a motorized treadmill while the exercise intensity was gradually increased every minute until exhaustion by changing the slope and/or speed according to a standardized protocol. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), carbon dioxide production (VCO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak), minute ventilation (VEpeak) and heart rate (HRpeak) were computed. Time to exhaustion (TTE) and number of increments completed were also measured. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to determine test-retest reliability. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and MDC90% values were calculated. Excellent test-retest reliability was reached for almost all outcome measures (ICC=0.91-0.76), except for RERpeak (ICC=0.58), which reached good reliability. TTE (ICC=0.89) and number of increments (ICC=0.91) also reached excellent test-retest reliability. For the main outcome measures (VO2peak and TTE), absolute SEM was 2.27 mL/kg/min and 0.76 minutes, respectively and absolute MDC90% was 5.30 mL/kg/min and 1.77 minutes, respectively. The WPTTreadmill is a reliable test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness among MWUs. TTE and number of increments could be used as reliable outcome measures when VO2 measurement is not possible.

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and death from cancer: a 42-year follow-up from the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2017-09-01

    Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer and any cause with 42 years and 44 years of follow-up, respectively. Middle-aged, employed and cancer-free Danish men from the prospective Copenhagen Male Study, enrolled in 1970-1971, were included. CRF (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)) was estimated using a bicycle ergometer test and analysed in multivariable Cox models including conventional risk factors, social class and self-reported physical activity. Death from cancer and all-cause mortality was assessed using Danish national registers. Follow-up was 100% complete. In total, 5131 men were included, mean (SD) age 48.8 (5.4) years. During 44 years of follow-up, 4486 subjects died (87.4%), 1527 (29.8%) from cancer. In multivariable models, CRF was highly significantly inversely associated with death from cancer and all-cause mortality ((HR (95% CI)) 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90) and 0.89 (0.85 to 0.93) per 10 mL/kg/min increase in estimated VO2max, respectively). A similar association was seen across specific cancer groups, except death from prostate cancer (1.00 (0.82 to 1.2); p=0.97; n=231). The associations between CRF and outcomes remained essentially unchanged after excluding subjects dying within 10 years (n=377) and 20 years (n=1276) of inclusion. CRF is highly significantly inversely associated with death from cancer and all-cause mortality. The associations are robust for exclusion of subjects dying within 20 years of study inclusion, thereby suggesting a minimal influence of reverse causation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, Andrew; Barkley, Jacob E; Sanders, Gabriel J; Rebold, Michael; Gates, Peter

    2013-06-21

    Today's cell phones increase opportunities for activities traditionally defined as sedentary behaviors (e.g., surfing the internet, playing video games). People who participate in large amounts of sedentary behaviors, relative to those who do not, tend to be less physically active, less physically fit, and at greater risk for health problems. However, cell phone use does not have to be a sedentary behavior as these devices are portable. It can occur while standing or during mild-to-moderate intensity physical activity. Thus, the relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and physical fitness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate these relationships among a sample of healthy college students. Participants were first interviewed about their physical activity behavior and cell phone use. Then body composition was assessed and the validated self-efficacy survey for exercise behaviors completed. This was followed by a progressive exercise test on a treadmill to exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during exercise was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the relationship between cell phone use and cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for sex, self-efficacy, and percent body fat. Interview data was transcribed, coded, and Chi-square analysis was used to compare the responses of low and high frequency cell phone users. Cell phone use was significantly (p = 0.047) and negatively (β = -0.25) related to cardio respiratory fitness independent of sex, self-efficacy, and percent fat which were also significant predictors (p cell phones for sedentary behaviors. Second, low frequency users were more likely to report being connected to active peer groups through their cell phones and to cite this as a motivation for physical activity. Third, high levels of cell phone use indicated a broader pattern of sedentary behaviors apart from cell phone use, such as

  10. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...... running test. RESULTS: The children had 5% more sedentary time, 23% less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 2% longer sleep duration during winter compared to spring and cardio-respiratory fitness was 4% higher during spring compared to autumn (P

  11. Sedentary Patterns, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Association to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

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    Luís B. Sardinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D, with a negative impact on several physiological outcomes, whereas breaks in sedentary time (BST have been proposed as a viable solution to mitigate some of these effects. However, little is known about the independent associations of sedentary pursuits, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF variables with glycemic control. We investigated the independent associations of total sedentary time, BST, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and CRF with glycemic outcomes in patients with T2D.Methods: Total sedentary time, BST, and MVPA were assessed in 66 participants (29 women with T2D, using accelerometry. Glucose and insulin were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test, with the respective calculations of HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was also analyzed. CRF was measured in a maximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gases analysis. Multiple regressions were used for data analysis.Results: Regardless of CRF, total sedentary time was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 0.25, p = 0.044. Adjusting for MVPA, total sedentary time was related to fasting glucose (β = 0.32, p = 0.037. No associations between total sedentary time and the remaining glycemic outcomes, after adjusting for MVPA. BST had favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.28, p = 0.047 and fasting glucose (β = −0.25, p = 0.046, when adjusted for MVPA, and with HOMA-IR (β = −0.25, p = 0.036, Matsuda index (β = 0.26, p = 0.036, and fasting glucose (β = −0.22, p = 0.038, following adjustment for CRF. When adjusting for total sedentary time, only CRF yielded favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.29, p = 0.039, fasting glucose (β = −0.32, p = 0.012, and glucose at 120-min (β = −0.26, p = 0.035, and no associations were found for MVPA with none of the metabolic outcomes.Conclusion: The results from this

  12. A non-exercise method to determine cardiorespiratory fitness identifies females predicted to be at 'high risk' of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Turner, Daniel; Thomas, Michael; Williams, Sally P; Morgan, Kerry; Williams, Meurig; Rice, Sam; Bracken, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness determined by a non-exercise testing method for estimating fitness and predicted risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus using five risk assessments/questionnaires (Leicester Diabetes Risk Score, QDiabetes, Cambridge Risk Score, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and American Diabetes Association Diabetes Risk Test). Retrospective analysis was performed on 330 female individuals with no prior diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus who participated in the Prosiect Sir Gâr workplace initiative in Carmarthenshire, South Wales. Non-exercise testing method for estimating fitness (expressed as metabolic equivalents) was calculated using a validated algorithm, and females were grouped accordingly into fitness quintiles 9.5 metabolic equivalents (Quintile 5). Body mass index, waist circumference, and HbA1c all decreased between increasing non-exercise testing method for estimating fitness quintiles (p fitness <6.8 metabolic equivalents could help to identify females at 'high risk' of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus as predicted using five risk assessments/questionnaires. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The Effect of Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Weight on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Reboussin, David M; Foster, Gary D; Rice, Thomas B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Jakicic, John M; Millman, Richard P; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Newman, Anne B; Wadden, Thomas A; Zammit, Gary; Kuna, Samuel T

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effect of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity prior to and following adjustment for changes in weight over the course of a 4-y weight loss intervention. As secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial, 263 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA participated in an intensive lifestyle intervention or education control condition. Measures of OSA severity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body weight were obtained at baseline, year 1, and year 4. Change in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) served as the primary outcome. The percentage change in fitness (submaximal metabolic equivalents [METs]) and change in weight (kg) were the primary independent variables. Primary analyses collapsed intervention conditions with statistical adjustment for treatment group and baseline METs, weight, and AHI among other relevant covariates. At baseline, greater METs were associated with lower AHI (B [SE] = -1.48 [0.71], P = 0.038), but this relationship no longer existed (B [SE] = -0.24 [0.73], P = 0.75) after adjustment for weight (B [SE] = 0.31 [0.07], P weight change, increased fitness at year 1 (B [SE] = -0.15 [0.04], P weight change in the model, greater weight loss was associated with AHI reduction at years 1 and 4 (B [SE] = 0.81 [0.16] and 0.60 [0.16], both P weight change was taken into account. ClinicalTrials.gov identification number NCT00194259. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness contributes to increased insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in middle-aged South Asian compared with European men living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, N; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Wilson, J; Gill, J M R; Sattar, N

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which increased insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in South Asian men, compared with white European men, living in the UK, was due to lower cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO(2max)]) and physical activity. One hundred South Asian and 100 age- and BMI-matched European men without diagnosed diabetes, aged 40-70 years, had fasted blood taken for measurement of glucose concentration, HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), plus other risk factors, and underwent assessment of physical activity (using accelerometry), VO(2max), body size and composition, and demographic and other lifestyle factors. For 13 South Asian and one European man, HbA1c levels were >6.5% (>48 mmol/mol), indicating potential undiagnosed diabetes; these men were excluded from the analyses. Linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which body size and composition, fitness and physical activity variables explained differences in HOMA(IR) and fasting glucose between South Asian and European men. HOMA(IR) and fasting glucose were 67% (p < 0.001) and 3% (p < 0.018) higher, respectively, in South Asians than Europeans. Lower VO(2max), lower physical activity and greater total adiposity in South Asians individually explained 68% (95% CI 45%, 91%), 29% (11%, 46%) and 52% (30%, 80%), respectively, and together explained 83% (50%, 119%) (all p < 0.001) of the ethnic difference in HOMA(IR). Lower VO(2max) and greater total adiposity, respectively, explained 61% (9%, 111%) and 39% (9%, 76%) (combined effect 63% [8%, 115%]; all p < 0.05) of the ethnic difference in fasting glucose. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness is a key factor associated with the excess insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in middle-aged South Asian, compared with European, men living in the UK.

  15. Evolution of cardiorespiratory fitness after stroke: a 1-year follow-up study. Influence of prestroke patients' characteristics and stroke-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Ilse; Daly, Daniel; Dejaeger, Eddy; Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Feys, Hilde

    2012-04-01

    To examine changes in cardiorespiratory fitness over the first year poststroke and explore the effect of prestroke patients' characteristics and stroke-related factors on this evolution. Descriptive, longitudinal study with repeated measures of exercise capacity at 3, 6, and 12 months poststroke. Rehabilitation center and exercise testing laboratory. Consecutive sample of patients with stroke (N=33; mean age ± SD, 59.0±11.3 y). Not applicable. Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)peak) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) were determined during a symptom-limited graded cycle ergometer test at 3, 6, and 12 months poststroke. Age, sex, premorbid physical activity level, clinical history (smoking, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular diseases, overweight, and hypertension), stroke type and area, side of lesion, and assessments of stroke severity were evaluated at intake. Mean VO(2)peak ± SD was 18.1±6.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), 19.8±8.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and 19.7±8.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) at 3, 6, and 12 months poststroke. Values for OUES were 1575.3±638.3, 1710.7±710.3, and 1687.2±777.5, respectively. Mixed models showed no significant difference over time for VO(2)peak (P=.10), nor for the logarithm of OUES (P=.09). Stroke survivors at risk of deconditioning were premorbidly less active at work or in sport activities, diabetic, or initially more severely impaired. Combination of factors revealed that older patients with stroke and diabetes were less likely to improve on VO(2)peak and that older, women, diabetic nonsmokers improved less on log OUES. Cardiorespiratory fitness was reduced from 3 to 12 months poststroke and on average did not significantly change over time. Further studies should elucidate methods of increasing cardiorespiratory fitness during stay in the rehabilitation center and how community-based aerobic exercise training postrehabilitation can be organized. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  16. A non-exercise testing method for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness: associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; O'Donovan, Gary; Batty, George David; Kivimaki, Mika

    2013-03-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a key predictor of chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), but its assessment usually requires exercise testing which is impractical and costly in most health-care settings. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (NET-F)-estimating methods are a less resource-demanding alternative, but their predictive capacity for CVD and total mortality has yet to be tested. The objective of this study is to examine the association of a validated NET-F algorithm with all-cause and CVD mortality. The participants were 32,319 adults (14,650 men) aged 35-70 years who took part in eight Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey studies between 1994 and 2003. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (a metabolic equivalent of VO2max) was calculated using age, sex, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate, and self-reported physical activity. We followed participants for mortality until 2008. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-five participants died (460 cardiovascular deaths) during a mean 9.0 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.6] year follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, social class, alcohol, and depression, a higher fitness score according to the NET-F was associated with a lower risk of mortality from all-causes (hazard ratio per SD increase in NET-F 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.93 in men; 0.88, 0.80-0.98 in women) and CVD (men: 0.75, 0.63-0.90; women: 0.73, 0.60-0.92). Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness had a better discriminative ability than any of its components (CVD mortality c-statistic: NET-F = 0.70-0.74; BMI = 0.45-0.59; physical activity = 0.60-0.64; resting heart rate = 0.57-0.61). The sensitivity of the NET-F algorithm to predict events occurring in the highest risk quintile was better for CVD (0.49 in both sexes) than all-cause mortality (0.44 and 0.40 for men and women, respectively). The specificity for all

  17. Physical Activity in Adolescent with Mental Retardation: Is Adapted Basketball Training Adequate Stimulus to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Sport Skills Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Miodrag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an adapted basketball training program on the cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mental retardation (MR. Fifty adolescents with mild MR who participated in this study were divided in two groups. Experimental group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.7 ± 0.9 years performed the adapted training program, four times per week during eight weeks. A control group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.9 ± 0.8 years followed ordinary physical education classes and continued with their normal lifestyle. Exercise testing included the six-minute walk test (6MWT, monitoring of heart rate frequency and sport skills performance test battery.

  18. The challenge of preserving cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive patients with colon or breast cancer during adjuvant chemotherapy: a randomised feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Christian; Andersen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    instrument in order to correspond with cardio-respiratory fitness (VO2 peak) proved to be an applicable method to identify pre-illness physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients. The study demonstrated convincing recruitment (67%), safety and intervention adherence among breast cancer patients...... in both breast and colon cancer patients.Conclusions Despite a fair adherence and safety, the current study calls into question whether aerobic exercise, regardless of intensity, is able to increase VO2-peak during texane-based chemotherapy in combination with Neulasta in physically inactive breast cancer......Introduction Anti-neoplastic treatment is synonymous with an inactive daily life for a substantial number of patients. It remains unclear what is the optimal setting, dosage and combination of exercise and health promoting components that best facilitate patient adherence and symptom management...

  19. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline...... and the post-intervention peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) test. VO(2peak) was measured directly during a continuous progressive treadmill protocol where the children ran until exhaustion. The children from the intervention school increased their mean VO(2peak) (95% confidence interval) 3.6 (2.5-4.6) m...

  20. The Effect of Lifestyle Intervention on Body Composition, Glycemic Control, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq, Liza; McFarlane, James; Dieberg, Gudrun; Smart, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 18-22% women of reproductive age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify expected benefits of lifestyle (exercise and dietary) interventions on various clinical outcomes in PCOS. Potential studies were identified by conducting systematic search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane controlled trials registry (1966 to April 2013) using key concepts of PCOS, exercise, dietary and lifestyle interventions. Significant improvements were seen in women who received lifestyle intervention vs. usual care, in body composition parameters of body mass index, mean difference (MD) = -0.12 kg.m(-2) (95% CI [-0.22, -0.03], p = .009), body mass MD = -3.42 kg (95% CI [-4.86, -1.99], p Lipid profile did not improve, total cholesterol MD = -0.02 mmol/L (95% CI [-0.25, 0.21], p = .89). C-reactive protein was significantly lower, MD = -0.47 mmol/L (95% CI [-0.80, -0.15], p = .004). Significant improvements were also observed in cardiorespiratory fitness with exercise alone reducing resting heart rate, MD = -1.89 beats.min(-1) (95% CI [-2.90, -0.88], p = .0002), and peak VO2, MD = 4.86 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (95% CI [2.83, 6.88], p < .00001). Lifestyle therapy also improved, peak VO2 MD = 5.09 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (95% CI [3.13, 7.05], p < .00001). Our analyses suggest lifestyle intervention is optimal for improving body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in women with PCOS.

  1. Relação entre aptidão cardiorrespiratória e indicadores de adiposidade corporal em adolescentes Relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and indicators of body adiposity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Ricardo V. Ronque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre aptidão cardiorrespiratória e indicadores de adiposidade corporal em adolescentes de ambos os sexos. MÉTODOS: 78 sujeitos (45 rapazes e 33 moças foram avaliados quanto à massa corporal, estatura e dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular. O índice de massa corpórea e a somatória das duas dobras cutâneas foram calculados. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi analisada pelo teste de vai-e-vem de 20 metros de vários estágios e a estimativa do consumo máximo de oxigênio foi analisada por uma equação específica. Para a comparação entre os grupos, foi empregado o teste de Mann-Whitney e, para verificar a relação entre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e os indicadores de adiposidade corporal, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os adolescentes com alta aptidão cardiorrespiratória apresentaram sistematicamente valores mais baixos de gordura corporal em relação a seus pares com baixa aptidão cardiorrespiratória (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and indicators of body adiposity in adolescents of both genders. METHODS: 78 subjects (45 boys and 33 girls were evaluated for body mass, height and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index and the sum of the two skinfolds thickness were determined. The cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by the maximal multistage 20 meters shuttle run test, and the estimate of maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated by a specific equation. Groups were compared by Mann-Whitney test. The Spearman correlation index was applied to verify the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and the indicators of body adiposity. RESULTS: The adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness presented lower values of body fat than their peers with low cardiorespiratory fitness (p<0.05, with differences varying between 36 to 42% for boys and 14 to 33% for girls. Statistically significant

  2. APOE genotype and cardio-respiratory fitness interact to determine adiposity in 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A Ellis

    Full Text Available APOE plays a well established role in lipid metabolism. Animal model evidence suggests APOE may also be associated with adiposity, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We measured adiposity (BMI, truncal fat mass, waist circumference, physical activity (PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and APOE genotype (E2, E3, E4 in 292 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (TIHS, an Australian population-based prospective birth cohort. Our aims were to examine the association of APOE with child adiposity, and to examine the interplay between this association and other measured factors. We found that APOE was associated with child lipid profiles. APOE was also associated with child adiposity measures. The association was E4 allele-specific, with adiposity lower in the E4-containing group (BMI: Mean difference -0.90 kg/m²; 95% confidence intervals (CI -1.51, -0.28; p = 0.004. The association of APOE4 with lower BMI differed by fitness status (difference in effect p = 0.002, and was more evident among the less fit (mean difference -1.78 kg/m²; 95% CI -2.74, -0.83; p<0.001. Additionally, associations between BMI and lipids were only apparent in those of lower fitness who did not carry APOE4. Similar overall findings were observed when truncal fat mass and waist circumference were used as alternative adiposity measures. APOE4 and cardiorespitatory fitness could interact to influence child adiposity. In studies addressing the genetic determinants of childhood obesity, the context of child fitness should also be taken into account.

  3. How does academic achievement relate to cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical activity and objectively reported physical activity: a systematic review in children and adolescents aged 6-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Santos, Diana A; Hillman, Charles H; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-10-14

    This report aimed to systematically review the evidence for a differential association between objective and self-reported physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on academic achievement. Systematic review. Studies were identified from searches in Embase, Education Resources Information Center, PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTdiscus and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to December 2016. Eligibility criteria included cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional study designs. Outcomes included students' school grade or a standardised test or measure of academic achievement. Explanatory variables were cardiorespiratory fitness and objective and self-reported physical activity. Inclusion criteria included school-aged children and adolescents aged-18 years (or students from primary to secondary school when student's participants age was not described) and articles published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. A total of 51 articles met inclusion criteria: 41 cross-sectional, 2 intervention and 8 longitudinal studies. Results from 11 studies were inconsistent regarding the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement. Ten of the 16 articles reported positive associations between self-reported physical activity and academic achievement. From the 22 studies that analysed the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and academic achievement, it was verified that they all generally support the beneficial effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on students' academic achievement. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness may be important to enhance children and adolescents' health and, additionally, academic achievement. Due to a lack of consensus across studies, methodological issues associated with the assessment of physical activity should be considered when investigating physical activity and academic achievement. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  4. Moderate to High Levels of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuate the Effects of Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio on Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Stephen W; Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Willis, Benjamin L; DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Vega, Gloria L

    2017-12-01

    To examine the prospective relationships among cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), fasting blood triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL-C), and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in men. A total of 40,269 men received a comprehensive baseline clinical examination between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 2010. Their CRF was determined from a maximal treadmill exercise test. Participants were divided into CRF categories of low, moderate, and high fit by age group and by TG:HDL-C quartiles. Hazard ratios for CHD mortality were computed using Cox regression analysis. A total of 556 deaths due to CHD occurred during a mean ± SD of 16.6±9.7 years (669,678 man-years) of follow-up. A significant positive trend in adjusted CHD mortality was shown across decreasing CRF categories (P for trendrisk of CHD mortality in each TG:HDL-C quartile was significantly attenuated in men with moderate to high CRF compared with men with low CRF. These results suggest that assessment of CRF and TG:HDL-C should be included for routine CHD mortality risk assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Circulating ceramides are inversely associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in participants aged 54-96 years from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Elisa; Yang, An; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Chia, Chee W; Zoli, Marco; Haughey, Norman J; Mielke, Michelle M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Coen, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) declines with age and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in older adults. Identifying biomarkers of low fitness may provide insight for why some individuals experience an accelerated decline of aerobic capacity and may serve as clinically valuable prognostic indicators of cardiovascular health. We investigated the relationship between circulating ceramides and VO2 peak in 443 men and women (mean age of 69) enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Individual species of ceramide were quantified by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. VO2 peak was measured by a graded treadmill test. We applied multiple regression models to test the associations between ceramide species and VO2 peak, while adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, serum LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and other covariates. We found that higher levels of circulating C18:0, C20:0, C24:1 ceramides and C20:0 dihydroceramides were strongly associated with lower aerobic capacity (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.018, and P < 0.001, respectively). The associations held true for both sexes (with men having a stronger association than women, P value for sex interaction <0.05) and were unchanged after adjusting for confounders and multiple comparison correction. Interestingly, no significant association was found for C16:0, C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, and C22:1 ceramide species, C24:0 dihydroceramide, or total ceramides. Our analysis reveals that specific long-chain ceramides strongly associate with low cardiovascular fitness in older adults and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of low fitness with aging. Longitudinal studies are needed to further validate these associations and investigate the relationship between ceramides and health outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and clustered cardiometabolic risk in 10- to 12-year-old school children: the REACH Y6 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Lynne M; Murphy, Marie H; Cunningham, Conor; Breslin, Gavin; Foweather, Lawrence; Gobbi, Rebecca; Graves, Lee E F; Hopkins, Nicola D; Auth, Marcus K H; Stratton, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    (1) Investigate whether clustered cardiometabolic risk score, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), sedentary time (ST), and body mass index Z-scores (BMI Z-scores), differed between participants that met and did not achieve ≥60 min of daily moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). (2) Compare clustered cardiometabolic risk score, BMI Z-score, ST, and MVPA by CRF status. One hundred and one (n = 45 boys) 10- to 12-year-old participants took part in this cross-sectional study, conducted in Liverpool (Summer 2010) and Ulster (Spring 2011) UK. Assessments of blood markers, stature, sitting stature, body mass, waist circumference, flow mediated dilation (FMD), and resting blood pressure (BP) were completed. CRF (VO2 peak) was estimated using an individually calibrated treadmill protocol. Habitual MVPA and ST were assessed using an individually calibrated accelerometer protocol. Clustered cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated using blood markers, FMD (%), BP and anthropometric measures. Participants were classified as active (≥60 min MVPA) or inactive and as fit or unfit. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate differences in cardiometabolic risk, BMI Z-score, CRF, and ST by activity status. MANCOVA was also completed to assess differences in cardiometabolic risk, MVPA, ST, and BMI Z-score by fitness status. Inactive children exhibited significantly higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores and ST, and lower CRF than active children. Unfit participants exhibited significantly higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores, BMI Z-scores and ST and lower MVPA in comparison to fit participants. This study highlights the importance of children achieving 60 min MVPA daily and provides further evidence surrounding the importance of CRF for health. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intra-gastric balloon as an adjunct to lifestyle support in severely obese adolescents; impact on weight, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, L J; Sachdev, P; Copeland, R J; Thomson, M; Wales, J K; Wright, N P

    2017-04-01

    Severe adolescent obesity (body mass index (BMI) >99.6th centile) is a significant public health challenge. Current non-invasive treatments, including community-based lifestyle interventions, are often of limited effectiveness in this population, with NICE guidelines suggesting the use of bariatric surgery as the last line of treatment. Health professionals are understandably reluctant to commission bariatric surgery and as an alternative, the use of an intra-gastric balloon as an adjunct to a lifestyle programme might offer a reversible, potentially safer and less invasive option. Explore the use of an intra-gastric balloon as an adjunct to a lifestyle support programme, to promote weight loss in severely obese adolescents. Outcomes included weight loss, waist and hip measurements, psychosocial outcomes including health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical self perceptions, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Non-randomised pilot study. Twelve severely obese adolescents (5 males, 7 females; mean age 15 years; BMI >3.5 s.d.; puberty stage 4 or more) and their families were recruited. Mean weight loss at 12 months (n=9) was 3.05 kg±14.69; d=0.002, P=0.550, and a BMI Z-score (n=12) change of 0.2 s.d.; d=0.7, P=0.002 was observed at 6 months with a large effect, but was not sustained at 12 months (mean change 0.1 s.d.; d=0.3, P=0.146). At 24 months (n=10), there was a weight gain from baseline of +9.9 kg±1.21 (d=0.4; P=0.433). Adolescent and parent HRQoL scores exceeded the minimal clinical important difference between baseline and 12 months for all domains but showed some decline at 24 months. An intra-gastric balloon as an adjunct to a lifestyle support programme represents a safe and well-tolerated treatment approach in severely obese adolescents, with short-term effects on weight change. Improvements in psychosocial health, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were maintained at 12 months, with varying results at 24

  8. Feasibility of an after-school group-based exercise and lifestyle programme to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and health in less-active Pacific and Maori adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansavang, Yongchie; Elley, C Raina; McCaffrey, Brighid; Davidson, Chloe; Dewes, Ofa; Dalleck, Lance

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and low levels of physical activity are increasing among Pacific and Maori adolescents in New Zealand. To assess the feasibility of an after-school exercise and lifestyle programme to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, health and usual activity in less-active Pacific and Maori adolescents over six weeks. Eighteen less-active secondary school students participated. The six-week programme included 3 x 1.5 hour exercise and healthy lifestyle sessions per week. Outcomes included estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment), physical activity, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, waist circumference and fasting lipids, measured at baseline and six weeks. Programme attendance and qualitative comments were also recorded. Student's t-tests were used. Of the 18 students enrolled, 16 (89%) completed six-week follow-up, 14 (78%) were female, 13 (72%) were Pacific ethnicity and 5 (28%) were Maori . At baseline, mean age was 16.3 (standard deviation [SD] 1.0) years, body mass index (BMI) 35.2 (SD 6.7) kg/m2, VO2max 31.5 (SD 4.3) mL/kg/min, systolic blood pressure 125.0 (SD 12.9) mm Hg, HbA1c 39.9 (SD 3.8) mmol/mol, fasting serum insulin 28.3 (SD 27.8) μU/mL. At follow-up, improvements had occurred in VO2max (3.2 mL/kg/min; p=0.02), systolic blood pressure (-10.6 mm Hg; p=0.003), HbA1c (-1.1 mmol/mol; p=0.03) and weekly vigorous (4 hours, p=0.002) and moderate (2 hours, p=0.006) physical activity, although waist circumference increased (p=0.005). Programme attendance was over 50%. Comments were mostly positive. The after-school exercise and lifestyle programme and study methods were feasible. Such programmes have the potential to improve health outcomes for Pacific and Maori adolescents.

  9. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  10. Associations of Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Incident and Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder, Depressive Symptoms, and Incident Anxiety in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sebastian E; Leitzmann, Michael F; Bahls, Martin; Dörr, Marcus; Schmid, Daniela; Schomerus, Georg; Appel, Katja; Markus, Marcello R P; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness may help prevent depression and anxiety. Previous studies have been limited by error-prone measurements. We examined whether self-reported physical activity domains and peak exercise capacity (peakVO₂) are associated with incident and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms, and anxiety disorders. This was a prospective population-based study of 1,080 adult men and women (25-83 years) with a median follow-up of 4.5 years and measures of physical activity during leisure time, sports, and work (Baecke questionnaire); a measure of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II); symptom-limited cycle ergometer testing (peakVO₂, oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold [VO₂@AT], maximum power output at peak exertion); and a structured psychiatric interview (Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview). Baseline data were collected between 2002 and 2006, and follow-up data, between 2007 and 2010. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and waist circumference, the relative risks for incident MDD per standard deviation (SD) increase in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity during sport, physical activity at work, peakVO₂, VO₂@AT, and maximum power output were 1.002 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.12), 1.02 (0.90 to 1.15), 0.94 (0.80 to 1.10), 0.71 (0.52 to 0.98), 0.83 (0.66 to 1.04), and 0.71 (0.52 to 0.96), respectively. PeakVO₂, VO₂@AT, and maximum power output were associated with recurrent MDD, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. PeakVO₂ was more strongly related to the co-occurrence of MDD and anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.45 [0.24 to 0.84]) than depression or anxiety alone (OR = 0.71 [0.53 to 0.94]). Greater cardiorespiratory fitness but not domain-specific physical activity was associated with a lower incidence of MDD and clinical anxiety.

  11. A non-exercise prediction model for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p287

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Benetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The most accurate tool for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness is cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET. However, CPET requires expensive equipment, trained technicians and time, which limits their use in population studies. In view of this issue, the present study aims to develop regression equations for predicting the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults using simple measurement variables. The study used data from 8,293 subjects, 5,291 male and 3,235 female (age range, 18 to 65 years. The sample was recruited in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina. To develop equations for prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, the data associated were: fitness, age, body mass, height, resting heart rate, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and smoking. After statistical analyses, two equations for men and two for women were developed. The complete equations showed an adjusted R2 = 0.531 and a standard error of estimate (SEE = 7.15 ml-1∙kg-1∙min for men and R2 = 0.436 and SEE = 5.68 ml-1∙kg-1∙min for women. We conclude that the model developed for prediction of cardiorespiratory fitness is feasible and practical for prediction of VO2peak in epidemiological studies or when CPET cannot be performed.

  12. Effects of a 6-Week Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Walking Endurance in Subacute Stroke Patients: A PILOT TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-03-15

    To assess the feasibility and safety of a 6-week course of water walking performed using a motorized aquatic treadmill in individuals with subacute stroke for cardiorespiratory fitness, walking endurance, and activities of daily living. Twenty subacute stroke patents were randomly assigned to aquatic treadmill exercise (ATE) or land-based exercise (LBE). The ATE group (n = 10) performed water-based aerobic exercise on a motorized aquatic treadmill, and the LBE group (n = 10) performed land-based aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer. Both groups performed aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, 5 times per week for 6 weeks. Primary outcome measures were 6-minute walk test for walking endurance and cardiopulmonary fitness parameters of a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test, and secondary measures were Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) for activities of daily living. All variables were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The ATE group showed significant improvements in 6-minute walk test (P = .005), peak oxygen uptake (V·o2peak; P = .005), peak heart rate (P = .007), exercise tolerance test duration (P = .005), and K-MBI (P = .008). The LBE group showed a significant improvement only in K-MBI (P = .012). In addition, improvement in V·o2peak was greater in the ATE than in the LBE group. This preliminary study showed that a 6-week ATE program improved peak aerobic capacity and walking endurance in patients with subacute stroke. The improvement in V·o2peak after an ATE exercise program was greater than that observed after an LBE program. Therefore, ATE effectively improves cardiopulmonary fitness in patients with subacute stroke.

  13. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim...... was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...

  14. Moderate and severe periodontitis are independent risk factors associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary non-smoking men aged between 45 and 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Stiesch, Meike; Kerling, Arno; Bara, Christoph; Eulert, Christine; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Hilfiker, Andres; Budde, Eva; Bauersachs, Johann; Kück, Momme; Haverich, Axel; Melk, Anette; Tegtbur, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between periodontal disease severity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a cross-sectional study of sedentary men. Seventy-two healthy men (45-65 years) who did not join any sport activity and had a preferentially sitting working position were recruited. Periodontal status was recorded and CRF was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak ) during exercise testing on a cycle ergometer. Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire and data were transformed to metabolic equivalent of task scores. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate associations. Differences between VO2 peak levels in subjects with no or mild, moderate or severe periodontitis were statistically significant (p = 0.026). Individuals with low VO2 peak values showed high BMI scores, high concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein, low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and used more glucocorticoids compared to individuals with high VO2 peak levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that high age (p = 0.090), high BMI scores (p periodontitis (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with low VO2 peak levels. This study demonstrated that moderate and severe periodontitis were independently associated with low levels of CRF in sedentary men aged between 45 and 65 years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Midlife and Late-Life Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Brain Volume Changes in Late Adulthood: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qu; Studenski, Stephanie A; Resnick, Susan M; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is cross-sectionally associated with more conserved brain volume in older age, but longitudinal studies are rare. This study examined whether higher midlife CRF was prospectively associated with slower atrophy, which in turn was associated with higher late-life CRF. Brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging was determined annually from 1994 to 2003 in 146 participants (M baseline age = 69.6 years). Peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill yielded estimated midlife CRF in 138 and late-life CRF in 73 participants. Higher midlife CRF was associated with greater middle temporal gyrus, perirhinal cortex, and temporal and parietal white matter, but was not associated with atrophy progression. Slower atrophy in middle frontal and angular gyri was associated with higher late-life CRF, independent of CRF at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Higher midlife CRF may play a role in preserving middle and medial temporal volumes in late adulthood. Slower atrophy in middle frontal and angular gyri may predict late-life CRF. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Intima-Media Thickness in 11- to 13-Year-Old Children: Variation Attributed to Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Waist Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Xavier; Santa-Clara, Helena; Pimenta, Nuno M; Martins, Sandra Silva; Minderico, Cláudia S; Fernhall, Bo; Sardinha, Luís B

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear how sedentary behavior (SED), physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) influence vascular structure in children of varying body size. This study examined whether associations between SED, PA, and CRF with intima-media thickness (IMT) added to that of abdominal fatness and IMT. Differences in physiological measures among waist circumference (WC) percentiles were tested. We assessed IMT of the carotid artery in 265 children aged 11 to 13 years (135 girls). Measures included IMT assessed with high-resolution ultrasonography, WC, body fat mass (BFM) from DXA, and CRF determined using a maximal cycle test. SED and PA were assessed by accelerometry. Association between IMT and CRF adjusted for PA variables, and body composition phenotypes were tested with multiple linear regression analysis. CRF was related to IMT independently of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED (P .05). Children in the higher WC group had increased mean values of BMI, BFM, WC, and IMT and lower MVPA and CRF (P < .05). Full modeling of SED, MVPA, CRF, and WC revealed that regional adiposity appears to have the biggest role in arterial structure of children.

  17. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe...... ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...

  18. Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Pulmonary Function in Obese Women after Bariatric Surgery: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Tatiana; Carlos, Renata; Oliver, Nicole; Felismino, Amanda; Fialho, Davi; Corte, Renata; da Silva, Eliane Pereira; Godoy, Eudes; Bruno, Selma

    2017-08-01

    In severely obese individuals, reducing body weight induced by bariatric surgery is able to promote a reduction in comorbidities and improve respiratory symptoms. However, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) reflected by peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) may not improve in individuals who remain sedentary post-surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a physical training program on CRF and pulmonary function in obese women after bariatric surgery, and to compare them to a control group. Twelve obese female candidates for bariatric surgery were evaluated in the preoperative, 3 months postoperative (3MPO), and 6 months postoperative (6MPO) periods through anthropometry, spirometry, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). In the 3MPO period, patients were divided into control group (CG, n = 6) and intervention group (IG, n = 6). CG received only general guidelines while IG underwent a structured and supervised physical training program involving aerobic and resistance exercises, lasting 12 weeks. All patients had a significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and an increase in lung function after surgery, with no difference between groups. However, only IG presented a significant increase (p bariatric surgery could promote a significant increase in CRF only in the trained group, yet also showing that bariatric surgery alone caused an improvement in the lung function of both groups.

  19. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial — A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA, but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years, in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED, low (LIPA, and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA. Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%, and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46–0.82, from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39–0.72. Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348 and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min, and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min−1 × kg−1 than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  20. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  1. Self-Rated Health Status and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Bogotá, Colombia. The FUPRECOL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Carolina; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Villa-González, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between Self-Rated Health (SRH) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a sample of children and adolescents enrolled in official schools in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was performed with 7402 children and adolescents between 9 and 17 years of age. Participants were asked to rate their health based on eight validated questions, addressing the participants propensity for headache, stomach-ache, backache, feeling-low, irritability/bad mood, nervousness, sleeping-difficulties, and dizziness. The choices were “rarely or never”, “almost every month”, “almost every week”, and “more than once a week/about every day”. Participants performed the international course-navette shuttle run test to estimate CRF, and cut-off points for age and gender were used to categorize the healthy/unhealthy fitness zone according to the FITNESSGRAM® criteria. Overall, 16.4% of those surveyed reported a perception of irritability/bad mood “more than once a week/about every day”, followed by feeling-low and nervousness (both with 9.9%). Dizziness had the lowest prevalence with a percentage of 6.9%. Unhealthy CRF in boys increased the likelihood of headaches by 1.20 times, stomach aches by 1.31 times, feeling-low by 1.29 times, nervousness by 1.24 times, and dizziness by 1.29 times. In girls, unhealthy CRF increased the likelihood of headaches by 1.19 times, backache by 1.26 times, feeling-low by 1.28 times, irritability/bad mood by 1.17 times, sleeping-difficulties by 1.20 times, and dizziness by 1.27 times. SRH was associated with CRF in both genders. Early identification of children and adolescents with low CRF levels will permit interventions to promote healthy behaviors and prevent future diseases during adulthood. PMID:28832546

  2. Validity of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Danish cohort 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Lene; Olsen, Anja; Petersen, Kristina Elin Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    ). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure time physical activity was not correlated with VO2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=0.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=0...... practical than the VO2 max method. Finally, even if correlations were low, they support the potential for questionnaire outcomes, particularly sports, vigorous sports and self-rated fitness to be used to estimate CRF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  3. Independent and combined association of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in youth with insulin resistance and β-cell function in young adulthood: the European Youth Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars B

    2013-09-01

    To examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study. We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood. For each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed by -11.3% (95% CI -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes. Increasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction.

  4. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

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    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood. RESULTS For each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed by −11.3% (95% CI −17.0 to −5.2), −12.2% (−18.2 to −5.7), and −8.9% (−14.4 to −3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. PMID:23579180

  5. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  6. Effects of a 6-Month Walking Study on Blood Pressure and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in U.S. and Swedish Adults: ASUKI Step Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroush, Ali; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Belyea, Michael; Poortvliet, Eric; Swan, Pamela D.; Walker, Jenelle; Yngve, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a six-month pedometer-based workplace intervention on changes in resting blood pressure (BP) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods A subsample of ASUKI Step participants (n= 355) were randomly selected to have changes in their BP and CRF monitored during the intervention. Pedometers were used to monitor steps taken with a goal of walking more than 10,000 steps/day. Systolic and diastolic BP were taken using an Omron automated BP cuff. Estimated VO2 max was obtained using the Åstrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test. A multi-level growth modeling approach, and a mixed model ANOVA were used to predict changes in systolic and diastolic BP, and estimated VO2 max over time by steps, age, gender, and university site. Results Steps/day averaged 12,256 (SD = 3,180) during month 1 and steadily decreased to month 6. There were significant linear and quadratic trends in systolic and diastolic BP over time. Age was positively related to initial starting values for systolic and diastolic BP, and approached significance for systolic BP changes over time. Steps/day approached significance for linear changes in systolic BP. There was a significant difference between ASU and KI participants’ estimated VO2 max. There was a significant change over time in the estimated VO2 max. The number of steps taken was significantly related to changes in estimated VO2 max over time. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that healthy individuals who took part in a pedometer intervention improved several cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:23802053

  7. CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS, ACTIVITY LEVEL, HEALTH-RELATED ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN A SAMPLE OF IRANIAN 7-11 YEAR OLD BOYS

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    Samad Esmaeilzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate ·VO2max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child’s TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9�0(N=68 of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6�0(N=449 of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between ·VO2max and body mass index (BMI, waist to height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, and fat mass (FM (p<0.05. A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05. Significantly lower physical activity and ·VO2max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05. The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.

  8. The incidence of training responsiveness to cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic measurements following individualized and standardized exercise prescription: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherwax, Ryan M; Harris, Nigel K; Kilding, Andrew E; Dalleck, Lance C

    2016-12-19

    There is individual variability to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) training, but the underlying cause is not well understood. Traditionally, a standardized approach to exercise prescription has utilized relative percentages of maximal heart rate, heart rate reserve (HRR), maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), or VO 2 reserve to establish exercise intensity. However, this model fails to take into consideration individual metabolic responses to exercise and may attribute to the variability in training responses. It has been proposed that an individualized approach would take into consideration metabolic responses to exercises to increase responsiveness to training. In this randomized control trial, participants will undergo a 12-week exercise intervention using individualized (ventilatory thresholds) and standardized (HRR) methods to prescribe CRF training intensity. Following the intervention, participants will be categorized as responders or non-responders based on changes in maximal aerobic abilities. Participants who are non-responders will complete a second 12-week intervention in a crossover design to determine whether they can become responders with a differing exercise prescription. There are four main research outcomes: (1) determine the cohort-specific technical error to use in the categorization of response rate; (2) determine if an individualized intensity prescription is superior to a standard approach in regards to VO 2 max and cardiometabolic risk factors; (3) investigate the time course changes throughout 12 weeks of CRF training between the two intervention groups; and (4) determine if non-responders can become responders if the exercise prescription is modified. The findings from this research will provide evidence on the effectiveness of individualized exercise prescription related to training responsiveness of VO 2 max and cardiometabolic risk factors compared to a standardized approach and further our understanding of individual exercise responses

  9. Using Machine Learning to Define the Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and All-Cause Mortality (from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Elshawi, Radwa; Ahmed, Amjad M; Qureshi, Waqas T; Brawner, Clinton A; Blaha, Michael J; Ahmed, Haitham M; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Sakr, Sherif

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong marker of cardiovascular health. Machine learning (ML) can enhance the prediction of outcomes through classification techniques that classify the data into predetermined categories. The aim of the analysis is to compare the prediction of 10 years of all-cause mortality (ACM) using statistical logistic regression (LR) and ML approaches in a cohort of patients who underwent exercise stress testing. We included 34,212 patients (55% males, mean age 54 ± 13 years) free of coronary artery disease or heart failure who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing between 1991 and 2009 and had complete 10-year follow-up. The primary outcome of this analysis was ACM at 10 years. The probability of 10-years ACM was calculated using statistical LR and ML, and the accuracy of these methods was calculated and compared. A total of 3,921 patients died at 10 years. Using statistical LR, the sensitivity to predict ACM was 44.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43.3% to 46.5%), whereas the specificity was 93.4% (95% CI 93.1% to 93.7%). The sensitivity of ML to predict ACM was 87.4% (95% CI 86.3% to 88.4%), whereas the specificity was 97.2% (95% CI 97.0% to 97.4%). The ML approach was associated with improved model discrimination (area under the curve for ML [0.923 (95% CI 0.917 to 0.928)]) compared with statistical LR (0.836 [95% CI 0.829 to 0.846], ptesting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

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    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  11. High Amounts of Sitting, Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Low Physical Activity Levels: 3 Key Ingredients in the Recipe for Influencing Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    Limited research has evaluated the independent and additive associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with metabolic syndrome, which was the purpose of this study. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2004. Three hundred seven adults aged 20 to 49 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and SB were assessed via accelerometer, whereas CRF was assessed via submaximal treadmill testing. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression. A 10 min/d increase in MVPA was associated with a 45% reduced odds of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40-0.76, P = .001), and a 10 mL/kg/min increase in CRF was associated with a 43% reduced odds of having metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37-0.87, P = .013). Additionally, a statistically significant combined association of MVPA, SB, and CRF with metabolic syndrome was present; individuals who had below-median SB and above-median MVPA and CRF had an 88% reduced odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.03-0.48, P = .005) when compared to those who had below-median MVPA and CRF and above-median SB. When considering MVPA, SB, and CRF, MVPA and CRF were both independently associated with metabolic syndrome (SB was not) among this young adult population and there was also evidence to support a combined association of all 3 parameters on metabolic syndrome.

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with brain structure, cognition, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Elizabeth A; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective measure of habitual physical activity (PA), and has been linked to increased brain structure and cognition. The gold standard method for measuring CRF is graded exercise testing (GXT), but GXT is not feasible in many settings. The objective of this study was to examine whether a non-exercise estimate of CRF is related to gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, objective and subjective memory function, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred and fifteen cognitively healthy adults (mean age =58.58 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent structural MRI scanning, cognitive testing, anthropometric assessment, venipuncture for laboratory tests, and completed a self-reported PA questionnaire. A subset (n = 85) underwent maximal GXT. CRF was estimated using a previously validated equation incorporating sex, age, body-mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported PA. Results indicated that the CRF estimate was significantly associated with GXT-derived peak oxygen consumption, validating its use as a non-exercise CRF measure in our sample. Support for this finding was seen in significant associations between the CRF estimate and several cardiovascular risk factors. Higher CRF was associated with greater GM volumes in several AD-relevant brain regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Increased CRF was also associated with lower WMH and better cognitive performance in Verbal Learning & Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visuospatial Ability. Lastly, CRF was negatively correlated with self- and informant-reported memory complaints, and depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that habitual participation in physical activity may provide protection for brain structure and cognitive function, thereby decreasing future risk for AD.

  13. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  14. 500-m and 1000-m moderate walks equally assess cardiorespiratory fitness in male outpatients with cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Gianni; Chiaranda, Giorgio; Myers, Jonathan; Sassone, Biagio; Pasanisi, Giovanni; Mandini, Simona; Volpato, Stefano; Conconi, Francesco; Grazzi, Giovanni

    2017-09-29

    The walking speed maintained during a moderate 1-km treadmill walk (1k-TWT) has been demonstrated to be a valid tool for estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and to be inversely related to long-term survival and hospitalization in outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine whether 500-m and 1-k moderate treadmill-walking tests equally estimate VO2peak in male outpatients with CVD. 142 clinically stable male outpatients with CVD, aged 34-92 years, referred to an exercise-based secondary prevention program, performed a moderate and perceptually-regulated (11-13/20 on the Borg scale) 1k- TWT. Age, height, weight, time to walk 500-m and the entire 1000-m, and the corresponding heart rates were entered into validated equations to estimate VO2peak. VO2peak estimated from the 500-m test was not different from that estimated from the 1k test (25.2±5.1 vs 25.1±5.2 mL/kg/min). The correlation coefficient between the two was 0.98. The slope and the intercept of the relationship between the 500-m and 1k tests were not different from the line of identity. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that 96% of the data points were within two standard deviations (from -1.9 to 1.7 mL/kg/min). The 500-m treadmill-walking test is a reliable method for estimating VO2peak in stable male outpatients with CVD. A shorter version of the test, 500-m, provides similar information as that from the original 1k test, but is more time efficient. These findings have practical implications in the context of transitioning patients from clinically based and supervised programs to fitness facilities or self-guided exercise programs.

  15. Effects of 16 Weeks of Concurrent Training on Resting Heart Rate Variability and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in People Living With HIV/AIDS Using Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Rafael E; Guariglia, Débora A; Okuno, Nilo M; Deminice, Rafael; Peres, Sidney B; Moraes, Solange M F

    2016-12-01

    Pedro, RE, Guariglia, DA, Okuno, NM, Deminice, R, Peres, SB, and Moraes, SMF. Effects of 16 weeks of concurrent training on resting heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory fitness in people living with HIV/AIDS using antiretroviral therapy: a randomized clinical trial. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3494-3502, 2016-The study evaluated the effects of concurrent training on resting heart rate variability (HRVrest) and cardiorespiratory fitness in people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Fifty-eight participants were randomized into 2 groups (control and training group); however, only 33 were analyzed. The variables studied were HRVrest indices, submaximal values of oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2sub) and heart rate (HR5min), peak speed (Vpeak), and peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). The training group performed concurrent training (15-20 minutes of aerobic exercise plus 40 minutes of resistance exercise), 3 times per week, for 16 weeks. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and Vpeak increased, and HR5min decreased. Resting heart rate variability indices did not present statistical differences posttraining; however, the magnitude-based inferences demonstrated a "possibly positive effect" for high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) plus high frequency (LF + HF) and a "likely positive effect" for R-Rmean posttraining. In conclusion, concurrent training was effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance. Moreover, it led to probably a positive effect on HF and a likely positive effect on R-Rmean in people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates risk for major adverse cardiac events in hyperlipidemic men and women independent of statin therapy: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rupert K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qadi, Mohamud A; Shaya, Gabriel E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in predicting mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization in patients with hyperlipidemia after stratification by gender and statin therapy. This retrospective cohort study included 33,204 patients with hyperlipidemia (57 ± 12 years old, 56% men, 25% black) who underwent physician-referred treadmill stress testing at the Henry Ford Health System from 1991 to 2009. Patients were stratified by gender, baseline statin therapy, and estimated metabolic equivalents from stress testing. We computed hazard ratios using Cox regression models after adjusting for demographics, cardiac risk factors, comorbidities, pertinent medications, interaction terms, and indication for stress testing. There were 4,851 deaths, 1,962 MIs, and 2,686 revascularizations over a median follow-up of 10.3 years. In men and women not on statin therapy and men and women on statin therapy, each 1-metabolic equivalent increment in CRF was associated with hazard ratios of 0.86 (95% CI 0.85-0.88), 0.83 (95% CI 0.81-0.85), 0.85 (95% CI 0.83-0.87), and 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.87) for mortality; 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.96), 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91), 0.89 (95% CI 0.86-0.92), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) for MI; and 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.93), 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91), 0.89 (95% CI 0.87-0.92), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.94) for revascularization, respectively. No significant interactions were observed between CRF and statin therapy (P > .23). Higher CRF attenuated risk for mortality, MI, and revascularization independent of gender and statin therapy in patients with hyperlipidemia. These results reinforce the prognostic value of CRF and support greater promotion of CRF in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  18. Medidas antropométricas segundo aptidão cardiorrespiratória em militares da ativa, Brasil Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness of military men in active duty, Brazil

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    Eduardo de Almeida Magalhães Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as diferenças no índice de massa corporal (IMC e no perímetro da cintura segundo a aptidão cardiorrespiratória em militares do sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 50.523 homens da ativa do exército brasileiro. Os dados antropométricos (massa corporal, estatura e perímetro da cintura e de consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max, estimado por meio do teste de corrida de 12 minutos, foram obtidos no teste de aptidão física do ano 2001. RESULTADOS: A idade variou de 18 a 52 anos, porém foi composta em sua maioria por indivíduos jovens (média + DP = 25,8 + 6,6 anos de idade. A faixa de aptidão cardiorrespiratória variou de 22,2 a 82,5 mL O2.kg-1.min-1. Os valores médios do perímetro da cintura foram significativamente menores nos grupos de melhor aptidão cardiorrespiratória, quando comparados com os grupos com menor aptidão (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference according to cardiorespiratory fitness in active military men. METHODS: The study sample comprised 50,523 active military men of the Brazilian army. Anthropometric measures (body mass, height, and waist circumference and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max information, estimated in a 12-min run, were obtained in a fitness test in 2001. RESULTS: Subjects' age ranged between 18 and 52 years, but most were young (mean + SD 25.8 + 6.6 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness varied from 22.2 to 82.5 mL.O2.kg-1.min-1. Waist circumference mean values were significantly lower in those subjects in the highest fitness level compared to those in the lowest level (p<0.001 even after adjusting for age, BMI, and both together. CONCLUSIONS: For the same BMI, military men with better cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly lower waist circumference measures compared to those with lower fitness. These findings suggest that military with better physical fitness have lower abdominal fat accumulation.

  19. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Garces-Arteaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP on health-related quality of life (HRQoL and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT. Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7 years. Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P<0.01. Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  20. Influence of a medium-impact exercise program on health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness in females with subclinical hypothyroidism: an open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  1. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Di Thommazo-Luporini, Luciana; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20-45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (ppower were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance.

  2. DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF A CARDIORESPIRATORY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UJA

    Fitness, adiposity and body fat distribution during childhood have shown a high correlation with cardiovascular health in adulthood (Casajús et al., 2012). Additionally, cardiovascular fitness is a biomarker of health at all ages (Ortega et al., 2008). The physical condition components related to health are: cardiorespiratory.

  3. In 6- to 8-year-old children, hair cortisol is associated with body mass index and somatic complaints, but not with stress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Endes, Katharina; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Pühse, Uwe; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    Hair cortisol measurement has become an increasingly accepted approach in endocrinology and biopsychology. However, while in adult research hair cortisol has been proposed as a relevant biomarker for chronic stress (and its adverse consequences), studies with children are scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present exploratory study was to examine the associations between hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), stress, and a series of health-related outcomes in a sample of Swiss first grade schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 318 children (53% girls, M age =7.26, SD=0.35). Hair strands were taken near the scalp from a posterior vertex position, and HCCs were tested for the first 3-cm hair segment. Parents provided information about their children's age, gender, parental education, children's stress (recent critical life events, daily hassles), health-related quality of life, and psychosomatic complaints. Body composition, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured with established methods. In multiple regression analyses, higher HCCs were weakly associated with increased BMI in girls (β=0.22, p<0.001), whereas higher HCCs were associated with increased somatic complaints in boys (β=0.20, p<0.05). No significant relationships were found between HCCs and parental reports of stress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Although small significant relationships were found between HCCs, BMI and somatic complaints, the findings of this exploratory study challenge the view that HCCs can be used as a reliable biomarker of recent critical life events, daily hassles, health-related quality of life, and cardiovascular health indicators in non-clinical young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Carol Ewing; Blissmer, Bryan; Deschenes, Michael R; Franklin, Barry A; Lamonte, Michael J; Lee, I-Min; Nieman, David C; Swain, David P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit

  5. Uma análise entre índices pressóricos, obesidade e capacidade cardiorrespiratória em escolares Comparison analysis of blood pressure, obesity, and cardio-respiratory fitness in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miria Suzana Burgos

    2010-06-01

    diseases, especially obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Early intervention can prevent the development of these complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of cardiovascular risk (obesity and hypertension in schoolchildren and its potential interactions with cardio-respiratory fitness. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a stratified cluster sample of 1,666 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 17 years, 873 (52.4% of them male and 793 (47.6% of them female. The following variables were evaluated: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF %, and cardio-respiratory fitness. SBP and DBP were correlated with waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, sum of skin folds (ΣSF, and cardio-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: A BMI assessment of the students showed that 26.7% of them were overweight or obese, and 35.9% had body fat percentage over moderately high. As to blood pressure, we found that 13.9% and 12.1% of the students were borderline or hypertensive, for SBP and DBP, respectively. There was an association among hypertension, obesity, and cardio-respiratory fitness. There was a significant correlation of SBP and DBP with all variables, and also a weak to moderate correlation with age, weight, height, BMI, and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The presence of hypertension associated with obesity and its effects on cardio-respiratory fitness stress the importance of recommending, since childhood, a more active and healthy lifestyle.

  6. A comparison of Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy in a military male population in Taiwan: the Cardiorespiratory fitness and HospItalization Events in armed Forces study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fang-Ying; Li, Yi-Hwei; Lin, Yen-Po; Lee, Chung-Jen; Wang, Chih-Hung; Meng, Fan-Chun; Yu, Yun-Shun; Lin, Felicia; Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lin, Gen-Min

    2017-06-01

    The Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon electrocardiography (ECG) criteria have been widely used for diagnosing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with hypertension. However, the correlations of these ECG criteria with LVH were rarely compared in military members who received rigorous training, particularly of the Asian male population. We compared the Cornell voltage and product criteria with the Sokolow-Lyon criteria for the echocardiographic LVH in 539 military male members, ages 18-50 years and free of hypertension in the Cardiorespiratory fitness and HospItalization Events in armed Forces (CHIEF) study in Taiwan. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association of each ECG criterion with the index of left ventricular mass (LVM, g)/height (m)2.7. The sensitivities and specificities were estimated using a receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve in relation to the echocardiographic LVH which was defined as LVM index ≥49 g/m2.7. The correlations of the Cornell voltage and product criteria (r=0.24 and 0.26 respectively, both P0.1) in the area under the ROC curve analysis. The Cornell ECG criteria for the echocardiographic LVH had better performance than the Sokolow-Lyon criteria in a young military male cohort in Taiwan.

  7. Does Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuate the Adverse Effects of Severe/Morbid Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk and Insulin Resistance in Children? A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Christine Delisle; Henriksson, Pontus; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Medrano, María; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-11-01

    To investigate 1) differences in cardiometabolic risk and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) across BMI categories (underweight to morbid obesity), 2) whether fit children have lower cardiometabolic risk/HOMA-IR than unfit children in each BMI category, and 3) differences in cardiometabolic risk/HOMA-IR in normal-weight unfit children and obese fit children. A pooled study including cross-sectional data from three projects (n = 1,247 children aged 8-11 years). Cardiometabolic risk was assessed using the sum of the sex- and age-specific z scores for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and the average of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HOMA-IR. A significant linear association was observed between the risk score and BMI categories (P trend ≤0.001), with every incremental rise in BMI category being associated with a 0.5 SD higher risk score (standardized β = 0.474, P Diabetes Association.

  8. Greater levels of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness are associated with low stress and high mental resources in normal but not overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kettunen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate how cardio respiratory (CRF and muscular fitness (MF together with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA influence stress symptoms and mental resources among normal-weight and overweight men, because it is not known how body weight affects this association. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 824 men (mean ± SD: age 25 ± 5 y, weight 81 ± 13 kg, BMI 25 ± 4 kg/m2 underwent CRF and MF tests and completed LTPA and stress questionnaires. For the analysis, the subjects were divided into BMI groups (normal vs. overweight and CRF / MF / LTPA (low, moderate, high tertiles. Results Normal-weight men with low CRF reported 12 % (p = 0.001 more stress symptoms (SS compared to normal-weight men with moderate CRF, and 13 % (p = 0.004 more SS compared to normal-weight men with high CRF. Normal-weight men with low MF reported 13 % (p = 0.001 higher SS compared to normal-weight men with moderate MF and 16 % (p = 0.002 more SS compared to men with high MF. Among overweight men, there were no significant differences in SS or mental resources (MR between the low, moderate and high CRF and MF tertiles. Overweight men with high CRF experienced 8 % (p = 0.039 more SS compared to normal-weight participants with high CRF when age, tobacco and alcohol use, MF and LTPA were considered as covariates (p = 0.014. Conclusion Higher CRF and MF are associated with lower stress and higher mental resources in normal-weight men, but in overweight men, these relationships may differ.

  9. Equivalência transcultural de três escalas utilizadas para estimar a aptidão cardiorrespiratória: estudo em idosos Cross-cultural equivalence of three scales used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Albuquerque Maranhão Neto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a equivalência transcultural de escalas empregadas para a avaliação do nível de atividade física e que são utilizadas como estimativas da aptidão cardiorrespiratória, para posterior utilização em indivíduos idosos. Três escalas foram determinadas após revisão sistemática: Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ, Rating of Perceived Capacity (RPC e Physical Activity Rating (PA-R. Para a análise da equivalência, utilizou-se o modelo proposto por Herdman et al. Como parte do processo, a confiabilidade teste-reteste foi avaliada em uma amostra composta por 12 idosos com idade de 74,5 ± 3,5 anos, pelo cálculo dos coeficientes de concordância de Lin (CCL e de correlação intraclasse (CCI. Detectou-se uma boa reprodutibilidade das escalas com exceção do RPC. Apesar de a quantidade de indivíduos não permitir conclusões mais aprofundadas, os resultados podem indicar necessidade de mudanças na estrutura de algumas escalas originais. Por fim, acredita-se que os resultados obtidos no presente estudo sugerem a adequação das versões das escalas para a língua portuguesa, havendo, todavia, a necessidade de um estudo de validade de critério das escalas.This study aimed at establishing the cross-cultural equivalence of scales used to evaluate physical activity level and measure cardiorespiratory fitness, for further application in elderly subjects. Three scales were identified after systematic review: Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ, Rating of Perceived Capacity (RPC, and Physical Activity Rating (PA-R. The model proposed by Herdman et al. was applied to analyze equivalence. Test-retest reliability was calculated in a sample of 12 elderly subjects (74.5 ± 3.5 years using Lin's concordance coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient. Good reproducibility was detected in all scales except RPC. Due to the small sample size, hardly any conclusions can de drawn, but the

  10. A preseason cardiorespiratory profile of dancers in nine professional ballet and modern companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Lora, Jennifer Bailey; Southwick, Heather; Kulak, Michelina Cassella; Gamboa, Jennifer; Rooney, Megan; Gilman, Greg; Gibbs, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While studies have investigated the physical demands of dance in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, there are no recent comparisons of cardiorespiratory response to exercise among professional dancers of different genres. Our purpose was to: 1. develop a cardiorespiratory profile of professional dancers; 2. investigate differences in peak and recovery heart rate (HR) between professional modern and ballet dancers using an accelerated 3-minute step test; 3. demonstrate the relationship between cardiorespiratory variables; and 4. investigate the effects of company and work variables on the dancers' cardiorespiratory profiles. We hypothesized greater cardiorespiratory fitness in modern dancers than in ballet dancers, due to the nature of their repertory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that company profiles would reflect differences in work variables. Two hundred and eleven dancers (mean age 24.6 ± 4.7) from nine companies (two modern and seven ballet) performed a 3-minute step test. Demographics, height, mass, blood pressure (BP), smoking history, and resting peak and recovery HR were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) and fitness category were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences in demographics and cardiorespiratory variables due to genre, MANOVA were conducted to compare differences due to company, and correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between cardiorespiratory variables (p ballet dancers (p < 0.03). There were differences between companies in age, experience, BMI, BP, resting, peak, and recovery HR, and fitness category (p < 0.001). The differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels that may be related to rigor of repertory, rehearsal and performance seasons, or off-season exercise training are discussed. Results support the need for comprehensive physical fitness screening to identify dancers who could benefit from aerobic conditioning to enhance overall performance preparedness and to minimize fatigue effects.

  11. Aptidão cardiorrespiratória, perfil lipídico e metabólico em adolescentes obesos e não-obesos Cardiorespiratory fitness, lipid and metabolic profile in obese and non-obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Leite

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o consumo máximo de oxigênio, perfil lipídico e metabólico em meninas e meninos obesos e não-obesos. Estudo transversal, descritivo e correlacional. A amostra foi composta por 91 obesos e 30 não-obesos, dos 10 aos 16 anos. Avaliou-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC e a circunferência abdominal (CA. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi avaliada de forma direta através da análise do consumo máximo de oxigênio (O2max. Determinaram-se níveis de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C, triglicérides (TG, glicemia e insulinemia após 12 horas de jejum. Analisaram-se os dados pelo teste "t" de student e correlação parcial controlada pela idade, com um nível de significância de pO2max com o IMC (r = -0,540; p O2max com a CT, a fração LDL-C e a glicemia.O menor VO2max correlacionou com maiores adiposidade, TG e insulinemia, bem como redução de HDL. O O2max não correlacionou com o CT, LDL-C e glicemia, sugerindo a importância do controle genético sobre estas variáveis e um menor tempo de influência do sedentarismo na população infanto-juvenil.The aim this study was investigates the relationship between maximum oxygen consumption, lipid and metabolic profile in obese and non-obese girls and boys. Transversal, descriptive and correlational study. 91 obese and 30 non-obese subjects participated, with 10 to 16 years. There were well overall adiposity by body mass index (BMI, and central adiposity by waist circumference (WC. The cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a direct analysis of maximum oxygen consumption (O2max. Are determined levels of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, glucose and insulin after 12 hours of fasting. We analyzed the data by "t" student`s test and partial correlation controlled for age, with a significance level of p

  12. Capacidade cardiorrespiratória e distribuição de gordura corporal de mulheres com 50 anos ou mais Capacidad cardiorrespiratoria y distribución de la grasa corporal en mujeres con 50 años o más Cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat distribution in women with 50 years or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificar a relação entre capacidade cardiorrespiratória e gordura corporal em mulheres. Foram analisadas 229 mulheres com idade entre 50 e 84 anos. Foi realizada avaliação antropométrica e calculada a razão cintura/quadril, bem como o índice de conicidade. A capacidade cardiorrespiratória foi avaliada pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos. Com o pedômetro foi possível avaliar: velocidade, comprimento da passada e total de passos. Os resultados foram distribuídos em quartil, e a comparação feita pela análise de variância com post-hoc. A relação entre teste de caminhada de seis minutos e a antropometria foi feita pela correlação de Pearson. Os resultados revelaram que mulheres com capacidade cardiorrespiratória no quartil4 apresentaram idade estatisticamente menor (pVerificar la relación entre capacidad cardiorrespiratoria y grasa corporal en mujeres. Fueron estudiadas 229 mujeres con edades entre 50 y 89 años. Fue realizada una evaluación antropométrica, comprobada la razón cintura/caderas y calculado el índice de conicidad. La capacidad cardiorrespiratoria fue ponderada por test de caminata de seis minutos. Con el podómetro fue posible evaluar: velocidad, distancia y cantidad total de pasos. Los resultados fueron agrupados por cuartiles, y la comparación se realizó por Análisis de Varianza con post-hoc. La relación entre el test de caminata de seis minutos y la antropometría fue normalizada por la Correlación de Pearson. Los resultados demostraron que las mujeres con capacidad respiratoria en el cuartil 4 tenían estadísticamente una edad inferior (pTo verify the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in women. Evaluations were performed on 229 women with ages ranging between 50 and 84 years. Anthropometric assessment was performed and waist/hip ratio and conicity index values were obtained. The cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the six minutes walk test and one pedometer was

  13. Effect of female sex hormones on cardiorespiratory parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Gayatri Godbole; A.R. Joshi; Vaidya, Savita M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone regulate various phases of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal changes tend to affect various parameters of physical fitness. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a measure of aerobic power. This study was planned to assess effect of different phases of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max. Methods: 100 female medical students in the age group of 17-22 years were studied for three con...

  14. Efeitos do treinamento neuromuscular na aptidão cardiorrespiratória e composição corporal de atletas de voleibol do sexo feminino Effects of the neuromuscular training in the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of female volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adamoli Simões

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As respostas do organismo humano submetido a estímulos diversos, mensuradas através de parâmetros de performance, têm sido objeto de estudo a fim de aprimorar os métodos de treinamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do treinamento neuromuscular na capacidade cardiorrespiratória e composição corporal de atletas de voleibol. Foram avaliadas 11 mulheres, antes e após 12 semanas de treinamento, referente à fase preparatória do ciclo anual de treinamento. O protocolo experimental constou de avaliação da composição corporal (percentual de gordura, massa magra e a gordura corporal e da aptidão cardiorrespiratória por meio de ergoespirometria em esteira rolante com protocolo contínuo e carga crescente, na qual se determinaram o consumo máximo de oxigênio, a frequência cardíaca máxima, o limiar anaeróbio, a frequência cardíaca do limiar anaeróbio e a velocidade do limiar anaeróbio. O treinamento teve frequência de cinco dias por semana dividido em duas sessões: uma de treinamento de força e outra de treinamento técnico e tático. Após o período estudado ocorreram aumentos (p The responses of the human body submitted to several stimuli measured by performance parameters have been object of studies in order to improve training methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the neuromuscular training in the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of volleyball athletes. Eleven women were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training, concerning the preparatory phase of the annual training cycle. The experimental protocol consisted of assessment of the body composition (fat percentage, lean mass and body fat and of the cardiorespiratory fitness through ergospirometry on treadmill with continuous protocol and increasing load, in which the oxygen maximal uptake, maximum heart rate, anaerobic threshold, heart rate threshold and anaerobic threshold velocity were determined. The

  15. CHILD WITH COMBINED CARDIORESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    N.D. Vashakmadze; G. V. Revunenkov; E. G. Chernavina; O. V. Kustova; M. V. Tarayan; I. V. Davydova; A. K. Gevorkyan

    2013-01-01

    The course of a secondary pulmonary hypertension in a child with congenital heart disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in anamnesis is retraced in the article using a concrete clinical case. An assessment of echocardiographic and radiologic disease signs at a prolonged follow-up observation of a child with combined cardiorespiratory pathology was conducted. The main therapeutic approaches to this category of patients were covered.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Considerations in Dance: From Classes to Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-09-01

    When attempting to ascertain dancers' fitness levels, essential parameters, such as aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular power and strength, flexibility, and body composition, must be considered. Dance is characterized as an intermittent type of exercise, demanding energy from different metabolic pathways (aerobic and anaerobic, lactic or alactic). A dancer's maximum aerobic capacity (ranging from 37 to 57 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) is related to his or her dance style, gender, level of technical ability, and status in a dance company. However, dancers' cardiorespiratory requirements during dance classes (essentially designed for the development of technical skills) are significantly lower than during dance performances, indicating that there is a divergence between dance training and performance with regard to demands on dancers' physical fitness. It follows that supplementary fitness training is needed in order to optimize dancers' technical and artistic performance and to reduce the incidence of injury. Traditional aerobic and strength training have been proposed to cover dancers' lack of conditioning; however, it seems likely that high-intensity interval training would more properly meet the requirements of today's choreography. Therefore, with an approach that applies basic exercise physiology to dance characteristics, this review covers the following topics: 1. dance as physical exercise; 2. dancers' aerobic capacity; 3. cardiorespiratory demands of dance classes and performances; 4. supplementary fitness training for dancers; and 5. fitness testing and assessment for dancers.

  17. Physical fitness training in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J P; Kappagoda, C T; Linden, R J

    1980-10-01

    Patients recovering after heart valve surgery are not in an optimum state of 'cardiorespiratory fitness'. To examine this proposition a controlled trial of physical training was undertaken in patients recovering from the replacement of a single heart valve. Patients were allocated to a test or control group two weeks after operation. Each patient performed a submaximal exercise test at entry, and twelve and twenty-four weeks after this test. The Canadian Air Force exercise programme was undertaken by the test group, while the control group continued normal activities for the twenty-four weeks between the first and last exercise test. A regression line of submaximal heart rate on oxygen consumption was calculated from the data of each exercise test in each patient. Alterations in this line were used as an 'index' of changes in 'cardiorespiratory fitness'. The individual results showed a consistent improvement in 'cardiorespiratory fitness' over the first 12 weeks in both groups. Only patients in the test group continued to improve between 12 and 24 weeks. Thus the exercise programme modified the recovery of 'cardiorespiratory fitness' after operation. A physical fitness rehabilitation programme may help these patients gain maximum benefit from correctiv surgery.

  18. Concordância entre duas classificações para a aptidão cardiorrespiratória em crianças Concordancia entre dos clasificaciones para la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria en niños Concordance between two classifications for cardiorespiratory fitness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Paludo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a concordância entre duas diferentes tabelas de pontos de corte para a classificação da aptidão cardiorrespiratória em escolares de sete a 10 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de delineamento transversal do qual participaram 184 escolares (106 meninos e 78 meninas de sete a 10 anos de idade. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória dos escolares foi obtida por meio do teste de campo de corrida ou caminhada de nove minutos. Para a discriminação do desempenho no teste, foram utilizados dois critérios ajustados por sexo e idade: Fitnessgram (1987 e o de Bergmann et al (2010. A concordância entre os pontos de corte foi verificada pelo teste de McNemar e pelo índice Kappa, com significância estatística de pOBJETIVO: Analizar la concordancia entre dos distintas tablas de puntos de corte para la clasificación de la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, en escolares de siete a diez años de edad, de ambos sexos. MÉTODOS: Estudio de delineación transversal, en el que participaron 184 escolares (106 muchachos y 78 muchachas de siete a 10 años de edad. La aptitud cardiorrespiratoria de los escolares se obtuvo a través de la prueba de campo de carrera o caminata de 9 minutos. Para la discriminación del desempeño en la prueba, se utilizaron dos criterios ajustados por sexo y edad: Fitnessgram (1987 y el de Bergmann et al (2010. La concordancia entre los puntos de corte fue verificada por la prueba de McNemar e índice Kappa, con significancia estadística de pOBJECTIVE: To verify the agreement between two different cutoff points for cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren, with ages ranging from seven to 10 years of both genders. METHODS: A cross-sectional study composed of 184 schoolchildren (106 boys and 78 girls aged from seven to 10 years-old. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by the run and walk test (9 minutes. Two cutoff points were used to indicate the performance in the run and walk test: Fitnessgram

  19. CHILD WITH COMBINED CARDIORESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Vashakmadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of a secondary pulmonary hypertension in a child with congenital heart disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in anamnesis is retraced in the article using a concrete clinical case. An assessment of echocardiographic and radiologic disease signs at a prolonged follow-up observation of a child with combined cardiorespiratory pathology was conducted. The main therapeutic approaches to this category of patients were covered.

  20. Efeitos de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em hipertensas Effects of aquatic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Piazza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar a influência de um programa de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em mulheres hipertensas. Dez hipertensas participaram do programa de exercícios aquáticos - aeróbicos, de fortalecimento, alongamento e relaxamento - duas vezes por semana durante 7 semanas, totalizando 14 sessões. Foram avaliadas pelo teste de esforço cardiorrespiratório antes e após o desenvolvimento do programa. A pressão arterial foi mensurada ao repouso e aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício em cada sessão. As variáveis cardiorrespiratórias não apresentaram alterações significativas após o programa, tanto dos valores de limiar de anaerobiose quanto os do pico de esforço. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média de repouso permaneceram estáveis no decorrer do programa. Entretanto, no período pós-exercício, os níveis da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e média (PAM foram significativamente menores, quando comparados aos valores pré-exercício: houve redução média de 6,43 mmHg da PAS e 3,08 mmHg da PAM aos 30 minutos pós-exercício. Assim, o programa de exercícios aquáticos proposto não promove ganho aeróbico efetivo, mas os resultados sugerem que exercícios aquáticos como os propostos, em intensidade próxima ao limiar de anaerobiose, desencadeiam redução dos níveis de pressão arterial no período pós-exercício, em mulheres hipertensas.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women. Ten hypertensive women took part in the study. The program consisted of aquatic aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises in intensity near the anaerobic threshold, besides relaxation, twice a week during 7 weeks, totalling 14 sessions. They were assessed by cardiorespiratory exercise testing before and after program development. Blood pressure was measured at

  1. Imagem corporal, estado nutricional, força de resistência abdominal e aptidão cardiorrespiratória de crianças e adolescentes praticantes de esportes Imagen corporal, estado nutricional, fuerza de resistencia abdominal y aptitud cardiorrespiratoria de niños y adolescentes practicantes de deportes Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Schubert

    2013-03-01

    image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001, abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005 and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001. The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. CONCLUSIONS: Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  2. Autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses to exercise in Brugada Syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoyrin Chanavirut, MSc

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Thai BrS patients had a more rapid rate of restoration of the parasympathetic and smaller level of sympathetic activation after exercise. They had mild hyperkalemia which is reduced according to the exercise. Furthermore, they exhibited impaired cardio-respiratory fitness.

  3. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  4. Exercise training programs and cardiorespiratory adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M H

    1991-01-01

    Prudent, proper, and progressive aerobic exercise can improve the efficiency of the cardiorespiratory system. Several physiologic mechanisms interact to enhance the body's functional capabilities. Central cardiac adaptations such as improved pump efficiency and peripheral adjustments related to efficient energy transfer are the principle manifestations of proper exercise training. Related benefits of physical activity include reduction in risk from life style-related diseases, increased energy reserves for the activities of everyday living, and an improved quality of life. Functional exercise testing when administered properly can be used to establish safe exercise prescriptions, evaluate patients at risk, and determine program efficacy. The method of choice is a maximal exercise stress test with direct determination of oxygen uptake. Results from such evaluations help to accurately and safely determine the appropriate exercise prescriptions and establish a patient's physiologic profile. The exercise prescription should encompass an approach that denotes the proper application of frequency, intensity, duration, and mode of exercise. For the noncompetitive athlete, training programs should begin with a gentle progression of low-level intensity activities that encourages compliance and reduces risk. Short-term reachable goals documenting gradual increases in activity have been shown to be successful in terms of compliance and desired benefits. Although intense exercise training may be an ambitious goal for many persons, moderate levels of habitual physical activity are a more realistic goal. The clinician should realize that habitual physical activity is an integral part of a healthy life style. Lack of fitness has been strongly associated with all-cause morbidity and mortality. Obviously, the health potential of exercise cannot be realized if a society remains inactive. It is estimated that 40% of Americans are completely sedentary and another 40% are active at

  5. Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Fitness-The Maastricht Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, J.H. van der; Koster, A.; Berg, J.D. van der; Sep, S.J.; Kallen, C.J. van der; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schram, M.T.; Henry, R.M.; Eussen, S.J.; Dongen, M.C. van; Stehouwer, C.D.; Schaper, N.C.; Savelberg, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the mutual independent associations of sedentary behavior, lower intensity physical activity (LPA) and higher intensity physical activity HPA (an approximation of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF).

  6. Suryanamaskar: An equivalent approach towards management of physical fitness in obese females

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    Komal A Jakhotia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: All three methods were effective in weight and physical fitness management. CT and SN were more effective in improving cardio-respiratory fitness and upper limb muscle endurance while only SN was effective in improving body flexibility.

  7. Routine physiotherapy does not induce a cardiorespiratory training effect post-stroke, regardless of walking ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuys, Suzanne; Brauer, Sandra; Ada, Louise

    2006-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is increasingly being recognized as an impairment requiring physiotherapy intervention after stroke. The present study seeks to investigate if routine physiotherapy treatment is capable of inducing a cardiorespiratory training effect and if stroke patients attending physiotherapy who are unable to walk experience less cardiorespiratory stress during physiotherapy when compared to those who are able to walk. A descriptive, observational study, with heart rate monitoring and video-recording of physiotherapy rehabilitation, was conducted. Thirty consecutive stroke patients from a geriatric and rehabilitation unit of a tertiary metropolitan hospital, admitted for rehabilitation, and requiring physiotherapy were included in the study. The main measures of the study were duration (time) and intensity (percentage of heart rate reserve) of standing and walking activities during physiotherapy rehabilitation for non-walking and walking stroke patients. Stroke patients spent an average of 21 minutes participating in standing and walking activities that were capable of inducing a cardiorespiratory training effect. Stroke patients who were able to walk spent longer in these activities during physiotherapy rehabilitation than non-walking stroke patients (p stroke patients able to walk and 30% for those unable to walk. Routine physiotherapy rehabilitation had insufficient duration and intensity to result in a cardiorespiratory training effect in our group of stroke patients.

  8. Low muscle fitness is associated with metabolic risk in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Kolle, Elin; Andersen, Lars B

    2009-07-01

    To examine the independent associations of muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered metabolic risk in youth. In 2005-2006, a cohort of 9- and 15-yr-olds (N = 2818) was randomly selected from all regions of Norway. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among the 9-and 15-yr-olds, respectively. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Risk factors included in the composite risk factor score (sum of z-scores) were systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance, and waist circumference. Muscle fitness was negatively associated with clustered metabolic risk, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness, and after adjustment for age, sex, and pubertal stage (beta = -0.112, P confidence interval (CI)=4.3-12.0) and 17.3 (95% CI = 9.2-32.7) for muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness, respectively. Our results show that muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in youth.

  9. Cross sectional analysis of the association between mode of school transportation and physical fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents.......To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents....

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Inmates of a Maximum Security Prison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Nevertheless, how repetitive work and skills acquisition activities such as carpentry, tailoring, and welding engaged in by inmates affects their CRF, is unclear. Empirical data on prison inmates' CRF elucidates the health status of the inmates and information on the health of inmates is important given the deleterious effect of ...

  11. Cardio-respiratory fitness markers among Kenyan university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    motion sensors with a major property of evoking a charge when deformed in a special direction. The ..... increase despite an increase in diastolic viscoelastic resistance and chamber stiffness23. This was not the ... lower values. It may be possible that the higher RR may compromise VO2max byreducing arterial oxygen.

  12. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant...

  13. A Comparism of the Cardio-Respiratory Fitness and Muscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indeed, it can be assumed that athlete's anthropometric characteristics can in some way influence his/her of performance, at the same time helping to determine a suitable physique for certain sports. Tell people are naturally attracted to basketball while in soccer height also plays an important role although it all depends on ...

  14. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2008-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the latest developments with regard to physical fitness and several health outcomes in young people. The literature reviewed suggests that (1) cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with total and abdominal adiposity; (2) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness are shown to be associated with established and emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors; (3) improvements in muscular fitness and speed/agility, rather than cardiorespiratory fitness, seem to have a positive effect on skeletal health; (4) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness enhancements are recommended in pediatric cancer patients/survivors in order to attenuate fatigue and improve their quality of life; and (5) improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness have positive effects on depression, anxiety, mood status and self-esteem, and seem also to be associated with a higher academic performance. In conclusion, health promotion policies and physical activity programs should be designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, but also two other physical fitness components such us muscular fitness and speed/agility. Schools may play an important role by identifying children with low physical fitness and by promoting positive health behaviors such as encouraging children to be active, with special emphasis on the intensity of the activity.

  15. Correlates of selected indices of physical fitness and duration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was done to determine the relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration of inmates in Kano prisons. Subjects' physical fitness level (cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index and waist circumference) was assessed using standardized protocols.

  16. Perfil lipídico, de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, e de composição corporal de uma amostra de dscolares de 8ª série de Canoas/RS Lipidic, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body composition profile of a sample of 8th graders from Canoas/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann

    2008-02-01

    meninas. Com relação às distribuições nas faixas recomendadas para cada variável, não houve associações com os sexos. Os resultados obtidos são preocupantes, e demonstram, mesmo em uma amostra pequena, a existência de todos os fatores de risco analisados para DC nos escolares.Nowadays cardiovascular diseases (CD are the main causes of death in the world and consist in a series of risk factors that seem to have their origin during childhood and adolescence. Thus, early diagnostic of CD risk factors should be frequently performed from young population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the lipidic (LP, the cardiorespiratory fitness (CarFit, and the body composition (BC profile of 13/14 years old students, and compare these variables between sexes. The sample was composed of 41 students (21 boys and 20 girls 8th graders of a private school from Canoas city, RS, voluntarily selected in a non-probabilistic way. The LP (triglycerides - TRI; total cholesterol - TC; HDL and LDL of the students was measured through standard technique at a clinical analyses laboratory. The CarFit was measured through a 9- minute run/walk test (PROESP-BR, 2002. The BC was measured through the body mass index (BMI and by the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (SSK. Descriptive analysis was used for data analysis and for the analysis per criteria the criteria suggested by AHA (NHI PARENT’S GUIDE, 1993 were used, for the CarFit and BD, the criteria suggested by PROESP-BR (2002 were used. The results pointed out that concerning central tendency analysis, the PL, the CarFit and the BC demonstrated normal results. However, when the analysis was made from the criteria, some cases out of the recommended band have been detected (TRI-4.9%, TC-12.2%, HDL-36.6% and LDL-4.9%, and a great proportion of students out of the recommended band for CarFit (61% and BC (BMI-17.1% and S SK 48.8%. Moreover, the results show that there are differences between sexes in the mean values of CarFit

  17. Metabolismo de glicose em gêmeos monozigóticos discordantes para aptidão cardiorrespiratória Metabolismo de glucosa en gemelos monocigóticos discordantes para aptitud cardiorrespiratoria Glucose metabolism in discordant monozygotic twins for cardiorespiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Queiroga

    2013-03-01

    L.kg-1.min-1 y fueron divididos en dos grupos, de alta y baja aptitud. Los grupos fueron comparados a partir de la prueba pareada de Wilcoxon, teniendo en vista la asimetría de los datos. RESULTADOS: En promedio, los gemelos del grupo de alta aptitud presentaron consumo máximo de oxígeno el 17% superior (13,5±3,7mL.kg-1.min-1 a sus hermanos menos aptos. No hubo diferencia entre los grupos para las concentraciones de insulina (36,5±34,6 versus 25,3±13,7mg/dL; pOBJECTIVE: To determine if glucose and insulin concentrations are regulated by cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max regardless of their genetic effects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 38 pairs of young monozygotic twins (11 to 18 years-old. All subjects underwent a progressive maximal exercise test on a treadmill to determine the VO2max with gas exchange analysis (MedGraphics VO2000® - Medical Graphics Corp., St. Paul, MN. Blood samples were drawn after fasting to determine glucose and insulin levels. Monozygosity was confirmed by genotyping 15 informative genetic markers. Nine pairs had at least 10mL.kg-1.min-1 difference in VO2max and were divided into the more and less active group, according to their VO2max. Mean differences between more and less active groups were evaluated by Wilcoxon's test for paired data. RESULTS: On average, twins from the more active group presented a 17% (13.5±3.7mL.kg-1.min-1 higher VO2max compared to their less active siblings. No significant differences were observed between the groups for fasting insulin (36.5±34.6 versus 25.3±13.7mg/dL; p<0.813. However, the more active twins had lower fasting glucose than the less active ones (82.9±7.3 versus 86.7±7.6mg/dL; p<0.010. CONCLUSIONS: In this case-control study (discordant monozygotic twins, the less active co-twins were characterized by higher fasting plasma glucose levels. This implies that poor cardiorespiratory fitness can be associated with defective glucose metabolism regardless of genetic factors.

  18. Low muscle fitness is associated with metabolic risk in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the independent associations of muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered metabolic risk in youth. METHODS: In 2005-2006, a cohort of 9- and 15-yr-olds (N = 2818) was randomly selected from all regions of Norway. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among...... the 9-and 15-yr-olds, respectively. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Risk factors included in the composite risk factor score (sum of z......-scores) were systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance, and waist circumference. RESULTS: Muscle fitness was negatively associated with clustered metabolic risk, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness, and after adjustment for age, sex, and pubertal stage...

  19. Childhood fitness reduces the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M D; Magnussen, C G; Rees, E; Dwyer, T; Venn, A J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates or modifies the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity. The study consisted of a 20-year follow-up of 1792 adults who participated in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey when they were 7-15 years of age. Baseline measures included a 1.6-km run to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference to assess abdominal adiposity. At follow-up, participants attended study clinics where indicators of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids) were measured and cardiorespiratory fitness was reassessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were significant independent predictors of MetS in early adulthood. The mutually adjusted relative risk of adult MetS was 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-4.89) for children in the highest (vs lowest) third of waist circumference and 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.96) for children with high (vs low) cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant interaction between waist circumference and fitness was observed, with higher levels of childhood fitness associated with lower risks of adult MetS among those with either low or high childhood waist circumference values. Participants who had both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were 8.5 times more likely to have MetS in adulthood than those who had low waist circumference and high cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood. Regardless of childhood obesity status, participants with low childhood fitness who increased their relative fitness by adulthood had a substantially lower prevalence of MetS than those who remained low fit. Childhood waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are both strongly associated with cardiometabolic health in later life. Higher levels of

  20. [Cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 30].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porlier, Magali; Porlier, Ludovic; Lefort, Hugues

    The cardiovascular risk of women is specific and polymorphous. Delays in treatment in women are evident and caused by multiple social and anthropological factors as well as changes to lifestyle habits which are becoming similar to those of men. Young women thereby have a higher risk of sudden death than the rest of the female and general population. A nurse who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 30 shares her story. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical fitness and shapes of subcortical brain structures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Campos, Daniel; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Altmäe, Signe; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Catena, Andrés; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-03-27

    A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and speed agility were assessed using valid and reliable tests (ALPHA-fitness test battery). Shape of the subcortical brain structures was assessed by MRI, and its relationship with fitness was examined after controlling for a set of potential confounders using a partial correlation permutation approach. Our results showed that all physical fitness components studied were significantly related to the shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. These associations were both positive and negative, indicating that a higher level of fitness in childhood is related to both expansions and contractions in certain regions of the accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus. Cardiorespiratory fitness was mainly associated with expansions, whereas handgrip was mostly associated with contractions in the structures studied. Future randomised-controlled trials will confirm or contrast our findings, demonstrating whether changes in fitness modify the shapes of brain structures and the extent to which those changes influence cognitive function.

  2. Effect of including fitness testing in preventive health checks on cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Kirsten; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt

    2014-01-01

    borgere i aldersgruppen 30-49 år en forebyggende helbredsundersøgelse og en helbredssamtale ved egen læge ved behov. Vores viden om effekten af de enkelte komponenter i en forebyggende helbredsundersøgelse er dog sparsom. Vi ved dog, at kondition er forbundet med en række helbredsgevinster, såsom nedsat...

  3. Physical Fatigue, Fitness and Muscle Function in Patients with Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasm Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McClean, A.; Morgan, M.D.; Basu, N.; Bosch, J.A.; Nightingale, N.; Jones, D.; Harper, L.

    Objective. This study investigated differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular function, perceived exertion, and anxiety/depression between patients and healthy controls (HCs) and assessed which of these variables may account for the fatigue experienced by patients. Methods. Fatigue was

  4. Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (Mage = 12.3 ± 0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p academic achievement (OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 1.82-7.34, p academic achievement in seventh-grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born. PMID:25001376

  5. Physical exercise minimizes the toxic triad for cancer: Physical inactivity, low fitness, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Rojas, Javier Salvador; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Pareja Galeano, Helios

    2016-01-01

    The so-called toxic triad of factors linked to cancer, namely obesity, poor cardiorespiratory fitness and physical inactivity, increase the risk of cancer and, when cancer is present, worsen its prognosis. Thus, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have been linked to an elevated cancer risk whereas regular physical exercise and good cardiorespiratory function (CRF) diminish this risk. Despite genetic risk factors, there is evidence to show that some lifestyle modifications are capable of reduci...

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairchild, Timothy John; Klakk, Heidi; Heidemann, Malene Søborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may attenuate the association between the excessive adiposity and the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to stratify children according to their body mass index (BMI) and adiposity (body fat percentage...

  7. The Associations of Youth Physical Activity and Screen Time with Fatness and Fitness: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of youth physical activity and screen time with weight status and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents, separately, utilizing a nationally representative sample. A total of 1,113 participants (692 children aged 6-11 yrs; 422 adolescents aged 12-15 yrs from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey. Participants completed physical activity and screen time questionnaires, and their body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness (adolescents only were assessed. Adolescents completed additional physical activity questions to estimate daily MET minutes. Children not meeting the screen time guideline had 1.69 times the odds of being overweight/obese compared to those meeting the screen time guideline, after adjusting for physical activity and other control variables. Among adolescent, screen time was significantly associated with being overweight/obese (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.15, but the association attenuated toward the borderline of being significant after controlling for physical activity. Being physically active was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, independent of screen time among adolescents. In joint association analysis, children who did not meet physical activity nor screen time guidelines had 2.52 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than children who met both guidelines. Adolescents who did not meet the screen time guideline had significantly higher odds ratio of being overweight/obese regardless of meeting the physical activity guideline. Meeting the physical activity guideline was also associated with cardiorespiratory fitness regardless of meeting the screen time guideline in adolescents. Screen time is a stronger factor than physical activity in predicting weight status in both children and adolescents, and only physical activity is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents.

  8. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  9. Four birds with one stone? Reparative, neuroplastic, cardiorespiratory, and metabolic benefits of aerobic exercise poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploughman, Michelle; Kelly, Liam P

    2016-12-01

    Converging evidence from animal models of stroke and clinical trials suggests that aerobic exercise has effects across multiple targets. The subacute phase is characterized by a period of heightened neuroplasticity when aerobic exercise has the potential to optimize recovery. In animals, low intensity aerobic exercise shrinks lesion size and reduces cell death and inflammation, beginning 24 h poststroke. Also in animals, aerobic exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor near the lesion and improves learning. In terms of neuroplastic effects, clinical trial results are less convincing and have only examined effects in chronic stroke. Stroke patients demonstrate cardiorespiratory fitness levels below the threshold required to carry out daily activities. This may contribute to a 'neurorehabilitation ceiling' that limits capacity to practice at a high enough frequency and intensity to promote recovery. Aerobic exercise when delivered 2-5 days per week at moderate to high intensity beginning as early as 5 days poststroke improves cardiorespiratory fitness, dyslipidemia, and glucose tolerance. Based on the evidence discussed and applying principles of periodization commonly used to prepare athletes for competition, we have created a model of aerobic training in subacute stroke in which training is delivered in density blocks (duration × intensity) matched to recovery phases.

  10. Low physical fitness levels in older adults with ID : Results of the HA-ID study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental

  11. StayFit: a wearable application for Gym based power training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheedhar, Maram; Gaurav, Aman; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive fitness training involves both cardiorespiratory and power components. Often power/muscle strength training is confused with cardiorespiratory endurance training. However, each of them target different physiological aspects of fitness. Although, wearable based fitness trackers designed towards cardiorespiratory endurance training are available in the market, a dedicated wearable based fitness application designed for power training/tracking is still not readily available to fitness enthusiasts. With growing usage of wearable technology to manage and track personal health, it is imperative to develop health/fitness applications for wearables. A wearable based application for power training will allow the user to track build-up of muscle strength unobtrusively over a period of time. This work provides a framework and design for automatic detection, counting repetitions of strength training Gym exercises (covering all the major muscle groups), estimate personalized calories spent in each session and track power on a standalone Gear watch (both analysis and display including User Experience(UX) design). Our proposed method detects activity with ~96% sensitivity and ~96% specificity on an average and count repetitions with an overall accuracy of >95% using motion sensor data (accelerometer, gyroscope) for eight major Gym exercises. Additionally, using heart rate sensor data we have provided a mechanism to individually track the power/muscle strength of a person. This work will give further impetus towards developing wearable based systems for personalized fitness tracking and training. This will also give an option for wearable users to address both the crucial aspects of fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscle strength).

  12. Fitness of the US workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2015-03-18

    Fitness matters for the prevention of premature death, chronic diseases, productivity loss, excess medical care costs, loss of income or family earnings, and other social and economic concerns. The workforce may be viewed as a corporate strategic asset, yet its fitness level appears to be relatively low and declining. Over the past half-century, obesity rates have doubled, physical activity levels are below par, and cardiorespiratory fitness often does not meet minimum acceptable job standards. During this time, daily occupational energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories. Employers should consider best practices and design workplace wellness programs accordingly. Particular attention should be paid to human-centered cultures. Research should address ongoing surveillance needs regarding fitness of the US workforce and close gaps in the evidence base for fitness and business-relevant outcomes. Policy priorities should consider the impact of both state and federal regulations, adherence to current regulations that protect and promote worker health, and the introduction of incentives that allow employers to optimize the fitness of their workforce through supportive legislation and organizational policies.

  13. Ethnic differences in Cardiorespiratory Variables among Igbo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic differences in Cardiorespiratory Variables among Igbo and Yoruba Young Female Adults resident in Nigeria. Oluwole Alese, Isaac Adeoshun, Olubusola Johnson, Oluwadare Ogunlade, Olaoluwa Olukiran, Olutayo Alese ...

  14. Effect of female sex hormones on cardiorespiratory parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, AR; Vaidya, SavitaM

    2016-01-01

    ...) is a measure of aerobic power. This study was planned to assess effect of different phases of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max. Methods...

  15. Age, physical fitness, and attention: P3a and P3b

    OpenAIRE

    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Charles H. Hillman; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    The influence of age and fitness on the neuroelectric correlates of attentional orienting and processing during stimulus discrimination were investigated. Younger and older adult participants completed a maximal aerobic exercise test and were separated into higher- and lower-fit groups according to their cardiorespiratory fitness. Task performance and event-related potential measures were obtained during two- and three-stimulus oddball tasks. Results indicated that fitness may ameliorate or p...

  16. [ALPHA-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; España Romero, V; Castro Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Cuenca García, M; Jiménez Pavón, D; Chillón, P; Girela Rejón, Ma J; Mora, J; Gutiérrez, A; Suni, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo, M J

    2011-01-01

    Hereby we summarize the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) Study and describe the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The evidence-based ALPHA-Fitness test battery include the following tests: 1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; 2) the handgrip strength and 3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and 4) body mass index, 5) waist circumference; and 6) skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) to assess body composition. Furthermore, we include two versions: 1) the high priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness; and 2) the extended ALPHA health-related fitness tests battery for children and adolescents, which includes all the evidence-based fitness tests plus the 4 x 10 m shuttle run test to assess motor fitness.

  17. Hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory predictors of sport rock climbing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Simon; Giles, David; Palomino, Inmaculada Garrido; Puerta, Alejandro de la O; Romero, Vanesa España

    2017-03-13

    Rock climbing performance has been suggested to involve a notable contribution from the aerobic metabolism. Previously it has been shown that forearm oxygenation kinetics can be used to distinguish ability groups and predict red-point sport climbing performance. Currently it is not known if forearm oxygenation kinetics, or a sport specific assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness best predicts sport rock climbing performance. The aim of the study was to determine whether forearm oxidative capacity index, maximal de-oxygenation (Δ score) during a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak test, treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak, or running V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]max best predicts self-reported sport climbing performance. Twenty-one male sport rock climbers completed a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak, running V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]max and an assessment of near infrared spectroscopy derived oxidative capacity index. Linear regression, adjusted for age and experience (years), revealed that forearm oxidative capacity index, treadwall maximal de-oxygenation (Δ) and treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak all significantly predicted self-reported red-point sport climbing ability (Adj R[SUBSCRIPT TWO] =-0.398; -0.255; 0.374 respectively), whereas treadmill running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max did not (Adj R[SUBSCRIPT TWO] =0.-0.052). Additionally, multiple regression suggested that the combined significant aerobic predictors accounted for 67% of the variance in red-point climbing ability. Findings suggest that training for sport rock climbing performance should look to incorporate modalities which focus on 1) improving local forearm aerobic capacity, and 2) improving whole body aerobic capacity using sport-specific apparatus such as treadwalls.

  18. Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Luís B Sardinha; Marques, Adilson; Martins,Sandra; Palmeira, António; Minderico, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (M age = 12.3 ± 0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measure...

  19. Correlates of Selected Indices of Physical Fitness And Duration of Incarceration among Inmates in Some Selected Nigeria Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Sulaiman A; Shmaila, Hanif; Sikiru, Lamina; Lawal, Isa U

    2010-03-01

    Incarceration has been associated with reduced physical activity. However, physical inactivity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore, to evaluate the incidence and relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration in of inmates in Kano-Nigeria prisons. A cross-sectional study was done to determine the relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration of inmates in Kano prisons. Subjects' physical fitness level (cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index and waist circumference) was assessed using standardized protocols. Simple percentage, Pearson moment correlation test and student's t-test were used to analyze variables of interest. One hundred and sixteen inmates; 108 (93.1%) males and 8 (6.9%) females participated in the study. The study revealed high (93.1%) prevalence of low cardio-respiratory fitness among inmates and significant correlation between the selected indices of physical fitness (cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index and waist circumference) and duration of incarceration. The prevalence of low cardio-respiratory fitness was high among inmates and long period of inadequate physical activity may be implicated as causative factor of low physical fitness among inmates in Kano prison. Prison administration and staff should encourage healthy inmate behavior. Provision of adequate facilities to encourage physical activity and sports participation is highly needed.

  20. Relationship between functional fitness, medication costs and mood in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Luciana Massolini Laureano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to verify if functional fitness (FF is associated with the annual cost of medication consumption and mood states (MSt in elderly people. Methods: a cross-sectional study with 229 elderly people aged 65 years or more at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Coimbra, Portugal. Seniors with physical and psychological limitations were excluded, as well as those using medication that limits performance on the tests. The Senior Fitness Test was used to evaluate FF, and the Profile of Mood States - Short Form to evaluate the MSt. The statistical analysis was based on Mancova, with adjustment for age, for comparison between men and women, and adjustment for sex, for comparison between cardiorespiratory fitness quintiles. The association between the variables under study was made with partial correlation, controlling for the effects of age, sex and body mass index. Results: an inverse correlation between cardiorespiratory fitness and the annual cost of medication consumption was found (p < 0.01. FF is also inversely associated with MSt (p < 0.05. Comparisons between cardiorespiratory fitness quintiles showed higher medication consumption costs in seniors with lower aerobic endurance, as well as higher deterioration in MSt (p < 0.01. Conclusion: elderly people with better FF and, specifically, better cardiorespiratory fitness present lower medication consumption costs and a more positive MSt.

  1. Assessing cardiorespiratory capacity in older adults with major depression and Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Felipe Zanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess cardiorespiratory capacity through subjective and objective tests in older adults diagnosed with major depression (MDD, Alzheimer disease (AD and healthy older adults. Methods Fifty seven subjects (72 ± 7.9 years were divided into three groups: MDD (n = 20, AD (n = 17 and Healthy (n = 20. The subjects answered Hamilton Scale (HAM-D, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ and 2-minute Step test. Results MDD and AD showed lower scores than healthy group for Nomogram VSAQ (p < 0.001 and 2-minute Step (p = 0.009; p = 0.008, respectively. Adjusted for age and educational level, no differences among groups were observed for Step (MDD, p = 0.097; AD, p = 0.102. AD group did not present differences to healthy group for Step, when adjusting for MMSE (p = 0.261. Conclusions Despite the lower cardiorespiratory fitness of elderly patients with DM and DA have been found in both evaluations, the results should be viewed with caution, since the tests showed low correlation and different risk classifications of functional loss. In addition, age, level educational and cognitive performance are variables that can influence the performance objective evaluation.

  2. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  3. Cardiorespiratory Responses and Prediction of Peak Oxygen Uptake during the Shuttle Walking Test in Healthy Sedentary Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Camila D. C.; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Lage, Vanessa K. S.; Lima, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Sueli F.; de Avelar, Núbia C. P.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Mendonça, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT) and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men. Methods In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Results Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05), R peak (P>0.05) and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05) were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01) and R peak (r = 0.737, P0.05) was found. Conclusions The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men. PMID:25659094

  4. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  5. The immediate effects of robot-assistance on energy consumption and cardiorespiratory load during walking compared to walking without robot-assistance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Nina; Swinnen, Eva; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted. Effect sizes were calculated. Fourteen studies were included, concerning 155 participants (85 healthy subjects, 39 stroke and 31 spinal cord injury patients), 9 robots (2 end-effectors, 1 treadmill-based and 6 wearable exoskeletons), and 7 outcome parameters (mostly oxygen consumption and heart rate). Overall, metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were lower during RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance (moderate to large effect sizes). In healthy subjects, when no body-weight support (BWS) was provided, RAG with an end-effector device was more energy demanding than walking overground (p > .05, large effect sizes). Generally, results suggest that RAG is less energy-consuming and cardiorespiratory stressful than walking without robot-assistance, but results depend on factors such as robot type, walking speed, BWS and effort. Additional research is needed to draw firm conclusions. Implications for Rehabilitation Awareness of the energy consumption and cardiorespiratory load of robot-assisted gait (RAG) training is important in the rehabilitation of (neurological) patients with impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and patients who are at risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, the integration of sufficient cardiometabolic stress in RAG training could combine the effects of both RAG and aerobic training. Energy consumption and cardiorespiratory load during walking with robot-assistance seems to depend on factors such as robot type, walking speed, body-weight support or amount of

  6. Cardiorespiratory parameters of exercise capacity in a healthy Lithuanian population: the pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigaliūnienė, Asta; Ramonas, Andrius; Celutkienė, Jelena; Sileikienė, Virginija; Rudys, Alfredas; Juocevičius, Alvydas; Laucevičius, Aleksandras

    2013-01-01

    The normative values of exercise capacity used for the interpretation of exercise testing results are influenced by a variety of internal and external factors specific to certain populations. Therefore, in clinical practice it is recommended that population-specific reference values be employed. Cardiorespiratory fitness norms have not yet been established for a healthy Lithuanian population over a wide age span. The purpose of the present study was to determine the main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters for healthy adults living in Lithuania and to compare these parameters with the reference values established for different foreign populations. This was a cross-sectional, community-based study involving 168 healthy adults aged from 20 to 60 years who were randomly selected from the general population. All subjects performed a progressive incremental exercise test on the cycle ergometer. The main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters analysed were peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and peak heart rate (HRpeak). The average estimated VO2peak was 35.02 ± 7.37 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for men and 28.27 ± 6.33 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for women. According to the results presented by other authors, this parameter is approximately 9-22% lower compared to other populations in all age groups, with the exception of the 20-29 year old group who alone satisfied fair aerobic fitness criteria. The average age-related decline in VO2peak was 0.016 L.min(-1) per year for men and 0.011 L.min(-1) per year for women. However, age itself explained only 12-14% of the variance. After VO2peak was adjusted relative to body mass, the difference in the decline between men and women remained insignificant: VO2peak decrease was 0.34 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for men (coefficient of determination R(2) 0.250) and 0.32 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for women (R(2) 0.330). A decline in peak heart rate of approximately 9 beats per minute was observed in each following age

  7. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death, accounting for more than 30 % of all annual deaths. Elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease is seen among occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity, like cleaners. Conversely, moderate to high leisure time...... physical activity reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, it is not known whether this also holds for workers exposed to high occupational physical activity, or whether it will lead to a cardiovascular overload. The study therefore investigated whether an aerobic exercise worksite....... The effects were evaluated with objective physiological or diurnal data in an intention-to-treat analysis using multi-adjusted mixed models. The results indicated that the intervention led to several improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease, e.g. enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced...

  8. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    found significantly independent negative correlations between fitness and the presence of mecA or streptomycin resistance. Mathematical modelling confirmed that fitness costs of the magnitude carried by these isolates could result in the disappearance of MRSA prevalence during a time span similar...... phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  9. Occupational physical activity is related to physical fitness in young workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, Tuija; Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Zitting, Paavo

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the association between occupational physical activity and fitness in young workers, taking into account leisure-time physical activity, body size, and smoking. The study population comprised 2188 men and 1987 women, members of the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966, who participated in the 1997-1998 follow-up survey and were employed at the time of the survey. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a 4-min step test and muscular fitness by tests of maximal isometric handgrip and isometric trunk extension. Information on occupational and leisure-time physical activity and smoking was obtained by questionnaire, and body height and weight were measured during medical examination. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Cox regression. Men doing heavy physical work scored better in cardiorespiratory fitness, handgrip strength, and trunk muscle endurance than men doing lighter work; the finding for cardiorespiratory fitness was similar in women. The associations were independent of leisure-time physical activity, body weight and height, and smoking. A positive association was found between heavy physical work and a high level of fitness in young workers. Due to limitations of the study setting, causality cannot be asserted, but a training effect of heavy work would not seem unreasonable. Previous studies have suggested a reversal of the positive effect of heavy work on fitness with advancing age. Therefore, regular monitoring of workers' fitness at an early phase is justified to enable assessment of workers' capacity for heavy jobs and any possible need for fitness-improving activities.

  10. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  11. THE GSTP1 c.313A>G POLYMORPHISM MODULATES THE CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO AEROBIC TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarebska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism is a candidate to explain some of the individual differences in cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes’ responses to aerobic exercise training. We aim to explore the association between the GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism and the response to low-high impact aerobic exercise training. Sixty-six Polish Caucasian women were genotyped for the GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism; 62 of them completed 12-week aerobic (50-75% HR max exercise training and were measured for selected somatic features (body mass and BMI and cardiorespiratory fitness indices – maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max , maximum heart rate (HR max , maximum ventilation (V Emax and anaerobic threshold (AT – before and after the training period. Two-factor analysis of variance revealed a main training effect for body mass reduction (p=0.007 and BMI reduction (p=0.013, improvements of absolute and relative VO 2max (both pG interaction was found only for FFM (p=0.042, absolute and relative VO 2max (p=0.029 and p=0.026, and V Emax (p=0.005. As the result of training, significantly greater improvements in VO 2max , V Emax and FFM were gained by the GG+GA group compared to the AA genotype group. The results support the hypothesis that heterogeneity in individual response to training stimuli is at least in part determined by genetics, and GSTP1 c.313A>G may be considered as one (of what appear to be many target polymorphisms to influence these changes.

  12. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovski Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  13. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  14. Ethnic differences in Cardiorespiratory Variables among Igbo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    young female adults of Igbo and Yoruba with a view to determining the similarities or differences in the cardiorespiratory variables. ... is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles ... independent of age, height, weight, and skinfold thickness. ... group to exercise in Nigeria and factors that determine it.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Physiotherapy around the Clock: Experience at a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroey, Marianne; Buyse, Catherine; Norrenberg, Michelle; Ros, Anne-Marie; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To document and describe the use of a hospital-wide, 24-hour cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service run by an intensive care unit (ICU) team of physiotherapists. Methods: We prospectively collected data on all non-ICU hospital patients who used the 24-hours-per-day cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service over a 1-year period between July 2013 and June 2014. The ICU physiotherapists documented the reason, origin of referral, time of call, and type and frequency of treatment of each patient. Results: Over the 1-year period, the ICU physiotherapists administered 2,192 out-of-hours cardiorespiratory physiotherapy treatments (n=685 patients) outside the ICU. Most referrals originated from the emergency department (25%), the cardiopulmonary transplant unit (20%), and the pulmonology department (16%). Referrals were from a physiotherapist in 49% of cases, from a nurse in 32%, and from a physician in 19%. Of these, 89% were made between 4:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m., and sputum retention was the most frequent reason (86%). Conclusion: Although proving its cost effectiveness is difficult, organizing a 24-hours-per-day, 7-days-per-week cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service in a large hospital is feasible.

  16. The effect of normal saline instillation on cardiorespiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of normal saline instillation (NSI) on cardiorespiratory parameters in intubated cardiothoracic patients. Methods. A comparative design was employed to meet the study objectives. Simple random sampling was used to assign patients to study groups, namely a ...

  17. Fatness and Fitness With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Denise L; Beilin, Lawrence J; Hands, Beth; Burrows, Sally; Cox, Kay L; Oddy, Wendy H; Mori, Trevor A

    2017-12-01

    The relative importance of fitness and fatness with cardiometabolic risk factors is uncertain during the crucial developmental stage of late adolescence. We aimed to compare the concurrent influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness in relationship to cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1128 participants with complete blood pressure (BP) data and 963 participants with complete blood biochemistry at 17 years of age. Fatness (waist circumference) and cardiorespiratory fitness (physical work capacity 170) were assessed as continuous measures to avoid the use of arbitrary cut points. Analyses used linear regression models adjusted for sex and potential lifestyle confounders. Cardiometabolic risk factors. Fatness was positively associated with systolic BP (coefficient, 0.19; P fitness on any of these measures. A positive association between homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance and fatness (log coefficient, 0.02; P fitness (log coefficient, -0.0.18; P fitness was positively associated with HDL-C only in females (coefficient, 0.08; P = 0.03; β coefficient, 0.15). The adverse effects of central adiposity seen across a broad range of cardiometabolic risk factors were only partially ameliorated by fitness in this adolescent population.

  18. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  19. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena M. Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.

  20. Fitness Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on staying active , playing sports , and special fitness gear . Focus on fun. Pick activities you enjoy so ... 27, 2015 Page last updated June 22, 2015 top About this site Mission Statement Privacy Policy For ...

  1. Cardiorespiratory Improvements Achieved by American College of Sports Medicine's Exercise Prescription Implemented on a Mobile App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospo, Gianluca; Valsecchi, Viola; Bonomi, Alberto G; Thomassen, Inge Wj; van Dantzig, Saskia; La Torre, Antonio; Sartor, Francesco

    2016-06-23

    Strong evidence shows that an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) reduces cardiovascular disease risk. To test whether a scientifically endorsed program to increase CRF and PA, implemented on an easy-to-use, always-accessible mobile app would be effective in improving CRF. Of 63 healthy volunteers participating, 18 tested the user interface of the Cardio-Fitness App (CF-App); and 45 underwent a 2-week intervention period, of whom 33 eventually concluded it. These were assigned into three groups. The Step-based App (Step-App) group (n=8), followed 10,000 steps/day prescription, the CF-App group (n=13), and the Supervised Cardio-Fitness (Super-CF) group (n=12), both followed a heart rate (HR)-based program according to American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, but either implemented on the app, or at the gym, respectively. Participants were tested for CRF, PA, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP), resting, exercise, and recovery HR. CRF increased in all groups (+4.9%; PACSM guideline-based program whether it was implemented on a mobile app or in supervised gym sessions.

  2. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  3. A Fit-Fat Index for Predicting Incident Diabetes in Apparently Healthy Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Sloan

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of combined cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio in the form of a fit-fat index on incident diabetes risk. Additionally, the independent predictive performance of cardiorespiratory fitness, waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index also were estimated and compared.This was a prospective cohort study of 10,381 men who had a normal electrocardiogram and no history of major chronic disease at baseline from 1979 to 2005. Random survival forest models and traditional Cox proportional hazards models were used to predict diabetes at 5-, 10-, and 15-year incidence horizons.Overall, 4.8% of the participants developed diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for incidence risk demonstrated good discrimination using random survival forest models across fitness and fatness measures; Cox models were poor to fair. The differences between fitness and fatness measures across horizons were clinically negligible. Smoothed random survival forest estimates demonstrated the impact of each fitness and fatness measure on incident diabetes was intuitive and graded.Although fitness and fatness measures showed a similar discriminative ability in predicting incident diabetes, unique to the study was the ability of the fit-fat index to demonstrate a better indication of incident risk when compared to fitness or fatness alone. A single index combining cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio may be more useful because it can indicate improvements in either or both of the measures.

  4. Physical fitness, obesity, and academic achievement in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos-Niño, Coral; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2014-07-01

    To examine the association of physical fitness and obesity with academic achievement and the independent association between fitness and academic achievement after controlling for relevant confounders such as age, parental education, and body mass index in school aged children. Cross-sectional study including 893 schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years, from Cuenca, Spain. Data were collected from September to November 2010. We measured academic achievement (mean of the grades obtained in several core subjects), physical fitness (cardio-respiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and speed/agility), weight, height, and parental education. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the probability of being in high quartiles for academic achievement after controlling for potential confounders. Overall, academic achievement scores were positively related to fitness levels. Obese boys had lower scores for academic achievement than overweight or normal weight boys. Good cardio-respiratory and speed/agility levels were associated with high academic achievement after controlling for confounders (OR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.35-6.91; P = .007 and OR 4.25; 95% CI, 1.91-9.44; P academic achievement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of training on physical fitness in once weekly college physical education class

    OpenAIRE

    石倉, 恵介; 佐藤, 和; 富川, 理充

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of training in a once weekly PE class, we measured the physical fitness and body composition of 47 university students (37 male, 10 female) at pre- and post-training period. They set the goal to either "increase muscle strength or hypertrophy (MS)", "cardiorespiratory fitness (CF)", or "fat reduction (FR)". After the training period, muscle strength and muscle mass increased significantly in the MS group. However, there was no effect in the FR group. The CF group was v...

  6. Effects of antiorthostatic bedrest on the cardiorespiratory responses to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Bisson, R.; Bates, R.; Goldwater, D.; Sandler, H.

    1981-01-01

    The cardiorespiratory changes in exercise performance induced by horizontal and antiorthostatic bed rest are compared in order to determine the physiological changes occurring in the antiorthostatic position and their degree of similarity to those observed in weightlessness. Systolic and diastolic pressures, heart rates, maximum oxygen uptake, ventilation volume during and following 5 min of submaximal exercise in the supine position and body weight and composition were determined in subjects before and following 7 days of bed rest in the horizontal or 6-deg head-down positions. Bed rest is found to result in a general decrease in exercise tolerance as indicated by cardiorespiratory parameters in both groups, with the 6-deg head-down treatment causing greater cardiovascular deconditioning. When compared with space flight data, the antiorthostatic position is shown to simulate the effects of weightlessness more effectively than horizontal bed rest

  7. Exercise Prescription Using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion to Improve Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente; Domínguez, Raúl; Muñoz González, Arturo; Feliu-Ruano, Raquel; Serra-Payá, Noemí; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare two fitness-training methodologies, instability circuit resistance training (ICRT) versus traditional circuit resistance training (TCRT), applying an experimental model of exercise prescription controlling and modulating exercise load using the Borg rating of perceived exertion. Forty-four healthy young adults age (21.6±2.3 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: TCRT (n=14), ICRT (n=14) and a control group (n=16). Strength and cardiorespiratory tests were chosen to evaluate cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness before and after the training program. In cardiorespiratory data, a significant difference was observed for the time effect in VO 2max , peak heart rate, peak velocity, and heart rate at anaerobic threshold intensity (p<0.05) in the experimental groups. In strength variables, a significant Group x Time interaction effect was detected in 1RM, in mean propulsive power, and in peak power (p≤0.01) in the back squat exercise. In the bench press exercise, a significant time effect was detected in 1RM, in mean propulsive power, and in peak power, and a Group x Time interaction in peak power (all p<0.05). We can conclude that applying an experimental model of exercise prescription using RPE improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy young adults in both experimental groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  9. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  10. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  11. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  12. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength......’s fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness....... The role of determinants depended on children’s sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child’s BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity.Conclusions: BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors...

  13. Reflex cardiorespiratory events from esophageal origin are heightened by preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Stéphanie; Samson, Nathalie; Nadeau, Charlène; Djeddi, Djamal; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2017-08-01

    The involvement of gastroesophageal refluxes in cardiorespiratory events of preterm infants remains controversial. While a few studies in full-term newborn animals have shown that stimulation of esophageal receptors leads to cardiorespiratory reflexes, the latter remain largely unknown, especially after premature birth. The present study aimed to 1) characterize the cardiorespiratory reflexes originating from esophageal receptors in newborn lambs and 2) test the hypotheses that preterm birth enhances reflex cardiorespiratory inhibition and that C-fibers are involved in these reflexes. Eight full-term lambs and 10 lambs born 14 days prematurely were studied. Following surgical instrumentation, a 6-h polysomnography was performed without sedation to record electrocardiogram, respiratory movements, arterial pressure, laryngeal constrictor muscle activity, state of alertness, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation. Five esophageal stimulations of the upper and/or lower esophagus, including rapid balloon inflation and/or HCl injection, were performed in random order. A second recording was performed in full-term lambs 24 h later, after C-fiber blockade by capsaicin. Results confirmed that esophageal stimulations induced inhibitory cardiorespiratory reflexes combined with protective mechanisms, including laryngeal closure, swallowing, coughing, increased arterial pressure, and arousal. Preterm birth heightened cardiorespiratory inhibition. The strongest cardiorespiratory inhibition was observed following simultaneous stimulation of the lower and upper esophagus. Finally, cardiorespiratory inhibition was decreased after C-fiber blockade. In conclusion, esophageal stimulation induces inhibitory cardiorespiratory reflexes, which are partly mediated by C-fibers and more pronounced in preterm lambs. Clinical relevance of these findings requires further studies, especially in conditions associated with increased cardiorespiratory events, e.g., neonatal infection.NEW & NOTEWORTHY

  14. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  15. Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Gomes da Fonseca Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during hot tub bath and shower in healthy newborns in the first hours of life. Study design: This is a randomized blind controlled trial, registered in ReBEC (No. RBR-4z26f3 with 184 newborns divided into hot tub group (n=84 and shower (n=100. Newborns from intervention group were immersed in a hot tub with warm water up to the neck, without exposure to air flow, and control group received traditional shower. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were measured before and immediately after bath by an investigator blinded to the type of bath. Results: Groups were similar in gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5th minute and hours of life, p => 0.05. To analyze thermal and cardiorespiratory adjustments, difference between post-bath variables and pre-bath was calculated. In this analysis, it was found statistically significant difference between two types of bath regarding heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. Hot tub bath decreases heart and respiratory rates and increases temperature, whereas shower provides the opposite effect (0.0001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hot tub baths and shower, in healthy newborns, promote thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptations, reflecting thermal, cardiac and respiratory positive reactions after hot tub bath.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide increases cardiorespiratory admissions in Torrelavega (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Javier; Salas, Ana; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Chinchon-Bengoechea, Veronica; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to analyze relationships between levels of air pollutants and emergency admissions for cardiorespiratory disease. Admission data from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995, were obtained from the Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital Admission Service; meteorological data (rainfall, temperatures wind speed, wind direction) were obtained from the National Meteorology Institute in Santander. Pollutant data on sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), total suspended particles (TSP), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were provided by the secretary of environment for the Cantabrian Regional Government. Rate ratios were estimated for each pollutant by Poisson regression; they were adjusted for meteorological variables. It was found that elevated NO2 increased by 20 percent the risk of having an admission for cardiorespiratory diseases; this effect was mainly due to respiratory diseases (rate ratio = 1.7, p pollutant model, elevated particulates and nitrogen monoxide were also related to admissions, but this effect disappeared when a five-pollutant model was used (p = .21 and p = 0.36, respectively. SO2 and SH2 did not show any relationship with admissions. Thus, nitrogen dioxide was the only pollutant the authors found to be related to emergency admissions for cardiorespiratory diseases. It is difficult to generalize from these results because of the small number of daily admissions and the variability in pollutant levels; therefore, more studies are necessary to improve knowledge about the relationship between air pollution and health in small towns.

  17. Traveling by Private Motorized Vehicle and Physical Fitness in Taiwanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yung; Tsai, Hsiu-Hua; Wang, Ho-Seng; Lin, Ching-Ping; Wu, Min-Chen; Chen, Jui-Fu

    2016-08-01

    Although the time spent sitting in motorized vehicles has been determined to be adversely associated with cardiometabolic health, its association with other health indicators remains unclear. This study examined associations between traveling by private motorized vehicle and 4 indicators of physical fitness in adults. Data from 52,114 Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 65 years who participated in the 2013 National Adults Fitness Survey were used. The examined variables were height, body mass, and performance in modified sit-and-reach (flexibility), bent-leg sit-up (abdominal muscular strength and endurance), and a 3-min step test (cardiorespiratory endurance). Participants were asked on how many days they had used a private car or motorcycle for traveling from place to place and categorized as non-, occasional, and daily private motorized vehicle travelers. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations between the categories of using private motorized vehicles to travel and physical fitness performance. After an adjustment for potential demographic and behavioral confounders, daily traveling by private motorized vehicle was associated with a higher probability of overweight (odds ratio = 1.18), lower performance of abdominal muscular strength and endurance (-0.37 times/min), and lower cardiorespiratory fitness (-0.60 physical fitness index) than was traveling that did not involve private motorized vehicles. The results suggest that in addition to unfavorable cardiorespiratory fitness and a risk of overweight, daily traveling by private motorized vehicle is associated with poor performance in abdominal muscular strength and endurance.

  18. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Unintentional Nonfatal Injury Among the United States Air Force Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    with increased risk for injuries resulting from sports and recreational activities (e.g., basketball, softball, snowboarding , etc.). 2. Sub-hypothesis...basketball, softball, snowboarding , etc.). The comparison group (i.e., controls) was those who did not experience an injury. It tests the effects of the

  19. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... author and source are credited....

  20. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using submaximal protocol in older adults with mood disorder and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Alves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown benefits for mental health through aerobic training oriented in percentage of VO2max, indicating the importance of this variable for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for estimating VO2max using a submaximal protocol in elderly patients with clinically diagnosis as major depressive disorder (MDD and Parkinson's disease (PD. METHODS: The sample comprised 18 patients (64.22 ± 9.92 years with MDD (n = 7 and with PD (n = 11. Three evaluations were performed: I disease staging, II direct measurement of VO2max and III submaximal exercise test. Linear regression was performed to verify the accuracy of estimation in VO2max established in ergospirometry and the predicted VO2max from the submaximal test measurement. We also analyzed the correlation between the Bland-Altman procedures. RESULTS: The regression analysis showed that VO2max values estimated by submaximal protocol associated with the VO2max measured, both in absolute values (R² = 0.65; SEE = 0.26; p < 0.001 and the relative (R² = 0.56; SEE = 3.70; p < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plots for analysis of agreement of showed a good correlation between the two measures. DISCUSSION: The VO2max predicted by submaximal protocol demonstrated satisfactory criterion validity and simple execution compared to ergospirometry.

  2. Association between body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness as predictor of health status in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. De Araujo

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The students in this study showed adequate levels of body composition and CRF below the area related to health, according to the criteria of the Fitnessgram®. The proposition of a linear regression equation to estimate VO2max without exercise pointed out an inverse relationship between both variables.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny

    2009-01-01

    for statistical evaluation; the method of Bland and Altman estimated the agreement between PAC and MAC; P mLO(2)/min....../kg [non-significant (ns)], indicating that PAC had a bias towards underestimation as compared with MAC. Limits of agreement, mean difference [+/-2 standard deviations (SD)], ranged from -8.5 to 6.5 mLO(2)/min/kg, indicating good agreement between the two measurements. No trend of PAC was observed (ns...

  4. Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Baur

    2012-01-01

    We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R2=0.6286. The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

  5. Resting Bradycardia, Enhanced Postexercise Heart Rate Recovery and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Recreational Ballroom Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Carlos Janssen Gomes; Molina, Guilherme Eckhardt; Porto, Luiz Guilherme Grossi; Junqueira, Luiz Fernando, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated the resting heart rate (HR[subscript baseline]) and exercise and postexercise stress test-related chronotropic responses in male practitioners of recreational ballroom dancing (BD; n = 25, M[subscript age] = 26.6 ± 6.1 years) compared to a control group of insufficiently active nondancers…

  6. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2013-01-01

    During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

  7. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-ChristophKattenstroth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-months dance class (1 h/week on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group. We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the control group no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline.

  8. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Overground Among Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas; Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Pharo, Elizabeth; Clesson, Ismari

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton technology is being developed with the promise of affording people with spinal cord injury (SCI) the opportunity to stand and walk. The mobility benefits of exoskeleton-assisted walking can be realized immediately, however the cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits of this technology have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with exoskeleton-assisted walking overground and to determine the degree to which these responses change at differing walking speeds. Five subjects (4 male, 1 female) with chronic SCI (AIS A) volunteered for the study. Expired gases were collected during maximal graded exercise testing and two, 6-minute bouts of exoskeleton-assisted walking overground. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), average oxygen consumption (V̇O2avg), peak heart rate (HRpeak), walking economy, metabolic equivalent of tasks for SCI (METssci), walk speed, and walk distance. Significant differences were observed between walk-1 and walk-2 for walk speed, total walk distance, V̇O2avg, and METssci. Exoskeleton-assisted walking resulted in %V̇O2peak range of 51.5% to 63.2%. The metabolic cost of exoskeleton-assisted walking ranged from 3.5 to 4.3 METssci. Persons with motor-complete SCI may be limited in their capacity to perform physical exercise to the extent needed to improve health and fitness. Based on preliminary data, cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands of exoskeleton-assisted walking are consistent with activities performed at a moderate intensity.

  9. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Cardiorespiratory Response in Overweight Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A S Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effects of an aerobic physical exercise program on the metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in overweight adolescents.Material and Method: This is a randomized study evaluating overweight adolescents divided into intervention and control groups before and after an aerobic exercise program. Pre- and post-intervention aerobic fitness was evaluated by a submaximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer. The training program lasted 12 weeks, when the intervention group exercised three times per week on a cycle ergometer at individual training intensities corresponding to lactate threshold (LT and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. The individual workload was increased by 10% at 2-week intervals.Results: After intervention, an increase in workload levels corresponding to LT (33.3% and OBLA (14.2% was observed in the intervention group. In addition, the intervention group reached LT training intensity at a heart rate higher than that observed before intervention and that of controls (p<0.05. Discussion: The program resulted in positive changes in aerobic fitness and heart rate, improving exercise tolerance. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 14-8

  10. Fitness Club

    CERN Document Server

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  11. Health-related fitness profiles in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Wetterslev, Jørn; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    in the Robust clusters reported leading a physically active lifestyle and participants in the Less robust cluster reported leading a sedentary lifestyle. Diagnoses were evenly distributed between clusters. CONCLUSIONS: The cluster analysis attributed some of the variability in cardiorespiratory fitness among......PURPOSE: This study investigates whether subgroups of different health-related fitness (HrF) profiles exist among girls and boys with complex congenital heart disease (ConHD) and how these are associated with lifestyle behaviors. METHODS: We measured the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength...... adolescents with complex ConHD to lifestyle behaviors and physical activity. Profiling of HrF offers a valuable new option in the management of person-centered health promotion....

  12. Cardiorespiratory demand of acute voluntary cycling with functional electrical stimulation in individuals with multiple sclerosis with severe mobility impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Motl, Robert W; Pilutti, Lara A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is one strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few modalities are accessible for those with severe mobility impairment. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling is an adapted exercise modality with the potential for improving CRF in people with severe MS. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiorespiratory response of acute voluntary cycling with FES in people with MS with severe mobility impairment, and to compare this response to passive leg cycling. Eleven participants with MS that required assistance for ambulation completed a single bout of voluntary cycling with FES or passive leg cycling. Oxygen consumption, heart rate (HR), work rate (WR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout the session. For the FES group, mean exercising oxygen consumption was 8.7 ± 1.8 mL/(kg·min) -1 , or 63.5% of peak oxygen consumption. Mean HR was 102 ± 9.7 bpm, approximately 76.4% of peak HR. Mean WR was 27.0 ± 9.2 W, or 57.3% of peak WR, and median RPE was 13.5 (interquartile range = 5.5). Active cycling with FES was significantly (p cycling based on oxygen consumption, HR, WR, and RPE during exercise. In conclusion, voluntary cycling with FES elicited an acute response that corresponded with moderate-to vigorous-intensity activity, suggesting that active cycling with FES can elicit a sufficient stimulus for improving CRF.

  13. Effect of 11 months of yoga training on cardiorespiratory responses during the actual practice of Surya Namaskar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surya Namaskar (SN, a popular traditional Indian yogic practice, includes practicing 12 physical postures with alternate forward and backward bending movement of the body along with deep breathing maneuvers. The practice of SN has become popular among yoga practitioners and other fitness conscious people. The long-term effect of practicing SN and other yogic practices on cardiorespiratory responses during SN are lacking. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the effect of yogic training on various cardiorespiratory responses during the SN practice in yoga trainees after a time interval of 3, 6, and 11 months. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 9 healthy male Army soldiers who underwent training in various yoga postures including SN, meditation, and pranayama for 1 h daily for 11 months. First, seco