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Sample records for cardiopulmonary support rescues

  1. Earlier application of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support rescues patients from severe cardiopulmonary failure using the APACHE III scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suk-Won; Yang, Hong-Suk; Lee, Sak; Youn, Young-Nam; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2009-12-01

    Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) is a widely accepted treatment for severe cardiopulmonary failure. This system, which uses a percutaneous approach and autopriming devices, can be rapidly applied in emergency situations. We sought to identify the risk factors that could help predict in-hospital mortality, and to assess its outcomes in survivors. During a 2-yr period, 50 patients underwent PCPS for the treatment of severe cardiopulmonary failure, and of those, 22 (44%) were classified as survivors and 28 (56%) as non-survivors. We compared the 2 groups for risk factors of in-hospital mortality and to establish proper PCPS timing. Twenty patients underwent PCPS for acute myocardial infarction, 20 for severe cardiopulmonary failure after cardiac surgery, 7 for acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 3 for acute myocarditis. Multivariate analysis showed that an acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score >or=50 prior to PCPS was the only significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (P=0.001). Overall 18-month survival was 42.2%. Cox analysis showed patients with APACHE III scores >or=50 had a poor prognosis (P=0.001). Earlier application of PCPS, and other preemptive strategies designed to optimize high-risk patients, may improve patient outcomes. Identifying patients with high APACHE scores at the beginning of PCPS may predict in-hospital mortality. Survivors, particularly those with higher APACHE scores, may require more frequent follow-up to improve overall survival.

  2. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...

  3. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Rie; Taniguchi, Fumika; Sawada, Maiko; Hamaoka, Saeko; Shibasaki, Masayuki; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sawa, Teiji; Nakayama, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants.

  4. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Soeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants.

  5. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    OpenAIRE

    Shankarachary Ragi; ChingSeong Tan; Chong, Edwin K. P.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs) for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets) in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water) along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The ...

  6. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarachary Ragi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The goal is to control the AAVs such that each target gets rescued while optimizing a certain performance objective. The algorithm design is based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP. In practice, POMDP problems are hard to solve exactly, so we use an approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO. We compare the performance of the NBO approach with a greedy approach.

  7. Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2013, 23 September). Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support. Presentation given during the 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 in Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research, London, UK.

  8. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the perspective of medical experts and end-users. Objective: The study aims to assess the quality of current mobile apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and real incident support from exper...

  9. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Extracorporeal Life Support for Emergent Intraoperative Thoracic Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2015-08-01

    Intraoperative thoracic surgical catastrophes may require extracorporeal circulation modes to support the patient while the appropriate repair is made. Teamwork is key and, given the evidence supporting better performance with the use of simulation and surgical-crisis checklists, their use should be encouraged. Anticipation is another important factor because the results of intrathoracic malignancy resection are clearly superior in the setting of planned cardiopulmonary support. In addition, familiarity with the different modes of support that are currently available can direct the decision-making process toward the best option to facilitate resolution of the intraoperative catastrophe with the least related morbidity. PMID:26210928

  10. Emergent cardiopulmonary bypass for a 180 kilogram patient: support with a single oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kyler T; Lopez, Angela R; Yun, Kwok L

    2013-09-01

    As obesity increases in prevalence, so will cases in which patients present at the boundaries of care. We report the support of a class III obese man, having a body mass index of 60.8 kg/m2 and in acute renal failure, with a single Trillium-coated Affinity NT Hollow Fiber oxygenator in cardiopulmonary bypass for an emergent aortic valve replacement secondary to infective endocarditis. A maximum oxygen delivery of 807.51 mL of oxygen per minute is reported for this oxygenator in this case report.

  11. Experimental Study of a Novel Method of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Using a Combination of Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support and Liposome-encapsulated Hemoglobin (TRM645

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Yoshitaka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS has been applied for cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA. We have developed a novel method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using PCPS combined with liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (TRM645 to improve oxygen delivery to vital organs. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced to an adult goat for 10 min. Next, PCPS (30 ml/kg/min, V/Q: 1 was performed for 20 min. Then, external defibrillation was attempted and observed for 120 min. The TRM group (n5 was filled with 300 mL of TRM645 for the PCPS circuit. The control group (n5 was filled with the same volume of saline. The delivery of oxygen (DO2 and oxygen consumption (VO2 decreased markedly by PCPS after CPA, compared to the preoperative values. DO2 was kept at a constant level during PCPS in both groups, but VO2 slowly decreased at 5, 10, and 15 min of PCPS in the control groups, demonstrating that systemic oxygen metabolism decreased with time. In contrast, the decreases in VO2 were small in the TRM group at 5, 10, and 15 min of PCPS, demonstrating that TRM645 continuously maintained systemic oxygen consumption even at a low flow rate. AST and LDH in the TRM group were lower than the control. There were significant differences at 120 min after the restoration of spontaneous circulation (p<0.05.

  12. [The principles of aviation support for rescue-evacuation operations in eliminating the consequences of disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnov, E S; Golovchits, V N

    1993-01-01

    Analysing practical results of an Air Force participation in liquidation of the earthquake consequences in Armenia, 1988, and after technological catastrophe in Bashkiria, 1989, the authors substantiate the role and significance of air transportation in the system of rescue and evacuation measures, define main tasks for aviation, propose methods for calculation of required number of aircraft and its types. The data cited in this article have formed a basis for the principles of air support during rescue and evacuation procedures. PMID:8484227

  13. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  14. Rescue a drowning patient by prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for 117 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chou, Chun-Chih; Ko, Wen-Je; Lee, Yung-Chie

    2010-07-01

    Drowning is one of the most common causes of accidental events. Here we report a drowning patient who experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome after hospitalization. Although the compliance of lung was as poor less as 5 mL/cm H2O, this patient was eventually rescued and recovered by extraprolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for 117 days.

  15. Distilling support opportunities to improve urban search and rescue missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, T. de; Oomes, A.H.J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Current USAR missions are challenged by many factors leading to a study on how human computer interaction can provide support in this domain. Using data from a two-day observation in combination with mission reports, we applied a situated cognitive engineering design methodology to distill the opera

  16. Strategic supporting role of a regional state-level hospital during medical rescue after Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying Kang; Zheng, Shang Wei

    2008-11-01

    Shortly after the Wenchuan earthquake, the administrative leaders of West China Hospital accurately defined the role of the hospital during the medical rescue work as the treatment center for seriously wounded people, the support center for local hospitals and clinics in the disaster areas in Sichuan Province, and the logistics support center for medical teams from other provinces. Integrated leadership of management and efficient multidepartment co-ordination and co-operation were emphasized. The hospital was immediately transformed from regular mode into a double-track emergency mode. Scientific allocation and dispatch of resources were ensured to meet the changing demand from all levels of rescue work. Three stages were defined based on the conditions of wounded people delivered to the hospital, with different main focuses for each stage. Because of the multidisciplinary co-operation and concerted efforts of a large number of experts from other provinces and countries, an effective and efficient medical rescue service was offered to all wounded people. Until 2 June 2008, 2618 injured people from the disaster area have been treated, of whom 1751 were admitted to the inpatient department, 1135 were seriously wounded, 127 were admitted into the intensive care unit, 1239 underwent surgery, and 77 were treated with haemodialysis. There was an inpatient mortality less than 0.7%. Moreover, even during such a period, routine medical service was offered to patients other than people wounded in the disaster.

  17. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P Perfusion temperature did not influence cytokine release, organ injury, or coagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care. PMID:26581834

  18. Clinical Decision Support and Closed-Loop Control for Cardiopulmonary Management and Intensive Care Unit Sedation Using Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Behnood; Bailey, James M; Haddad, Wassim M; Tannenbaum, Allen R

    2012-03-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who require mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure also frequently require the administration of sedative agents. The need for sedation arises both from patient anxiety due to the loss of personal control and the unfamiliar and intrusive environment of the ICU, and also due to pain or other variants of noxious stimuli. While physicians select the agent(s) used for sedation and cardiovascular function, the actual administration of these agents is the responsibility of the nursing staff. If clinical decision support systems and closed-loop control systems could be developed for critical care monitoring and lifesaving interventions as well as the administration of sedation and cardiopulmonary management, the ICU nurse could be released from the intense monitoring of sedation, allowing her/him to focus on other critical tasks. One particularly attractive strategy is to utilize the knowledge and experience of skilled clinicians, capturing explicitly the rules expert clinicians use to decide on how to titrate drug doses depending on the level of sedation. In this paper, we extend the deterministic rule-based expert system for cardiopulmonary management and ICU sedation framework presented in [1] to a stochastic setting by using probability theory to quantify uncertainty and hence deal with more realistic clinical situations.

  19. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care.

  20. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) What is CPR? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important lifesaving technique that involves chest compressions and giving ...

  1. Microdialysis Assessment of Cerebral Perfusion during Cardiac Arrest, Extracorporeal Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats – A Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Andreas; Warenits, Alexandra M.; Testori, Christoph; Weihs, Wolfgang; Hosmann, Arthur; Högler, Sandra; Sterz, Fritz; Janata, Andreas; Scherer, Thomas; Magnet, Ingrid A. M.; Ettl, Florian; Laggner, Anton N.; Herkner, Harald; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic alterations during cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support (ECLS) are poorly explored. Markers are needed for a more personalized resuscitation and post—resuscitation care. Aim of this study was to investigate early metabolic changes in the hippocampal CA1 region during ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA) and ECLS versus conventional CPR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350g) underwent 8min untreated VF-CA followed by ECLS (n = 8; bloodflow 100ml/kg), mechanical CPR (n = 18; 200/min) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Shams (n = 2) were included. Glucose, glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio were compared between treatment groups and animals with and without ROSC. Ten animals (39%) achieved ROSC (ECLS 5/8 vs. CPR 5/18; OR 4,3;CI:0.7–25;p = 0.189). During VF-CA central nervous glucose decreased (0.32±0.1mmol/l to 0.04±0.01mmol/l; p<0.001) and showed a significant rise (0.53±0.1;p<0.001) after resuscitation. Lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio showed a 5fold increase (31 to 164; p<0.001; maximum 8min post ROSC). Glutamate showed a 3.5-fold increase to (2.06±1.5 to 7.12±5.1μmol/L; p<0.001) after CA. All parameters normalized after ROSC with no significant differences between ECLS and CPR. Metabolic changes during ischemia and resuscitation can be displayed by cerebral microdialysis in our VF-CA CPR and ECLS rat model. We found similar microdialysate concentrations and patterns of normalization in both resuscitation methods used. Institutional Protocol Number: GZ0064.11/3b/2011 PMID:27175905

  2. Evaluation of a physiologic pulsatile pump system for neonate-infant cardiopulmonary bypass support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undar, A; Masai, T; Inman, R; Beyer, E A; Mueller, M A; McGarry, M C; Frazier, O H; Fraser, C D

    1999-01-01

    An alternate physiologic pulsatile pump (PPP) system was designed and evaluated to produce sufficient pulsatility during neonate-infant open heart surgery. This hydraulically driven pump system has a unique "dual" pumping chamber mechanism. The first chamber is placed between the venous reservoir and oxygenator and the second chamber between the oxygenator and patient. Each chamber has two unidirectional tricuspid valves. Stroke volume (0.2-10 ml), upstroke rise time (10-350 msec), and pump rate (2-250 beats per minute [bpm]) can be adjusted independently to produce adequate pulsatility. This system has been tested in 3-kg piglets (n = 6), with a pump flow of 150 ml/kg/min, a pump rate of 150 bpm, and a pump ejection time of 110 msec. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), all animals were subjected to 25 minutes of hypothermia to reduce the rectal temperatures to 18 degrees C, 60 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), then 10 minutes of cold perfusion with a full pump flow, and 40 minutes of rewarming. During CPB, mean arterial pressures were kept at less than 50 mm Hg. Mean extracorporeal circuit pressure (ECCP), the pressure drop of a 10 French aortic cannula, and the pulse pressure were 67+/-9, 21+/-6, and 16+/-2 mm Hg, respectively. All values are represented as mean+/-SD. No regurgitation or abnormal hemolysis has been detected during these experiments. The oxygenator had no damping effect on the quality of the pulsatility because of the dual chamber pumping mechanism. The ECCP was also significantly lower than any other known pulsatile system. We conclude that this system, with a 10 French aortic cannula and arterial filter, produces adequate pulsatility in 3 kg piglets. PMID:9952008

  3. [Cardiopulmonary Comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Frederik; von Hardenberg, Albrecht; Böhm, Michael; Bals, Robert; Maack, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary diseases are primary causes of global morbidity and mortality. Since the prevalence of both cardiac and pulmonary diseases increases with age, cardiopulmonary comorbidities inflict especially the elderly. Due to the tight physiological connection of the heart and the lung, diseases of both organs affect each other beyond a mere coincidence. At the same time, due to the similarity of their respective symptoms, their differentiation is challenging in clinical practice and therefore, comorbidities can be easily overlooked. This article provides an overview on the characteristics of cardiopulmonary comorbidities and their specific-, but also mutual pathophysiology. PMID:26886042

  4. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  5. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ku Hyun; Song, Keun Jeong; Lee, Chang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p < 0.001) and average chest compression depth (p = 0.003). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. PMID:27529066

  6. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Cho, Youngsuk; Kang, Ku Hyun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Song, Keun Jeong; Lee, Chang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p < 0.001) and average chest compression depth (p = 0.003). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. PMID:27529066

  7. Impact of advanced cardiac life support training program on the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwalpreet Sodhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines on performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR have been published from time to time, and formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Very few data are available in world literature highlighting the impact of these trainings on CPR outcome. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the American Heart Association (AHA-certified basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS provider course on the outcomes of CPR in our hospital. Materials and Methods : An AHA-certified BLS and ACLS provider training programme was conducted in our hospital in the first week of October 2009, in which all doctors in the code blue team and intensive care units were given training. The retrospective study was performed over an 18-month period. All in-hospital adult cardiac arrest victims in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (January 2009 to September 2009 and the post-BLS/ACLS training period (October 2009 to June 2010 were included in the study. We compared the outcomes of CPR between these two study periods. Results: There were a total of 627 in-hospital cardiac arrests, 284 during the pre-BLS/ACLS training period and 343 during the post-BLS/ACLS training period. In the pre-BLS/ACLS training period, 52 patients (18.3% had return of spontaneous circulation, compared with 97 patients (28.3% in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (P < 0.005. Survival to hospital discharge was also significantly higher in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (67 patients, 69.1% than in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (12 patients, 23.1% (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Formal certified BLS and ACLS training of healthcare professionals leads to definitive improvement in the outcome of CPR.

  8. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the persp

  9. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.; Rasmussen, M.B.;

    2007-01-01

    teaching issued by the university. RESULTS: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of the participants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites. CONCLUSION......: Newly graduated doctors do not have sufficient competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests according to the current guidelines published by ERC. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between sites. Change in teaching and assessment practice in undergraduate emergency medicine courses...

  10. Environmental modeling to support Elizio Leao ship rescue operation; Modelagem atmosferica e hidrodinamica em apoio a operacao de resgate da embarcacao Elizio Leao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo M. da; Assad, Luiz Paulo de F.; Decco, Hatsue T. de; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Silva Junior, Ronaldo da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    On October 7th, 2007, the Elizio Leao ship broke carrying 19,812.9 gallons of oil near the Marajo Island has mobilized the PIATAM Mar (Potenciais Impactos do Transporte de Petroleo e Derivados na Zona Costeira Amazonica) modeling team for an execution of hydrodynamic and atmospheric prognostics that could support the ship rescue operation. In this work some results are presented as the operational methodology which has been applied to support the rescue team's needs. (author)

  11. 体外膜肺氧合在心肺辅助循环中的应用%Application of ECMO in cardiopulmonary failure support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娅; 唐令凤; 刘才仟; 杨康

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结7例体外膜肺氧合(ECMO)在心肺辅助循环中的临床应用.方法 自2007年12月至2010年10月,对7例重症心肺功能衰竭患者进行ECMO支持治疗,所有患者均采用静脉-动脉插管行ECMO支持治疗,期间维持血流动力学和呼吸指标稳定.结果 ECMO支持时间20~48 h,平均32 h,患者建立ECMO后血流动力学及气体交换均有明显好转.其中5例患者顺利脱机,不能脱机的2例中1例在血管活性药物用量较大,ECMO流量较大的情况下仅能维持较低血压,而后心跳停止不能恢复.1例因患者肺受损严重,ECMO治疗效果不佳,肾功能衰竭,最后放弃治疗.结论 ECMO是救治心功能衰竭、呼吸功能衰竭的重要心肺辅助循环的有效手段.正确掌握其适应证、选择转流方式、良好的管理才能提高ECMO的成功率.%Objective observe the application of ECMO(extracorporeal membrane oxygenation)in cardiopulmonary failure support and summarize clinical experience. Methods gave ECMO treatment to 7 patients suffering from severe cardiopulmonary failure from December 2007 to October 2010. All the 7 patients received intravenous arterial cannula ECMO support treatment and main rained stable hemodynamic and respiratory indexes. Results ECMO support time:20~48h,32h on average. With ECMO support,hemodynamics and respiration were significantly improved. 5 patients needed no longer to receive equipment treatment. One of the remained two patients used great amount of vasoactive drugs so that low blood pressure could be maintained with large ECMO flow. After that, cardiac arrest occurred and can not be restored. Poor effect was achieved for I patient due to severe lung damage.In addition, the patient also suffered from renal failure. Finally, the treatment was abandoned. Conclusion ECMO is an effective means for heart failure and respiratory failure treatment for cardiopulmonary circulatory support. With proper understanding of its indication and

  12. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre C. Zago; Cristine E. Nunes; Viviane R. da Cunha; Euler Manenti; Luís Carlos Bodanese

    1999-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of...

  13. 007 to the Rescue – Cognitive Fit of Operations Research and Agent-based Decision Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauth, Elfriede I.; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Velde, van de Steef L.

    2007-01-01

    Adoption rates of traditional Operations Research (OR) based decision support systems (DSS) suffer from perceived complexity of the underlying model and its detrimental effect on user-friendliness. The mental effort required to understand abstract models can hinder adoption. This barrier may seem ev

  14. Collaborative effects of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation and prehospital advanced cardiac life support by physicians on survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide population-based observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Tanabe, Seizan; Akahane, Manabu; OGAWA, Toshio; Koike, Soichi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    Introduction There are inconsistent data about the effectiveness of prehospital physician-staffed advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) on the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Furthermore, the relative importance of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) and ACLS and the effectiveness of their combination have not been clearly demonstrated. Methods Using a prospective, nationwide, population-based registry of all OHCA patients in Japan, we enrolled 95,072 pa...

  15. 基于JADE的海上搜救智能决策支持系统%INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE BASED ON JADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于卫红

    2011-01-01

    海上搜救决策是一项复杂的系统工程,针对不同的海上突发事件,在不同时段和反应阶段,按照相关的应急预案要求,需要及时地调整决策方案.研究了基于JADE的海上搜救智能决策支持系统,描述了系统分析、系统设计、系统实现等的基本思路.结果表明,依靠海上搜救决策支持系统可以减少人为因素的干扰,对海上突发事件的危害程度、应急反应行动方案实施效果、投入力量等进行评估,辅助搜救协调中心RCC(Rescue coordination center)快速准确地做出科学决策.%Maritime search and rescue decision-making is a complicated system, for different emergencies at sea, and at different time or reaction stages, in accordance with the relevant emergency plans, the decision-making plan must be timely adjusted. A maritime search and rescue intelligent decision support system is studied in this article, and its system analysis, design and implementation are described, too. The results show that during the course of decision-making human interference can be reduced by using maritime search and rescue decision support system, and the system can evaluate the hazards of disaster, the effect of the emergency response action and the cost-effectiveness of rescue resources. In one word, it can assist RCC to make scientific decisions quickly and accurately.

  16. Assessment of hydraulic performance and biocompatibility of a MagLev centrifugal pump system designed for pediatric cardiac or cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Kurt A; Gellman, Barry; Kameneva, Marina V; Woolley, Joshua R; Johnson, Carl A; Gempp, Thomas; Marks, John D; Kent, Stella; Koert, Andrew; Richardson, J Scott; Franklin, Steve; Snyder, Trevor A; Wearden, Peter; Wagner, William R; Gilbert, Richard J; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of children with life-threatening cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure is a large and underappreciated public health concern. We have previously shown that the CentriMag is a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump system, having the utility for treating adults and large children (1,500 utilized worldwide). We present here the PediVAS, a pump system whose design was modified from the CentriMag to meet the physiological requirements of young pediatric and neonatal patients. The PediVAS is comprised of a single-use centrifugal blood pump, reusable motor, and console, and is suitable for right ventricular assist device (RVAD), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), biventricular assist device (BVAD), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) applications. It is designed to operate without bearings, seals and valves, and without regions of blood stasis, friction, or wear. The PediVAS pump is compatible with the CentriMag hardware, although the priming volume was reduced from 31 to 14 ml, and the port size reduced from 3/8 to (1/4) in. For the expected range of pediatric flow (0.3-3.0 L/min), the PediVAS exhibited superior hydraulic efficiency compared with the CentriMag. The PediVAS was evaluated in 14 pediatric animals for up to 30 days, demonstrating acceptable hydraulic function and hemocompatibility. The current results substantiate the performance and biocompatibility of the PediVAS cardiac assist system and are likely to support initiation of a US clinical trial in the future. PMID:18043164

  17. Maritime Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anechitoae

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The maritime rescue, as any other legal institution related to maritime events - collision, crash, etc.- has its distinctive features. The maritime rescue may be considered as the operation that arises frommaritime collision, because, while collision stems from a breach of a negative duty necessary in maritimenavigation, i.e. of not harming the other, the maritime rescue is the implementation of positive obligationsrequired to vessel captains by the material requirements of the marine life that adds to the elements of thelegal concept which can be summed up as follows: to go to the aid of a vessel in danger, provided that thevessel does not expose itself, through this action, to a serious danger. The institution of maritime rescueencourages maritime commercial activities by the fact that, thus, there are governed such clear rights andobligations saving life at sea and shipping goods.

  18. MIRACLE RESCUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Atotal of 115 workers had been miraculously retrieved from the flooded Wangjialing Coal Mine in north China's Shanxi Province by the afternoon of April 5, after being trapped underground for more than a week. "It is a miracle in the history of Chinese mining rescues," said Luo Lin, Director of the State Administration of Work Safety, who stood waiting at the pit entrance. "The trapped miners displayed an unwavering determination to survive for eight days and eight nights."

  19. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, F; Mercogliano, D; Cavalletti, C; Caruso, A; Pomini, P

    1996-01-01

    The cardiopathic patient can sustain acute heart failure during pregnancy. In such cases, if open heart operation is necessary to save the patient's life, the fetus could be seriously compromised after exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. From 1958 to 1992, 69 reports of cardiac operations during pregnancy with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass have been published. Maternal mortality was 2.9%. Embryofetal mortality was 20.2%. Examining only the last 40 patients, maternal and embryofetal mortality were 0.0% and 12.5%, respectively. Embryofetal mortality was 24.0% when hypothermia was used, compared with 0.0% while operating in normothermia. Maternal mortality did not change. The use of hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass provoked uterine contractions in several patients. Hypothermia decreases O2 exchange through the placenta. Pump flow and mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass seem to be the most important parameters that influence fetal oxygenation. We speculate that cardiac operation is not a contraindication to pregnancy prolongation. PMID:8561577

  20. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago Alexandre C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of life chain, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation courses for professionals who work in emergency medical services, the automated external defibrillator, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and mobile intensive care units, among others. New concepts, strategies and structures motivated by new advances have also modified the treatment and improved the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital setting. Among them, we can cite the concept of cerebral resuscitation, the application of the life chain, the creation of the universal life support algorithm, the adjustment of drug doses, new techniques - measure of the end-tidal carbon dioxide levels and of the coronary perfusion pressure - and new drugs under research.

  2. Four ways to ventilate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Benedict; Bavarskis, Egidijus; Magnusdottir, Sigriður Olga;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal method for out-of-hospital ventilation during cardiopulmonary rescue (CPR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to test different modes of ventilation during CPR for a prolonged period of 60 min. METHODS: Pigs were randomized to four groups after the induction of...

  3. 基于熵权的抢险救灾物资保障方案优选%Optimal Selection of Rescue Materials Support Plans Based on Entropy Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于娜; 陈国富; 刘赟

    2011-01-01

    抢险救灾物资保障对于抢险救灾行动的顺利实施.确保任务的圆满完成具有重要的现实意义.以抢险救灾物资保障的现实需求出发,提出了抢险救灾物资保障方案的优选问题,分析了抢险救灾物资保障的影响因素,在此基础上,建立了评估抢险救灾物资保障方案的较有代表性的指标,并给出了指标的具体计算方法.并利用熵权理论,以汶川抗震救灾物资保障为例,进行了方案的优选,得出了较合理的方案.%Rescue against natural calamities materials support was meaningful and important to carry out rescue actions successfully and ensure implementation of mission satisfactorily. The paper started from actual requirement of rescue materials support, put forward the optimal selection problem of support plans for rescue materials, established representative evaluating index of support plans for rescue materials, and gave concrete calculation methods of index. The paper also selected support plan by setting an example of rescue materials Wenchuan earthquake and using entropy weight theory, got the reasonable plan.

  4. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be...

  5. Thrombin during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, L Henry; Colman, Robert W

    2006-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ignites a massive defense reaction that stimulates all blood cells and five plasma protein systems to produce a myriad of vasoactive and cytotoxic substances, cell-signaling molecules, and upregulated cellular receptors. Thrombin is the key enzyme in the thrombotic portion of the defense reaction and is only partially suppressed by heparin. During CPB, thrombin is produced by both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathways and activated platelets. The routine use of a cell saver and the eventual introduction of direct thrombin inhibitors now offer the possibility of completely suppressing thrombin production and fibrinolysis during cardiac surgery with CPB. PMID:17126170

  6. Emergent cardiopulmonary bypass during pectus excavatum repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Craner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum is a chest wall deformity that produces significant cardiopulmonary disability and is typically seen in younger patients. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum or Nuss procedure has become a widely accepted technique for adult and pediatric patients. Although it is carried out through a thoracoscopic approach, the procedure is associated with a number of potential intraoperative and post-operative complications. We present a case of cardiac perforation requiring emergent cardiopulmonary bypass in a 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome and previous mitral valve repair undergoing a Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. This case illustrates the importance of vigilance and preparation by the surgeons, anesthesia providers as well as the institution to be prepared with resources to handle the possible complications. This includes available cardiac surgical backup, perfusionist support and adequate blood product availability.

  7. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Chandra Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery carried out on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in a pregnant woman is associated with poor neonatal outcomes although maternal outcomes are similar to cardiac surgery in non-pregnant women. Most adverse maternal and fetal outcomes from cardiac surgery during pregnancy are attributed to effects of CPB. The CPB is associated with utero-placental hypoperfusion due to a number of factors, which may translate into low fetal cardiac output, hypoxia and even death. Better maternal and fetal outcomes may be achieved by early pre-operative optimization of maternal cardiovascular status, use of perioperative fetal monitoring, optimization of CPB, delivery of a viable fetus before the operation and scheduling cardiac surgery on an elective basis during the second trimester.

  8. 应对重大自然灾害军队应急救援装备保障对策研究%Study on Countermeasures for Emergency Rescue Equipment Support of Army in Severe Natural Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚图文; 刘硕扬

    2015-01-01

    针对军队应急救援装备体系建设不完善、专业应急力量偏小、军地协调和军内协同关系尚未完全理顺等问题,对应急救援任务的多样性、艰巨性和救援行动的紧急性、专业性等主要特点进行深入分析,提出配备装备的种类、规模、功能、特性要符合任务需求和具备伴随保障能力。当前军队应急救援装备保障面临严峻挑战,军队应急救援装备保障必须深化体制改革,拓宽装备配备渠道,转变保障模式,优化人员结构,完善管理措施,走开军民深度融合保障的路子。%Aiming at issues like incomplete construction emergency rescue equipment system,rel-atively weak emergency capacity and civil-military collaboration and cooperation within the army which have not been treated well yet,the paper makes in-depth analysis on main features like diversity and challenges of emergency rescue tasks and urgency and professionalism of rescue action and pro-posed that the types,scales,functions and features of rescue equipment should match the rescue re-quirements and satisfy the accompanying rescue demand.Currently,there are a huge challenge facing emergency rescue equipment support which needs in-depth system reform,expanded equipment chan-nels,shifted support mode and optimized personnel structure,completed management measures to materialize the support by in-depth civil-military integration.

  9. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  10. Hyperamylasemia following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H; Chung, Y T; Wu, G J; Hwang, F Y; Chen, K T; Peng, W L; Hung, C R

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the occurrence of postbypass hyperamylasemia, 75 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied from March 1989 to January 1990. There were 49 males and 26 females. Among them, 27 had congenital heart disease, 30 had valvular disease, and 18 had coronary artery disease. There were 27 patients with at least one elevated serum amylase sample after operation. Thus, the overall incidence of hyperamylasemia was 36%. As compared with the preoperative data (1.3%), there was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of hyperamylasemia (p less than 0.05). Three patients had overt clinical pancreatitis postoperatively. There was no positive correlation between the serum amylase level and the occurrence of pancreatitis (p greater than 0.05). Forty-two cases had a significant elevation of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) after CPB. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with pulsatile and nonpulsatile CPB (p greater than 0.05). Three patients (4%) died in our series. The causes of death were heart failure in two and fulminant pancreatitis associated with low cardiac output in one. Although our experience in dealing with pancreatitis improved survival, mortality was still high (33.3%) in our series. Nevertheless, there was no apparent correlation between mortality and postbypass hyperamylasemia (p greater than 0.05). Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of the occurrence of hyperamylasemia, and the analysis revealed that patients with coronary artery disease were susceptible to postbypass hyperamylasemia. Our studies indicate that the use of total serum amylase or ACCR to monitor for the occurrence of pancreatitis in postbypass patients is inadequate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1377742

  11. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  12. Mini cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsatli, Raed A.

    2012-01-01

    This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anesthetic management and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered...

  13. Hi-tech Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Following the May 12 earthquake in Sichuan Province,rescue teams from across China have been racing against time to save as many people in the disaster area as possible.Among them is a squad clad in eye-catching orange uniforms whose members are better equipped than other rescuers and demonstrate higher levels of skill. It is the country’s best- trained earthquake emergency response team—the China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Response and Rescue Team,also known as the China International Search and Rescue Team when it performs missions abroad.

  14. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients’ PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (p<0.001). In distinguishing ROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived. PMID:24639823

  15. Key points and difficult problems in logistic support for significant debris flow rescue and countermeasures%重大泥石流抢险后勤保障重点难点问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金良; 张妍华; 刘敏

    2015-01-01

    The debris flow disaster is characterized as abruptness , large velocity and quantity , huge destructive power etc ., so the debris flow rescue work needs strong logistic support .The key points and difficult problems in logistic support for debris flow rescue mainly include the pressing time , difficult raising of equipment and material , slow transport of equipment and material , communication interruption , high risk, heavy social dependence etc .In the light of the above problems , the analysis is conducted in the aspects of emergency rescue command , emergency rescue plan drawing , financial guarantee measure , emergency material raising, personnel training , organization setting etc .and the correlative countermeasures are put forward to establish scientific , quick, effective and flexible logistic support mechanism and deal with the abrupt debris flow disaster actively and effectively .%泥石流灾害具有突发性、流速快、流量大、破坏力强等特点,要做好泥石流灾害抢险救灾工作,必须有坚强的后勤保障。泥石流抢险救灾后勤保障工作的重点、难点主要表现在时间紧迫、装备物资筹措困难、装备物资运送缓慢、通信保障中断、安全风险高、社会依托性大等方面。针对这些重点难点问题,从后勤应急保障指挥机构、应急预案编制、经费保障措施、抢险物质筹备、人员培训、组织机构设置等方面进行了分析,提出了相应对策,以建立科学、快捷、高效、机动、精确的后勤应急保障机制,积极有效地应对突发性泥石流灾害。

  16. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  17. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be safely anti-coagulated using heparin for CPB procedures when monitored with ACT, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography. Postoperative chest tube losses were 360 mL, less than half our institutional average. Anticoagulation for the pre-and post-operative phase is also discussed. PMID:26834284

  18. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali; Urman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlat...

  19. Multiple dimensions of cardiopulmonary dyspnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiang-na; XIONG Chang-ming; YAO Wei; FANG Qiu-hong; ZHU Yuan-jue; CHENG Xian-sheng; Karel P Van de Woestijne

    2011-01-01

    Background The current theory of dyspnea perception presumes a multidimensional conception of dyspnea.However,its validity in patients with cardiopulmonary dyspnea has not been investigated.Methods A respiratory symptom checklist incorporating spontaneously reported descriptors of sensory experiences of breathing discomfort,affective aspects,and behavioral items was administered to 396 patients with asthma,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),diffuse parenchymal lung disease,pulmonary vascular disease,chronic heart failure,and medically unexplained dyspnea.Symptom factors measuring different qualitative components of dyspnea were derived by a principal component analysis.The separation of patient groups was achieved by a variance analysis on symptom factors.Results Seven factors appeared to measure three dimensions of dyspnea:sensory (difficulty breathing and phase of respiration,depth and frequency of breathing,urge to breathe,wheeze),affective (chest tightness,anxiety),and behavioral (refraining from physical activity) dimensions.Difficulty breathing and phase of respiration occurred more often in COPD,followed by asthma (R2=0.12).Urge to breathe was unique for patients with medically unexplained dyspnea (R2=0.12).Wheeze occurred most frequently in asthma,followed by COPD and heart failure (R2=0.17).Chest tightness was specifically linked to medically unexplained dyspnea and asthma (R2=0.04).Anxiety characterized medically unexplained dyspnea (R2=0.08).Refraining from physical activity appeared more often in heart failure,pulmonary vascular disease,and COPD (R2=0.15).Conclusions Three dimensions with seven qualitative components of dyspnea appeared in cardiopulmonary disease and the components under each dimension allowed separation of different patient groups.These findings may serve as a validation on the multiple dimensions of cardiopulmonary dyspnea.

  20. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zakkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB revolutionized cardiac surgery and contributed immensely to improved patients outcomes. CPB is associated with the activation of different coagulation, proinflammatory, survival cascades and altered redox state. Haemolysis, ischaemia, and perfusion injury and neutrophils activation during CPB play a pivotal role in oxidative stress and the associated activation of proinflammatory and proapoptotic signalling pathways which can affect the function and recovery of multiple organs such as the myocardium, lungs, and kidneys and influence clinical outcomes. The administration of agents with antioxidant properties during surgery either intravenously or in the cardioplegia solution may reduce ROS burst and oxidative stress during CPB. Alternatively, the use of modified circuits such as minibypass can modify both proinflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

  1. Cardiopulmonary function and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, R W; Béïque, F; Kleiman, S J

    1995-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature dealing with cardiopulmonary function during and pulmonary function following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in order to describe the patterns of changes in these functions and the mechanisms involved as well as to identify areas of concern and lacunae in our knowledge. Information was obtained from a Medline literature search and the annual meeting supplements of Anesthesiology, Anesth Analg, Br J Anaesth, and Can J Anaesth. The principal findings were that changes in cardiovascular function due to the insufflation are characterized by an immediate decrease in cardiac index and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. In the next few minutes there is partial restoration of cardiac index and resistance but blood pressure and heart rate do not change. The pattern is the result of the interaction between increased abdominal pressure, neurohumoral responses and absorbed CO2. Pulmonary function changes are characterized by reduced compliance without large alterations in PaO2, but tissue oxygenation can be adversely affected due to reduced O2 delivery. A major difficulty in maintaining normocarbia is due to the abdominal distention reducing pulmonary compliance and to CO2 absorption. End tidal CO2 tension is not a reliable index of PaCO2, particularly in ASA III-IV patients. The pattern of lung function following LC is characterized by a transient reduction in lung volumes and capacities with a restrictive breathing pattern and the loss of the abdominal contribution to breathing. Atelectasis also occurs. These changes are qualitatively similar to but of a lesser magnitude than those following "open" abdominal operations. It is concluded that the changes in cardiopulmonary function during laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery lead us to suggest judicious invasive monitoring and careful interpretation in ASA III-IV patients. Lung function following extensive procedures in sick patients has not been

  2. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Behrend; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni;

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances in the peri- or postoperative period may contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We therefore examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (d...

  3. LUCAS - Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assist System

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Qiuming

    2011-01-01

    Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assist System (LUCAS) is a mechanical device providing automatic 5 cm deep chest compressions and active decompressions back to normal anatomical position with a frequency of 100 per minute, and a duty cycle of 50%, i.e., LUCAS is constructed to give chest compressions according to the latest international guidelines in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of the thesis was to study cardiac arrest using different porcine models of ventricular fi...

  4. Vasopressin decreases neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chi; Zhu, Zhe; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council recently recommended that vasopressin can be used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, instead of epinephrine. However, the guidelines do not discuss the effects of vasopressin during cerebral resuscitation. In this study, we intraperitoneally injected epinephrine and/or vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. The results demonstrated that, compared with epinephrine alone, ...

  5. Mapping and Exploration for Search and Rescue with Humans and Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) is a time critical task since all survivors have to be rescued within the first 72 hours. One goal in Rescue Robotics is to support emergency response by mixed-initiative teams consisting of humans and robots. Their task is to explore the disaster area rapidly while reporting victim locations and hazardous areas to a central station, which then can be utilized for planning rescue missions. To fulfill this task efficiently, humans and robots have to map disaster ...

  6. Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guohua

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB. Methods A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all the patients, 33(1.4% developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3% cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3% of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1% of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1% of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1% of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1% of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1% of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8% accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2% underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2% deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%. Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. Conclusions Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients.

  7. Disaster Rescue Simulation based on Complex Adaptive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster rescue is one of the key measures of disaster reduction. The rescue process is a complex process with the characteristics of large scale, complicate structure, non-linear. It is hard to describe and analyze them with traditional methods. Based on complex adaptive theory, this paper analyzes the complex adaptation of the rescue process from seven features: aggregation, nonlinearity, mobility, diversity, tagging, internal model and building block. With the support of Repast platform, an agent-based model including rescue agents and victim agents was proposed. Moreover, two simulations with different parameters are employed to examine the feasibility of the model. As a result, the proposed model has been shown that it is efficient in dealing with the disaster rescue simulation and can provide the reference for making decisions.

  8. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  9. Successful application of acute cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derya ztrk; Erturul Altinbilek; Murat Koyuncu; Bedriye Mge Snmez; ilem altili; Ibrahim Ikzcel; Cemil Kavalci; Glsm Kavalci

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the quality and correct the deficiencies of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedures performed in patients who developed cardiopulmonary cardiopulmonary arrest before or after Emergency Department admission. Methods: This study was conducted on patients who were applied CPR atŞŞişli Etfal Training and Research and Research Hospital, Emergency Department between 01 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the patients' data. The study data were analyzed in SPSS 18.0 software package. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 155 patients who were applied CPR were included in the analysis. Among the study patients, seventy eight (50.3%) were brought to Emergency Department after developing cardiopulmonary arrest while 77 (49.7%) developed cardiopulmonary arrest at Emergency Department. The mean age of the study population was (66 ± 16) years and 64%of the patients were male. The initial rhythms of the CPR-applied patients were different (P 0.05). The CPR response time was longer in ED (P Conclusions: The scientific data obtained in this study suggest that an early response and therapy improves outcomes in CPR procedure.

  10. "Orpheus" cardiopulmonary bypass simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard W; Pybus, David A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques. PMID:18293807

  11. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  12. 海藻酸钠交联肝素涂层在体外循环及人工心肺支持装置管路中的应用%Cross-linked alginate/heparin coated cardiopulmonary bypass support device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 李彤; 于美丽; 胡晓旻; 段大为; 李鑫

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, non-heparin-coated pipe and tube have a great impact on internal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) cardiac surgery, which can cause blood damage, heavy inflammatory response, and influence the postoperative recovery and survival of patients.OBJECTIVE: To develop a new heparin-coated CPB pipe by using the bomedical polymer materials, and to study its stability and performance of anticoagulant.METHODS: CaCl2 was used to form Ca2+ membrane for modifying the inner surface of medical polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe cross-linking with sodium alginate and heparin. The Ca2+ reacted with Na+ which was in the sodium alginate and heparin, so that the linear polymer cross-linking molecules were to form chemical cross-linked sodium alginate-heparin complex network structure,a type of biomaterial heparin coating.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: CaCl2 modified activated medical PVC cardiopulmonary bypass pipe reacting with heparin and sodium alginate to bring out the cross-linking reaction and form biological polymers heparin-coating pipe. The heparin-coated pipe has been proved that it has good blood compatibility, stability, anti-coagulation performance to meet short-term extracorporeal circulation bypass.%背景:目前国内体外循环心脏手术使用的非肝素涂层管路和插管对血液破坏大、炎性反应重,影响心脏手术后患者的恢复和生存.目的:采用生物医用高分子材料研制新型体外循环管道肝素涂层技术,并对其稳定性及抗凝血性能进行研究.方法:利用CaCl2将活化医用聚氯乙烯体外循环管道内表面修饰形成Ca2+膜,并与海藻酸钠和肝素交联;其中Ca2+与海藻酸钠、肝素钠中的Na+反应,从而使线型聚合物分子发生交联,形成化学交联海藻酸钠-肝素复合物的网状结构,实现生物型材料肝素化涂层.结果与结论:CaCl2修饰活化医用聚氯乙烯体外循环管道并与海藻酸钠和肝素交联反应,形成生物型高分子材料肝素化涂层

  13. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  14. SARMApp: Search and Rescue Mapping Application

    OpenAIRE

    Burkinshaw, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    In Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, the search team must know how to scan their search area efficiently with limited resources. Advances in mobile technology are driving the rapid growth of location based services (LBS) and this dissertation project investigates the feasibility of an LBS to support SAR operations. The LBS requires the ability to locate search team members, perform visibility analysis on-the-fly, and dynamically convey this information back to the user on a variety of mobil...

  15. Subsidiary therapeutic efficacy of balloon pump support in rescuing patients with cardiogenic shock%球囊反搏术在心源性休克患者抢救中的辅助作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯毅; 马友妮

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价主动脉内球囊反搏术(IABP)在急性心肌梗死合并心源性休克患者抢救中的辅助作用.方法 将同一时期在我院进行抢救的72例急性心肌梗死合并心源性休克患者按照是否行急诊IABP循环支持治疗分为IABP组(36例)和对照组(36例),两组均行经皮冠状动脉介入治疗及常规用药治疗;比较两组患者术后1周、4周、3个月主要心血管不良事件(MACE)的发生率及术后1周的左心室功能.结果 两组患者术后的左心室功能和MACE发生率存在差异,IABP组术后1周的左心室功能明显优于对照组[(42.6±8.1)%vs(39.8±7.9)%,P<0.05],IABP组1周、4周和3个月的死亡率均低于对照组(30.6% vs 55.6%,38.9% vs 63.9%,47.2% vs 75.0%,均P<0.05).结论 主动脉内球囊反搏术在急性心肌梗死合并心源性休克患者抢救中能有效改善患者左心室功能及减少主要心血管不良事件的发生率,有效改善心源性休克患者的预后.%Objective To assess the subsidiary therapeutic efficacy of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support in rescuing patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS).Methods Thirty-six patients receiving emergency PCI with IABP support were enrolled as the IABP group,and 36 patients receiving emergency PCI without IABP support at the same time were selected as the control group.The rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated in the two groups one week,4 weeks and 3 months after the operation,respectively.The left ventricular function was also evaluated.Results There was significant difference in the left ventricular function and the rates of MACE between the two groups.The left ventricular function in the first week of the IABP group was better than that in the control group [(42.6±8.1)% vs (39.8±7.9)%,P<0.05],and the mortality rates in the first week,the forth week and the third month of the LABP group were lower than those

  16. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Predictors of Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has shown improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR. The aim of this study was to determine factors predictive of survival in extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR). Methods Consecutive 85 adult patients (median age, 59 years; range, 18 to 85 years; 56 males) who underwent E-CPR from May 2005 to December 2012 were evaluated. Results Causes of arrest were cardiogenic in 62 patients (72.9%), septic in 18 patients (21.2%), and hypovolemic in 3 patients (3.5%), while the etiology was not specified in 2 patients (2.4%). The survival rate in patients with septic etiology was significantly poorer compared with those with another etiology (0% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008). Septic etiology (hazard ratio [HR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 5.44; p=0.002) and the interval between arrest and ECLS initiation (HR, 1.05 by 10 minutes increment; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for mortality. When the predictive value of the E-CPR timing for in-hospital mortality was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method, the greatest accuracy was obtained at a cutoff of 60.5 minutes (area under the curve, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80; p=0.032) with 47.8% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The survival rate was significantly different according to the cutoff of 60.5 minutes (p=0.001). Conclusion These results indicate that efforts should be made to minimize the time between arrest and ECLS application, optimally within 60 minutes. In addition, E-CPR in patients with septic etiology showed grave outcomes, suggesting it to be of questionable benefit in these patients. PMID:27525236

  17. Teamwork and leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Sabina; Johansson, Anna C; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Rock, Laura; Howell, Michael D; Marsch, Stephan

    2011-06-14

    Despite substantial efforts to make cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) algorithms known to healthcare workers, the outcome of CPR has remained poor during the past decades. Resuscitation teams often deviate from algorithms of CPR. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to technical skills of individual rescuers, human factors such as teamwork and leadership affect adherence to algorithms and hence the outcome of CPR. This review describes the state of the science linking team interactions to the performance of CPR. Because logistical barriers make controlled measurement of team interaction in the earliest moments of real-life resuscitations challenging, our review focuses mainly on high-fidelity human simulator studies. This technique allows in-depth investigation of complex human interactions using precise and reproducible methods. It also removes variability in the clinical parameters of resuscitation, thus letting researchers study human factors and team interactions without confounding by clinical variability from resuscitation to resuscitation. Research has shown that a prolonged process of team building and poor leadership behavior are associated with significant shortcomings in CPR. Teamwork and leadership training have been shown to improve subsequent team performance during resuscitation and have recently been included in guidelines for advanced life support courses. We propose that further studies on the effects of team interactions on performance of complex medical emergency interventions such as resuscitation are needed. Future efforts to better understand the influence of team factors (e.g., team member status, team hierarchy, handling of human errors), individual factors (e.g., sex differences, perceived stress), and external factors (e.g., equipment, algorithms, institutional characteristics) on team performance in resuscitation situations are critical to improve CPR performance and medical outcomes of patients.

  18. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2016-01-01

    This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  19. PHENOMENON OF RESCUING VICTIMS OF NAZI REGIME UNDER THE HOLOCAUST

    OpenAIRE

    Stets, Oleg; Kovtun, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this article problems devoted to participation of the local Ukrainian population at the rescue of Jewry victims of the Nazi occupation regime is examined. Question of violation of human rights is analyzed and it is given description a concept «the phenomenon of rescuing». It was concluded on social and legal support rescuers Jewish people during the Second World War on the territory of modern Ukraine.

  20. Is a fully heparin-bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Sarah; Bilal, Haris; Zaman, Mahvash; Tang, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    A best-evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Is a fully heparin bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?’ Altogether more than 792 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of...

  1. Physiological consequences : Cardiopulmonary, vestibular, and sensory aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsch, H.; Albery, W.; Banks, R.D.; Bles, W.

    2000-01-01

    Discussing the physiological consequences of enhanced fighter manoeuvrability (EFM), aspects of cardiopulmonary reactions will be seen during high G manoeuvres, especially the combination of negative G-load followed by high G-onset manoeuvres ("push-pull"). The aircraft's capability to reach high al

  2. Based on 3D GIS Campus Fire Emergency Rescue Decision Support System Research%基于三维GIS的校园火灾应急救援决策支持系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖潇; 朱大明; 夏蓉

    2011-01-01

    In view of the present campus fire, the fire hidden danger and the fire contingency plans formulation's present situation,proposed that based on the three dimensional GIS campus fire emergency recovery decision support system, carrie on the three dimensional scene hypothesized simulation to the campus scene of fire and the peripheral environment, carries on the accurate appraisal to the fire, and provides escapes the optimal path as well as the rescue plan.This article first introduced based on the three dimensional GIS campus fire ergency system's design mentality and the structure function; Next, take Kunming university of science and technology campus as example narration ergency system application in reality;Finally, proposed the campus emergency recovery system's in future development influential role.%针对目前校园火灾、火灾隐患及其火灾应急预案制定的现状,提出基于三维GIS的校园火灾应急救援决策支持系统,对校园火灾现场及周边环境进行三维场景虚拟仿真,对火灾进行准确评估,并提供逃生最佳路径以及救援方案.首先介绍了基于三维GIS校园火灾应急系统的设计思路、结构功能以及技术特点;其次,以昆明理工大学校园为例叙述应急系统在实际中的应用;最后,提出了校园应急救援系统在未来发展中的重要作用.

  3. Cardiopulmonary Circuit Models for Predicting Injury to the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Wing, Sarah; Bassingthwaighte, James; Neal, Maxwell

    2004-11-01

    Circuit models have been used extensively in physiology to describe cardiopulmonary function. Such models are being used in the DARPA Virtual Soldier (VS) Project* to predict the response to injury or physiological stress. The most complex model consists of systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a four-chamber heart sub-model. This model also includes baroreceptor feedback, airway mechanics, gas exchange, and pleural pressure influence on the circulation. As part of the VS Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been evaluating various cardiopulmonary circuit models for predicting the effects of injury to the heart. We describe, from a physicist's perspective, the concept of building circuit models, discuss both unstressed and stressed models, and show how the stressed models are used to predict effects of specific wounds. *This work was supported by a grant from the DARPA, executed by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command/TATRC Cooperative Agreement, Contract # W81XWH-04-2-0012. The submitted manuscript has been authored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed for the U.S. DOE by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purpose.

  4. Do Radiologists Want/Need Training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prompt and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decreases morbidity and mortality following cardiopulmonary arrest. Radiologists are frequently confronted with severely ill patients, who may deteriorate at any time. Furthermore, they have to be aware of life-threatening reactions towards contrast media. This study was designed to assess experience and self-estimation of German-speaking radiologists in CPR and cardiac defibrillation (CD). Material and Methods: 650 German-speaking radiologists were audited by a specially designed questionnaire, which was sent via e-mail. The answers were expected to be re-mailed within a 2-month period. Results: The response rate was 12.6%. 72.8% of the responders had performed at least 1 CPR (range 9.5 ± 13.1) and 37% at least 1 CD. 67.9% had had opportunities to attend training courses, which had been utilized by 41.8% of them. The last training of the responders was more than 2 years ago in 69.2% and more than 5 years ago in 37%. Of all responders 75.6% expressed the need for further education. Conclusion: The small response rate indicates the small importance of CPR in the subpopulation surveyed. The vast majority of the responders, however, showed interest in basic and advanced life support and advocated regular updates. It seems reasonable that radiological Dept. themselves should organize courses in order to cope with their specific situations

  5. History of the evolution of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karlis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references on CPR go back to the era of Ancient Egypt (3100 B.C.. Although the technique for mouth to mouth ventilation was known in ancient times, its efficacy was demonstrated just in 1958. The ease and efficacy of chest compressions were demonstrated in 1960. Electrical defibrillation may have begun in 1775, but it was applied to a victim of cardiac arrest in the 1950s. Conclusion: CPR is currently a rapidly evolving field of medical science. According to latest data, there is evidence that high quality chest compressions, prompt defibrillation if applicable and treatment of reversible causes improve Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references

  6. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    M Adib Hajbaghery; H. Akbari; GA. Mousavi

    2005-01-01

    Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and unt...

  7. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib Hajbaghery

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and until defibrillation, duration and result of CPR, frequency of tracheal intubations and time served for it were collected in a checklist. Results: In six months study, 206 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempted. The survival rate was similar for both sexes. Short-term survival observed in19.9% of cases and only 5.3% survived to discharge. Conclusions: Duration of CPR, time of the first defibrillation, response time and the location of cardiac arrest are the key predictors of survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital CPR strategies require improvement. This study promotes a national study on post CPR survival for accurate data on our performance in attention to chain of survival. KeyWords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, Survival rate, Iran

  8. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  9. Conventional hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass increases the serum lactate level in adult cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass on lactate level in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Design: An observational study. Setting: Prince Sultan cardiac center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: The study included 283 patients classified into two groups: Hemofiltration group (n=138, hemofiltration was done during CPB. Control group (n = 145, patients without hemofiltration. Interventions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements and Main Results: Monitors included hematocrit, lactate levels, mixed venous oxygen saturation, amount of fluid removal during hemofiltration and urine output. The lactate elevated in group H than group C (P < 0.05, and the PH showed metabolic acidosis in group H (P < 0.05. The mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The hematocrit was higher in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The urine output was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to hemoconcentration, elevated lactate level and increased inotropic support. There are some recommendations for hemofiltration: First; Hemofiltration should be limited for patients with impaired renal function, positive fluid balance, reduced response to diuretics or prolonged bypass time more than 2 hours. Second; Minimal amount of fluids should be administered to maintain adequate cardiac output and reduction of priming volumes is preferable to maintain controlled hemodilution. Third; it should be done before weaning of or after cardiopulmonary bypass and not during the whole time of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. [Cardiac support and replacement therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Christopher; Roewer, Norbert; Muellenbach, Ralf M

    2016-09-01

    Circulatory support represents an integral part within the treatment of the critically ill patient. Sophisticated pharmacologic regimens help to maintain systemic perfusion pressure by increasing vascular tone as well as mediating positive inotropic effects. Besides the administration of catecholamines and phosphodiesterase-III-inhibitors, in particular the administration of levosimendan represents a promising alternative during low-cardiac-output. Nevertheless, sufficient evidence demonstrating a survival benefit for any pharmacologic regimen is nonexistent. In case pharmacological measures do not suffice mechanical cardiopulmonary support (MCS) may be used. MCS may be used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation or a "low-cardiac-output-syndrome" as bridging towards decision, recovery or long-term support. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vaECMO) may take over cardiopulmonary function and may improve survival as well as neurological outcome after cardiogenic shock or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:27631451

  11. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, William

    2014-02-01

    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text. PMID:24555549

  12. Marginally effective medical care: ethical analysis of issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilberman, M.; Kutner, J; Parsons, D; Murphy, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain distressingly poor. Overuse of CPR is attributable to unrealistic expectations, unintended consequences of existing policies and failure to honour patient refusal of CPR. We analyzed the CPR outcomes literature using the bioethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice and developed a proposal for selective use of CPR. Beneficence supports use of CPR when most effective. Non-maleficence argues against performi...

  13. Witnessed arrest, but not delayed bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves prehospital cardiac arrest survivial

    OpenAIRE

    Vukmir, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: This prospective, randomised, double blinded clinical intervention trial enrolled 874 prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients encountered in a prehospital urban, suburban, and rural regional emergency medical service (EMS) area. This group underwent conventional advanced cardiac life support intervention followed by empiric early administration of sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/l), monitoring conventional resuscitation parameters. Survival was measured as presence of vital signs on em...

  14. Rescuing the vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    Human trafficking, such as forced prostitution and labour, affects men, women and children in the UK. Many have been brought into the country from eastern Europe and Africa. This article describes new guidance from the Department of Health that is designed to help healthcare professionals identify and support trafficked people. PMID:23987693

  15. MEASUREMENT OF CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION BY REBREATHING METHODOLOGY IN PIGLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a multiple gas rebreathing method for the measurement of cardiopulmonary function in mechanically ventilated neonates was evaluated. The following indices of cardiopulmonary function were assessed in 20 piglets (mean weight, 2.3 kg): (1) pulmonary capillary blood flow ...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4420 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  18. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  19. CERN Fire Brigade rescue simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Fire Brigade is made up of experienced firemen from all of the 20 Member States. In these images they are seen at a 'Discovery Monday' held at the Microcosm exhibition. Here visitors learn how the Fire Brigade deal with various situations, including a simulated cave rescue performed by the Hazardous Environments Response Team.

  20. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stickland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference. In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.

  1. Rhythm recognition is accountable for the majority of hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Koch; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines are constantly optimized to increase survival. Keeping hands-off time brief is vital. Our hypothesis is that rhythm recognition is time-consuming during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A Laerdal Sim-Man simulated three shockable and four nonshockable rhythms....... Rhythms were presented to physicians who identified whether they were shockable and whether they would defibrillate. We measured time to stated decision. Thirty-five doctors participated, 32 had completed advanced life support training. The mean time to make a decision on whether to defibrillate...... or not was 3.4 s [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8-3.9] for shockable and 4.4 s (95% CI: 3.6-5.3) for nonshockable rhythms (Pcompared with 88.6 % of nonshockable rhythms...

  2. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Rescue Teams; CFR Correction #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 126 / Monday, July 1, 2013 / Rules... Rescue Teams CFR Correction In Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 199, revised as of... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter,...

  4. Rescuing the Regent Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Blake

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Melbourne’s Regent and Plaza theatres opened in Collins Street in 1929. For more than forty years, these grand picture palaces were among Melbourne’s most treasured cinemas, favourites together with the Capitol Theatre in Swanston Street and the State Theatre in Flinders Street. Often called ‘palaces of dreams’, they were part of a glamorous entertainment era, when a night out at the movies was an event, and an afternoon matinee was a treat. Not even the Regent’s two-year closure, as a result of the fire that destroyed the auditorium in 1945, could dampen the enthusiasm of its Melbourne audiences. By the 1960s, however, the grand picture palaces were no longer in vogue and were becoming uneconomical to run. The State Theatre closed in 1962 and was later converted into two theatres. The Capitol closed in 1964, but when it re-opened eighteen months later a shopping arcade had been built in the lower part of the auditorium. After investigating the option of converting the Regent into two theatres, its owner, Hoyts, opted to develop a smaller multi-cinema complex in Bourke Street instead. The company sold the Regent and Plaza theatres to the City of Melbourne in 1969 and in 1970 the doors of the Regent and Plaza closed for what many people thought was the last time. Melbourne City Council bought the Regent and Plaza in order to control development around the site of the proposed City Square on the corner of Swanston and Collins Streets. The theatres seemed destined to fall victim to the wrecker’s ball. But if the 1960s was the decade of development, the 1970s was the decade of preservation. Protests against the demolition of historic buildings occurred around Australia, often with the controversial support of the building unions. The architectural profession debated the issues of preservation versus development of dynamic modern buildings. Both the State and Federal Governments were forced to introduce legislation to protect the nation

  5. 小儿心肺复苏的临床特点及预后的影响因素%Clinical characteristics and the influence factors of prognosis of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics and the influence factors of prognosis of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Methods:46 patients with pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation treatment were selected from May 2010 to May 2014.18 cases used cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of cardiac arrest;28 cases used cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of respiratory arrest.The clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation were detailedly analyzed. Results:The cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate 42.9% of respiratory arrest children was higher than the cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate 16.7% of cardiac arrest children,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The children common diseases caused pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation were accidental injuries,infectious diseases and cardiovascular diseases and so on.Conclusion:More attention should be paid to the causes and clinical characteristics of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Popularization of pediatric first-aid knowledge and doing a good job in the publicity and education work can effectively improve the rescue success rate of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve prognosis.%目的:分析小儿心肺复苏的临床特点及预后的影响因素。方法:2010年5月-2014年5月收治小儿心肺复苏治疗患者46例,其中因心跳停止采用心肺复苏18例,因呼吸停止采用心肺复苏28例,详细分析小儿心肺复苏的临床特点和预后。结果:呼吸停止患儿的心肺复苏率42.9%高于心跳停止患儿的心肺复苏率16.7%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);引起小儿心肺复苏的患儿常见疾病有意外伤害、感染性疾病以及心血管疾病等。结论:应更加重视引起小儿心肺复苏的原因和临床特点,普及儿科急救的相关知识,做好宣传教育工作,有效提高小儿心肺复苏抢救成功率,改善预后。

  6. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices.

  7. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 . Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO 2 (PETCO 2 and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO 2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA. There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO 2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes.

  8. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  9. Evaluation of coma patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ying-ying; YANG Qing-lin; PANG Ying; LV Xiang-ping

    2005-01-01

    Background Coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commonly seen in daily clinical practice. How to objectively evaluate brain function after CPR is essential to the following treatment. Coma patients after CPR had been studied prospectively at the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital since 2002. In this study, we focused on the topic of how to evaluate the severity of coma after CPR .Methods From April 2002 to November 2004, patients in coma 24 hours after CPR were monitored, the evaluation methods included Glasgow coma score (GCS),brain stem reflection, and spinal reflection. Laboratory evaluation included electroencephalography (EEG),brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), short latency somatosensory evoked potential (SLSEP), and transcranial Doppler (TCD) .Results Twenty-four of 35 patients(68.57%)were in deep coma. The GCS was 3 except for 2 patients;EEG was evaluated not less than grade Ⅳ except for 4 patients, BAEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 3 patients, and SLSEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 1 patient.Twenty-four patients died within 1 month and 11 of them(45.83%)were determined as brain death. Glasgow outcome score (GOS) was evaluated as grade Ⅰ. Eleven of the 35 patients survived and their consciousness changed from deep coma to coma vigil. EEG was evaluated as gradeⅠin 5 patients, BAEP and SLSEP were evaluated as grade Ⅰ in 3 patients, and GOS was all evaluated as grade Ⅱ among the 11 patients.Two patients(18.18%)regained consciousness in 35 and 90 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and GOS was evaluated as grade Ⅳ and Ⅲ, respectively.Conclusion Combined or continuous evaluation of clinical examinations and laboratory tests can accurately and objectively determine brain function after CPR.

  10. Alveolar proteinosis lung lavage using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, A P; Pelias, A; Johnston, R F; Goel, I P; Hakki, H I; Oslick, T; Shinnick, J P

    1981-01-01

    An adult case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis presented with an arterial oxygen tension of 27 mmHg (3.6 kPa) while breathing air. Dangerous hypoxaemia during lung lavage was avoided by using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

  11. Collaboration mechanism of intercity emergency rescue ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yiping; Zhao Lindu

    2009-01-01

    With the development of metropolitan regions and the appearance of urban agglomerations,cities have been more closely related.For the restricted emergency rescue resource in a single city,it has become more and more imminent for the demand of the intercity collaborative resistance to major accident,so as to improve the protection capacity of urban security.In order to find an effective intercity emergency rescue collaborative system,this paper introduces the concept and analysis method of ecosystem theory into intercity emergency rescue.Based on theanalysis of the formation-process of emergency rescue individual,population and community,a three-level intercity emergency rescue collaborative system is constructed according to the characteristics of dynamics and structure of intercity emergency rescue ecosystem,then the collaboration mechanism of information,resource and process in the intercity emergency rescue ecosystem is also studied in this paper,so as to offer available strategy and method for the ecosystem theory applied to intercity emergency rescue.Through the studies of intercity emergency rescue eco,system,it illuminates that the proposed emergency system can not only cope with the major accident more timely and effectively,but also integrate the intercity information resources and emergency rescue resource and process optimi,zation.

  12. Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cardiopulmonary disease increases with age. Degenerative valvular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arrhythmias are common in the geriatric dog. Chronic bronchial disease, pulmonary neoplasia, and arrhythmias occur in the geriatric cat. Systemic diseases in both species often show cardiopulmonary manifestations. Medical management to treat the underlying disease and to control clinical signs is complicated by altered absorption, metabolism, and elimination of drugs

  13. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-06-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  14. Cardiopulmonary function and scoliosis severity in idiopathic scoliosis children

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Seokwon; Eun, Lucy Yougmin; Kim, Nam Kyun; Jung, Jo Won; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Hak Sun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural lateral curvature of the spine of unknown etiology. The relationship between degree of spine curvature and cardiopulmonary function has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scoliosis and cardiopulmonary characteristics. Methods Ninety children who underwent preoperative pulmonary or cardiac evaluation at a single spine institution over 41 months were included. They were divided into the thora...

  15. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: who should decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Zohar; Garasic, Mirko; Piperberg, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Whether to allow the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a highly contentious topic in recent years. Even though a great deal of evidence and professional guidelines support the option of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), many healthcare professionals still oppose it. One of the main arguments espoused by the latter is that family members should not be allowed for the sake of the patient's best interests, whether it is to increase his chances of survival, respect his privacy or leave his family with a last positive impression of him. In this paper, we examine the issue of FPDR from the patient's point of view. Since the patient requires CPR, he is invariably unconscious and therefore incompetent. We discuss the Autonomy Principle and the Three-Tiered process for surrogate decision making, as well as the Beneficence Principle and show that these are limited in providing us with an adequate tool for decision making in this particular case. Rather, we rely on a novel principle (or, rather, a novel specification of an existing principle) and a novel integrated model for surrogate decision making. We show that this model is more satisfactory in taking the patient's true wishes under consideration and encourages a joint decision making process by all parties involved. PMID:23557910

  16. A Reliable Method for Rhythm Analysis during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR compromise defibrillation success. However, CPR must be interrupted to analyze the rhythm because although current methods for rhythm analysis during CPR have high sensitivity for shockable rhythms, the specificity for nonshockable rhythms is still too low. This paper introduces a new approach to rhythm analysis during CPR that combines two strategies: a state-of-the-art CPR artifact suppression filter and a shock advice algorithm (SAA designed to optimally classify the filtered signal. Emphasis is on designing an algorithm with high specificity. The SAA includes a detector for low electrical activity rhythms to increase the specificity, and a shock/no-shock decision algorithm based on a support vector machine classifier using slope and frequency features. For this study, 1185 shockable and 6482 nonshockable 9-s segments corrupted by CPR artifacts were obtained from 247 patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The segments were split into a training and a test set. For the test set, the sensitivity and specificity for rhythm analysis during CPR were 91.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This new approach shows an important increase in specificity without compromising the sensitivity when compared to previous studies.

  17. Advances in Search and Rescue at Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; Maisondieu, Christophe; Olagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    A topical collection on "Advances in Search and Rescue at Sea" has appeared in recent issues of Ocean Dynamics following the latest in a series of workshops on "Technologies for Search and Rescue and other Emergency Marine Operations" (2004, 2006, 2008 and 2011), hosted by IFREMER in Brest, France. Here we give a brief overview of the history of search and rescue at sea before we summarize the main results of the papers that have appeared in the topical collection. Keywords: Search and rescue (SAR), Trajectory modelling, Stochastic Lagrangian ocean models, Lagrangian measurement methods, ocean surface currents.

  18. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an...

  19. Cardiopulmonary effects of intermittent mandatory ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M E; Downs, J B

    1980-01-01

    IMV is a combination of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation. For numerous reasons, IMV is potentially more advantageous than conventional techniques. By maintaining spontaneous breathing, mechanical augmentation can be titrated to adjust alveolar minute ventilation levels to normal, thereby decreasing the incidence of respiratory alkalemia. There are major differences between the cardiopulmonary effects of IMV and conventional mechanical ventilation. Spontaneous inspiration decreases Ppl and results in better distribution of inspired gas, a better V/Q, and less physiological dead space. In addition, transmural filling pressures, venous return, and cardiac output are more normal than during conventional mechanical ventilation. Maintenance of spontaneous ventilation lowers mean Paw and pulmonary vascular resistance. If venous admixture occurs, it can be minimized by titrating PEEP. Thus, more effective therapy for hypoxemia is possible. If spontaneous breathing is to persist and be efective, work-of-breathing must be minimized. This can be accomplished best when a continuous flow of gas provides optimal CPAP to maintain FRC and to minimize the effects of decreased compliance without depressing cardiac function. PMID:7007253

  20. The Cardiopulmonary effect of passive movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loram

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven articles were reviewed on the cardiopulmonary effects of passive movements. These included two articles on theneurological effects of passive movements. Of the eleven articles, four were considered to have level II evidence in accordance with Sackett’s rules of evidence. There was little consensus regarding the rate or duration of passive movements. There were some suggestions that upper limb movement produces a greater ventilatory response than lower limb movement. There was a statistically significant increase (p< 0.05 in minute ventilation when the movement was done at a rate of 40 repetitions per minute or more, but this change may not be clinically significant. Passive movements were not detrimental to neurosurgical patients with a normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, although the values of the intracranial pressure were not stated.  The studies were limited in that eight of the eleven had small sample sizes and most studies were conducted using normal subjects. Further studies with higher levels of evidence need to be  conducted to verify any results reported to date in the literature. Studies that are relevant to clinical practice also need to be conducted in populations such as sedated intensive care patients.

  1. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Bakken, Kristian; D'Elia, Emilia; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-08-01

    Exercise intolerance, indicated by dyspnea and fatigue during exertion, is a cardinal manifestation of heart failure (HF). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) precisely defines maximum exercise capacity through measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO2). Peak VO2 values have a critical role in informing patient selection for advanced HF interventions such as heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices. Oxygen uptake and ventilatory patterns obtained during the submaximal portion of CPET are also valuable to recognize because of their ease of ascertainment during low-level exercise, relevance to ability to perform activities of daily living, independence from volitional effort, and strong relationship to prognosis in HF. The ability of peak VO2 and other CPET variables to be measured reproducibly and to accurately reflect HF severity is increasingly recognized and endorsed by scientific statements. Integration of CPET with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and cardiac imaging during exercise provides comprehensive characterization of multisystem reserve capacity that can inform prognosis and the need for cardiac interventions. Here, we review both practical aspects of conducting CPETs in patients with HF for clinical and research purposes as well as interpretation of gas exchange patterns across the spectrum of preclinical HF to advanced HF. PMID:27289406

  2. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  3. Teaching Holocaust Rescue: A Problematic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Determining how to teach about rescue during the Holocaust presents many dilemmas to teachers as they plan Holocaust curricula. Rescue is often overemphasized, and faulty perspectives about rescuers and their actions may cause students to develop distorted views about this aspect of Holocaust history. This article explores several factors that…

  4. Rescue coronary stenting in acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Meneghetti, Paolo; Molinari, Gionata; Zardini, Piero

    1996-01-01

    Failed rescue coronary angioplasty is a high risk situation because of high mortality. Coronary stent has given us the chance of improving and maintaining the patency of the artery. We report our preliminary experience of rescue stenting after unsuccessful coronary angioplasty.

  5. Managing the Inflammatory Response after Cardiopulmonary Bypass : Review of the Studies in Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liguori, Gabriel Romero; Kanas, Alexandre Fligelman; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies performed in animal models that evaluated therapeutic interventions to inflammatory response and microcirculatory changes after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: It was used the search strategy ("Cardiopulmonary Bypass" (MeSH)) and ("Microcirculation" (MeSH) or "Inflammat

  6. Burnout selected members of the Integrated Rescue System in South County

    OpenAIRE

    KUBOUŠEK, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis is concerning on the burnout syndrom in particular parts of integrated rescues system. In the theoretical part of the bachelor's thesis is defined the term of burnout syndrom, its causes, subsequent prevention, support and the treatment. The practical part is focused on findings of burnout syndrom among the components of the integrated rescues system, that is the Police, Fire Brigade and Ambulance Service, using the semi-standardized interview, questionnaire and qulitati...

  7. Acute posthypoxic myoclonus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwes Aline

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute posthypoxic myoclonus (PHM can occur in patients admitted after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and is considered to have a poor prognosis. The origin can be cortical and/or subcortical and this might be an important determinant for treatment options and prognosis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether acute PHM originates from cortical or subcortical structures, using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP and electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods Patients with acute PHM (focal myoclonus or status myoclonus within 72 hours after CPR were retrospectively selected from a multicenter cohort study. All patients were treated with hypothermia. Criteria for cortical origin of the myoclonus were: giant SEP potentials; or epileptic activity, status epilepticus, or generalized periodic discharges on the EEG (no back-averaging was used. Good outcome was defined as good recovery or moderate disability after 6 months. Results Acute PHM was reported in 79/391 patients (20%. SEPs were available in 51/79 patients and in 27 of them (53% N20 potentials were present. Giant potentials were seen in 3 patients. EEGs were available in 36/79 patients with 23/36 (64% patients fulfilling criteria for a cortical origin. Nine patients (12% had a good outcome. A broad variety of drugs was used for treatment. Conclusions The results of this study show that acute PHM originates from subcortical, as well as cortical structures. Outcome of patients admitted after CPR who develop acute PHM in this cohort was better than previously reported in literature. The broad variety of drugs used for treatment shows the existing uncertainty about optimal treatment.

  8. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions--a nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Johnsen, Søren Paaske;

    2011-01-01

    Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service...

  9. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions-A nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Johnsen, Søren Paaske;

    2010-01-01

    Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service...

  10. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  11. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  12. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. Follow-up of relapsed B-cell lymphoma patients treated with iodine-131-labeled anti-CD20 antibody and autologous stem-cell rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for B-cell lymphomas. This is our first opportunity to report long-term follow-up data and late toxicities in 29 patients treated with myeloablative doses of iodine-131-anti-CD20 antibody (anti-B1) and autologous stem-cell rescue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trace-labeled biodistribution studies first determined the ability to deliver higher absorbed radiation doses to tumor sites than to lung, liver, or kidney at varying amounts of anti-B1 protein (0.35, 1.7, or 7 mg/kg). Twenty- nine patients received therapeutic infusions of single-agent (131)I- anti-B1, given at the protein dose found optimal in the biodistribution study, labeled with amounts of (131)I (280 to 785 mCi[10.4 to 29.0 GBq]) calculated to deliver specific absorbed radiation doses to the normal organs, followed by autologous stem-cell support. RESULTS: Major responses occurred in 25 patients (86%), with 23 complete responses (CRs; 79%). The nonhematopoietic do se-limiting toxicity was reversible cardiopulmonary insufficiency, which occurred in two patients at RIT doses that delivered > or = 27 Gy to the lungs. With a median follow-up time of 42 months, the estimated overall and progression-free survival rates are 68% and 42%, respectively. Currently, 14 of 29 patients remain in unmaintained remissions that range from 27+ to 87+ months after RIT. Late toxicities have been uncommon except for elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels found in approximately 60% of the subjects. Two patients developed second malignancies, but none have developed myelodysplasia (MDS). CONCLUSION: Myeloablative (131)I-anti- B1 RIT is relatively well tolerated when given with autologous stem- cell support and often results in prolonged remission durations with few late toxicities

  16. Attenuating the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Brown, Jeremiah R; Fitzgerald, David; Likosky, Donald S; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A; Hammon, John W

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of pharmacological, surgical, and mechanical pump approaches have been studied to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass, yet no systematically based review exists to cover the scope of anti-inflammatory interventions deployed. We therefore conducted an evidence-based review to capture "self-identified" anti-inflammatory interventions among adult cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. To be included, trials had to measure at least one inflammatory mediator and one clinical outcome, specified in the "Outcomes 2010" consensus statement. Ninety-eight papers satisfied inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the review. The review identified 33 different interventions and approaches to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response. However, only a minority of papers (35 of 98 [35.7%]) demonstrated any clinical improvement to one or more of the predefined outcome measures (most frequently myocardial protection or length of intensive care unit stay). No single intervention was supported by strong level A evidence (multiple randomized controlled trials [RCTs] or meta-analysis) for clinical benefit. Interventions at level A evidence included off-pump surgery, minimized circuits, biocompatible circuit coatings, leukocyte filtration, complement C5 inhibition, preoperative aspirin, and corticosteroid prophylaxis. Interventions at level B evidence (single RCT) for minimizing inflammation included nitric oxide donors, C1 esterase inhibition, neutrophil elastase inhibition, propofol, propionyl-L-carnitine, and intensive insulin therapy. A secondary analysis revealed that suppression of at least one inflammatory marker was necessary but not sufficient to confer clinical benefit. The most effective interventions were those that targeted multiple inflammatory pathways. These observations are consistent with a "multiple hit" hypothesis, whereby clinically effective suppression of the systemic inflammatory response requires hitting multiple

  17. A New Antibiotic to the Rescue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Rescue? Experimental drug shows promise against MRSA superbug in animal trials To use the sharing features ... successfully treated animals infected with the so-called "superbug" MRSA -- methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus . The results are " ...

  18. Cardiopulmonary interactions during mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.V. Cherpanath (Thomas); W.K. Lagrand (Wim); M.J. Schultz (Marcus); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCardiopulmonary interactions induced by mechan-ical ventilation are complex and only partly understood. Ap-plied tidal volumes and/or airway pressures largely mediate changes in right ventricular preload and afterload. Effects on left ventricular function are mostly secondary to changes

  19. The influence of biomaterials on inflammatory responses to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, J M; Matata, B M; Yin, H Q; Esposito, A; Mahiout, A; Taggart, D P; Lowe, G D

    1996-05-01

    The nature of cardiopulmonary bypass and the complexity of the inflammatory response make the detection and interpretation of a biomaterial influence difficult. However, if mediation of the inflammatory response is considered to be an appropriate clinical goal, alteration to the biomaterial influence merits further investigation.

  20. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  1. QUALITY-OF-LIFE AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY-RESUSCITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MIRANDA, DR

    1994-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the influence of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on the components of quality of life (QOL) of patients after discharge from the hospital. Design: Extracted from a prospective national survey on Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). Setting: Thirty-six ICUs of both

  2. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator. 870.4350 Section 870.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during...

  3. Release of endogenous vasopressors during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, K. H.; Haak, T; Keller, A; Bothner, U.; Lurie, K. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether plasma endothelin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol concentrations were higher during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients in whom resuscitation was successful than in those in whom it failed, and to measure the concentrations of these hormones in the immediate post-resuscitation phase. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Emergency medical service at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients wi...

  4. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    2006-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using u

  5. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Simon; Devereaux, P J;

    2008-01-01

    We sought to establish the efficacy and safety of prophylactic steroids in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials reporting the effects of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes after CPB. Outcomes examined were mortality...

  6. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted for small and remote mines (§ 49.13),...

  7. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial 20-hour course of instruction as...

  8. Marginally effective medical care: ethical analysis of issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberman, M; Kutner, J; Parsons, D; Murphy, D J

    1997-12-01

    Outcomes from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain distressingly poor. Overuse of CPR is attributable to unrealistic expectations, unintended consequences of existing policies and failure to honour patient refusal of CPR. We analyzed the CPR outcomes literature using the bioethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice and developed a proposal for selective use of CPR. Beneficence supports use of CPR when most effective. Non-maleficence argues against performing CPR when the outcomes are harmful or usage inappropriate. Additionally, policies which usurp good clinical judgment and moral responsibility, thereby contributing to inappropriate CPR usage, should be considered maleficent. Autonomy restricts CPR use when refused but cannot create a right to CPR. Justice requires that we define which medical interventions contribute sufficiently to health and happiness that they should be made universally available. This ordering is necessary whether one believes in the utilitarian standard or wishes medical care to be universally available on fairness grounds. Low-yield CPR fails justice criteria. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed when justified by the extensive outcomes literature; not performed when not desired by the patient or not indicated; and performed infrequently when relatively contraindicated.

  9. Satellite-Based Technologies in Use for Extreme Nocturnal Mountain Rescue Operations: a Synergetic Approach Applying Geophysical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchroithner, Manfred F.; Ehlert, Guido; Hetze, Bernd; Kohlschmidt, Horst; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-06-01

    Mountain-rescue operations require rapid response whilst also ensuring the security of the rescue teams. Rescuing people in a big rock-face is even more difficult if night or fog prevent sight. The paper presents a technical solution to optimally support, under these aggravated conditions, the location of the casualties and the navigation of the rescue team(s) in a rock-face from a coordination station. In doing so, standard components like a smartphones with GPS functionality, a data communication on a client-server basis and VR visualisation software have been adapted to the specific requirements. Remote support of the navigation in steep rocky terrain requires a highly accurate wall model which permits the local experts of the coordination station to dependably estimate geometry and structure of the rock along the rescue route and to convey necessary directives to the retrieval team. Based on terrestrial laser-scans from different locations, such a model has been generated for the mighty Dachstein South Face (Austria) and texturised with digital photographs. Over a twelve-month period, a transdisciplinary team of the Dresden University of Technology (Informatics, Electrical Engineering, Cartography) developed and integrated the various technical modules of the mountain-rescue support-system (digital rock-face model, optimised GPS data transmission between mobile device, server and client, data filtering, and dynamic visualisation component). In summer 2011 the proper functioning of the prototype was demonstrated in a rescue exercise under foggy dusk conditions.

  10. Manned remote work station - Safety and rescue considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that due to restrictions of payload and volume limitations of current and projected launch systems, space construction of ultralarge space structures is essential. The present paper discusses the concepts of a key piece of construction equipment needed to support assembly of such large structures. Attention is given to the manned remote work station (MRWS), a universal crew cabin to be used as a construction cherry picker, space crane turret, work station on a construction base rail system, or a free flyer. Concepts and safety and rescue requirements for this spacecraft are delineated for early applications in support of Shuttle operations, as well as applications in support of a mid to late 1980's space construction base. Finally, applications in support of constructing and maintaining a solar power satellite system are covered.

  11. VEGETATIVE RESCUE OF Anadenanthera macrocarpa TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Coqueiro Dias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative rescue of adult Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees through the induction of epicormic shoots from tree severance and stem ringing, as well as the efficiency of cutting technique on the propagation of the species. The experimental design used was random plots, in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement, constituted by two techniques for the induction of basal shoots (tree severance and stem ringing and cuttings types (herbaceous cuttings and semihardwoods cuttings, in four replicates and plots of 12 cuttings per repetition. The tree severance and stem ringing were efficient in the induction of basal shoots in adult A. macrocarpa trees. However, the tree severance provided higher emission of basal shoots. The herbaceous cuttings presented higher rooting percentages, independent of vegetative rescue technique. In general, we conclude that the vegetative rescue and the vegetative propagation of A. macrocarpa adult trees are technically efficient.

  12. [Virtual educational proposal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for the neonate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilciane Ribeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Pereira, Irene Mari

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational proposal using virtual multimedia resources, to innovate, stimulate and diversify areas of communication and interaction, facilitating nurses' autonomous and reflexive process of teaching and learning. This is an applied research, following the cyclical and interactive phases of designing, planning, developing and implementing. The educational proposal was developed on the TelEduc platform, using specific tools for content organization and communication between students and administrator. The teaching modules were on the following themes: Module 1--Fundamentals of the heart anatomy and physiology in newborns; Module 2--Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest in newborns; Module 3--Planning nursing care; Module 4--Medications used in cardiopulmonary arrests in newborns; and Module 5--Cardiorespiratory arrest care in newborns. This study may contribute to innovating teaching in nursing from a virtual educational proposal on the important issue of newborn cardiopulmonary resuscitation care. PMID:20642055

  13. Role of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the postural regulation of renin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.A.; Marco, E.J.; Oliveri, C.; Otero, F.J.; Degrossi, O.; Moledo, L.I.; Julius, S.

    1987-04-01

    To change the stretch on cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors, large shifts of blood in the capacity space were elicited by tilting and by exerting positive lower body pressure in the tilted position. Twelve volunteers underwent invasive hemodynamic studies and in 10 other subjects cardiac size was determined by radionuclide cardiography. In all 22 subjects tilting caused the expected increase of renin, which was abolished by lower body compression. Decompression caused renin to increase again. Right atrial pressure in invasive studies and end-systolic and end-diastolic counts in noninvasive studies showed a significant and strong negative correlation with renin and norepinephrine levels. Thus, the degree of stretch of the cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors is a major determinant of reflex regulation of renin release in humans.

  14. Glycemic control and outcome related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Steven; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia, aggravated by cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients. Whereas hyperglycemia was originally perceived as an adaptive response to surgical stress, it is now clear that glycemic control is a strategy to reduce adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. The optimal blood glucose target, whether or not glycemic control should be initiated already intraoperatively, and whether or not perioperative glucose administration affects the impact of glycemic control on ischemia-reperfusion damage remain open questions. Hypoglycemia, the risk of which is increased with glycemic control, is also associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether brief episodes of hypoglycemia, rapidly corrected during glycemic control, have adverse effects on outcome. This review gives an overview of the currently available literature on glycemic control during and after cardiac surgery and focuses on the indicated open questions about this intervention for this specific patient population. PMID:26060029

  15. [Virtual educational proposal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for the neonate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilciane Ribeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Pereira, Irene Mari

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational proposal using virtual multimedia resources, to innovate, stimulate and diversify areas of communication and interaction, facilitating nurses' autonomous and reflexive process of teaching and learning. This is an applied research, following the cyclical and interactive phases of designing, planning, developing and implementing. The educational proposal was developed on the TelEduc platform, using specific tools for content organization and communication between students and administrator. The teaching modules were on the following themes: Module 1--Fundamentals of the heart anatomy and physiology in newborns; Module 2--Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest in newborns; Module 3--Planning nursing care; Module 4--Medications used in cardiopulmonary arrests in newborns; and Module 5--Cardiorespiratory arrest care in newborns. This study may contribute to innovating teaching in nursing from a virtual educational proposal on the important issue of newborn cardiopulmonary resuscitation care.

  16. Lethal systemic Degos disease with prominent cardio-pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degos disease (DD) is a rare obstructive vasculopathy characterized by distinctive skin lesions. Involvement of the soles, palms and genitalia is rare. In most cases disease has an unfavorable course and involves gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and occasionally other organs. Pleural and pericardial involvements are usually minor manifestations with prolonged course. Death occurs in approximately 50% of the patients usually due to intestinal perforation or central nervous system bleeding. We describe a 48-year-old man of lethal systemic DD. Widespread skin lesions with involvement of palm plantar surfaces, genitalia and scalp were ignored for 3 years, whereas the disease revealed its own malignant nature. The disorder progressed to nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary system that led to death after 5 months from onset of systemic involvement as severe restrictive cardio-pulmonary insufficiency. Autopsy showed diffuse fibrotic changes in serial membranes and internal organs. (author)

  17. RESCU: A real space electronic structure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud-Rioux, Vincent; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present RESCU, a powerful MATLAB-based Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) solver. We demonstrate that RESCU can compute the electronic structure properties of systems comprising many thousands of atoms using modest computer resources, e.g. 16 to 256 cores. Its computational efficiency is achieved from exploiting four routes. First, we use numerical atomic orbital (NAO) techniques to efficiently generate a good quality initial subspace which is crucially required by Chebyshev filtering methods. Second, we exploit the fact that only a subspace spanning the occupied Kohn-Sham states is required, and solving accurately the KS equation using eigensolvers can generally be avoided. Third, by judiciously analyzing and optimizing various parts of the procedure in RESCU, we delay the O (N3) scaling to large N, and our tests show that RESCU scales consistently as O (N2.3) from a few hundred atoms to more than 5000 atoms when using a real space grid discretization. The scaling is better or comparable in a NAO basis up to the 14,000 atoms level. Fourth, we exploit various numerical algorithms and, in particular, we introduce a partial Rayleigh-Ritz algorithm to achieve efficiency gains for systems comprising more than 10,000 electrons. We demonstrate the power of RESCU in solving KS-DFT problems using many examples running on 16, 64 and/or 256 cores: a 5832 Si atoms supercell; a 8788 Al atoms supercell; a 5324 Cu atoms supercell and a small DNA molecule submerged in 1713 water molecules for a total 5399 atoms. The KS-DFT is entirely converged in a few hours in all cases. Our results suggest that the RESCU method has reached a milestone of solving thousands of atoms by KS-DFT on a modest computer cluster.

  18. "Rescue" regimens after Helicobacter pylori treatment failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier P Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)infection is the main cause of gastritis,gastroduodenal ulcer disease,and gastric cancer.After more than 20 years of experience in Hpylori treatment,in my opinion,the ideal regimen to treat this infection is still to be found.Currently,apart from having to know first-line eradication regimens well,we must also be prepared to face lyeatment failures.Therefore,in designing a treatment strategy we should not focus on the results of primary therapy alone,but also on the final (overall) eradication rate.The choice of a "rescue" treatment depends on which treatment is used initially.If a clarithromycinbased regimen was used initially,a subsequent metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy)may be used afterwards,and then a levofloxacinbased combination would be a third "rescue" option.Alternatively,it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging second-line strategy,representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure,with the advantage of efficacy,simplicity and safety.In this case,a quadruple regimen may be reserved as a third-line rescue option.Finally,rifabutin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging empirical fourthline strategy after multiple previous eradication failures with key antibiotics such as amoxicillin,clarithromycin,metronidazole,tetracycline,and levofloxacin.Even after two consecutive failures,several studies have demonstrated that H pylor/eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several rescue therapies are consecutively given.Therefore,the attitude in H pylori eradication therapy failure,even after two or more unsuccessful attempts,should be to fight and not to surrender.

  19. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li; Lu, Yuan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them.

  20. Successful cardiopulmonary bypass in diabetics with anaphylactoid reactions to protamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, W. S.; Reid, K G; Hider, C F; Davidson, I. A.; Boulton, F. E.; Yap, P L

    1984-01-01

    Two insulin dependent diabetics with previous anaphylactic like (anaphylactoid) reactions to protamine underwent successful cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery surgery. Platelet concentrates instead of protamine were used to neutralise their systemic heparinisation. In both cases the anaphylactoid reactions first became apparent after administration of protamine sulphate at the end of cardiac catheterisation. These cases show that adverse reactions to protamine need not be a contraindi...

  1. Estimation of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S F; Stadeager, Carsten Preben; Siemkowicz, E

    1990-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cardiac output (CO) were measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients who were unsuccessfully resuscitated by use of C14-iodoantipyrine injected into the left ventricle. CO varied between 1.3 and 2.2 l/min with mean 1.8 +/- 0.6 l/min (+/- SD) (28 ml...... resuscitation showed signs of maldistribution suggestive of a patchy and incomplete perfusion....

  2. Current Care Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation : Implementation, skills and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    MÀkinen, Marja

    2010-01-01

    Background: The national resuscitation guidelines were published in Finland in 2002 and are based on international guidelines published in 2000. The main goal of the national guidelines, available on the Internet free of charge, is early defibrillation by nurses in an institutional setting. Aim: To study possible changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practices, especially concerning early defibrillation, nurses and students attitudes of guideline implementation and nurses and ...

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua Huang; Qunying Liu; Jinliang Li; Xuejiang Li; Jin You; Liang Zhang; Changfu Tian; Rongsheng Luan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate sta-tistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in mul-tivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the oc-currence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and contrast media reactions in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To assess current knowledge and training in the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation within a radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard of knowledge about the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation among radiologists, radiographers and nurses were audited using a two-section questionnaire. Our results were compared against nationally accepted standards. Repeat audits were undertaken over a 28-month period. Three full audit cycles were completed. RESULTS: The initial audit confirmed that although a voluntary training programme was in place, knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques were below acceptable levels (set at 70%) for all staff members. The mean score for radiologists was 50%. Immediate changes instituted included retraining courses, the distribution of standard guidelines and the composition and distribution of two separate information handouts. Initial improvements were complemented by new wallcharts, which were distributed throughout the department, a series of lectures on management of contrast reactions and regular reviews with feedback to staff. In the third and final audit all staff groups had surpassed the required standard. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of contrast media reactions and resuscitation needs constant updating. Revision of skills requires a prescriptive programme; visual display of advice is a constant reminder. It is our contention all radiology departmental staff should consider it a personal duty to maintain their resuscitation skills at appropriate standards. O'Neill, J.M., McBride, K.D.(2001). Clinical Radiology 00, 000-000

  5. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  6. CPR - adult and child 9 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child 9 years and older; Rescue breathing ...

  7. Brief Bedside Refresher Training to Practice Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in the Ambulatory Surgery Center Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemery, Stephanie; Kelly, Kelley; Wilson, Connie; Wheeler, Corrine A

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac arrest can occur in any health care setting at any time, requiring nursing staff to be prepared to quickly and adequately perform basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Currently, the American Heart Association certifies health care providers in Basic Life Support (BLS) for a 2-year period, but evidence indicates that psychomotor skills decline well before the end of the certification time frame. Nurses in the ambulatory surgery setting expressed concern regarding their ability to implement CPR successfully, given the infrequent occurrence of cardiac and respiratory arrests. Using a study by Niles et al. as a model, the authors piloted the implementation of brief CPR refresher training at the bedside of an ambulatory surgery center to assess and increase nurse confidence in BLS skills. PMID:26247660

  8. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass—Temperature Management during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A.; Likosky, Donald S.; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: To improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendation. PMID:26543248

  9. The Effect of Repeat Cardiopulmonary bypass on Epicardial Microflow and Graft Flow during Intra-operative Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective The relationship between graft blood flow, epicardial microflow,mean arterial pressure and hemorheologic changes was studied during intraoperative heart failure.Methods These parameters were done to evaluate the use of repeated cardiopulmonary bypass supportfor the intraoperative heart failure following aorto-coronary bypass surgery. Included in this study were10 patients with a mean age of 7 0 and unstable angina undergoing coronary bypass grafting and suffer-ing from intraoperative heart failure. The epicardiai microflow, graft flow, mean arterial pressureand blood cell filterability were measured. Resluts During heart failure, the mean arterial pressurefell by 41 % ( P < 0. 01 ), graft flow by 67 % ( P < 0. 01 ) and epicardialmicro flow by 64 % ( P <0. 01 ). After 1 5 to 56 min of assisted cardiopulmonary bypass support, the epicardial mioroflow andgraft flow were partially restored, while red cell and white cell filterability was reduced by 31% and644 % respectively ( P < 0. 01 ). There were significant correlations between graft flow, epicardial mi-croflow, blooxd cell filterability and cardiopulmonary bypass time. All patients recovered and were dis-charged from the hospital. Conclusion It is concluded that the use of temporary assisted CPB sup-port to treat intrapoperative heart failure allows the recovery of the myocardium and thereby restores themean arterial pressure. The recovery of graft flow and epicardial flow occurred to a lesser extent. TheCPB support seemed to be suitable for about 60 rain probably because of increasing disturbance to theblood cell filterability, graft flow and the epicardial microcirculation.

  10. Gateway for migrant rescue in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Zarb Adami, Kris; Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Malta should set up a coastal over-the-horizon radar (developed at ISSA-Institute of Space Science and Astronomy) with the capability of detecting small fast-moving vessels within a 1000km radius. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/gateway-for-migrant-rescue-in-the-mediterranean/

  11. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.

    1999-09-14

    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions.

  12. Coordinated action in a heterogeneous rescue team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Alnajar; H. Nijhuis; A. Visser

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to make use of a heterogeneous robot team for the RoboCup Rescue League Virtual Robot competition. We will demonstrate coordinated action between a flying and a ground robot. The flying robot is used for fast exploration and allows the operator to find the pl

  13. Minimizing extinction risk through genetic rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waite, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the genetic rescue hypothesis, immigrants can improve population persistence through their genetic contribution alone. We investigate the potential for such rescue using small, inbred laboratory populations of the bean beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus. We ask how many migrants per generation (MPG are needed to minimize the genetic component of extinction risk. During Phase 1, population size was made to fluctuate between 6 and 60 (for 10 generations. During this phase, we manipulated the number of MPG, replacing 0, 1, 3, or 5 females every generation with immigrant females. During Phase 2, we simply set an upper limit on population size (.10. Compared with the 0-MPG treatment, the other treatments were equivalently effective at improving reproductive success and reducing extinction risk. A single MPG was sufficient for genetic rescue, apparently because effective migration rate was inflated dramatically during generations when population size was small. An analysis of quasi-extinction suggests that replicate populations in the 1-MPG treatment benefited from initial purging of inbreeding depression. Populations in this treatment performed so well apparently because they received the dual benefit of purging followed by genetic infusion. Our results suggest the need for further evaluation of alternative schemes for genetic rescue.

  14. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost.

  15. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  16. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... mine rescue team training. MSHA prescribes training materials through the issuance of instruction guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify...

  17. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative... teams which are available at all times when miners are underground; or (2) Enter into an arrangement...

  18. Human Cells Require Non-stop Ribosome Rescue Activity in Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Feaga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use trans-translation and the alternative rescue factors ArfA (P36675 and ArfB (Q9A8Y3 to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on ribosomes that stall near the 3' end of an mRNA during protein synthesis. The eukaryotic protein ICT1 (Q14197 is homologous to ArfB. In vitro ribosome rescue assays of human ICT1 and Caulobacter crescentus ArfB showed that these proteins have the same activity and substrate specificity. Both ArfB and ICT1 hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on nonstop ribosomes or ribosomes stalled with ≤6 nucleotides extending past the A site, but are unable to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA when the mRNA extends ≥14 nucleotides past the A site. ICT1 provided sufficient ribosome rescue activity to support viability in C. crescentus cells that lacked both trans-translation and ArfB. Likewise, expression of ArfB protected human cells from death when ICT1 was silenced with siRNA. These data indicate that ArfB and ICT1 are functionally interchangeable, and demonstrate that ICT1 is a ribosome rescue factor. Because ICT1 is essential in human cells, these results suggest that ribosome rescue activity in mitochondria is required in humans.

  19. Veno-arterial ECMO for rescue of severe airway hemorrhage with rigid bronchoscopy after pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Alves, Silvia; Pérez-Vela, Jose Luis; Grau-Carmona, Teodoro; Domínguez-Aguado, Helena; Marín-Mateos, Helena; Renes-Carreño, Emilio

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the treatment of choice to relieve pulmonary artery obstruction in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We present a patient with airway obstruction and acute respiratory failure due to large blood clots obstructing the trachea and main left bronchus. This condition was accompanied by right ventricle failure and cardiogenic shock. A venoarterial ECMO system was used for cardiopulmonary support before extracting the clots and clearing the airway by rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:27229321

  20. How to Rescue American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  1. Launch-Off-Need Shuttle Hubble Rescue Mission: Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Ilcus, Linda; Perchonok, Michele; Polk, James; Brandt, Keith; Powers, Edward; Stepaniak, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Hubble repair mission (STS-125) is unique in that a rescue mission (STS-400) has to be ready to launch before STS-125 life support runs out should the vehicle become stranded. The shuttle uses electrical power derived from fuel cells that use cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen (CRYO) to run all subsystems including the Environmental Control System. If the STS-125 crew cannot return to Earth due to failure of a critical subsystem, they must power down all nonessential systems and wait to be rescued by STS-400. This power down will cause the cabin temperature to be 60 F or less and freeze the rest of the vehicle, preventing it from attempting a reentry. After an emergency has been declared, STS-125 must wait at least 7 days to power down since that is the earliest that STS-400 can be launched. Problem The delayed power down of STS-125 causes CYRO to be consumed at high rates and limits the survival time after STS-400 launches to 10 days or less. CRYO will run out sooner every day that the STS-400 launch is delayed (weather at launch, technical issues etc.). To preserve CRYO and lithium hydroxide (LiOH - carbon dioxide removal) the crew will perform no exercise to reduce their metabolic rates, yet each deconditioned STS-125 crewmember must perform an EVA to rescue himself. The cabin may be cold for 10 days, which may cause shivering, increasing the metabolic rate of the STS-125 crew. Solution To preserve LiOH, the STS-125 manifest includes nutrition bars with low carbohydrate content to maintain crew respiratory quotient (RQ) below 0.85 as opposed to the usual shuttle galley food which is rich in carbohydrates and keeps the RQ at approximately 0.95. To keep the crew more comfortable in the cold vehicle warm clothing also has been included. However, with no exercise and limited diet, the deconditioned STS-125 crew returning on STS-400 may not be able to egress the vehicle autonomously requiring a supplemented crash-and-rescue capability.

  2. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Adolescents With Dystrophinopathies : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Bart; Takken, Tim; Blank, A. Christian; van Moorsel, Huib; van der Pol, W. Ludo; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine exercise response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies. Methods: Exercise response on the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was compared with a standard care test protocol. Results: Nine boys (aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years) wi

  3. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  4. Rescue of mumps virus from cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D K; Sidhu, M S; Johnson, J E; Udem, S A

    2000-05-01

    A complete DNA copy of the genome of a Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus (15,384 nucleotides) was assembled from cDNA fragments such that an exact antigenome RNA could be generated following transcription by T7 RNA polymerase and cleavage by hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. The plasmid containing the genome sequence, together with support plasmids which express mumps virus NP, P, and L proteins under control of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter, were transfected into A549 cells previously infected with recombinant vaccinia virus (MVA-T7) that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Rescue of infectious virus from the genome cDNA was demonstrated by amplification of mumps virus from transfected-cell cultures and by subsequent consensus sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products generated from infected-cell RNA to verify the presence of specific nucleotide tags introduced into the genome cDNA clone. The only coding change (position 8502, A to G) in the cDNA clone relative to the consensus sequence of the Jeryl Lynn plaque isolate from which it was derived, resulting in a lysine-to-arginine substitution at amino acid 22 of the L protein, did not prevent rescue of mumps virus, even though an amino acid alignment for the L proteins of paramyxoviruses indicates that lysine is highly conserved at that position. This system may provide the basis of a safe and effective virus vector for the in vivo expression of immunologically and biologically active proteins, peptides, and RNAs.

  5. Effect of exercise training on cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, G. W.; Convertino, V. A.; Nadel, E. R.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the stimulus-response characteristics of cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) in four groups of male volunteer subjects: i) unfit, ii) physically fit, iii) before and after 10 wk of endurance training (chronic blood volume expansion), and iv) before and after acute blood volume expansion. We assessed the relationship between reflex stimulus, i.e., changes in central venous pressure and response, i.e., FVR, during unloading of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors with lower body negative pressure (LBNP, 0 to -20 mm Hg). The slope of the linear relationship between FVR and CVP, the index of the responsiveness of this baroreflex, was significantly diminished (> 50%) in the fit subjects compared with the unfit. The slope of the FVR-CVP relationship was inversely correlated with the subject's total blood volume, suggesting that blood volume expansion was related to the attenuated CP baroreflex. In the exercise training study, maximal oxygen consumption and blood volume increased following 10 wk of endurance training (N = 14) but were unchanged in the time control group (N = 7). The slope of the FVR-CVP relationship was significantly reduced (32%) following 10 wk of training but was unchanged in the time control group. The reduction in slope of the FVR-CVP relationship was inversely related to the increase in blood volume associated with exercise training. Acute blood volume expansion 8 ml.kg-1 body weight with 5% human serum albumin solution) significantly reduced the slope of the FVR-CVP relationship. These data support the hypothesis that the attenuated forearm vascular reflex in physically fit individuals is related to a training-induced hypervolemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Pancreatic cellular injury after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: frequency, time course and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Monique; Venneman, Ingrid; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Vanbelle, Sophie; Albert, Adelin; Camus, Gérard; Damas, Pierre; Larbuisson, Robert; Lamy, Maurice

    2007-05-01

    Although often clinically silent, pancreatic cellular injury (PCI) is relatively frequent after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass; and its etiology and time course are largely unknown. We defined PCI as the simultaneous presence of abnormal values of pancreatic isoamylase and immunoreactive trypsin (IRT). The frequency and time evolution of PCI were assessed in this condition using assays for specific exocrine pancreatic enzymes. Correlations with inflammatory markers were searched for preoperative risk factors. One hundred ninety-three patients submitted to cardiac surgery were enrolled prospectively. Blood IRT, amylase, pancreatic isoamylase, lipase, and markers of inflammation (alpha1-protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin, myeloperoxidase) were measured preoperatively and postoperatively until day 8. The postoperative increase in plasma levels of pancreatic enzymes and urinary IRT was biphasic in all patients: early after surgery and later (from day 4 to 8 after surgery). One hundred thirty-three patients (69%) experienced PCI, with mean IRT, isoamylase, and alpha1-protease inhibitor values higher for each sample than that in patients without PCI. By multiple regression analysis, we found preoperative values of plasma IRT >or=40 ng/mL, amylase >or=42 IU/mL, and pancreatic isoamylase >or=20 IU/L associated with a higher incidence of postsurgery PCI (P < 0.005). In the PCI patients, a significant correlation was found between the 4 pancreatic enzymes and urinary IRT, total calcium, myeloperoxidase, alpha1-protease inhibitor, and alpha2-macroglobulin. These data support a high prevalence of postoperative PCI after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, typically biphasic and clinically silent, especially when pancreatic enzymes were elevated preoperatively.

  7. Potential wrist ligament injury in rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Curran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrist pain in rescuers performing chest compressions as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been reported anecdotally and recently in the literature. Studies have indicated that rescuers apply as much as 644 N of force to the victim′s chest with each compression, while standards require one hundred compressions per minute. Recent research suggests that forces transmitted through the rescuers′ wrists of less than 10% of those seen during the performance of chest compressions significantly strain the scapholunate ligament. Biomechanical research should be performed to further evaluate this possible correlation. Compensation for worker injury maybe involved.

  8. A method of automatic control procedures cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.

  9. Lepirudin as an alternative to "heparin allergy" during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissis Haralabos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A treatment strategy of a difficult and unusual problem is presented. We are reporting a case of a patient who had a documented allergy to heparin and required Cardiac surgery for an ASD closure. The anticoagulation regime used during cardiopulmonary bypass was lepirudin based. This report indicates that r-hirudin provides effective anticoagulation, however unless ECT is monitoring, post operative hemorrhage is encountered. Therefore this case is unique not only because of its rarity but also by the fact that it presents the caveats encountered when ECT is not available.

  10. Comparative study of the protective effect using hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Pei-li; FU Qing-lin; ZHANG Xin-zhong; ZHANG-Jie; QIN Yuan-xu; CUI Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the detrimental influence of normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary by-pass during open - heart surgery on immunity function,cytokines and complements. Methods Forty patients with con-genital or rheumatic heart disease were randomized to receive the two strategies: normothermie CPB (study group) andhypothermic CPB (control group) ,20 cases in each group. Venous blood samples were collected at each time points ofpreoperation, end of CPB, day 1,4,7,14 postoperatively to examine the plasma level of IL - 2, TNF - α, C3, C4, IgG,IgM, IgA, CD3, CD4, CD8. Results IL -2 in both groups decreased significantly at day 1,4, and returned to normal atday 7 postoperatively. IL - 2 in control group was significantly lower than that in study group postoperatively. TNF - α intwo groups was all higher at time points of end of CPB,day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group,it returned to normallevel at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in control group, it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before oper-ation ,and returned to normal at day 14 postoperatively. C3 in study group was significantly lower at time points of endof CPB,day 1,7 postoperatively than that in control group;C3 in both groups was all higher at time points of end ofCPB, day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group, it returned to normal level at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in controlgroup,it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before operation and returned to normal at day 14 postopera-tively. CA in study group at time points of end of CPB, day 1 postoperatively was significantly lower than that in controlgroup;C4 in both groups was all lower at time points of end of CPB, day 1,4 postoperatively than that before operation.The results showed that IgA after operation in both groups was significantly lower than that before operation, and re-turned to normal at day 7 postoperatively;IgA in study group at day 1 postoperatively was higher than that in controlgroup. IgG in

  11. Home Care Providers to the Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen M; Brøndum, Stig; Thomas, Grethe;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the implementation of a novel first-responder programme in which home care providers equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were dispatched in parallel with existing emergency medical services in the event of a suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA......). METHODS: We evaluated a one-year prospective study that trained home care providers in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and using an AED in cases of suspected OHCA. Data were collected from cardiac arrest case files, case files from each provider dispatch and a survey among dispatched...... providers. The study was conducted in a rural district in Denmark. RESULTS: Home care providers were dispatched to 28 of the 60 OHCAs that occurred in the study period. In ten cases the providers arrived before the ambulance service and subsequently performed CPR. AED analysis was executed in three cases...

  12. Gravity and the evolution of cardiopulmonary morphology in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Albert, James S; Sheehy, Coleman M; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-02-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse - significantly longer heart-head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart-to-head distance and length of vascular lung are co-adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes.

  13. CLINICAL ADVANTAGES OF TOTAL CAVOPULMONARY ANASTOMOSIS WITHOUT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-min Chu; Qing-yu Wu; Jian-ping Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate surgical methods and results of extracardiac conduit total cavopulmonary anastomosis (ECTCPA) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods From May 2000 to April 2003, 11 patients with functional univentricle underwent off-pump EC-TCPA (noCPB group). Their postoperative outcome was retrospectively compared with a 17-patient group who underwent EC-TCPA with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB group) over a concurrent time period.Results There was 1 operative death in no-CPB group and 2 in CPB group; early postoperative hemodynamics appeared to significantly improve in no-CPB group. Blood and platelet transfusions decreased and blood plasma transfusion significantly lowered in no-CPB group compared with CPB group (P = 0.036). Postoperative courses of patients in no-CPB group were smooth and event free, and extubation time was substantially short. Intensive cares unit stay (P=0.04) and hospital stay (P= 0.02) postoperation were significantly shorter, hospital costs were significantly reduced (P= 0.004) in no-CPB group compared with CPB group.Conclusions EC-TCPA without use of CPB is not a difficult procedure; the procedure results in improvement in postoperative hemodynamics, and decreased use of blood and blood products. It is a more efficient operation with more short recovery time and reduced hospital stay.

  14. Myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Aron-Frederik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodynamic function may be depressed in the early postoperative stages after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the analysis of the myocardial contractility in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and mild hypothermia. Methods Three indices of left ventricular myocardial contractile function (dP/dt, (dP/dt/P, and wall thickening were studied up to 6 hours after CPB in neonatal piglets (CPB group; n = 4. The contractility data were analysed and then compared to the data of newborn piglets who also underwent median thoracotomy and instrumentation for the same time intervals but without CPB (non-CPB group; n = 3. Results Left ventricular dP/dtmax and (dP/dtmax/P remained stable in CPB group, while dP/dtmax decreased in non-CPB group 5 hours postoperatively (1761 ± 205 mmHg/s at baseline vs. 1170 ± 205 mmHg/s after 5 h; p max and (dP/dtmax/P there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Comparably, although myocardial thickening decreased in the non-CPB group the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions The myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets remained stable 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass and mild hypothermia probably due to regional hypercontractility.

  15. Age-related changes in chest geometry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Schleien, C L; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Rogers, M C; Traystman, R J

    1987-06-01

    We studied alterations of chest geometry during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized immature swine. Pulsatile force was applied to the sternum in increments to determine the effects of increasing compression on chest geometry and intrathoracic vascular pressures. In 2-wk- and 1-mo-old piglets, permanent changes in chest shape developed due to incomplete recoil of the chest along the anteroposterior axis, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were generated. In 3-mo-old animals, permanent chest deformity did not develop, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were not produced. We propose a theoretical model of the chest as an elliptic cylinder. Pulsatile displacement along the minor axis of an ellipse produces a greater decrease in cross-sectional area than displacement of a circular cross section. As thoracic cross section became less circular due to deformity, greater changes in thoracic volume, and hence pressure, were produced. With extreme deformity at high force, pulsatile displacement became limited, diminishing pressure generation. We conclude that changes in chest geometry are important in producing intrathoracic intravascular pressure during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in piglets. PMID:3610916

  16. Descriptive Analysis of Medication Administration During Inpatient Cardiopulmonary Arrest Resuscitation (from the Mayo Registry for Telemetry Efficacy in Arrest Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Ray, Jordan; Matcha, Gautam; Roy, Archana; Dumitrascu, Adrian; Harris, Dana; Bosworth, Veronica; Clark, Brooke; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Kusumoto, Fred; Burton, M Caroline

    2016-05-15

    Advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines exist, yet there are variations in clinical practice. Our study aims to describe the utilization of medications during resuscitation from in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective review of patients who suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest from May 2008 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical and resuscitation data, including timing and dose of medications used, were extracted from the electronic medical record and comparisons made. A total of 94 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into different groups based on the medication combination used during resuscitation: (1) epinephrine; (2) epinephrine and bicarbonate; (3) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and calcium; (4) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and epinephrine drip; and (5) epinephrine, bicarbonate, calcium, and epinephrine drip. No difference in baseline demographics or clinical data was present, apart from history of dementia and the use of calcium channel blockers. The number of medications given was correlated with resuscitation duration (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.50, p <0.001). The proportion of patients who died during the arrest was 12.5% in those who received epinephrine alone, 30.0% in those who received only epinephrine and bicarbonate, and 46.7% to 57.9% in the remaining groups. Patients receiving only epinephrine had shorter resuscitation durations compared to that of the other groups (p <0.001) and improved survival (p = 0.003). In conclusion, providers frequently use nonguideline medications in resuscitation efforts for in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests. Increased duration and mortality rates were found in those resuscitations compared with epinephrine alone, likely due to the longer resuscitation duration in the former groups. PMID:27015887

  17. Evaluation of Smartphone Applications for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There are many smartphone-based applications (apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training. We investigated the conformity and the learnability/usability of these apps for CPR training and real-life supports. Methods. We conducted a mixed-method, sequential explanatory study to assess CPR training apps downloaded on two apps stores in South Korea. Apps were collected with inclusion criteria as follows, Korean-language instruction, training features, and emergency supports for real-life incidents, and analyzed with two tests; 15 medical experts evaluated the apps’ contents according to current Basic Life Support guidelines in conformity test, and 15 nonmedical individuals examined the apps using System Usability Scale (SUS in the learnability/usability test. Results. Out of 79 selected apps, five apps were included and analyzed. For conformity (ICC, 0.95, p<0.001, means of all apps were greater than 12 of 20 points, indicating that they were well designed according to current guidelines. Three of the five apps yielded acceptable level (greater than 68 of 100 points for learnability/usability. Conclusion. All the included apps followed current BLS guidelines and a majority offered acceptable learnability/usability for layperson. Current and developmental smartphone-based CPR training apps should include accurate CPR information and be easy to use for laypersons that are potential rescuers in real-life incidents. For Clinical Trials. This is a clinical trial, registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, cris.nih.go.kr, number KCT0001840.

  18. Myocardial edema and compromised left ventricular function attributable to dirofilariasis and cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D A; Davis, K L; Mehlhorn, U; Allen, S J; Laine, G A

    1995-02-01

    We investigated the relation between left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial edema in dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection that were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Dogs with and without D immitis were anesthetized by continuous thiopental infusion and were mechanically ventilated. Sonomicrometry crystals were placed on the long and short axes of the left ventricle, and a Millar pressure transducer was placed in the left ventricular chamber. Pressure-volume loops were digitized and continuously recorded. Dogs with and without D immitis were placed on standard hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 hour of aortic cross-clamp. Wet-to-dry weight ratio corrected for residual blood volume was used to quantitate the volume of myocardial edema. Preload recruitable stroke work was used as a preload-independent index of systolic function. Tau, the isovolumic relaxation time constant, was determined to assess diastolic relaxation. Dogs with D immitis had increased baseline myocardial wet-to-dry weight ratio. After cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial edema increased in all dogs. Acute edema attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass decreased preload recruitable stroke work in all dogs of both groups, and dogs with D immitis could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Myocardial edema increased diastolic relaxation times (tau) in dogs with and without D immitis. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass and heartworm infection induce myocardial edema. This edema compromises left ventricular systolic and diastolic function making D immitis an important confounding factor in weaning dogs from cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:7717590

  19. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cyrogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine escape and rescue scenarios. Technologies developed for mine rescue directly benefit future NASA rescue and ground operation missions.

  20. Cardiopulmonary malformations in the inv/inv mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, T C; Miga, D E; Mjaatvedt, C H; Phelps, A L; Wessels, A

    2001-05-01

    The inv/inv mouse carries an insertional mutation in the inversin gene, (inv, for inversion of embryonic turning). Previously it had been reported that almost 100% of the homozygous offspring (inv/inv) were characterized by situs inversus totalis. In this report we identify the spectrum of cardiopulmonary anatomical abnormalities in inv/inv mice surviving to birth to determine whether the abnormalities seen are of the categories classically associated with human situs abnormalities. Stillborn mice, offspring that died unexpectedly (within 48 hr after birth), and neonates with phenotypic characteristics of situs inversus (right-sided stomachs, growth failure or jaundice) were processed for standard histological examination. Of 173 offspring, 34 (20%) neonates (11 stillborn, 9 unexpected deaths, and 14 mice with situs inversus phenotype) were examined, 27 of which were genotyped to be inv/inv. Interestingly, three inv/inv mice (11%) were found to have situs solitus. Twenty-four had situs inversus with normal, mirror-image cardiac anatomy (dextrocardia with atrioventricular concordance, ventriculoarterial concordance and a right aortic arch). The overall incidence of cardiovascular anomalies observed was 10 out of 27 (37%). The most frequent severe malformation, identified in 3 out of 27 animals, was a complex consisting of pulmonary infundibular stenosis/atresia with absence of pulmonary valve tissue and a ventricular septal defect. The pulmonary phenotype in inv/inv mice was situs inversus with occasional minor lobar abnormalities. We conclude that 1) cardiopulmonary malformations in inv/inv mice are not rare (37%), 2) the cardiopulmonary malformations observed in inv/inv specimens are not of the spectrum typically associated with human heterotaxia. In particular, inv/inv mice have a propensity for defects in the development of the right ventricular outflow tract and the interventricular septum, and 3) approximately one out of ten inv/inv mice is born with situs

  1. Lipid rescue in children: The prompt decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizaga Rebollar, Ramón; García Palacios, María V; Morales Guerrero, Javier; Torres Morera, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 17-month-old child who underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia and caudal block. Electrocardiogram ST-T changes were observed after local anesthetic injection. The prompt use of Intralipid 30% was successful in normalizing ECG alterations. Our experience is consistent with previous literature, mainly carried out in adults. Thereby, we conduct a brief review of the subject in pediatrics. As a major conclusion, we strongly recommend the "fast-track" lipid rescue as soon as this severe complication is detected. PMID:27290983

  2. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly: a clinical and ethical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The daily practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in elderly patients has brought up the attention of outcome research and resource allocation. Determinants to predict survival have been well identified. There has been empirical evidence that CPR is of doubtful utility in the geriatric population, more studies have showed controversial data. Sometimes situations in which CPR needs to be given in the elderly, causes stress to healthcare providers, due to lack of communication of the patient's wishes and the belief that it will not be successful. It is of importance to state that we have the duty to identify on time the patients that will most likely benefit from CPR, and find out the preferences of the same. Whenever it is possible to institute these guidelines, we will avoid patient suffering.

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing after laryngectomy: A connection conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Overstreet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presents with a new bronchogenic carcinoma 5 years after laryngectomy for recurrent laryngeal tumor and 13 years after chemoradiation for concurrent lung cancer with synchronous base-of-tongue tumor. Due to his complex history and perceived limited respiratory reserve, he was felt high risk for the completion pneumonectomy needed for resection of this new tumor. The attending surgeon requested a full cardiopulmonary exercise test for risk assessment prior to surgery. We found that there was no commercially available connector that would allow our CPET equipment to reliably collect respiratory gases from a patient with tracheostomy stoma or tube. We report here a simple coupling devised “in house” that allowed for the performance of an interpretable test leading to a significant change in medical care.

  5. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing after laryngectomy: A connection conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Shana; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Gross, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A patient presents with a new bronchogenic carcinoma 5 years after laryngectomy for recurrent laryngeal tumor and 13 years after chemoradiation for concurrent lung cancer with synchronous base-of-tongue tumor. Due to his complex history and perceived limited respiratory reserve, he was felt high risk for the completion pneumonectomy needed for resection of this new tumor. The attending surgeon requested a full cardiopulmonary exercise test for risk assessment prior to surgery. We found that there was no commercially available connector that would allow our CPET equipment to reliably collect respiratory gases from a patient with tracheostomy stoma or tube. We report here a simple coupling devised "in house" that allowed for the performance of an interpretable test leading to a significant change in medical care. PMID:26744642

  6. Voice advisory manikin versus instructor facilitated training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla; Rasmussen, Maria B;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training of healthcare staff in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is time-consuming and costly. It has been suggested to replace instructor facilitated (IF) training with an automated voice advisory manikin (VAM), which increases skill level by continuous verbal feedback during...... individual training. AIMS: To compare a VAM (ResusciAnne CPR skills station, Laerdal Medical A/S, Norway) with IF training in CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) in terms of skills retention after 3 months. METHODS: Forty-three second year medical students were included and CPR performance (ERC Guidelines...... for Resuscitation 2005) was assessed in a 2 min test before randomisation to either IF training in groups of 8 or individual VAM training. Immediately after training and after 3 months, CPR performance was assessed in identical 2 min tests. Laerdal PC Skill Reporting System 2.0 was used to collect data. To quantify...

  7. Emergency medical rescue efforts after a major earthquake: lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Xu; Li, Youping; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Juncong; Shen, Ji; Tang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Wannian

    2012-03-01

    Major earthquakes often result in incalculable environmental damage, loss of life, and threats to health. Tremendous progress has been made in response to many medical challenges resulting from earthquakes. However, emergency medical rescue is complicated, and great emphasis should be placed on its organisation to achieve the best results. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake was one of the most devastating disasters in the past 10 years and caused more than 370,000 casualties. The lessons learnt from the medical disaster relief effort and the subsequent knowledge gained about the regulation and capabilities of medical and military back-up teams should be widely disseminated. In this Review we summarise and analyse the emergency medical rescue efforts after the Wenchuan earthquake. Establishment of a national disaster medical response system, an active and effective commanding system, successful coordination between rescue forces and government agencies, effective treatment, a moderate, timely and correct public health response, and long-term psychological support are all crucial to reduce mortality and morbidity and promote overall effectiveness of rescue efforts after a major earthquake.

  8. The Pain and the Gain of Rescuing Historic Science Data: The Nimbus Data Rescue Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, D. W.; Campbell, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    While technology of our satellite systems have greatly improved the quality of observations over the past 50 years, it is the legacy of the first global coverage environment satellites, the Nimbus systems launched by NASA in the mid-1960s, that marks the beginning of a unique perspective from space. Such early data can extend our climate record and provide important context in longer-term climate changes. Unfortunately, the Nimbus data nearly disappeared before its value was recognized and attempts to recover the data were undertaken. While the Nimbus data was never truly lost, it was in a form that could not be read and was not organized in a way that could be accessed with modern computer systems. The rescue and recovery of the Nimbus data began in 2007 with an initiative by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Without the Goddard efforts, the early Nimbus data might be forever dark. The Nimbus Rescue Project has just completed processing and archival of the Nimbus 4 visible and infrared observations from 1970 and 1971. This adds to our rescue efforts from Nimbus 1, 2 and 3 for 1964, 1966 and 1969. The procedures to recover the Nimbus data, from both film and tape, could be used by other data rescue projects, however the algorithms presented will tend to be Nimbus specific. The compositing of the mapped minimum brightness over weekly intervals resulted in never before seen views of the Polar Regions, such as a visible light view of the Antarctic ice extent from October 1970 (Figure 1). The Nimbus data recovery and reprocessing into modern formats was important, however it was the utility of the data as a part of the satellite climate record that made it valuable. Data rescue projects are often both difficult and time consuming but the data they bring back to the science community makes these efforts worthwhile.

  9. Electroencephalography during surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashein, G; Nessly, M L; Bledsoe, S W; Townes, B D; Davis, K B; Coppel, D B; Hornbein, T F

    1992-06-01

    After more than 30 yr of use, electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass has not gained wide clinical acceptance. To assess its utility to predict central nervous system injury, two-channel recordings were made from 78 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and anesthetized with fentanyl/diazepam/enflurane. The perfusion regimen included the use of high pump flow, a bubble oxygenator, and no arterial tubing filter. Target values were 28-32 degrees C for the minimum rectal temperature, 60-80 mmHg for mean arterial pressure, and 20-25% for hematocrit. Eight descriptors of the Fourier power spectra of the EEG were calculated off-line, and outcome comparisons were made with the results from neuropsychological tests. Among 58 patients yielding complete data of acceptable quality, a statistically significant reduction in total power was observed from prebypass to postbypass, accompanied by an increase in the fractional power in the theta and beta frequency bands and in the spectral edge frequency. The shifts in total and theta power were weakly associated with short-term but not with long-term changes in neuropsychological scores. Nearly 40% of the patients' EEGs were corrupted with electrical noise at some time during bypass. In 15 patients selected for having high-quality recordings and no neuropsychological deficit, an extensive statistical analysis failed to reveal any consistent variation in the EEG descriptors with hypothermia. Under the conditions studied, it appears that for other than gross signal dropout, the strong background variability in the EEG makes it have little value for detecting harbingers of brain injury.

  10. Antioxidative effect of propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-hai ZHANG; Shou-yong WANG; Shang-long YAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antioxidative potential of propofol (an intravenous anesthetic with a chemical structure similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as vitamin E) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS:Thirty adult patients referred for elective cardiac procedure with CPB were included and randomly allocated to a nously for anesthesia maintenance, whereas those allocated to the control group received fentanyl 10 μg/kg intravenously and inhaled enflurane (1%-1.5 %). Blood samples were collected at 7 time points: before the start of CPB,at 30 and 60 min of CPB, at the conclusion of CPB, 10 min after the administration of protamine, and 12 and 24 h after the cessation of CPB. Plasma levels of free F2-isoprostanes (sensitive markers of free radicals production)and complement C5a were determined by mass-spectrometric assay and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was observed at x200 magnification under a light microscope. RESULTS:Levels of F2-isoprostanes, complement C5a and neutrophil adhesion rate increased significantly during and after CPB in both groups. There were significantly higher levels of F2-isoprostanes, C5a, and more neutrophils adhering to endothelial cells in the control group than those in the propofol group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a great production of damaging free radicals. Propofol may be beneficial both as an anesthetic and as a potent free radical scavenger in patients presenting pathologies associated with free radical reactions during CPB.

  11. Assessing Late Cardiopulmonary Function in Patients with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Using Exercise Cardiopulmonary Function Test and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lin, Ming-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) usually experience progressive right ventricle (RV) dysfunction due to pulmonary regurgitation (PR). This could further worsen the cardiopulmonary function. This study aimed to compare the changes in patient exercise cardiopulmonary test and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and consider the implication of these changes. Methods Our study examined repaired TOF patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) to obtain maximal (peak oxygen consumption, peak VO2) and submaximal parameters (oxygen uptake efficiency plateau, oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP), and ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production, VE/VCO2 slope). Additionally, the hemodynamic status was assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance. Criteria for exclusion included TOF patients with pulmonary atresia, atrioventricular septal defect, or absence of pulmonary valve syndrome. Results We enrolled 158 patients whose mean age at repair was 7.8 ± 9.1 years (range 0.1-49.2 years) and the mean patient age at CPET was 29.5 ± 12.2 years (range 7.0-57.0 years). Severe PR (PR fraction ≥ 40%) in 53 patients, moderate in 55, and mild (PR fraction 163 ml/m2. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 63 ± 8%, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) was 65 ± 12 ml/m2, and LVESVi was 25 ± 14 ml/m2. CPET revealed significantly decreased peak VO2 (68.5 ± 14.4% of predicted), and fair OUEP (90.3 ± 14.1% of predicted) and VE/VCO2 slope (27.1 ± 5.3). PR fraction and age at repair were negatively correlated with maximal and submaximal exercise indicators (peak VO2 and OUEP). Left ventricular (LV) function and size were positively correlated with peak VO2 and OUEP. Conclusions The results of CPET showed that patients with repaired TOF had a low maximal exercise capacity (peak VO2), but a fair submaximal exercise capacity (OUEP and VE/VCO2 slope), suggesting limited exercise capability in high

  12. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds. PMID:24730174

  13. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

  14. Impact of the initial classic section during a simulated cross-country skiing skiathlon on the cardiopulmonary responses during the subsequent period of skate skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in the performance and cardiorespiratory responses of elite cross-country skiers following transition from the classic (CL) to the skating (SK) technique during a simulated skiathlon. Eight elite male skiers performed two 6 km (2 × 3 km) roller-skiing time trials on a treadmill at racing speed: one starting with the classic and switching to the skating technique (CL1-SK2) and another employing the skating technique throughout (SK1-SK2), with continuous monitoring of gas exchanges, heart rates, and kinematics (video). The overall performance times in the CL1-SK2 (21:12 ± 1:24) and SK1-SK2 (20:48 ± 2:00) trials were similar, and during the second section of each performance times and overall cardiopulmonary responses were also comparable. However, in comparison with SK1-SK2, the CL1-SK2 trial involved significantly higher increases in minute ventilation (V̇E, 89.8 ± 26.8 vs. 106.8 ± 17.6 L·min(-1)) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2; 3.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 L·min(-1)) 2 min after the transition as well as longer time constants for V̇E, V̇O2, and heart rate during the first 3 min after the transition. This higher cardiopulmonary exertion was associated with ∼3% faster cycle rates. In conclusion, overall performance during the 2 time trials did not differ. The similar performance times during the second sections were achieved with comparable mean cardiopulmonary responses. However, the observation that during the initial 3-min post-transition following classic skiing cardiopulmonary responses and cycle rates were slightly higher supports the conclusion that an initial section of classic skiing exerts an impact on performance during a subsequent section of skate skiing.

  15. Robot-Assisted Risky Intervention, Search, Rescue and Environmental Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki K. Habib

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become the solution to many long-standing problems, and while current technologies may be effective, it is far from fully addressing the hug, complex, difficult and challenging tasks associated with disaster missions and risky intervention. The challenge is in finding creative, reliable and applicable technical solutions in such highly constrained and uncertain environment. In addition, it is necessary to overcome constrains on resources by developing innovative, cost effective and practical technology. Robotics can play important intelligent and technological roles that support first response equipment in harsh and dangerous environments while replacing rescue personnel from entering unreachable or unsafe places. Robotics solutions that are well adapted to local conditions of unstructured and unknown environment can greatly improve safety and security of personnel as well as work efficiency, productivity and flexibility. Solving and fulfilling the needs of such tasks presents challenges in robotic mechanical structure and mobility, sensors and sensor fusion, autonomous and semi autonomous control, planning and navigation, and machine intelligence. This paper categorizes the source of disasters and associated missions, and highlights the needs for suitable and reliable technology and technical and functional requirements of robotic systems to fulfill task objectives. In addition, it shows that robotic technologies can be used for disasters prevention or early warning, intervention and recovery efforts during disasters with all possible kinds of relevant missions while ensuring quality of service and safety of human beings. Some of these missions may include: demining, search and rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance and risk assessment, evacuation assistance, intrusion/victim detection and assessment, etc.

  16. Changing attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in older people: a 15-year follow-up study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P E

    2009-03-01

    while it is well established that individual patient preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may change with time, the stability of population preferences, especially during periods of social and economic change, has received little attention.

  17. Wireless System for Continuous Cardiopulmonary Monitoring in a Space Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the NJM Sense-It system based on small sensor tags, which include a cardiopulmonary MEMS sensor for measuring heartbeat and breath rates...

  18. Utilising cardiopulmonary bypass for cancer surgery. Malignancy-induced protein C deficiency and thrombophilia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, C

    2012-02-03

    Cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved over the last 30 years. It is an important tool for the cardiac surgeon today and also has applications in non-cardiac operations such as surgery to extract tumours. Such patients undergoing surgery for cancer may be at an increased risk of a thromboembolic event post surgery, due to disturbances in the normal clotting pathway leading to hypercoagulability. One such disturbance is malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency. A deficiency of Protein C can cause hypercoagulabitity. Recent studies have examined cardiopulmonary bypass and inherited Protein C deficiency. However, surgery for cancer patients with a malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency involving cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported. Surgery using CPB in these patients may result in increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to review the literature in order to discuss the occurrence, the aetiology and possible management of cancer patients with malignancy-induced Protein C deficiencies that require cardiopulmonary bypass for their surgery.

  19. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severdija, E.E.; Vranken, N.P.; Teerenstra, S.; Ganushchak, Y.M.; Weerwind, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A t

  20. Preclinical study of a novel hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal pump for long-term cardiopulmonary support : In vivo performance during percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    An extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump with a hydrodynamically levitated impeller was developed for use in a durable extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system. The present study examined the biocompatibility of the blood pump during long-term use by conducting a series of 30-day chronic animal experiments. The ECMO system was used to produce a percutaneous venoarterial bypass between the venae cavae and carotid artery in adult goats. No anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy was administered during the experiments. Three out of four animals survived for the scheduled 30-day period, and the blood pumps and membrane oxygenators both exhibited sufficient hydrodynamic performance and good antithrombogenicity, while one animal died of massive bleeding from the outflow cannulation site. The animals' plasma free hemoglobin had returned to within the normal range by 1 week after the surgical intervention, and their hemodynamic and biochemistry parameters remained within their normal ranges throughout the experiment. The explanted centrifugal blood pumps did not display any trace of thrombus formation. Based on the biocompatibility demonstrated in this study, the examined centrifugal blood pump, which includes a hydrodynamically levitated impeller, is suitable for use in durable ECMO systems.

  1. Preclinical study of a novel hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal pump for long-term cardiopulmonary support : In vivo performance during percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    An extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump with a hydrodynamically levitated impeller was developed for use in a durable extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system. The present study examined the biocompatibility of the blood pump during long-term use by conducting a series of 30-day chronic animal experiments. The ECMO system was used to produce a percutaneous venoarterial bypass between the venae cavae and carotid artery in adult goats. No anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy was administered during the experiments. Three out of four animals survived for the scheduled 30-day period, and the blood pumps and membrane oxygenators both exhibited sufficient hydrodynamic performance and good antithrombogenicity, while one animal died of massive bleeding from the outflow cannulation site. The animals' plasma free hemoglobin had returned to within the normal range by 1 week after the surgical intervention, and their hemodynamic and biochemistry parameters remained within their normal ranges throughout the experiment. The explanted centrifugal blood pumps did not display any trace of thrombus formation. Based on the biocompatibility demonstrated in this study, the examined centrifugal blood pump, which includes a hydrodynamically levitated impeller, is suitable for use in durable ECMO systems. PMID:25975380

  2. Ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass did not attenuate inflammatory response or affect postoperative outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Salman, Nevriye; Utku Unal, Ertekin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiopulmonary bypass causes a series of inflammatory events that have adverse effects on the outcome. The release of cytokines, including interleukins, plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the process. Simultaneously, cessation of ventilation and pulmonary blood flow contribute to ischaemia–reperfusion injury in the lungs when reperfusion is maintained. Collapse of the lungs during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to postoperative atelectasis, which correlates with the amount...

  3. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Bandera, Francesco; Secchi, Francesco; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach. PMID:26210719

  4. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Asti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach.

  5. Transesophageal echocardiography-guided thrombectomy of intracardiac renal cell carcinoma without cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Fouad Ghazi; Demos, Michael; Fermin, Lilibeth; Ciancio, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) resection has important anesthetic management implications, particularly when tumor extends, suprahepatic, into the right atrium. Use of transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is essential in identifying tumor extension and guiding resection. Latest surgical approach avoids venovenous and cardiopulmonary bypass yet requires special precautions and interventions on the anesthesiologist's part. We present a case of Level IV RCC resected without cardiopulmonary bypass and salvaged by TEE guidance and detection of residual intracardiac tumor. PMID:27716710

  6. Is it necessary to stent renal artery stenosis patients before cardiopulmonary bypass procedures?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin; YAN Hong-bing; LIU Rui-fang; CHENG Shu-juan; WANG Jian; ZHAO Han-jun; SONG Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor prognosis after cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether stent implantation before cardiopulmonary bypass has beneficial effect on development of AKI in renal artery stenosis (RAS) patients.Methods In this retrospective study, patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine (SCr, >106 μmol/L) were not included. Included patients (n=69) were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 31 RAS patients receiving no stent implantation before cardiopulmonary bypass. Group 2 included 38 RAS patients having received stent implantation just before cardiopulmonary bypass. To assess AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass, serum urea nitrogen, SCr and creatinine clearance were recorded at baseline, at the end of operation, during the first and second postoperative 24 hours.Results Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Serum urea nitrogen, SCr, creatinine clearance before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were also similar class groups. Incidence of AKI in group 1 was not significantly different from group 2. In group 1, AKI defined by RIFLE between occurred in 7 (22.6%) patients: 5 (16.1%) with RIFLE-R,2 (6.5%) with RIFLE-I, and no patients with RIFLE-F. In group 2, 10 patients (26.3%) had an episode of AKI during hospitalization: 6 (15.8%) had RIFLE-R, 4 (10.5%) had RIFLE-I, and no patients had RIFLE-F.Conclusions There are no data suggesting that it is necessary to stent RAS patients with normal SCr before cardiopulmonary bypass. However, it cannot be concluded that RAS is not associated with AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  7. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue...

  8. Dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred Drosophila melanogaster populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.; Westerhof, M. D. D.; Roekx, L. P.; Pen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic rescue has been proposed as a management strategy to improve the fitness of genetically eroded populations by alleviating inbreeding depression. We studied the dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred populations of Drosophila. Using balancer chromosomes, we show that the force of heterosis that

  9. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... training. MSHA published a notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 58567) announcing the availability of the... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria....

  10. Evaluating The RoboCup 2009 Virtual Robot Rescue Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Balakirsky; S. Carpin; A. Visser

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 RoboCup Competitions took place in Graz Austria in July of 2009. The Virtual Robot Rescue Competition included 11 competitors from 10 different countries. The main objective of this competition is to utilize teams of robots to perform an urban search and rescue (USAR) mission over both indo

  11. Air and sea rescue via satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, W. C.; Swanson, R.

    1984-03-01

    Two approaches to a satellite system for air and sea rescue to be put into use by the 1990s, one employing polar-orbiting satellites and the other using fixed geosynchronous satellites over the equator, are discussed. A battery-powered transmitter on a ship or aircraft would be activated in an accident to emit a low-power omnidirectional signal that would be relayed by a satellite to an earth station. The polar-orbiting approach, now being evaluated on a small-scale with the Cospas-Sarsat system, allows complete coverage of the earth, including the poles, and provides a fix on the origin of the distress signals by means of the Doppler shift. A parallel effort for the testing of geostationary satellites to measure system sensitivity to various interference sources, to optimize design, and to measure land and sea performance is reviewed.

  12. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  13. Research of Insertion Mechanism of Flexible Search and Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Linyong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to various factors, the global scope disaster events occur inevitably every year. Terrorism, natural disasters or destructive earthquakes tend to cause a large number of people buried in the ruins of buildings. The research of search and rescue instruments research is mainly focused on snake-like robot and life detector both at home and abroad. The endoscopic search and rescue robot in this paper combines the characteristics of these two kinds of search and rescue equipment. This thesis mainly studies the insertion mechanism of endoscopic flexible search and rescue robot. Based on the mechanics characteristics of the flexible robot body, this paper analyzes several common failure modes during the insertion into the ruins. This article puts forward the scheme of segmented gradual pulling-pushing, which plays an important role in promoting search and rescue work.

  14. Clinical Review: Management of weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Licker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizable number of cardiac surgical patients are difficult to wean off cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB as a result of structural or functional cardiac abnormalities, vasoplegic syndrome, or ventricular dysfunction. In these cases, therapeutic decisions have to be taken quickly for successful separation from CPB. Various crisis management scenarios can be anticipated which emphasizes the importance of basic knowledge in applied cardiovascular physiology, knowledge of pathophysiology of the surgical lesions as well as leadership, and communication between multiple team members in a high-stakes environment. Since the mid-90s, transoesophageal echocardiography has provided an opportunity to assess the completeness of surgery, to identify abnormal circulatory conditions, and to guide specific medical and surgical interventions. However, because of the lack of evidence-based guidelines, there is a large variability regarding the use of cardiovascular drugs and mechanical circulatory support at the time of weaning from the CPB. This review presents key features for risk stratification and risk modulation as well as a standardized physiological approach to achieve successful weaning from CPB.

  15. Discussion of the Misunderstanding of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation%心肺复苏的误区探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立祥; 黄子通

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an effective way to rescue patients with cardiac arrest (CA) whose incidence rate has been increasing with the increase of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in recent years. After 50 years of exploration and practice of CPR, the survival rate on discharge of CA is far from satisfactory. While more efforts are being made to perfect CPR approach, the experience should be summarized and the misunderstanding should be avoided. We suggest that the main misunderstanding of CPR lies in stereotyped CPR procedure, CPR ventilation, CPR compression, open chest cardiac massage, CPR access, CPR back veneer and time limit are not adaptable to practice. We should work out a better method to guide CPR application in clinical practice.%心脏骤停威胁人们的生命健康,且近年随着心脑血管疾病增加其发病率逐渐攀升,心肺复苏(cardiopulmonaryresuscitation,CPR)作为抢救心脏骤停的有效方法,经过50余年的探索实践,患者的生存出院率仍不理想,故在发掘完善新方法的同时,亦应不断总结经验教训,找出CPR进程中的误区,笔者认为当前临床主要存在CPR程序“刻板化”、CPR通气“死腔化”、CPR按压“形式化”、CPR开胸“概念化”、CPR通路“单一化”、CPR背板“无声化”及CPR时限“教条化”,并结合经验积极尝试修正,以指导临床正确把握并实施CPR.

  16. Development of a Search and Rescue Simulation to Study the Effects of Prolonged Isolation on Team Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entin, Elliot E.; Kerrigan, Caroline; Serfaty, Daniel; Young, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this project were to identify and investigate aspects of team and individual decision-making and risk-taking behaviors hypothesized to be most affected by prolonged isolation. A key premise driving our research approach is that effects of stressors that impact individual and team cognitive processes in an isolated, confined, and hazardous environment will be projected onto the performance of a simulation task. To elicit and investigate these team behaviors we developed a search and rescue task concept as a scenario domain that would be relevant for isolated crews. We modified the Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (DDD) simulator, a platform that has been extensively used for empirical research in team processes and taskwork performance, to portray the features of a search and rescue scenario and present the task components incorporated into that scenario. The resulting software is called DD-Search and Rescue (Version 1.0). To support the use of the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator in isolated experiment settings, we wrote a player's manual for teaching team members to operate the simulator and play the scenario. We then developed a research design and experiment plan that would allow quantitative measures of individual and team decision making skills using the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator as the experiment platform. A description of these activities and the associated materials that were produced under this contract are contained in this report.

  17. Flight tests with enhanced/synthetic vision system for rescue helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hiroka; Funabiki, Kohei; Iijima, Tomoko; Tawada, Kazuho; Yoshida, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has been conducting a research project named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) with Shimadzu Corporation and NEC from 2008. SAVERH aims at inventing a method of presenting suitable information to the pilot to support search and rescue missions. An integrated system comprising an HMD (Helmet-Mounted Display) and a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) sensor were installed in a JAXA research helicopter, and a series of flight tests was conducted to evaluate the benefit of presenting FLIR images on the HMD in night flight. Three pilots evaluated the display system during six night flights, considering terrain and position awareness. The tests showed that use of FLIR gave better route tracking performance, and the effectiveness of head-slaved FLIR on an approach task was shown by subjective pilot rating.

  18. A pulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass and its clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Kawai, T; Nishiyama, K; Murayama, Y; Toda, S; Wada, T; Kitaura, K; Sato, S; Kadowaki, M; Kanki, Y

    1988-09-01

    A pulsatile pump driven by a coil spring, which was designed and constructed by us, is described in this report. It consists of two main parts, a disposable blood chamber and a driving section. The blood chamber has two leaflet valves and a piston, which is covered with two bellofram rolling diaphragms and moves into the housing to draw in and eject the blood. The driving section consists of three cams, an electric motor and a coil spring. The ejection force is wholly produced by the compressed coil spring and is transmitted to the piston in the blood chamber by a rod. This pump allows the ejection pressure, the beat rates, and the stroke volume all to be changed independently. The performance of the pump was tested by using a circulation model where the beat rate was adjusted from 30 to 250 bpm. The output subsequently increased from 0.8 l/min to 5.7 l/min and the stroke volume, from 20.4 ml to 36.7 ml. This new pump has been used for clinical cardiopulmonary bypasses in 24 patients of open heart surgery and the pressure traces during perfusion resembled those of the patients' own hearts. PMID:3230723

  19. Acute mesenteric ischemia after cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude

    2008-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a highly-lethal surgical emergency.Several pathophysiologic events (arterial obstruction,venous thrombosis and diffuse vasospasm) lead to a sudden decrease in mesenteric blood flow.Ischemia/reperfusion syndrome of the intestine is responsible for systemic abnormalities,leading to multi-organ failure and death.Early diagnosis is difficult because the clinical presentation is subtle,and the biological and radiological diagnostic tools lack sensitivity and specificity.Therapeutic options vary from conservative resuscitation,medical treatment,endovascular techniques and surgical resection and revascularization.A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis,and prompt treatment is the only hope of reducing the mortality rate.Studies are in progress to provide more accurate diagnostic tools for early diagnosis.AMI can complicate the post-operative course of patients following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB).Several factors contribute to the systemic hypo-perfusion state,which is the most frequent pathophysiologic event.In this particular setting,the clinical presentation of AMI can be misleading,while the laboratory and radiological diagnostic tests often produce inconclusive results.The management strategies are controversial,but early treatment is critical for saving lives.Based on the experience of our team,we consider prompt exploratory laparotomy,irrespective of the results of the diagnostic tests,is the only way to provide objective assessment and adequate treatment,leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate.

  20. Trainers’ Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mäkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers’ attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D, Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N=185 focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree. Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse’s Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation. Cronbach’s alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student’s t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p<0.01. Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p<0.01 were less confident about their Nurse’s Role (p<0.01 and Nontechnical Skills (p<0.01. Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills.

  1. The Role of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in IPF Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Triantafillidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In IPF, defects in lung mechanics and gas exchange manifest with exercise limitation due to dyspnea, the most prominent and disabling symptom. Aim. To evaluate the role of exercise testing through the 6MWT (6-minute walk test and CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the survival of patients with IPF. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study evaluating in 25 patients the relationship between exercise variables through both the 6MWT and CPET and survival. Results. By the end of the observational period 17 patients were alive (33% mortality. Observation ranged from 9 to 64 months. VE/VCO2 slope (slope of relation between minute ventilation and CO2 production, VO2 peak/kg (peak oxygen consumption/kg, VE/VCO2 ratio at anaerobic threshold, 6MWT distance, desaturation, and DLCO% were significant predictors of survival while VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg had the strongest correlation with outcome. The optimal model for mortality risk estimation was VO2 peak/kg + DLCO% combined. Furthermore, VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg were correlated with distance and desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusion. The integration of oxygen consumption and diffusing capacity proved to be a reliable predictor of survival because both variables reflect major underlying physiologic determinants of exercise limitation.

  2. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB.

  3. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB. PMID:6166815

  4. Medical rescue of naval combat:challenge and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jin; Li-Jun Hou; Xiao-Bing Fu

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what chal-lenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future develop-ments of medical rescue at sea.

  5. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis

  6. Computer Security: DNS to the rescue!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Why you should be grateful to the Domain Name System at CERN.   Incidents involving so-called “drive-by” infections and “ransomware” are on the rise. Whilst an up-to-date and fully patched operating system is essential; whilst running anti-virus software with current virus signature files is a must; whilst “stop --- think --- don’t click” surely helps, we can still go one step further in better protecting your computers: DNS to the rescue. The DNS, short for Domain Name System, translates the web address you want to visit (like “http://cern.ch”) to a machine-readable format (the IP address, here: “188.184.9.234”). For years, we have automatically monitored the DNS translation requests made by your favourite web browser (actually by your operating system, but that doesn’t matter here), and we have automatically informed you if your computer tried to access a website known to hos...

  7. In vivo evaluation of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass-Spiral Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Leme, Juliana; Uebelhart, Beatriz; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Biscegli, José F; Andrade, Aron; Zavaglia, Cecília

    2013-11-01

    The Spiral Pump (SP), a centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been developed at the Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology/Adib Jatene Foundation laboratories, with support from Sintegra Company (Pompeia, Brazil). The SP is a disposable pump with an internal rotor-a conically shaped fuse with double entrance threads. This rotor is supported by two ball bearings, attached to a stainless steel shaft fixed to the housing base. Worm gears provide axial motion to the blood column, and the rotational motion of the conically shaped impeller generates a centrifugal pumping effect, improving pump efficiency without increasing hemolysis. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the SP's hydrodynamic performance, and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate hemodynamic impact during usual CPB. A commercially available centrifugal blood pump was used as reference. In vivo experiments were conducted in six male pigs weighing between 60 and 90 kg, placed on CPB for 6 h each. Blood samples were collected just before CPB (T0) and after every hour of CPB (T1-T6) for hemolysis determination and laboratory tests (hematological and biochemical). Values of blood pressure, mean flow, pump rotational speed, and corporeal temperature were recorded. Also, ergonomic conditions were recorded: presence of noise, difficulty in removing air bubbles, trouble in installing the pump in the drive module (console), and difficulties in mounting the CPB circuit. Comparing the laboratory and hemolysis results for the SP with those of the reference pump, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the two devices. In addition, reports made by medical staff and perfusionists described a close similarity between the two devices. During in vivo experiments, the SP maintained blood flow and pressure at physiological levels, consistent with those applied in cardiac surgery with CPB, without presenting any malfunction. Also, the SP needed lower rotational

  8. Postmodernity and a hypertensive patient: rescuing value from nihilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S

    1998-02-01

    Much of postmodern philosophy questions the assumptions of Modernity, that period in the history of the Western world since the Enlightment. These assumptions are that truth is discoverable through human reason; that certain knowledge is possible; and furthermore, that such knowledge will provide a basis for the ineluctable progress of Mankind. The Enlightenment project is underwritten by the conviction that knowledge gained through the scientific method is secure. In so far as biomedicine inherits these assumptions it becomes fair game for postmodern deconstruction. Today, perhaps more than ever, plural values compete, and contradictory approaches to health, for instance, garner support and acquire supremacy through consumer choice and media manipulation rather than evidence-based science. Many doctors feel a tension between meeting the needs of the patient face to face, and working towards the broader health needs of the public at large. But if the very foundations of medical science are questioned, by patients, or by doctors themselves, wherein lies the value of their work? This paper examines the issues that the anti-foundationalist thrust of postmodernism raises, in the light of a case of mild hypertension. The strict application of medical protocol, derived from a nomothetic, statistical perspective, seems unlikely to furnish value in the treatment of an individual. The anything goes, consumerist approach, however, fares no better. The author argues that whilst value cannot depend on any rationally predetermined parameters, it can be rescued, and emerges from the process of the meeting with the patient.

  9. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document.

  10. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document. PMID:26449873

  11. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  12. Search and Rescue Plan: Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan will provide guidance to help efficiently handle a search and rescue (SAR) operation on Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of this plan is to...

  13. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  14. Search and Rescue Radar Transponder under Dynamic Operating Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančić, Paško; Kasum, Josip; Peraković, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The Search and Rescue Radar Transponder (SART) operates in the frequency range from 9.2 GHz to 9.5 GHz. The SART is used on conventional and, partly, nonconventional vessels in search and rescue operations at sea. It is also used, to a certain extent, on inland waterways, rivers and lakes. As for their construction and design, SART transponders are self-contained, portable units. With regard to their technical characteristics and design requirements, they comply with the regulations of local ...

  15. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcome after cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen N Naguib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modulating the stress response and perioperative factors can have a paramount impact on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who undergo cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. Materials and Methods: In this single center prospective follow-up study, we evaluated the impact of three different anesthetic techniques on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 19 children who previously underwent congenital cardiac surgery within their 1 st year of life. Cases were done from May 2011 to December 2013. Children were assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5 th edition. Multiple regression analysis was used to test different parental and perioperative factors that could significantly predict the different neurodevelopmental outcomes in the entire cohort of patients. Results: When comparing the three groups regarding the major cognitive scores, a high-dose fentanyl (HDF patients scored significantly higher than the low-dose fentanyl (LDF + dexmedetomidine (DEX (LDF + DEX group in the quantitative reasoning scores (106 ± 22 vs. 82 ± 15 P = 0.046. The bispectral index (BIS value at the end of surgery for the -LDF group was significantly higher than that in LDF + DEX group (P = 0.011. For the entire cohort, a strong correlation was seen between the standard verbal intelligence quotient (IQ score and the baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone level, the interleukin-6 level at the end of surgery and the BIS value at the end of the procedure with an R 2 value of 0.67 and P < 0.04. There was an inverse correlation between the cardiac Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the full-scale IQ score (R = 0.4675 and P 0.027. Conclusions: Patients in the HDF group demonstrated overall higher neurodevelopmental scores, although it did not reach statistical significance except in fluid reasoning scores. Our results may point to a possible correlation between blunting the stress response and improvement of the neurodevelopmental

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of Radiology Technologists Towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroozi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The number of casualties and critically ill patients referred to radiology departments increased during the past decade, which caused the risk of cardiac arrest in radiology departments to increase considerably. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of radiology technologists regarding Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Patients and Methods After approval a cross sectional study was designed. Ninety five radiology technologists (male and female were selected in four tertiary referral hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Accordingly, 87 radiologic technologists of which agreed to participate in the study. The researchers developed a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three distinct sections including demographic data, attitude, and technical knowledge questions. Reliability of the technical knowledge questions were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha (76%. Data collection was performed using interview method. Results Of the total 87 questionnaires, one was incomplete. None of the participants had attended a training program since employment. The average scores of attitude towards CPR and technical knowledge were 80 ± 8.9 and 8.8 ± 2.3, respectively. A correlation was observed between age and work experience (r = 0.866, P ≤ 0.0001, age and technical knowledge (r = 0.380, P ≤ 0.0001, work experience and technical knowledge (r = 0.317, P = 0.003, and attitude and technical knowledge (r = 0.397, P ≤ 0.0001. Also a correlation was observed between work experience and attitude (r = 0.385, P ≤ 0.0001. No significant difference was observed between male and female subjects’ technical knowledge (P ≥ 0.05 and attitude (P ≥ 0.05. Conclusions It can be concluded that, although the attitude of participants towards CPR was positive in general, their technical knowledge was poor. This finding should urge decision-makers to consider delivering in-service training courses to radiology technologists

  18. Hydrogen sulfide improves neural function in rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIN, JI-YAN; ZHANG, MIN-WEI; WANG, JIN-GAO; LI, HUI; WEI, HONG-YAN; LIU, RONG; DAI, GANG; LIAO, XIAO-XING

    2016-01-01

    The alleviation of brain injury is a key issue following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and exerts a protective effect on neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on neural functions following cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. A total of 60 rats were allocated at random into three groups. CA was induced to establish the model and CPR was performed after 6 min. Subsequently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine or saline was administered to the rats. Serum levels of H2S, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β were determined following CPR. In addition, neurological deficit scoring (NDS), the beam walking test (BWT), prehensile traction test and Morris water maze experiment were conducted. Neuronal apoptosis rates were detected in the hippocampal region following sacrifice. After CPR, as the H2S levels increased or decreased, the serum NSE and S100β concentrations decreased or increased, respectively (P<0.0w. The NDS results of the NaHS group were improved compared with those of the hydroxylamine group at 24 h after CPR (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze experiment, BWT and prehensile traction test the animals in the NaHS group performed best and rats in the hydroxylamine group performed worst. At day 7, the apoptotic index and the expression of caspase-3 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, while the expression of Bcl-2 increased in the NaHS group; and results of the hydroxylamine group were in contrast. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that H2S is able to improve neural function in rats following CPR. PMID:26893650

  19. Optimal perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Hessel, Eugene A; Groom, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    In this review, we summarize the best available evidence to guide the conduct of adult cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to achieve "optimal" perfusion. At the present time, there is considerable controversy relating to appropriate management of physiologic variables during CPB. Low-risk patients tolerate mean arterial blood pressures of 50-60 mm Hg without apparent complications, although limited data suggest that higher-risk patients may benefit from mean arterial blood pressures >70 mm Hg. The optimal hematocrit on CPB has not been defined, with large data-based investigations demonstrating that both severe hemodilution and transfusion of packed red blood cells increase the risk of adverse postoperative outcomes. Oxygen delivery is determined by the pump flow rate and the arterial oxygen content and organ injury may be prevented during more severe hemodilutional anemia by increasing pump flow rates. Furthermore, the optimal temperature during CPB likely varies with physiologic goals, and recent data suggest that aggressive rewarming practices may contribute to neurologic injury. The design of components of the CPB circuit may also influence tissue perfusion and outcomes. Although there are theoretical advantages to centrifugal blood pumps over roller pumps, it has been difficult to demonstrate that the use of centrifugal pumps improves clinical outcomes. Heparin coating of the CPB circuit may attenuate inflammatory and coagulation pathways, but has not been clearly demonstrated to reduce major morbidity and mortality. Similarly, no distinct clinical benefits have been observed when open venous reservoirs have been compared to closed systems. In conclusion, there are currently limited data upon which to confidently make strong recommendations regarding how to conduct optimal CPB. There is a critical need for randomized trials assessing clinically significant outcomes, particularly in high-risk patients. PMID:19372313

  20. EFFECT OF CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the pulmonary function in infants with or without pulmonary hypertension in congential ventricular septal defect (VSD). Methods Twenty infants with VSD were enrolled in the study from Jan. to Dec. 2004. They were divided into two groups: pulmonary hypertension group and non-pulmonary hypertension group, ten infants respectively. Pulmonary function parameters were measured before CPB and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24h after CPB, the following data were recorded: duration for mechanical ventilation (Tmv) and staying in the cardiac intensive care unit (Tcicu) after cardiac surgery. Results Before CPB, the pulmonary function parameters in non-pulmonary hypertension group were more superior than in pulmonary hypertension group ( P < 0. 01 ). By contraries, the pulmonary function parameters in every time stage after CPB statistically significant decreased in non-pulmonary hypertension group ( P < 0. 05),especially at 6, 9, and 15h after CPB ( P < 0. 01 ). In pulmonary hypertension group, the pulmonary function parameters in 3h after CPB were more improved than before CPB, though there was no statistical significance. But they had statistically significant decreased at 9, 12, 15h after CPB ( P <0. 05). There was a similar change in pulmonary function between two groups at 21,24h after CPB. Conclusion Exposure to CPB adversely affects pulmonary function after surgical repair of VSD in infants. We consider that the benefits of the surgical correction in infants with pulmonary hypertension outweight the negative effects of CPB on pulmonary function. We should improve cardiac function to avoid the presence of the nadir trough in pulmonary function. The infants with pulomonary hypertension also have ability to wean from mechanical ventilation as soon as possible, if the hemodynamics is stable, and without the responsive pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary hypertension crisis after surgical repair.

  1. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. W. Yu; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; Alison M. McManus

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters i...

  2. Retrospective Study of the Survival of Patients who Underwent Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Daniel Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and evolutive characteristics of patients admitted in an intensive care unit after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, identifying prognostic survival factors.METHODS: A retrospective study of 136 patients admitted between 1995 and 1999 to an intensive care unit, evaluating clinical conditions, mechanisms and causes of cardiopulmonary arrest, and their relation to hospital mortality.RESULTS: A 76% mortality rate independent of age and sex was observed. Asystole was the most frequent mechanism of death, and seen in isolation pulmonary arrest was the least frequent. Cardiac failure, need for mechanical ventilation, cirrhosis and previous stroke were clinically significant (p<0.01 death factors.CONCLUSION: Prognostic factors supplement the doctor's decision as to whether or not a patient will benefit from cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  3. THE BASIC LAWS AND FEATURES OF CYTOKINE DYNAMICS IN PROCESS AND EARLY TERMS AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Suskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic variants of cytokines reactions defining type of organ dysfunctions are revealed in the course of car- diopulmonary bypass and in the early postoperative period. Their character and expression, depends on gravity preoperative an immunodeficiency and initial degree of heart insufficiency. Diphasic dynamics of development of system inflammatory reaction is confirmed after cardiopulmonary bypass: increase of levels proinflammatory cytokines is in the first phase and anti-inflammatory cytokines with development immunodepression and cellular anergy in is the second phase. Also, key role IL-1Ra is revealed in restraint of hyperactivation of system inflam- matory reaction. Blood whey levels IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, TNF-α and IL-1Ra should be defined to cardiopulmonary bypass, in 10–12 hours, 24 hours and 3 days after cardiopulmonary bypass and may be used as prognostic criteria of development of postoperative complications. 

  4. Emergency Rescue Mobile Collaboration System%应急救援移动协作系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建; 孙咏; 田月; 高岑

    2015-01-01

    基于实验室“安全生产协同监管”项目,研究设计了一种基于 Android 操作系统的应急救援协作系统。通过对CSCW(Computer Supported Cooperative Work)模式的抽取,描述了基于XMPP协议的救援群体的协作沟通,介绍了系统的整体框架以及各功能模块实现过程。并且文章对共享数据的并发操作及一致性进行了探讨。%Based on the project of “Production safety collaborate supervision” of laboratory, the article researches and designs the system of cooperative emergency rescue which based on Android OS and is named “Research and Realization of Emergency Rescue Mobile Collaboration System”. By extracted the CSCW mode, the passage depicts the cooperative communication which is based on XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) among rescue groups and the general frame of the system, including the realization of function modules. And at the end, the article discusses concurrency control and the consistency of shared data.

  5. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt. 49, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B—Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams ER08FE08.000 ER08FE08.001...

  6. 78 FR 35974 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams; Arrangements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams... protecting the safety and health of miners. 30 CFR Part 49, Mine Rescue Teams, Subpart B--Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines, sets standards related to the availability of mine rescue teams;...

  7. RESCUING THE ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA—OUR EXPIRIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljevic Tamara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Over one million strokes per year are occurring in Europe. Brain stroke is one of the most important death and disability causes in Europe and USA. The main role of perfusion is to determine the border of insult core and ischemic penumbra. Penumbra can be saved with thrombolytic therapy but core have irreversible injuries and represent death of brain cells. Aim: to determine the role of CT brain perfusion in cases of acute brain stroke and following thrombolytic therapy. Methods: We examined 64 patients with acute brain stroke who received thrombolytic therapy after that. All patients were examining on 16 MDCTwith 50 ml of iodine contrast agent following the standard procedure for CT perfusion. Patients were 34 male and 30 female with middle age of 64 years. MRI was made after thrombolytic therapy and compare with perfusion results before therapy. Results: Using an artery and a vein as reference three parameters were measured — blood flow (CBF, blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT, for each patient. Hemorrhagic was find in 9 (14.01% patients after thrombolytic therapy. 4 (6.25% other patients develop new stroke of same but mostly other side of brain. 8 (12.50% more patients finished lethally. From other 42 patientswith thrombolytic therapywe can positively say that in 31 (48.44% patients penumbrawas rescued. For other 11 (17.19% stroke was same size like firstly involved core and penumbra but not bigger. Conclusion: CT perfusion plays major role by showing a curable parts of tissue in brain strokes

  8. A simple technique can reduce cardiopulmonary bypass use during lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos N. Samano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary bypass causes an inflammatory response and consumption of coagulation factors, increasing the risk of bleeding and neurological and renal complications. Its use during lung transplantation may be due to pulmonary hypertension or associated cardiac defects or just for better exposure of the pulmonary hilum. We describe a simple technique, or open pericardium retraction, to improve hilar exposure by lifting the heart by upward retraction of the pericardial sac. This technique permits lung transplantation without cardiopulmonary bypass when bypass use is recommended only for better exposure.

  9. A randomized cross-over study of the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among females performing 30:2 and hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrickson W Clive

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hands-Only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is recommended for use on adult victims of witnessed out-of-hospital (OOH sudden cardiac arrest or in instances where rescuers cannot perform ventilations while maintaining minimally interrupted quality compressions. Promotion of Hands-Only CPR should improve the incidence of bystander CPR and, subsequently, survival from OOH cardiac arrest; but, little is known about a rescuer's ability to deliver continuous chest compressions of adequate rate and depth for periods typical of emergency services response time. This study evaluated chest compression rate and depth as subjects performed Hands-Only CPR for 10 minutes. For comparison purposes, each also performed chest compressions with ventilations (30:2 CPR. It also evaluated fatigue and changes in body biomechanics associated with each type of CPR. Methods Twenty healthy female volunteers certified in basic life support performed Hands-Only CPR and 30:2 CPR on a manikin. A mixed model repeated measures cross-over design evaluated chest compression rate and depth, changes in fatigue (chest compression force, perceived exertion, and blood lactate level, and changes in electromyography and joint kinetics and kinematics. Results All subjects completed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR; but, only 17 completed 10 minutes of Hands-Only CPR. Rate, average depth, percentage at least 38 millimeters deep, and force of compressions were significantly lower in Hands-Only CPR than in 30:2 CPR. Rates were maintained; but, compression depth and force declined significantly from beginning to end CPR with most decrement occurring in the first two minutes. Perceived effort and joint torque changes were significantly greater in Hands-Only CPR. Performance was not influenced by age. Conclusion Hands-Only CPR required greater effort and was harder to sustain than 30:2 CPR. It is not known whether the observed greater decrement in chest compression depth associated

  10. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Rong; Liang Xuedong; Zeng Guizhi; Ye Yulin; Wang Da

    2015-01-01

    Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. T...

  11. Myocardial revascularization in the elderly patient: with or without cardiopulmonary bypass?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglézias José Carlos Rossini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if there is advantage in myocardial revascularization the elderly without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in relation to the use of the same, being considered the viability of complete myocardial revascularization (MR and the hospital morbidity and mortality. METHOD: We prospectively studied a hundred consecutive, no randomized patients, with age > or = 70 years, submitted to the primary and isolated myocardial revascularization between January and December of 2000. The patients were divided in two groups, G1 - 50 patients operated with CPB and G2 - 50 patients operated without CPB. Univariate testing of variables was performed with chi-squared analysis in the SPSS 10.0 Program and a p value less than 0.005 was considered significant. RESULTS: There was no renal failure or myocardial infarction (MI in both groups; the incidence of respiratory failure was identical in the two groups (4%; two patient of G1 they had Strokes, and 12 presented low output syndrome, occurrences not registered in G2. The need of ventilatory support > 24 hs was not significant between groups. Medium time of hospital stay was 21.8 and 11.7 days respectively (NS and the survival after 30 days were similar in the two groups. The patients' of G1 eighty percent had more than two approached arteries, against only 48% of G2 (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Because the largest number of grafts in the patients of G1, we can affirm that the use of CPB can provide a larger probability of complete RM.

  12. Echocardiography integrated ACLS protocol versus conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Chardoli; Farhad Heidari; Helaleh Rabiee; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Hamid Shokoohi; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the utility of bedside echocardiography in detecting the reversible causes of pulseless electrical activity (PEA) cardiac arrest and predicting the resuscitation outcomes.Methods: In this prospective interventional study,patients presenting with PEA cardiac arrest were randomized into two groups.In Group A,ultrasound trained emergency physicians performed echocardiography evaluating cardiac activity,right ventricle dilation,left ventricle function,pericardial effusion/tamponade and ⅣC size along with the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) protocol.Patients in Group B solely underwent ACLS protocol without applying echocardiography.The presence or absence of mechanical ventricular activity (MVA) and evidences of PEA reversible causes were recorded.The return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and death were evaluated in both groups.Results: One hundred patients with the mean age of (58±6.1) years were enrolled in this study.Fifty patients (Group A) had echocardiography detected in parallel with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).Among them,7 patients (14%) had pericardial effusion,11 (22%) had hypovolemia,and 39 (78%) were revealed the presence of MVA.In the pseudo PEA subgroup (presence of MVA),43% had ROSC (positive predictive value) and in the true PEA subgroup with cardiac standstill (absence of MVA),there was no recorded ROSC (negative predictive value).Among patients in Group B,no reversible etiology was detected.There was no significant difference in resuscitation results between Groups A and B observed (P=0.52).Conclusion: Bedside echocardiography can identify some reversible causes of PEA.However,there are no significant changes in survival outcome between the echo group and those with traditional CPR.

  13. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Duara Rajnish; Misra Manoranjan; Bhuyan Ritwick; Sarma P; Jayakumar Karunakaran

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomi...

  14. Closed-loop control for cardiopulmonary management and intensive care unit sedation using digital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Behnood

    This dissertation introduces a new problem in the delivery of healthcare, which could result in lower cost and a higher quality of medical care as compared to the current healthcare practice. In particular, a framework is developed for sedation and cardiopulmonary management for patients in the intensive care unit. A method is introduced to automatically detect pain and agitation in nonverbal patients, specifically in sedated patients in the intensive care unit, using their facial expressions. Furthermore, deterministic as well as probabilistic expert systems are developed to suggest the appropriate drug dose based on patient sedation level. Patients in the intensive care unit who require mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure also frequently require the administration of sedative agents. The need for sedation arises both from patient anxiety due to the loss of personal control and the unfamiliar and intrusive environment of the intensive care unit, and also due to pain or other variants of noxious stimuli. In this dissertation, we develop a rule-based expert system for cardiopulmonary management and intensive care unit sedation. Furthermore, we use probability theory to quantify uncertainty and to extend the proposed rule-based expert system to deal with more realistic situations. Pain assessment in patients who are unable to verbally communicate is a challenging problem. The fundamental limitations in pain assessment stem from subjective assessment criteria, rather than quantifiable, measurable data. The relevance vector machine (RVM) classification technique is a Bayesian extension of the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm which achieves comparable performance to SVM while providing posterior probabilities for class memberships and a sparser model. In this dissertation, we use the RVM classification technique to distinguish pain from non-pain as well as assess pain intensity levels. We also correlate our results with the pain intensity

  15. Rescue of newborn ants by older Cataglyphis cursor adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowbahari, Elise; Amirault, Céline; Hollis, Karen L

    2016-05-01

    Cataglyphis cursor worker ants are capable of highly sophisticated rescue behaviour in which individuals are able to identify what has trapped a nestmate and to direct their behaviour towards that obstacle. Nonetheless, rescue behaviour is constrained by workers' subcaste: whereas foragers, the oldest workers, are able both to give and to receive the most help, the youngest workers, inactives, neither give nor receive any help whatsoever; nurses give and receive intermediate levels of aid, reflecting their intermediate age. Such differences in rescue behaviour across subcastes suggest that age and experience play a critical role. In this species, as in many others in which a sensitive period for nestmate recognition exists, newly enclosed ants, called callows, are adopted by ants belonging not only to different colonies but also to different species; foreign callows receive nearly the same special care provided to resident newborns. Because callows are younger than inactives, which are incapable of soliciting rescue, we wondered whether entrapped callows would receive such aid. In the present study, we artificially ensnared individual callows from their own colony (homocolonial), from a different colony (heterocolonial), and from a different species (heterospecific), and tested each one with groups of five potential C. cursor rescuers, either all foragers or all nurses. Our results show that all three types of callows are able to elicit rescue behaviour from both foragers and nurses. Nonetheless, nurse rescuers are better able to discriminate between the three types of callow victims than are foragers.

  16. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS) :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Gaither, Katherine N.; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Costin, Laurence S.

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  17. Rescue of newborn ants by older Cataglyphis cursor adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowbahari, Elise; Amirault, Céline; Hollis, Karen L

    2016-05-01

    Cataglyphis cursor worker ants are capable of highly sophisticated rescue behaviour in which individuals are able to identify what has trapped a nestmate and to direct their behaviour towards that obstacle. Nonetheless, rescue behaviour is constrained by workers' subcaste: whereas foragers, the oldest workers, are able both to give and to receive the most help, the youngest workers, inactives, neither give nor receive any help whatsoever; nurses give and receive intermediate levels of aid, reflecting their intermediate age. Such differences in rescue behaviour across subcastes suggest that age and experience play a critical role. In this species, as in many others in which a sensitive period for nestmate recognition exists, newly enclosed ants, called callows, are adopted by ants belonging not only to different colonies but also to different species; foreign callows receive nearly the same special care provided to resident newborns. Because callows are younger than inactives, which are incapable of soliciting rescue, we wondered whether entrapped callows would receive such aid. In the present study, we artificially ensnared individual callows from their own colony (homocolonial), from a different colony (heterocolonial), and from a different species (heterospecific), and tested each one with groups of five potential C. cursor rescuers, either all foragers or all nurses. Our results show that all three types of callows are able to elicit rescue behaviour from both foragers and nurses. Nonetheless, nurse rescuers are better able to discriminate between the three types of callow victims than are foragers. PMID:26846232

  18. Relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasien, Saba; Nasir, Jamal Abdul; Shaheen, Tayabba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Following hypothesis was formulated; there would be negative correlation between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Method: A correlational study was conducted from June-August 2015 in Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The sample of the present study consisted of 100 rescue workers. The age of the participants ranged from 23 to 40 year old with the mean age of 27.4±3.9 years. Demographic information form, Kessler psychological distress scale and adult resilience measure were administered on the participants to assess the level of psychological distress and resilience. Results: Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation was applied to analyze the relationship of psychological distress and resilience. Analysis of the result indicated that there is negative relationship between psychological distress and resilience (r= -0.203, ppsychological distress. Conclusion: The research evidenced that rescue workers were experiencing psychological distress Resilience factors should be considered while designing trainings to preserve mental health and to enhance the psychological well-being of rescue workers. PMID:27381539

  19. Does heparin pretreatment affect the haemostatic system during and after cardiopulmonary bypass?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinks, H.J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Bogdan, S.; Verbruggen, H.W.; Brouwer, M.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this clinical pilot study, the influence of heparin pretreatment on the haemostatic system during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was investigated. Thirteen patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were divided into two groups: heparin pretreated (HP, n = 6) a

  20. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Comparative cardiopulmonary toxicity of soy biofuel and diesel exhaust in healthy and hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of renewable energy sources raise concerns about health effects of emissions from such sources. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of relative cardiopulmonary health effects of exhausts from 1) 100% soy biofuel (B100), 2) 20% soy biofuel + 80% low sulfur petroleu...

  2. Analysis of circulatory mitochondrial DNA level after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and potential prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaoyi; Gu, Jun; Qian, Hong; Meng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Our research letter found that circulatory mtDNA level increased after the end of CPB and positive correlations between mtDNA and peak CRP level, peak BNP level, and peak PCT level, which revealed the prognostic role of perioperative circulatory mtDNA level in patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:27316503

  3. Should blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass be individualized more than to body surface area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Larsson, A; Andreasen, Jan Jesper;

    Blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is calculated on body surface area (BSA). Increasing comorbidity, age and weight of today's cardiac patients question this calculation as it may not reflect individual metabolic requirement. The hypothesis was that a measured cardiac index (CI) prior...... not improve cerebral and systemic oxygenation compared to a blood flow based on BSA....

  4. Physiological basis of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in patients with lung or heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafeiris Louvaris

    2015-06-01

    Shortness of breath associated with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and peripheral muscle discomfort are the major factors that limit exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and those with congestive heart failure (CHF. Both of these symptoms negatively impact on patients’ daily physical activity levels. In turn, poor daily physical activity is commonly associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes partially reverse muscle weakness and dysfunction and increase functional capacity in both COPD and CHF. However, benefits gained from participation in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes are regressing soon after the completion of these programmes. Moreover, several barriers limit access and uptake of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes by eligible patients. A potential solution to the underutilisation of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation is the implementation of tele-rehabilitation interventions at home using information and communications technologies. Thus, tele-rehabilitation may be useful to encourage and educate patients with COPD or CHF on how best to maintain and/or further enhance daily physical activity levels.

  5. APROTININ PRESERVES HEMOSTASIS IN ASPIRIN-TREATED PATIENTS UNDERGOING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TABUCHI, N; HUET, RCG; STURK, A; EIJSMAN, L; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1994-01-01

    Various clinical trials have shown that hemostasis is improved by the administration of aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, this effect has not been proved for those patients treated preoperatively with aspirin. Therefore, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to test

  6. Unexpected Fatal Hypernatremia after Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with Therapeutic Hypothermia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang-Sik; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Won; Lim, Kyung-Su

    2012-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI), characterized by unexpected fatal hypernatremia, is a rare complication after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation with therapeutic hypothermia, but may be potentially fatal if recognition is delayed. We describe here a patient who experienced cardiac arrest due to a pulmonary embolism, followed by successful resuscitation after induction of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient, however, suddenly developed unexpected hypernatremia with increased urine outp...

  7. The effect of pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass on lung function in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Gerwin E.; Dodonov, Mikhail; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem; Milano, Aldo D.; Gu, Y. John; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiopulmonary bypass is still a major cause of lung injury and delay in pulmonary recovery after cardiac surgery. Although it has been shown that pulsatile flow induced by intra-aortic balloon pumping is beneficial for preserving lung function, it is not clear if the same beneficial effec

  8. Fat embolism with the use of intraosseous infusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos, M; Kissoon, N; Abdelmoneim, T; Johnson, L; Murphy, S; Lu, L; Masood, S; Idris, A

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the incidence and magnitude of fat emboli after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and intraosseous infusions. An animal laboratory at a university center was used to study 33 mixed-breed piglets. The piglets underwent hypoxic cardiac arrest followed by chest compressions and mechanical ventilation for a minimum of 30 minutes. The animals were divided in groups: group 1 (n = 5), which had no intraosseous cannulas, group 2 (n = 6), which had intraosseous cannulas with infusion, groups 3 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6), and 5 (n = 8), which had intraosseous cannulas with infusion of epinephrine, normal saline, and sodium bicarbonate respectively, and group 6 (n = 2), which was a sham group with no intraosseous cannulas and no cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, representative lung samples were collected from upper and lower lobes of each lung and observed for fat globules and bone marrow elements. Fat globules were seen in the peribronchial blood vessels and intravascular areas throughout all lung fields of groups 1 through 5. There was no difference in appearance or distribution of fat globules among the 5 treatment groups. Analysis of variance showed no statistical significance (P fat embolization over cardiopulmonary resuscitation alone in this animal model. The benefits of using this procedure in critically ill children as a means of rapid vascular access for resuscitation is well established. However, the risk of fat embolism in this population needs further study. PMID:9258208

  9. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  10. Imaging the human microcirculation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a hypothermic victim of submersion trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.G. Elbers; A.J. Craenen; A. Driessen; M.C. Stehouwer; L. Munsterman; M. Prins; M. van Iterson; P. Bruins; C. Ince

    2010-01-01

    The microcirculation is essential for delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue. However, the human microvascular response to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. We report on the first use of sidestream dark field imaging to assess the human microcirculation during CPR with a mechanical

  11. Prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Folke, Fredrik; Kragholm, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: We included 1316 adult OHCA individuals with pre-hospital ROSC (2005-2011) handled by the largest nationwide ambulance provider in Denmark. Patients were stratified into 0-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25 and >25min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency...

  12. Is the use of albumin in colloid prime solution of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit justified?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, RH; van Herwerden, LA; Takkenberg, JJM; van Oeveren, W; Gu, YJ; Wijers, MJ; Bogers, AJJC

    2001-01-01

    Background. Albumin in the priming solution precoats the surface of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, supposedly causing delayed adsorption of fibrinogen and reduced activation and adhesion of platelets. This action may result in lower transoxygenator resistance. Because our institution uses a col

  13. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  14. Arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is not associated with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, K; Jensen, M E; Nilsson, J C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and is associated with increased mortality. We wanted to investigate if the arterial pressure or the use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with AKI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who...

  15. Cardiopulmonary manifestations of isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis demonstrated with cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passen, Edward; Feng, Zekun

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided infective endocarditis involving the pulmonary valve is rare. This pictorial essay discusses the use and findings of cardiac CT combined with delayed chest CT and noncontrast chest CT of pulmonary valve endocarditis. Cardiac CT is able to show the full spectrum of right-sided endocarditis cardiopulmonary features including manifestations that cannot be demonstrated by echocardiography.

  16. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on leukocyte activation : changes in membrane-bound elastase on neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M; Gu, YJ; Wang, WJ; Xu, YP; Chen, CZ

    2004-01-01

    Background: Neutrophil elastase is known to be released from the activated leukocytes as a result of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, its biological effect on organ injury is questionable because it is quickly bound by natural proteinase inhibitors (PIs). Recently, membrane-bound elastase ( MB

  17. Measurement and analysis of cardiopulmonary vascular in Lanzhou healthy adults with multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To constitute a normal standard of cardiopulmonary vascular diameter and size of normal adult in Lanzhou, and to compared with the other's data reported in the previous bibliography by measuring diameter and area of cardiopulmonary artery lumen of the healthy adults in Lanzhou with multislice spiral CT (MSCT). Methods: Three hundred Lanzhou adults with no cardiopulmonary disease were equally assigned to 3 groups according to their age (A group: 18-39 years, B group: 40-60 years, C group: 61-80 years; 50 females and 50 males in each group). CT data were acquired at the end of deep inspiration phase and measurements were done on 3D reconstruction image with precise landmarks. All the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The diameters and areas of the main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery ascending aorta and descending aorta differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<0.05). In groups B and C, there were significant differences in diameters and areas of pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary between different genders (P<0.05). Conclusion: Imaging standard is provided for Lanzhou adult in early diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. The diameters and areas of main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery of Lanzhou healthy adults are different from that of other regions. It may be related to the geographical environment and the state of air pollution in Lanzhou. (authors)

  18. Endotoxin release in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass : pathophysiology and possible therapeutic strategies. An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Schonberger, Jacques P. A. M.; Brands, Ruud; Seinen, Willem; van Oeveren, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass provokes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by the surgical trauma itself, blood contact with the non-physiological surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit, endotoxemia, and ischemia. The role of endotoxin in the inflammatory response syndrome

  19. The impact of heparin-coated circuits on hemodynamics during and after cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R; Huybregts, R; van Oeveren, W; van Klarenbosch, J; Linley, G; Mutlu, J; Jansen, E; Hack, E; Eijsman, L; Wildevuur, C

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate if heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits can reduce the systemic inflammatory reaction with the subsequent release of vasoactive substances during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Fifty-one patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting were perfused

  20. An unmanned search and rescue mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaro Mascarello, Laura; Quagliotti, Fulvia; Bertini, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are becoming more and more powerful and innovative and they have an increased interest in civil applications, in particular, after natural hazard phenomena. The RPAS is useful in search and rescue missions in high mountain where scenarios are unfriendly and the use of helicopters is often not profitable. First, the unmanned configuration is safer because there is no hazards for human life that is not on board. Moreover, it is cheaper due to the use of electric propulsion instead of internal combustion engine and to its small dimensions and weights. Finally, the use of the RPAS is faster while the helicopter is often not available because is involved in other missions or it cannot be used if the search mission is in impervious scenario, such as forests with thick vegetation. For instance, the RPAS can be used after an avalanche when victims have little time to be saved before the death by hypothermia. In most conditions, the body maintains a healthy temperature. However, if it is exposed to cold temperatures, especially with a high cooling factor from wind and high humidity, for extended periods, the control mechanisms of the body may not be able to maintain a normal body temperature. When you lose more heat than the body can generate, it takes over hypothermia, defined as a body temperature below 35° C. Wet clothing, fall into cold water or not adequately cover themselves during the cold season, are all factors that can increase the chances of hypothermia. Signs and symptoms (tremor, slurred speech, breathing abnormally slow, cold and pale skin, loss of coordination, fatigue, lethargy or apathy, confusion or memory loss) usually develop slowly. People with hypothermia typically experience a gradual loss of mental acuity and physical capacity, and realize that you have need of emergency medical care. For these reasons, the use of an RPAS could be crucial for the survival of disappeared people in high mountain. In

  1. Structures of oncogenic, suppressor and rescued p53 core-domain variants: mechanisms of mutant p53 rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallentine, Brad D.; Wang, Ying; Tretyachenko-Ladokhina, Vira; Tan, Martha; Senear, Donald F. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Universidad del Pais Vasco, 48940 Leioa (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined in order to gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53, X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined. These include an oncogenic mutant, V157F, two single-site suppressor mutants, N235K and N239Y, and the rescued cancer mutant V157F/N235K/N239Y. The V157F mutation substitutes a smaller hydrophobic valine with a larger hydrophobic phenylalanine within strand S4 of the hydrophobic core. The structure of this cancer mutant shows no gross structural changes in the overall fold of the p53 core domain, only minor rearrangements of side chains within the hydrophobic core of the protein. Based on biochemical analysis, these small local perturbations induce instability in the protein, increasing the free energy by 3.6 kcal mol{sup −1} (15.1 kJ mol{sup −1}). Further biochemical evidence shows that each suppressor mutation, N235K or N239Y, acts individually to restore thermodynamic stability to V157F and that both together are more effective than either alone. All rescued mutants were found to have wild-type DNA-binding activity when assessed at a permissive temperature, thus pointing to thermodynamic stability as the critical underlying variable. Interestingly, thermodynamic analysis shows that while N239Y demonstrates stabilization of the wild-type p53 core domain, N235K does not. These observations suggest distinct structural mechanisms of rescue. A new salt bridge between Lys235 and Glu198, found in both the N235K and rescued cancer mutant structures, suggests a rescue mechanism that relies on stabilizing the

  2. Synthetic Aperture Radar: The NCCS Enables Search and Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For as long as planes have gone down, dedicated men and women have used ever-improving technologies to aid their search for survivors. Nearly 2,000 general aviation crashes occur each year in U.S.-and many, like the Montana incident, occur without witnesses. On average, every day in the U.S. one airplane is reported missing. The Air Force Rescue Coordination Center (AFRCC) organizes search missions for about 100 aircraft each year. Some of these are not found before the searches called off, and are discovered only by chance long after the crash. In some cases, the crash site is never found. NASA Search and Rescue Mission is using NCCS rescues to develop tools for processing radar data that can help these effort

  3. ED 07-1 CONTRIBUTION OF CARDIOPULMONARY FITNESS IN OBESITY PHENOTYPES AND INCIDENT HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic diseases, but not all obese individuals are at increased risk. This phenotype of obesity is referred to as "metabolically healthy obesity (MHO)." MHO describes a cohort of the obese population with relatively low risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although MHO has favorable metabolic profiles such as insulin sensitivity, low inflammatory markers, and low body fat, there remains a substantial unexplained variance. Obesity is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension, but some obese individuals exhibit normal blood pressure. Several studies have shown the relationship between obesity and clustering of metabolic abnormalities and increased risk of incident hypertension, but there are few studies on the risk of incident hypertension among MHO. Although these studies suggested that MHO was at increased risk of incident hypertension, but this relationship has not been extensively studied, and confounding variables are not adequately accounted for in the analyses. Therefore, the association between MHO and the risk of incident hypertension still remains limited and controversial. Lifestyle factors may play a large role in why a subset of the obese individuals do not present the obesity-related cardio-metabolic outcomes. Several studies have shown that levels of physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness increase in MHO when compared to the metabolically unhealthy obese individuals. Although previous studies have attempted to adjust for physical activity using self-report questionnaires to clarify the association between obesity phenotypes and incident hypertension, there was no direct assessment of cardiopulmonary fitness. It is well known that cardiopulmonary fitness can attenuate the increased risk of incident hypertension even after adjusted for adiposity and metabolic risk factors, but the role of cardiopulmonary fitness on the association between MHO

  4. Stimulation of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex enhances ventricular contractility in awake dogs: a mathematical analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Moslehpour, Mohsen; Hammond, Robert L; Ichinose, Masashi; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Evan, Sell; O'Leary, Donal S; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2014-08-15

    The cardiopulmonary baroreflex responds to an increase in central venous pressure (CVP) by decreasing total peripheral resistance and increasing heart rate (HR) in dogs. However, the direction of ventricular contractility change is not well understood. The aim was to elucidate the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility during normal physiological conditions via a mathematical analysis. Spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations in maximal ventricular elastance (Emax), which is perhaps the best available index of ventricular contractility, CVP, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and HR were measured from awake dogs at rest before and after β-adrenergic receptor blockade. An autoregressive exogenous input model was employed to jointly identify the three causal transfer functions relating beat-to-beat fluctuations in CVP to Emax (CVP → Emax), which characterizes the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility, ABP to Emax, which characterizes the arterial baroreflex control of ventricular contractility, and HR to Emax, which characterizes the force-frequency relation. The CVP → Emax transfer function showed a static gain of 0.037 ± 0.010 ml(-1) (different from zero; P < 0.05) and an overall time constant of 3.2 ± 1.2 s. Hence, Emax would increase and reach steady state in ∼16 s in response to a step increase in CVP, without any change to ABP or HR, due to the cardiopulmonary baroreflex. Following β-adrenergic receptor blockade, the CVP → Emax transfer function showed a static gain of 0.0007 ± 0.0113 ml(-1) (different from control; P < 0.10). Hence, Emax would change little in steady state in response to a step increase in CVP. Stimulation of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex increases ventricular contractility through β-adrenergic receptor system mediation.

  5. CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS WITH AUTOLOGOUS LUNG AS SUBSTITUTE FOR ARTIFICIAL OXYGENATOR ATTENUATES INFLAMMATORY RESPONSIVE INSPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui-min; KONG Xiang; WANG Wei; ZHU De-ming; ZHANG Hai-bo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study if using autologous lung as a substitute of oxygenator in cardiopulmonary bypass is better than the conventional cardiopulmonary bypass with artificial oxygenator in pulmonary preservation.Methods Twelve piglets were randomly divided into two groups ( n = 6). The isolated lung perfusion model was established. The experimental animals underwent continuous lung perfusion for about 120 min. While the control animals underwent 90 min lung ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Another 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups ( n =6). The experimental animals underwent bi-ventricular bypass with autologous lung perfusion.While control animals underwent conventional cardiopulmonary bypass with artificial oxygenator. The bypass time and aortic cross clamping time were 135 min and 60 min respectively for each animal. The lung static compliance ( Cstat), alveolus-artery oxygen difference ( PA-aO2 ), TNF-α, IL-6 and wet to dry lung weight ratio (W/D) were measured. Histological and ultra-structural changes of the lung were also observed after bypass. Results After either isolated lung perfusion or cardiopulmonary bypass, the Cstat decreased, the PA-aO2 increased and the content of TNF-α increased for both groups, but the changes of experimental group were much less than those of control group. The lower W/D ratio and mild pathological changes in experimental group than those in control group were also demonstrated. Conclusion Autologous lung is able to tolerate the nonpalsatile perfusion. It can be used as a substitute to artificial ogygenator in cardiopulmonary bypass to minimize the inflammatory pulmonary injury caused mainly by ischemic reperfusion and interaction of the blood to the non-physiological surface of artificial oxygenator.

  6. Neuroprotective role of Batroxobin in cardiopulmonary resuscitation rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhoujun Kang; Hui Cao; Bing Mei

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Batroxobin has been found to have protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion,and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the common cause of global brain ischemia-reperfusion.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Batroxobin on the morphological results of cerebral cortex and hippocampus in rabbit models of CPR, and the changes of serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) after CPR.DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Laboratory of the Department of Burns, Changhai Hospital affiliated to the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Thirty healthy New Zealand rabbits of 2.5 - 3.0 kg, either male or female, were used. Kits for TNF- α determination were provided by LIFEKEY BioMeditech Company (USA).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of Department of Burns, Changhai Hospital from February 2001 to January 2002. The 32 rabbits were randomly divided into sham-operated group (n=8),conventional resuscitation group (n=12) and Batroxobin-treated group (n=12). The animals in the conventional resuscitation group and Batroxobin-treated group were anesthetized, then induced into modified Pittsburg's model of mechanical ventricular fibrillation. Sham-operated group was discharged on the chest wall, which did not cause ventricular fibrillation. Conventional resuscitation group and Batroxobin-treated group were exposed to 6 minutes of cardiac arrest induced by ventricular fibrillation, then the resuscitation began. A dosage of 0.3 Bu/kg of Batroxobin was administered to the rabbits in the Batroxobin-treated group at the beginning of resuscitation. Blood sample was collected at 4 and 12 hours after CPR to determine the concentration of TNF- α in serum. After the second blood collection, brain tissue was taken out immediately,and the forms of nerve cells in cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region were observed under light microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① TNF-α concentration in

  7. Potent Antioxidative Potential of Propofol during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in the Adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Shihai(

    2001-01-01

    Dominguez L J Tagliamonte M R et al.Effects of vitamin E and glutathione on glucose metabolism:role of magnesium.Hypertension 1999 34(4 pt 2):1002[14]Davies S W Duffy J P Wickens D G et al.Cardiopulmonary bypass myocardial management and support techniques:time-course of free radical activity during coronary artery operations with cardiopulmonary bypass.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1993 105:979[15]Schraufstatter I U Hinsgaw D B Hyslop P A et al.Glutathione cycle activity and pyridine nucleotide levels in oxidant-induced injury of cells.J Clin Invest 1985 76:1131[16]Hans P Deby C Deby-Dupont G et al.Effect of propofol on in vitro lipid peroxidation induced by different free radical generating systems:a comparison with vitamin E.J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1996 8:154[17]Kramer J H Mak I T Weglicki W B.Differential sensitivity of canine cardiac sarcolemmal and microsomal enzymes to inhibition by free radical-induced lipid peroxidation.Circ Res 1984 55:120[18]Kaneko M Beamish R E Dhalla N S.Depression of heart sarcolemmal Ca2+ pump activity by oxygen free radicals.Am J Physiol 1989 256:H368[19]Corretti M C Koretsune Y Kusuoka H et al.Glycolytic inhibition and calcium overload as consequences of endogenously generated free radicals in rabbit hearts.J Clin Invest 1991 88:1014[20]Cook D J Housmans P R.Mechanism of the negative inotropic effect of propofol in isolated ferret ventricular myocardium.Anesthesiology 1994 80:859[21]Geen T R Bennett S R Nelson V M.Specificity and properties of propofol as an antioxidant free radical scavenger.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1994 129:163[22]Murphy P G Bennett J R Meyers D S et al.The effect of propofol anesthesia on free radical-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes.Eur J Anaesthesiol 1993 10:261

  8. Protective equipment for emergency rescue in alpine-cold region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tian; Feng Xinxing; Wang Qizhi; Hao Limin

    2013-01-01

    Alpine-cold regions are characterized as hypoxia,strong wind,heavy rain,cold climate,huge temperature difference between day and night,and vertical climate.All these make it difficult for an emergency rescue when a natural disaster such as earthquake happens.Based on the characteristics of emergency rescue in alpinecold region,several multifunctional protective equipments have been developed by the Quartermaster Equipment Institute of General Logistics Department (GLD) of the Chinese People' s Liberation Army (CPLA).These equipments are lightweight,durable and environment adaptable.

  9. Evolution of membrane oxygenator technology for utilization during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchior RW

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Richard W Melchior,1 Steven W Sutton,2 William Harris,3 Heidi J Dalton4,5 1Department of Perfusion Services, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 2Cardiovascular Support Services, Inc., Dallas, TX, 3Department of Perfusion Services, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, 4Alaskan Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, 5Department of Child Health, University of Arizona-College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: The development of the membrane oxygenator for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass has been an incorporation of ideology and technological advancements with contributions by many investigators throughout the past two centuries. With the pursuit of this technological achievement, the ability to care for mankind in the areas of cardiac surgery has been made possible. Heart disease can affect anyone within the general population, but one such segment that it can affect from inception includes children. Currently, congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects nationally and worldwide. A large meta-analysis study from 1930 to 2010 was conducted in review of published medical literature totaling 114 papers with a study population of 24,091,867 live births, and divulged a staggering incidence of congenital heart disease involving 164,396 subjects with diverse cardiac illnesses. The prevalence of these diseases increased from 0.6 per 1,000 live births from 1930–1934 to 9.1 per 1,000 live births after 1995. These data reveal an emphasis on a growing public health issue regarding congenital heart disease. This discovery displays a need for heightened awareness in the scientific and medical industrial community to accelerate investigative research on emerging cardiovascular devices in an effort to confront congenital anomalies. One such device that has evolved over the past several decades is the pediatric membrane oxygenator. The pediatric membrane oxygenator, in conjunction with the heart lung

  10. Changes in the Cardiopulmonary Response to Exercise after Cardiac Transplantation in Patients Enrolled in an Early Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne M Bussières

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in the cardiopulmonary response to exercise in the first year after cardiac transplantation in patients enrolled in a rehabilitation program in the first three months post-transplantation.

  11. Intelligent Robot-assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y. K. Lau

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented scale and number of natural and man-made disasters in the past decade has urged international emergency search and rescue communities to seek for novel technology to enhance operation efficiency. Tele-operated search and rescue robots that can navigate deep into rubble to search for victims and to transfer critical field data back to the control console has gained much interest among emergency response institutions. In response to this need, a low-cost autonomous mini robot equipped with thermal sensor, accelerometer, sonar, pin-hole camera, microphone, ultra-bright LED and wireless communication module is developed to study the control of a group of decentralized mini search and rescue robots. The robot can navigate autonomously between voids to look for living body heat and can send back audio and video information to allow the operator to determine if the found object is a living human. This paper introduces the design and control of a low-cost robotic search and rescue system based on an immuno control framework developed for controlling decentralized systems. Design and development of the physical prototype and the immunity-based control system are described in this paper.

  12. How Europe’s least controversial rescue fund became controversial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. de Boer; C. Koedooder

    2015-01-01

    Over the past week, UK Prime Minister David Cameron and his Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, made a fuss about emergency funding for Greece. The source of their grievances is that some of the funding comes from the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM). Use of this rescue fun

  13. RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation Leagues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Akin; N. Ito; A. Jacoff; A. Kleiner; J. Pellenz; A. Visser

    2013-01-01

    The RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation competitions have been held since 2000. The experience gained during these competitions has increased the maturity level of the field, which allowed deploying robots after real disasters (for example, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster). This article provides

  14. "Denmark 1943": Using Music to Teach Holocaust Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the topic of rescue efforts poses particular challenges for teachers planning Holocaust curricula. While the issue leads many students to develop an engaged empathy with rescuers, teachers must avoid overemphasizing what was a limited occurrence within the overall Holocaust. This article presents a plan for using music to teach about…

  15. CERN Fire and Rescue Service Annual Report 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Elorza, Francisco Javier

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the main activities of the Fire & Rescue Service (FB) Group of the Technical Inspection and Safety (TIS) Division during the year 2000. It focuses on the most important differences with respect to the previous years in terms of organisation and domains of activity. It also contains detailed statistics of activity for the year 2000.

  16. Fire & Rescue Service Annual Report 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Doebbeling, E P

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the mandate, the personnel and the main activities of the Fire & Rescue Service Group of the Technical Inspection and Safety Division (TIS/FB) during the years 2001/2002. It focuses on the most important domains of activity. It also contains detailed statistics of activity for the two years and an overview of the equipment.

  17. Evaluating a multimodal interface for firefighting rescue tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Vos, W.K.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Firefighters searching for victims work in hazardous environments with limited visibility, obstacles and uncertain navigation paths. In rescue tasks, extra sensor information from infrared cameras, indoor radar and gas sensors could improve vision, orientation and navigation. A visual and tactile in

  18. Instructional Alternatives: Rescue Strategies for At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wircenski, Jerry L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An instructional plan to rescue at-risk students must be based on a curriculum intended to serve all students. The creation of a functional curriculum, the promotion of employability skills, and an emphasis on improving study skills are instructional patterns that seem to be effective in reducing the number of student dropouts. Two alternatives…

  19. Bezpieczeństwo i ratownictwo = Security and rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Red. Telak, Jerzy; Red. Zieliński, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Wyższa Szkoła Nauk o Zdrowiu w Bydgoszczy University of Health Sciences in Bydgoszcz                                       BEZPIECZEŃSTWO I RATOWNICTWO Security and rescue             Redakcja naukowa Edited by   Jerzy Telak Ewa Zieliń...

  20. Creation of the program to rescue data from NTFS partition with Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Březina, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the topic of data rescue from NTFS partition under Linux. The BASH program for data rescue from Windows partitions is created and tested in different live Linux distributions.

  1. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Huang; Xuedong, Liang; Guizhi, Zeng; Yulin, Ye; Da, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. To study the emergency rescue coordination relationship, collaborative matrices and collaborative entropy functions are established between emergency relief work and relief organizations, and the collaborative efficiency of the emergency rescue elements is determined based on this entropy function. Finally, the Lushan earthquake is used as an example to evaluate earthquake emergency rescue coordination efficiency.

  2. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Rong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. To study the emergency rescue coordination relationship, collaborative matrices and collaborative entropy functions are established between emergency relief work and relief organizations, and the collaborative efficiency of the emergency rescue elements is determined based on this entropy function. Finally, the Lushan earthquake is used as an example to evaluate earthquake emergency rescue coordination efficiency.

  3. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Long; Lin Xu; Zhenghui Xiao; Shixiong Hu; Ruping Luo; Hua Wang; Xiulan Lu; Zhiyue Xu; Xu Yao; Luo Zhou; Hongyu Long; Jiaoe Gong; Yanmin Song; Li Zhao; Kaiwei Luo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients ...

  4. Compromised Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Patients Early After Endoscopic Atraumatic Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: Implications for Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Dominique; Roijackers, Ruben; Jackmaert, Lore; Robic, Boris; Hendrikx, Marc; Yilmaz, Alaaddin; Frederix, Ines; Rosseel, Michael; DENDALE, PAUL

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance is better preserved early after endoscopic atraumatic coronary artery bypass graft (endo-ACAB) surgery versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design: Twenty endo-ACAB surgery patients, 20 CABG surgery patients, and 15 healthy subjects executed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, with assessment and comparison of cycling power output, O2 uptake, CO2 output, respiratory ...

  5. Organization and implementation of medical rescue of mass casualties during earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ling ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, there were more than 40 earthquakes greater than 7 magnitude occurred worldwide, 10 of which in China, which killed 600 thousand people accounting for 53% of global earthquake deaths. On May 12, 2008, an 8.0-magnitude earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, causing 69000 deaths, 18000 missings, and 370000 injuries. Among 10 thousand severe injuries, most were traumatic injuries, 74% of which were fracture. On April 14, 2010, a 7.1-magnitude earthquake occurred in Yushu, Qinghai Province. There were 2698 deaths, 270 missings and 11000 injuries. Among 3100 severe injuries, fracture accounted for 58.4%. After each earthquake, the Chinese Army Medical Services took actions and made quick response according to the law. They sent out elites with efficient command and scientific organization, fully participating in the medical rescue operations. After Wenchuan earthquake, 397 mobile medical service units and 7061 health workers were sent out. A total of 69000 people were treated, and 22000 cases of surgeries were performed. After Yushu earthquake, a total of 25 mobile medical service units and 2025 health workers were sent. They performed 1635 cases of surgeries with a miracle of "zero death" in mass earthquake casualties and altitude diseases in cold highlands. After each earthquake, injuries cured within 1 week accounted for 60% of the total, and patients evacuated accounted for 80% of the total, which owed to the effective first aid in site of Chinese Army Medical Service. They effectively played the role as the main force, making significant contributions for the final victory of earthquake relief. From the practice of medical rescue revelation after the two earthquakes, what Chinese Army Medical Services Services learned are: firstly, the theory of medical relief should be innovated; secondly, military and civilian organizations should be coordinated; thirdly, professional rescue force should be strengthened

  6. 成批烧伤救治50年%Experiences in rescue and treatment of mass burn casualties in fifty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周一平

    2008-01-01

    The article reviewed the history and the main experiences of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment during the past fifty years in China. Some issues including medical support for mass burn casually and treatment regime in future, such as the prevention of burn calamities, further elevation of the eure rate and lowering in the rate of disability, further development in network of burn care and preliminary scheme of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment, accelerating the development and study on the substitutes of allo-skin graft were discussed.

  7. Filgrastim as a Rescue Therapy for Persistent Neutropenia in a Case of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of dengue involves suppression of immune system leading to development of characteristic presentation of haematological picture of thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Sometimes, this suppression in immune response is responsible for deterioration in clinical status of the patient in spite of all specific and supportive therapy. Certain drugs like steroids are used for rescue therapy in conditions like sepsis. We present a novel use of filgrastim as a rescue therapy in a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, myocarditis, and febrile neutropenia and not responding to standard management.

  8. Amsterdam Oxford Joint Rescue Forces: Team description paper: Virtual Robot competition: Rescue Simulation League: RoboCup 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; G.E. Maillette de Buij Wenniger; H. Nijhuis; F. Alnajar; B. Huijten; M. van der Velden; W. Josemans; B. Terwijn; C. Walraven; Q. Nguyen; R. Sobolewski; H. Flynn; M. Jankowska; J. de Hoog

    2009-01-01

    With the progress made in active exploration, the robots of the Joint Rescue Forces are capable of making deliberative decisions about the distributing exploration locations over the team. To navigate autonomously towards those locations, the robots gradually aggregate their experience in a traversa

  9. Current research, key performances and future development of search and rescue robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinguo; WANG Yuechao; LI Bin; MA Shugen

    2007-01-01

    Frequent natural disasters and man-made catastrophes have threatened the safety of citizens and have attracted much more attention. The rescue mission under disaster environment is very complicated and dangerous for a rescue team. Search and rescue (SAR) robots can not only improve the efficiency of rescue operations but also reduce the casualty of rescuers. Robots can help rescue teams and even replace rescuers to perform dangerous missions. Search and rescue robots will play a more and more important role in the rescue operations. A survey of the research status of search and rescue robots in Japan, USA, China and other countries has been provided. According to current research,experiences and the lessons learned from applications, the five key performances of a search and rescue robot are survivability, mobility, sensing, communicability and operability.Multi-technique fusion and multi-agent intelligent network are considered to be requirements for the future development of the search and rescue robot. Disaster prevention, disaster reduction and disaster rescue are the important parts of national public safety. They are also crucial for the safety of citizens and their estates. Search and rescue robotic technique is an urgent needed, strategic and core technique for national development. It will be important and strategic for national economy and safety.

  10. 77 FR 64360 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Rescue Teams...) to publish regulations which provide that mine rescue teams be available for rescue and recovery work... arrangements for such teams are to be borne by the operator of each such mine. II. Desired Focus of...

  11. 建立应急救援公司的可行性研究%Feasibility study on creation of emergency rescue company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张争艳; 幸福堂; 贺连芝

    2011-01-01

    For now, in our country the enterprises are geographically-scattered and the safety situation is severe.Through analyzing the domestic current situation of emergency rescue, finding out it is difficult for the existing emergency rescue teams to cope with all accidents. Besides, it can' t effectively prevent some accidents further expand due to the deficiency of comprehensive emergency rescue ability. Then, according to these situations faced in the emergency rescue work recently, this paper puts forward the creation of emergency rescue company. After summarizing the emergency rescue company, analyzed the distinction and association between professional emergency rescue team and the emergency rescue company. Then, in order to emphasize the importance of emergency rescue company, analyzing the feasibility of the creation of emergency rescue company from legal construction, market demand, operability, policy support and funds safeguard, and setting forth its realistic function. The result shows that to some extent the creation of emergency rescue company may effectively solve the problems of understaffed emergency rescue and low emergency skills, optimize the structure of emergency rescue team, and promote the raise of emergency rescue capacity.%目前,我国企业比较分散,生产安伞形势严峻.通过对应急救援现状分析,发现我国现有的应急救援组织小足以应对所有事故的应急救援,而且缺乏综合性应急救援能力,从而不能有效地防止一些事故的扩大.根据而临的这些情况,提出建立应急救援公司的构想.在对应急救援公司进行概述后,分析了其与专业应急救援队伍的Ⅸ别与联系.为了能够突出应急救援公司的重要性,从法制化建设、市场需求、可操作性和政策支持及经费保障等方面对建立应急救援公司的可行性进行分析,并阐述了其现实作用.结果表明,应急救援公司的建立在一定程度上可以有效地解决

  12. A coprological investigation of gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary parasites in hunting dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Johansson, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    species of parasite was more common (89.5%) than infectionwith two species (10.5%). A multiple logistic regression model showed that prevalence ofintestinal parasites was not influenced by age, gender or breed in adult dogs. There was asignificantly higher prevalence of intestinal parasites in the densely......A coprological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasites infect-ing hunting dogs with no history of recent anthelmintic treatments and with no overtclinical manifestations of cardiopulmonary or gastrointestinal illness. The hunting dogswere recruited from four different areas...... in Denmark, and fecal samples were obtainedin October and November, 2007. For detecting gastrointestinal parasites, samples (N = 178)were examined by a commercial flotation kit (Fecalyzer®EVSCO, USA). For detection of car-diopulmonary parasites, samples (N = 181) were collected on three consecutive days...

  13. Cardiopulmonary function of dogs with plutonium-induced chronic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty dogs exposed by inhalation in the study, Toxicity of Inhaled 239PuO2 in Beagle Dogs, were evaluated for cardiopulmonary function. Another group of 10 dogs matched by age and sex, but not exposed to 239Pu, was also given the same cardiopulmonary function tests. The plutonium-exposed dogs were 7 or more years after exposure and ten of the dogs had clinical signs and pulmonary function values indicating radiation pneumonitis-pulmonary fibrosis. The occurrence of radiation pneumonitis-pulmonary fibrosis, a nonstochastic effect, over the same time period and range of lung doses as lung cancer, a stochastic effect, complicates the estimation of lung cancer risk for inhaled plutonium. 4 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  14. Red Kidney: Kidney Transplant From a Deceased Donor Who Received Massive Blood Transfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard; Hanif, Faisal; Prasad, Padmini; Ahmad, Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Here, we present a case of a deceased-donor kidney transplant. The brain-dead donor had received a massive blood transfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, which lead to hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, acute kidney injury, and renal replacement therapy. The kidney appeared red after in situ flush. Postoperatively, the recipient developed delayed graft function. Protocol biopsy during the postoperative period revealed the widespread deposition of heme pigment in the renal tubules. Massive blood transfusion and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery are associated with hemolysis and heme pigment deposition in the renal tubules, which subsequently lead to acute kidney injury. Kidneys from such donors appear red and, while this does not preclude transplant, are likely to develop delayed graft function. PMID:26030717

  15. [Tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax following tracheal perforation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, C T; Tsokos, M; Kurz, S D; Kleber, C

    2015-07-01

    Tension pneumothorax can occur at any time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with external cardiac massage and invasive ventilation either from primary or iatrogenic rib fractures with concomitant pleural or parenchymal injury. Airway injury can also cause tension pneumothorax during CPR. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old woman who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after undergoing elective mandibular surgery. During CPR the upper airway could not be secured by orotracheal intubation due to massive craniofacial soft tissue swelling. A surgical airway was established with obviously unrecognized iatrogenic tracheal perforation and subsequent development of tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax during ventilation. Neither the tension pneumomediastinum nor the tension pneumothorax were decompressed and accordingly resuscitation efforts remained unsuccessful. This case illustrates the need for a structured approach to resuscitate patients with ventilation problems regarding decompression of tension pneumomediastinum and/or tension pneumothorax during CPR. PMID:26036317

  16. [Tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax following tracheal perforation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, C T; Tsokos, M; Kurz, S D; Kleber, C

    2015-07-01

    Tension pneumothorax can occur at any time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with external cardiac massage and invasive ventilation either from primary or iatrogenic rib fractures with concomitant pleural or parenchymal injury. Airway injury can also cause tension pneumothorax during CPR. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old woman who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after undergoing elective mandibular surgery. During CPR the upper airway could not be secured by orotracheal intubation due to massive craniofacial soft tissue swelling. A surgical airway was established with obviously unrecognized iatrogenic tracheal perforation and subsequent development of tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax during ventilation. Neither the tension pneumomediastinum nor the tension pneumothorax were decompressed and accordingly resuscitation efforts remained unsuccessful. This case illustrates the need for a structured approach to resuscitate patients with ventilation problems regarding decompression of tension pneumomediastinum and/or tension pneumothorax during CPR.

  17. Effects of flashlight guidance on chest compression performance in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a noisy environment

    OpenAIRE

    You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Chang, Chul Ho; Park, Incheol; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, SeungHo; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2012-01-01

    Background In real cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), noise can arise from instructional voices and environmental sounds in places such as a battlefield and industrial and high-traffic areas. A feedback device using a flashing light was designed to overcome noise-induced stimulus saturation during CPR. This study was conducted to determine whether ‘flashlight’ guidance influences CPR performance in a simulated noisy setting. Materials and methods We recruited 30 senior medical students with...

  18. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Hoble; Loredana Meşină; Alexandra Rusu; Claudiu Avram; Mihaela Oraviţan

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise t...

  19. Effect of Regular Exercise on Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Males With Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Hee; Oh, Kyung Joon; Kong, In Deok; Kim, Sung Hoon; Shinn, Jong Mock; Kim, Jong Heon; Yi, Dongsoo; Lee, Jin Hyeong; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Tae-ho; Kim, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance of subjects with spinal cord injury by measuring the maximal oxygen consumption with varying degrees of spinal cord injury level, age, and regular exercise. Methods We instructed the subjects to perform exercises using arm ergometer on healthy adults at 20 years of age or older with spinal cord injury, and their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured with a metabolic measurement system. The exercise proceeded stepwise according to ...

  20. Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, D L; Dreher, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Many epidemiologic reports associate ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) with human mortality and morbidity, particularly in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infection, asthma). Because much ambient PM is derived from combustion sources, we tested the hypothesis that the health effects of PM arise from anthropogenic PM that contains bioavailable transition metals. The PM samples studied derived from three emission sources (two...

  1. GABA in nucleus tractus solitarius participates in electroacupuncture modulation of cardiopulmonary bradycardia reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Phenylbiguanide (PBG) stimulates cardiopulmonary receptors and cardiovascular reflex responses, including decreases in blood pressure and heart rate mediated by the brain stem parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Electroacupuncture (EA) at P5–6 stimulates sensory fibers in the median nerve and modulates these reflex responses. Stimulation of median nerves reverses bradycardia through action of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nucleus a...

  2. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S.; Scislo, Tadeusz J.

    2014-01-01

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as th...

  3. Effect of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Regional Antibiotic Penetration into Lung Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Hutschala, D.; Skhirtladze, K.; Kinstner, C.; Zeitlinger, M.; Wisser, W.; Jaeger, W.; Hoeferl, M.; Müller, M; Tschernko, E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery causes regional ventilation-perfusion mismatch, contributing to regional disturbances in antibiotic penetration into lung tissue. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is associated with postoperative pneumonia, a frequent and devastating complication after cardiac surgery. In this prospective clinical animal study, we performed in vivo microdialysis to determine the effect of CPB on regional penetration of levofloxacin (LVX) into lung t...

  4. Developing Pulmonary Vasculopathy in Systemic Sclerosis, Detected with Non-Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel DUMITRESCU; Oudiz, Ronald J.; Karpouzas, George; Hovanesyan, Arsen; Jayasinghe, Amali; Hansen, James E.; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) may develop exercise intolerance due to musculoskeletal involvement, restrictive lung disease, left ventricular dysfunction, or pulmonary vasculopathy (PV). The latter is particularly important since it may lead to lethal pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that abnormalities during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with SSc can identify PV leading to overt PAH. Methods Thirty SSc patients from the Harbor-U...

  5. Heart and Lungs Protection Technique for Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Pichugin; Nikolay Melnikov; Farkhad Olzhayev; Alexander Medvedev; Sergey Jourko; Alishir Gamzaev; Vladimir Chiginev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cardioplegic cardiac arrest with subsequent ischemic-reperfusion injuries can lead to the development of inflammation of the myocardium, leucocyte activation, and release of cardiac enzymes. Flow reduction to the bronchial arteries, causing low-flow lung ischemia, leads to the development of a pulmonary regional inflammatory response. Hypoventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is responsible for development of microatelectasis, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, poor complian...

  6. Unexplained exertional dyspnea caused by low ventricular filling pressures: results from clinical invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, William M.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Systrom, David M.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether low ventricular filling pressures are a clinically relevant etiology of unexplained dyspnea on exertion, a database of 619 consecutive, clinically indicated invasive cardiopulmonary exercise tests (iCPETs) was reviewed to identify patients with low maximum aerobic capacity (V̇o2max) due to inadequate peak cardiac output (Qtmax) with normal biventricular ejection fractions and without pulmonary hypertension (impaired: n = 49, V̇o2max = 53% predicted [interquartile range (I...

  7. Use of instructional video to prepare parents for learning infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Brannon, Timothy S.; White, Lisa A.; Kilcrease, Julie N.; Richard, LaShawn D.; Spillers, Jana G.; Cynthia L. Phelps

    2009-01-01

    Parents of premature infants often receive infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training prior to discharge from the hospital, but one study showed that 27.5% of parents could not demonstrate adequate CPR skills after completing an instructor-led class. We hypothesized that parents who viewed an instructional video on infant CPR before attending the class would perform better on a standardized skills test than parents who attended the class with no preparation. Parents randomized to the...

  8. Conflicting Physiological and Genomic Cardiopulmonary Effects of Recruitment Maneuvers in Murine Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Voiriot, Guillaume; Zhou, Tong; Marcos, Elisabeth; Dudek, Steven M.; Jacobson, Jeff R.; Machado, Roberto,; Adnot, Serge; Brochard, Laurent; Maitre, Bernard; Joe G N Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Low tidal volume ventilation, although promoting atelectasis, is a protective strategy against ventilator-induced lung injury. Deep inflation (DI) recruitment maneuvers restore lung volumes, but potentially compromise lung parenchymal and vascular function via repetitive overdistention. Our objective was to examine cardiopulmonary physiological and transcriptional consequences of recruitment maneuvers. C57/BL6 mice challenged with either PBS or LPS via aspiration were placed on mechanical ven...

  9. The Effect of Low Tidal Volume Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Pulmonary Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Safarpour; Mohammad Hosein Bakhshaei; Ahmad Moradi; Afshin Farhanchi; Maryam Davoudi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and it is believed to result from the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this study, we investigated the effect of low tidal volume ventilation during CPB on postoperative gas exchange and lung mechanics. Methods: This prospective randomized study included 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. In 50 patients, low tidal volume ventilation [tidal volum...

  10. Examining Interrater Reliability and Validity of a Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Discharge Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Lati, Jamil; Pellow, Vanessa; Sproule, Jeannine; Brooks, Dina; Ellerton, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the interrater reliability (IRR) of the individual items in the Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy (CPT) Discharge Tool. This tool identifies six critical items that physiotherapists should consider when determining a paediatric patient's readiness for discharge from CPT after upper-abdominal, cardiac, or thoracic surgery: oxygen saturation, mobility, secretion retention, discharge planning, auscultation, and signs of respiratory distress. Methods: A total of 33 pa...

  11. Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination in healthy cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, W; Allen, D G; Dyson, D H; Pascoe, P J; O'Grady, M R

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination on the cardiopulmonary function of 11 healthy cats was studied. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured by thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and arterial blood gas analysis. Values for systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index and stroke volume were calculated. The cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, arterial blood pressure and arterial blood...

  12. Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/acepromazine combination in hypovolemic cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, W; Allen, D G; Dyson, D H; Black, W D; Goldberg, M T; Valliant, A E

    1988-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/ acepromazine combination was studied in ten cats subjected to a 25% whole blood volume loss. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured via thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated from these data. Posthemorrhage, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, heart rate and...

  13. Cardiopulmonary effects of using carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Beazley, Shannon G.; Cosford, Kevin; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of capnoperitoneum were investigated in 8 spontaneously breathing, young adult female cats undergoing laparoscopic pancreatic biopsy (intra-abdominal pressure 12 mmHg). Cats were premedicated with acepromazine and hydromorphone, induced with ketamine and diazepam, and maintained using an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.13% in 100% oxygen. Direct systemic arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2), and isoflurane wer...

  14. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Mitsutomo; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our technique of using median sternotomy to perform double lung transplantations with cardiopulmonary bypass. By sparing the respiratory muscles, median sternotomy is probably less invasive and preserves lung function. Furthermore, it causes less long-term discomfort than intercostal...... thoracotomy. Although exposure of the pleural space is less optimal, abundant pleural adhesions can be dissected, particularly in the left posterior pleural cavity, using pericardial traction stitches, exposing the retrocardiac pleura with minimal manipulation of the heart....

  15. Diffusion of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training to Chinese Immigrants with Limited English Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Po Yip; Brandon Ong; Shin Ping Tu; Devora Chavez; Brooke Ike; Ian Painter; Ida Lam; Bradley, Steven M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Meischke, Hendrika W.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest. Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP). A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and trans...

  16. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Umran; Sarpkaya, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Objective : The aim of the study was to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skill levels of nursing students in North Cyprus. Methods : The study design was quasi-experimental and longitudinal. A questionnaire was applied to the students before the CPR lecture. Then the students were informed about adult CPR by the researchers and all of the students practiced CPR on a Resusci-Anne manikin. One and six months after this training the same questionnaire and skills ch...

  17. Usefulness of the bispectral index during cardiopulmonary resuscitation -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jin Yong; Kim, Yeonbaek; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of using the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not clearly understood. However, BIS has been a popular anesthetic monitoring device used during operations. The case presented is of a pregnant woman going into cardiac arrest due to an amniotic fluid embolism during a Cesarean section. CPR was performed, but neither the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) nor the return of consciousness was achieved, despite 50 min of effecti...

  18. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and beyond: the need to improve real-time feedback and physiologic monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Steve; Scales, Damon C.

    2016-01-01

    High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to improve survival outcomes after cardiac arrest. The current standard in studies evaluating CPR quality is to measure CPR process measures—for example, chest compression rate, depth, and fraction. Published studies evaluating CPR feedback devices have yielded mixed results. Newer approaches that seek to optimize CPR by measuring physiological endpoints during the resuscitation may lead to individualized patient care and improve...

  19. A Prospective Study of Survival After In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and its Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Miranzadeh, Sedigheh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Hosseinpour, Nadimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite several studies, there is no agreement on factors that affect survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of in-hospital CPR and its related factors at Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan, Iran, in 2014. Patients and Methods A descriptive study was conducted on all cases of CPR performed in Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital during a 6-month period in 2014. Through a consecutive sampling method, 250 c...

  20. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran; Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to ...

  1. The ethics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. II. Medical logistics and the potential for good response.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J M; Reynolds, B M

    1992-01-01

    Mismatches between provision of paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and potential to benefit are examined. Deficiencies are most likely to occur in peripheral maternity units but futile CPR is more common in emergency departments where the child is unknown. Decision making in individual cases is best retained by the medical profession for the sake of the child and family. American style intervention by the legislature is likely to dissipate scarce resources and perhaps harm infants...

  2. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Serrano; Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." ...

  3. Circadian affective, cardiopulmonary, and cortisol variability in depressed and nondepressed individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Spiegel, David; Taylor, C. Barr

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or vagal dysregulation. We investigated circadian mood variation and HPA-axis and autonomic function in older (≥55 years) depressed and nondepressed volunteers at risk for CVD by assessing diurnal positive and negative affect (PA, NA), cortisol, and cardiopulmonary variables in 46 moderately depressed and 19 nondepressed volunteers with elevated CVD risk. Participants sat...

  4. Esmolol added in repeated, cold, oxygenated blood cardioplegia improves myocardial function after cardiopulmonary bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Dahle, Geir Olav; Salminen, Pirjo-Riitta; Moen, Christian Arvei; Eliassen, Finn; Jonassen, Anne K.; Haaverstad, Rune; Matre, Knut; Grong, Ketil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated if the β-receptor blocking agent esmolol, added to standard oxygenated blood cardioplegia, improved myocardial function after weaning from bypass. Design: A block-randomized, blinded study. Setting: A university laboratory. Participants: Twenty anesthetized pigs, Norwegian Landrace. Interventions: After cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac arrest was induced with cold (12°C), oxygenated blood cardioplegia, enriched with either esmolol or vehi...

  5. Assessment of the teaching-learning process in students of the health area: cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Moita Garcia Kawakame; Ana Maria Kazue Miyadahira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo evaluate the skills and knowledge of undergraduate students in the health area on cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers with the use of an automatic external defibrillator.METHODThe evaluation was performed in three different stages of the teaching-learning process. A theoretical and practical course was taught and the theoretical classes included demonstration. The evaluation was performed in three different stages of the teaching-learning process. Two instruments were applied ...

  6. Renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation during cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass: a modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Evans, Roger G.; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, Julian A.; Fry, Brendan C.; Layton, Anita T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury, a prevalent complication of cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is thought to be driven partly by hypoxic damage in the renal medulla. To determine the causes of medullary hypoxia during CPB, we modeled its impact on renal hemodynamics and function, and thus oxygen delivery and consumption in the renal medulla. The model incorporates autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the utilization of oxygen for tubular ...

  7. Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S Faritous

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is an important recognized complication occurring during cardiovascular surgery procedures. This study was done to assess the perioperative risk factors related to postoperative pulmonary complications and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: It was a retrospective study on 5,497 patients, including 31 patients with prolonged ventilatory support and 5,466 patients without it; from the latter group, 350 patients with normal condition (extubated in 6-8 hours without any complication were selected randomly. Possible perioperative risk factors were compared between the two groups using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Among the 5,497 women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, 31 women needed prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV, and 15 underwent tracheostomy. After logistic regression, 7 factors were determined as being independent perioperative risk factors for PMV. Discussion: Age ≥70 years old, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤30%, preexisting respiratory or renal disease, emergency or re-do operation and use of preoperative inotropic agents are the main risk factors determined in this study on women undergoing CABG.

  8. Evolution of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moré Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a steady increase in the number of elderly patients with severe cardiovascular diseases who require a surgical procedure to recover some quality of life that allows them a socially meaningful existence, despite the risks.Objectives: To analyze the behavior of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Method: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with patients over 65 years of age who underwent surgery at the Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara, in Santa Clara, from January 2013 to March 2014.Results: In the study, 73.1% of patients were men; and there was a predominance of subjects between 65 and 70 years of age, accounting for 67.3%. Coronary artery bypass graft was the most prevalent type of surgery and had the longest cardiopulmonary bypass times. Hypertension was present in 98.1% of patients. The most frequent postoperative complications were renal dysfunction and severe low cardiac output, with 44.2% and 34.6% respectively.Conclusions: There was a predominance of men, the age group of 65 to 70 years, hypertension, and patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft with prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. Renal dysfunction was the most frequent complication.

  9. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats. PMID:27423150

  10. Protective effects of hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function after myocardium ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪君; 王昕; 夏中元; 罗涛; 涂仲凡

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify the protective effects of hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and to explore the possible mechanism.Methods: Twenty-four male white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups. In the control group, ischemia/reperfusion animals(Group I/R, n=10) were subjected to thirty-minute occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery and two-hour reperfusion. Animals in hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning group (Group HHP, n=14) experienced brief systemic ischemia preconditioning through blood withdrawl to lower blood pressure to 40%-50% of the baseline before myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Blood sample was taken to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) changes with blood gas analysis. Myocardium specimens were sampled to examine apoptosis-related gene interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA. Results: Cardiac mechanical function and lung gas exchange remained stable in Group HHP with a significant increase in NO level; while in Group I/R without preconditioning, cardiopulmonary dysfunction was present after 2 h reperfusion associated with a significant reduction in NO formation and an increase in MDA (P<0.001). There was negative expression of ICE mRNA in the two groups.Conclusions: Hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning significantly improves cardiopulmonary function and increases NO formation and the protective benefit associated with hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning of the heart may be regulated through NO mediated mechanism.

  11. Developing pulmonary vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis, detected with non-invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dumitrescu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc may develop exercise intolerance due to musculoskeletal involvement, restrictive lung disease, left ventricular dysfunction, or pulmonary vasculopathy (PV. The latter is particularly important since it may lead to lethal pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We hypothesized that abnormalities during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in patients with SSc can identify PV leading to overt PAH. METHODS: Thirty SSc patients from the Harbor-UCLA Rheumatology clinic, not clinically suspected of having significant pulmonary vascular disease, were referred for this prospective study. Resting pulmonary function and exercise gas exchange were assessed, including peakVO2, anaerobic threshold (AT, heart rate-VO2 relationship (O2-pulse, exercise breathing reserve and parameters of ventilation-perfusion mismatching, as evidenced by elevated ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2 and reduced end-tidal pCO2 (PETCO2 at the AT. RESULTS: Gas exchange patterns were abnormal in 16 pts with specific cardiopulmonary disease physiology: Eleven patients had findings consistent with PV, while five had findings consistent with left-ventricular dysfunction (LVD. Although both groups had low peak VO2 and AT, a higher VE/VCO2 at AT and decreasing PETCO2 during early exercise distinguished PV from LVD. CONCLUSIONS: Previously undiagnosed exercise impairments due to LVD or PV were common in our SSc patients. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing may help to differentiate and detect these disorders early in patients with SSc.

  12. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  13. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on propofol pharmacokinetics and bispectral index during coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio G. Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to alter propofol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of these alterations on postoperative pharmacodynamics. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that changes in propofol pharmacokinetics increase hypnotic effects after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 coronary artery bypass grafts were anesthetized with sufentanil and a propofol target controlled infusion (2.0 µg/mL. Depth of hypnosis was monitored using the bispectral index. Blood samples were collected from the induction of anesthesia up to 12 hours after the end of propofol infusion, at predetermined intervals. Plasma propofol concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by a non-compartmental propofol pharmacokinetic analysis. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, considering p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: After cardiopulmonary bypass, despite similar plasma propofol concentrations in both groups, bispectral index values were lower in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. Time to extubation after the end of propofol infusion was greater in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group (334 ± 117 vs. 216 ± 85 min, p = 0.04. Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass had shorter biological (1.82 ± 0.5 vs. 3.67 ± 1.15h, p < 0.01 and terminal elimination (6.27 ± 1.29 vs. 10.5h ± 2.18, p < 0.01 half-life values, as well as higher total plasma clearance (28.36 ± 11.40 vs.18.29 ± 7.67 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03, compared to patients in the off-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. CONCLUSION: Aside from the increased sensitivity of the brain to anesthetics after cardiopulmonary bypass, changes in propofol pharmacokinetics may contribute to its central nervous system effects.

  14. Muskmelon embryo rescue techniques using in vitro embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Palenius, Hector Gordon; Ramírez-Malagón, Rafael; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2011-01-01

    Among the major cucurbit vegetables, melon (Cucumis melo) has one of the greatest polymorphic fruit types and botanical varieties. Some melon fruits have excellent aroma, variety of flesh colors, deeper flavor, and more juice compared to other cucurbits. Despite numerous available melon cultivars, some of them are exceedingly susceptible to several diseases. The genetic background carrying the genes for tolerance and/or resistance for those diseases is found in wild melon landraces. Unfortunately, the commercial melon varieties are not able to produce viable hybrids when crossed with their wild melon counterparts. Plant tissue culture techniques are needed to surpass those genetic barriers. In vitro melon embryo rescue has played a main role to obtain viable hybrids originated from commercial versus wild melon crosses. In this chapter, an efficient and simple embryo rescue melon protocol is thoroughly described. PMID:21207265

  15. Study of station and attitude maneuver of submergence rescue vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ke-wei; BIAN Xin-qian; SHI Xiao-cheng

    2007-01-01

    It is an important control process to operate motion of an submergence rescue vehicle(SRV).Seeing that the motion of the submergence rescue vehicle is special, it is necessary to employ non-linear predictive control system. For this reason, continuous dynamic performance of the system, the logical components and the operative restraints are expressed as the non-linear equations of state with the inequality restraints, and the model principle of hybrid system is introduced. The conclusion shows that it comes true to exactly control position and attitude of the SRV by means of non-linear model predictive control. The test in a model basin has also proved that the above methods are efficient.

  16. Impacted and Fractured Biliary Basket: A Second Basket Rescue Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Amine Benatta; Ariane Desjeux; Marc Barthet; Jean Charles Grimaud; Mohamed Gasmi

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman was treated with ERCP, ES, and biliary plastic stent, for large and multiple common bile duct stones. During a second ERCP basket extraction was impacted with a round entrapped stone. The basket handle was cut off; a metal sheath of extraendoscopic lithotriptor was advanced over the basket. The mechanical lithotripsy was complicated with basket traction wires fracturing, without breakage of the stone. A rescue standard basket was pushed until it caught the basket/stone com...

  17. A change of attitude: From rescue to prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative and quantitative leap recorded by economical companies after the Romanian Revolution occurred in 1989, has positively influenced the functioning of the workplaces and working environment by increasing the employees' occupational safety, well being, health and results of their activities. In fact it has determined a new approach of safety culture. This has resulted in a change of attitude: from rescue to prevention. (author)

  18. ROBOTICS: Rescue Droids Stumble in an Urban Jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincell, M

    2000-08-11

    AUSTIN, TEXAS--Here at the 17th Annual National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, four teams of engineers fielded mechanical contestants in the first annual urban ruin search-and-rescue competition--a simulated catastrophe created to test intelligent lifesaving robots that may one day lead rescuers to people trapped in the precarious rubble of collapsed buildings. The competition indicated that the technology still has a way to go.

  19. Rescue Surgery 19 Years after Composite Root and Hemiarch Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin von Aspern

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male patient with Marfan's syndrome was referred to our clinic due to acute chest pain. His medical history contains complex surgery for type A aortic dissection 19 years ago including composite root replacement using a mechanical aortic valve. Immediate computed tomography indicated perforation at the distal ascending aortic anastomosis plus complete avulsion of both coronary ostia. The patient underwent successful rescue surgery with ascending aortic and arch replacement using a modified Cabrol technique.

  20. Fitness small fire-rescue vehicles to fire rescuers action

    OpenAIRE

    Кропивницький, Віталій Станіславович

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the development of coastal infrastructure becomes increasingly important task of ensuring domestic small fleet of specialized vessels working, especially those that can quickly to help everyone who needs help in emergency situations at these sites. These emergencies related to fire and other possible industrial accidents and disasters, which are designed to eliminate a number of modern innovative complexes, among which should be mentioned fire rescue boat UMS-1000. There is...

  1. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: An urban perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV and 38 African white-backed (AWBV vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  2. Predicting evolutionary rescue via evolving plasticity in stochastic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashander, Jaime; Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Baskett, Marissa L

    2016-09-28

    Phenotypic plasticity and its evolution may help evolutionary rescue in a novel and stressful environment, especially if environmental novelty reveals cryptic genetic variation that enables the evolution of increased plasticity. However, the environmental stochasticity ubiquitous in natural systems may alter these predictions, because high plasticity may amplify phenotype-environment mismatches. Although previous studies have highlighted this potential detrimental effect of plasticity in stochastic environments, they have not investigated how it affects extinction risk in the context of evolutionary rescue and with evolving plasticity. We investigate this question here by integrating stochastic demography with quantitative genetic theory in a model with simultaneous change in the mean and predictability (temporal autocorrelation) of the environment. We develop an approximate prediction of long-term persistence under the new pattern of environmental fluctuations, and compare it with numerical simulations for short- and long-term extinction risk. We find that reduced predictability increases extinction risk and reduces persistence because it increases stochastic load during rescue. This understanding of how stochastic demography, phenotypic plasticity, and evolution interact when evolution acts on cryptic genetic variation revealed in a novel environment can inform expectations for invasions, extinctions, or the emergence of chemical resistance in pests. PMID:27655762

  3. Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Itrat; Carbonneau, Seth; Moore, Bethany M; Nguyen, Gina; Anderson, Nicole M; Saini, Amandeep S; Kanki, John P; Jette, Cicely A; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish represents a revolutionary tool in large-scale genetic and small-molecule screens for gene and drug discovery. Transgenic zebrafish are often utilized in these screens. Many transgenic fish lines are maintained in the heterozygous state due to the lethality associated with homozygosity; thus, their progeny must be sorted to ensure a population expressing the transgene of interest for use in screens. Sorting transgenic embryos under a fluorescence microscope is very labor-intensive and demands fine-tuned motor skills. Here we report an efficient transgenic method of utilizing pigmentation rescue of nacre mutant fish for accurate naked-eye identification of both mosaic founders and stable transgenic zebrafish. This was accomplished by co-injecting two constructs with the I-SceI meganuclease enzyme into pigmentless nacre embryos: I-SceI-mitfa:mitfa-I-SceI to rescue the pigmentation and I-SceI-zpromoter:gene-of-interest-I-SceI to express the gene of interest under a zebrafish promoter (zpromoter). Pigmentation rescue reliably predicted transgene integration. Compared with other transgenic techniques, our approach significantly increases the overall percentage of founders and facilitates accurate naked-eye identification of stable transgenic fish, greatly reducing laborious fluorescence microscope sorting and PCR genotyping. Thus, this approach is ideal for generating transgenic fish for large-scale screens. PMID:26757807

  4. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  5. 78 FR 1158 - Anesthesiology Devices; Reclassification of Membrane Lung for Long-Term Pulmonary Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... bypass following cardiac surgery. An acute reversible or treatable cause of respiratory and/or cardiac... Accessories for Long-Term Pulmonary/Cardiac Support AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... separate from cardiopulmonary bypass following cardiac surgery. A membrane lung for long-term...

  6. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lili; Xu, Lin; Xiao, Zhenghui; Hu, Shixiong; Luo, Ruping; Wang, Hua; Lu, Xiulan; Xu, Zhiyue; Yao, Xu; Zhou, Luo; Long, Hongyu; Gong, Jiaoe; Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Li; Luo, Kaiwei; Zhang, Mengqi; Feng, Li; Yang, Liming; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Fan, Xuegong; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients diagnosed with EV-A71-related HFMD in Hunan province, including 1,017 cases with CNS involvement. These patients were divided into cardiopulmonary failure (976 people) group and group without cardiopulmonary failure (149 people). A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and neurological complications between these two groups. The most significant risk factors included young age, fever duration ≥3 days, coma, limb weakness, drowsiness and ANS involvement. Patients with brainstem encephalitis and more CNS-involved regions were more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure. These findings can help front-line clinicians rapidly and accurately determine patient prognosis, thus rationally distributing the limited medical resources and implementing interventions as early as possible. PMID:27001010

  7. Successful rescuing a pregnant woman with severe hepatitis E infection and postpartum massive hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-Sheng Jia; Yu-Mei Xie; Guo-Wu Yin; Jun-Rong Di; Wei-Pin Guo; Chang-Xing Huang; Xue-Fang Bai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To sum up the experience of the successful therapy for the severe hepatitis of pregnant woman with postpartum massive hemorrhage.METHODS: The advanced therapeutic methods including the bilateral uterine artery embolism, hemodialysis and artificial liver support therapy were performed with comprehensive medical treatments and the course of the successful rescuing the patient was analyzed.RESULTS: Through the hospitalization of about two mouths the patient and her neonatus had gotten the best of care in our department and pediatric department separately. Both of them were discharged in good condition.CONCLUSION: The key points for a successful therapy of the pregnant woman with severe hepatitis are termination of the pregnancy and the control of their various complications. It was suggested that the proper combination of these measures of modern therapy would race against time for renewing of hepatic and renal functions.

  8. SALVEREMO, an automatic system for the search and rescue in the wilderness and mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Roberto; Allasia, Walter; Bianchi, Luca; Licata, Enrico; Duranti, Pierluigi; Molino, Andrea; Bagalini, Enea; Sagliocco, Sergio; Scarafia, Simone; Prinetto, Paolo; Airofarulla, Giuseppe; Carelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    SALVEREMO project aims at designing and prototyping an innovative system for searching and rescuing individuals (especially hikers and mountaineers) who got lost or in peril in wilderness or mountain areas. It makes use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) equipped with a sensor suite specifically selected according to the requirements identified involving alpine rescuers and government officials. The peculiarity of the proposed solution is the exploitation and integration of the special skill and expertise coming from different competence fields. It will dramatically decrease the searching time in the wilderness and remote areas off the beaten tracks, providing rescuers and operators with a decision support system increasing successful results and reducing rescue missions costs. The system benefits from the adoption of a scaled-down Base Transceiver Station (BTS) embarked in the payload sensor suite of a small RPAS that can be carried in a back pack of rescuers. A Software Defined Radio (SDR) board implementing the BTS protocol stack has been integrated in a complex sensor suite made up of open processing boards and camera devices. Moreover computer vision (CV) algorithms for real time pattern detection and image enhancements have been investigated for assisting the rescuers during the searching operations. An easy-to-use ground station application has been developed for speeding up the overall mission accomplishment. Aknowledgement SALVEREMO project is a research project co-funded by Regione Piemonte according to the call for proposal POR F.E.S.R. 2007/2013, "Linea di attività I.1.3-Innovazione e PMI - Polo della Meccatronica e dei Sistemi Avanzati di Produzione". The authors want to thank "Il Soccorso Alpino Italiano" for the invaluable support for establishing operative requirements.

  9. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan [Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  10. Eelvated postoperative renal clearance of amylase without pancreatitis after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L W; Ferrari, B T; Buckberg, G D; Tompkins, R K

    1977-03-01

    Two postoperative cardiopulmonary bypass patients who had pancreatitis within a two week period provided the impetus for pursuing this study. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR) were measured in a series of ten thoracic surgery patients: six coronary artery bypass patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (cardiac group), and four exploratory thoracotomy patients (pulmonary group). These ratios were obtained in the preoperative, recovery room, and postoperative periods. Comparisons were made among the following data: clinical history, pre- and postoperative medications, intraoperative vital signs, drugs, and anesthetics. The preoperative mean ACCR was 3.34 per cent. All cardiac patients had a significantly elevated ACCR in the recovery room with a mean of 17.36 per cent (p less than 0.05). The ACCR had returned to preoperative levels by the second postoperative day in five of six cases. There were no elevated ACCR levels in the pulmonary group. All patients were asymptomatic for pancreatitis. The intraoperative course of the cardiac patients involved four common factors, besides cardiopulmonary bypass, which were not present in the pulmonary group. These similarities included transfusion of citrated fresh whole blood activated by calcium chloride, hypotension treated with ephedrine, administration of mannitol, and intraoperative morphine analgesia. The mechanisms of increased amylase secretion by calcium chloride or ephedrine administration and transient sphincter of Oddi constriction by morphine or the alpha-adrenergic response of ephedrine are considered with the theoretical implications toward pancreatitis. The background and significance of the ACCR are also analyzed, especially in association with the osmotic diuresis of mannitol and a subsequent low urine creatinine level. PMID:848659

  11. Hydroxyethyl starch versus Ringer solution in cardiopulmonary bypass prime solutions (a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyazıcıoglu Ahmet

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our study we compared the Ringer solution, which is the standard prime solution of our department, with the HES (Hydroxyethyl starch 130-0.4 solution, which can be a potential alternative prime solution with an indispensable material for the cardio-pulmonary bypass applications. Methods 140 patients undergoing to CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery were electively enrolled to the study. 1500 ml Ringer solution + 200 ml mannitol + 60 ml sodium bicarbonate + 150 U/kg heparin was used as a prime solution to start cardiopulmonary by-pass in 70 patients which was defined as group 1. On the other hand, 1500 ml HES 130 - 0.4 + 200 ml mannitol + 60 ml sodium bicarbonate + 150 U/kg heparin was used as a prime solution in 70 patients in group 2. Results INR (International Normalized Ratio, urea levels and blood platelet counts were significantly different between the groups. INR level was higher in group 1, while blood urea and creatinine levels and platelet count were higher in group 2 at the end of the 12th and 24nd hours postoperatively (p = 0.001. In this study, it was shown that the usage of HES 130-0.4 as a prime solution did not have negative effect on postoperative INR level, platelet count, the need for transfusion and the amount of drainage, despite the negative opinions that similar solutions caused coagulation disorders. Another interesting result of the study was that blood platelet count at 24th hour was statistically significantly higher in group 2 (p = 0.001. Conclusion HES 130-0.4 solution is an alternative colloidal solution which can be used as the prime solution or as a mixture with the crystalloids in cardio-pulmonary bypass applications.

  12. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 μm2). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0±5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCODSA=COFick. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  13. Interleukin-27 as a Novel Biomarker for Early Cardiopulmonary Failure in Enterovirus 71-Infected Children with Central Nervous System Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingyuan; Du, Wenjing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Longbin; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiyong; Wei, Pei; Wu, Weiquan; Huang, Zhulin; Fang, Ying; Lin, Qiling; Qin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to severe neurological complications and has high morbidity and mortality. Reliable biomarker for the prediction of deterioration in EV71-infected children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement may reduce the cardiopulmonary failure and mortality. Here, we found that serum IL-27 levels were significantly higher in stage III EV71-infected HFMD patients with early cardiopulmonary failure and strong correlation with CRP levels. IL27p28 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) did not influence IL-27 production, and these three SNPs were not associated with EV71 infection risk and clinical stage. IL-27 can be used as an prediction indicator for early cardiopulmonary failure in EV71-infected children with CNS involvement. PMID:27403033

  14. Interleukin-27 as a Novel Biomarker for Early Cardiopulmonary Failure in Enterovirus 71-Infected Children with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingyuan; Du, Wenjing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Longbin; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiyong; Wei, Pei; Wu, Weiquan; Huang, Zhulin; Fang, Ying; Lin, Qiling; Qin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhou, Keyuan

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to severe neurological complications and has high morbidity and mortality. Reliable biomarker for the prediction of deterioration in EV71-infected children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement may reduce the cardiopulmonary failure and mortality. Here, we found that serum IL-27 levels were significantly higher in stage III EV71-infected HFMD patients with early cardiopulmonary failure and strong correlation with CRP levels. IL27p28 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) did not influence IL-27 production, and these three SNPs were not associated with EV71 infection risk and clinical stage. IL-27 can be used as an prediction indicator for early cardiopulmonary failure in EV71-infected children with CNS involvement. PMID:27403033

  15. Triiodothyronine increases myocardial function and pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle after reperfusion in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Aaron K; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy; Rosiers, Christine Des; Portman, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) supplementation improves clinical outcomes in infants after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass by unknown mechanisms. We utilized a translational model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC), thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-(13)Carbon((13)C)]pyruvate for 40 min (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (control) or immediately after reperfusion (I/R) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (I/R-Tr) received T3 (1.2 μg/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC) using [2-(13)C]pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When compared with I/R, T3 (group I/R-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after I/R while elevating flux of both PDC and PC (∼4-fold). Although neither I/R nor I/R-Tr modified absolute CAC levels, T3 inhibited I/R-induced reductions in their molar percent enrichment. Furthermore, (13)C-labeling of CAC intermediates suggests that T3 may decrease entry of unlabeled carbons at the level of oxaloacetate through anaplerosis or exchange reaction with asparate. T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC fluxes, thereby providing potential substrate for elevated cardiac function after reperfusion. This T3-induced increase in pyruvate fluxes occurs with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Our labeling data raise the possibility that T3 reduces reliance on amino acids for anaplerosis after reperfusion.

  16. 军队医院文职护士灾难救援能力的现状%Investigation on the Current Status of Disaster Rescue Ability of Non-active Civilian Nurses in Military Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔安花; 卢根娣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the disaster rescue ability of the non-active civilian nurses in military hospitals,and so as to provide scientific evidence for the disaster rescue training.Methods 35 non-active ci-vilian nurses were enrolled by using convenience sampling method from two military hospitals,and investi-gated by self-designed questionnaire.Results The non-active civilian nurses had the strong will to perform the disaster rescue mission,and they had a good master for the disaster rescue knowledge such as the con-cept,the five first aids skills include cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills,hemostatic skills,bandaging skills,fixing and transport skills.But they had a poor master for nuclear-biological-chemical medical knowledge,outdoor survival skills training and inj ury assessment.Conclusion There is an urgent need for improving the disaster rescue ability of the non-active civilian nurses,and the military medical knowledge and outdoor survival skills should be strengthened in military training.%目的:了解某军队医院文职护士的灾难救援能力现状,为文职护士灾难救援能力培训提供科学依据。方法采用自行设计的军队文职护士灾难救援能力现状调查表,通过方便抽样对某军队2所三甲医院35名文职护士进行调查。结果军队文职护士执行灾难救援任务意愿较强,在灾难护理知识掌握上,对灾难护理概念、五大急救技术(即心肺复苏、止血、包扎、固定和转运)掌握较好,但是对三防医学救援知识、野外生存技能和伤情评估相关知识掌握欠佳。结论军队医院文职护士的灾难救护能力亟需全面提高,在平时战备训练中尤其应加强军事医学知识和野外生存能力的训练,以适应各种灾难救援的需要。

  17. Acute Mallory-Weiss syndrome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation by health care providers in the emergency department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dae Hee Kim; Dong Yoon Rhee; Seon Hee Woo; Woon Jeong Lee; Seung Hwan Seol; Won Jung Jeong

    2015-01-01

    A report of a 62-year-old female patient with severe Mallory-Weiss syndrome after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by health care providers in the emergency department is presented. The bleeding continued for five days, and the patient’s total blood loss was estimated to be approximately 3 000 mL. After 7 days, the patient died due to respiratory distress syndrome. Severe Mallory-Weiss syndrome afterCPR may occur and should be considered as a potentially serious complication afterCPR.

  18. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: an evaluation of incidence, causes, management and guidelines for preventative measures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2012-02-03

    The incidence of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been reported to occur in approximately 1 per 1000 cases. While the resultant morbidity and mortality is low, electrical failure is a life-threatening scenario. We report three major electrical failures during CPB in a patient population of 3500 over a 15-year period. These cases involved mains failure and generator shut down, mains failure and generator power surge, and failure of the uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which caused protected sockets to shut down. Protocols for preventative maintenance, necessary equipment, battery backup and guidelines for the successful management of such accidents during CPB are discussed.

  19. Femoro-femoral cardiopulmonary bypass for the resection of an anterior mediastinal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali SenDasgupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The perioperative management of patients with mediastinal mass is challenging. Complete airway obstruction and cardiovascular collapse may occur during the induction of general anaesthesia, tracheal intubation, and positive pressure ventilation. The intubation of trachea may be difficult or even impossible due to the compressed, tortuous trachea. Positive pressure ventilation may increase pre-existing superior vena cava (SVC obstruction, reducing venous return from the SVC causing cardiovascular collapse and acute cerebral oedema. We are describing here the successful management of a patient with a large anterior mediastinal mass by anaesthetizing the patient through a femoro-femoral cardiopulmonary bypass (fem-fem CPB.

  20. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; LI, Min-hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were r...

  1. A pilot study of effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training on participants' self-concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T R; Byrd, E K

    1983-10-01

    The administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was taught to a group of 12 adults. The Tennessee Self-concept Scale Form-C and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior Scale (FIRO-B) were administered before and after their training. A control group of 12 was administered both scales twice with one day between administrations. Analysis indicated both groups showed significant differences between the pre- and posttest administrations on expressed affection on the FIRO-B. However, participants in a brief CPR course did not score significantly differently from a control group on these measures, as expected.

  2. Effect of short-acting beta blocker on the cardiac recovery after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yanning

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of beta blocker on cardiac recovery and rhythm during cardiac surgeries. Sixty surgical rheumatic heart disease patients were received esmolol 1 mg/kg or the same volume of saline prior to removal of the aortic clamp. The incidence of cardiac automatic re-beat, ventricular fibrillation after reperfusion, the heart rate after steady re-beat, vasoactive drug use during weaning from bypass, the posterior parallel time and total bypass time were decreased by esmolol treatment. In conclusion: Esmolol has a positive effect on the cardiac recovery in cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries.

  3. Oxygenator Exhaust Capnography for Prediction of Arterial Carbon Dioxide Tension During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka, Anis; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Muallem, Eva; Jamal, Salim; Haroun-Bizri, Sania; Aouad, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Continuous monitoring and control of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is essential. A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive system is not currently available. This study was undertaken to assess whether the continuous monitoring of oxygenator exhaust carbon dioxide tension (PexCO2) can be used to reflect PaCO2 during CPB. A total of 33 patients undergoing CPB for cardiac surgery were included in the study. During normothermia (37°C) and stable hypother...

  4. Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Cardiac Compressor; Reclassification of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Aids. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify external cardiac compressors (ECC) (under FDA product code DRM), a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls). FDA is also creating a separate classification regulation for a subgroup of devices previously included within this classification regulation, to be called cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) aids, and reclassifying these devices from class III to class II for CPR aids with feedback and to class I for CPR aids without feedback. PMID:27224965

  5. Coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass: short- and mid-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Y; Mehta, Y; Kohli, V M; Kohli, V; Mairal, M; Mishra, A; Bapna, R K; Trehan, N

    1997-01-01

    From March 1994 to April 1997, 433 patients had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass in our institute. Sixty-eight patients had various organ dysfunctions and/or aortic atheroma or calcification and were regarded as high risk for cardiopulmonary bypass. In 277 patients surgery was performed through midline sternotomy, while in 156 minithoracotomy approach was used. In 361 patients single coronary artery bypass grafting was done, and in 72 two-coronary arteries were bypassed. In 63 patients who had graftable vessels in anterior wall and diffusely diseased ungraftable vessels in posterolateral and/or inferior wall, transmyocardial laser revascularisation was also done along with coronary artery bypass grafting to achieve complete myocardial revascularisation. Nine patients in this series were also subjected to simultaneous carotid endarterectomy along with myocardial revascularisation. In two patients complementary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of left circumflex coronary artery was done five days after minithoracotomy and left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery bypass grafting. Forty-two cases were extubated in operating room. Average blood loss was 260 ml. Six patients were reexplored for postoperative bleeding. Seven patients had perioperative myocardial infarction. One developed neurological complication. Hospital mortality was 2.3 percent (10/433 cases) and four deaths were due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Nine patients developed chest wound complications. Average hospital stay after operation was six days, 423 patients were discharged from hospital and all of them were asymptomatic. During three years follow-up (range 3 to 38 months) there were three known cardiac deaths. Ninety percent (391) patients reported to the follow-up clinic and 91 percent of them were angina-free. In patients who were subjected to transmyocardial laser revascularisation along with coronary

  6. Emergency management of heat exchanger leak on cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukop, P; Tiezzi, A; Mattam, K; Sarsam, M

    2015-11-01

    Heat exchanger leak on cardiopulmonary bypass is very rare, but serious. The exact incidence is not known. It is an emergency associated with the potential risk of blood contamination, air embolism and haemolysis, difficulty with re-warming, acidosis, subsequent septic shock, multi-organ failure and death. We present a prompt, highly co-ordinated algorithm for the successful management of this important rare complication. There is need for further research to look for safety devices that detect leaks and techniques to reduce bacterial load. It is essential that teams practice oxygenator change-out routines and have a well-established change-out protocol. PMID:25870370

  7. Designing Allosteric Control into Enzymes by Chemical Rescue of Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckert, Katelyn; Budiardjo, S. Jimmy; Brunner, Luke C.; Lovell, Scott; Karanicolas, John (Kansas)

    2012-08-07

    Ligand-dependent activity has been engineered into enzymes for purposes ranging from controlling cell morphology to reprogramming cellular signaling pathways. Where these successes have typically fused a naturally allosteric domain to the enzyme of interest, here we instead demonstrate an approach for designing a de novo allosteric effector site directly into the catalytic domain of an enzyme. This approach is distinct from traditional chemical rescue of enzymes in that it relies on disruption and restoration of structure, rather than active site chemistry, as a means to achieve modulate function. We present two examples, W33G in a {beta}-glycosidase enzyme ({beta}-gly) and W492G in a {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme ({beta}-gluc), in which we engineer indole-dependent activity into enzymes by removing a buried tryptophan side chain that serves as a buttress for the active site architecture. In both cases, we observe a loss of function, and in both cases we find that the subsequent addition of indole can be used to restore activity. Through a detailed analysis of {beta}-gly W33G kinetics, we demonstrate that this rescued enzyme is fully functionally equivalent to the corresponding wild-type enzyme. We then present the apo and indole-bound crystal structures of {beta}-gly W33G, which together establish the structural basis for enzyme inactivation and rescue. Finally, we use this designed switch to modulate {beta}-glycosidase activity in living cells using indole. Disruption and recovery of protein structure may represent a general technique for introducing allosteric control into enzymes, and thus may serve as a starting point for building a variety of bioswitches and sensors.

  8. Functionalists and zombis: Sorcery as spandrel and social rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-12-01

    At one level, anthropologists remain functionalists in that they generally see acts and institutions as contributing to a greater social whole only through which they make sense. Thus, sorcery accusations have been traditionally interpreted in terms of maintaining social harmony and cohesion. In the case of Haitian zombification, the zombi seems a locally misidentified victim who is frequently mentally ill. As a hapless non-agent, the zombi cannot initiate the sorcery accusations, so how do we understand the recognition and rescue of the zombi, either in terms of social function or social action?

  9. Rescue and Fire Fighting on RWY 06R/24L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Vaňková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rescue and firefighting service is an important and essential part at the Václav Havel Airport Prague and it has to follow the requirements stated in Commission regulations (EU, regulations and laws of Czech Republic. Construction of parallel runway 06R/24L influences runway and taxiway system significantly. Consequences of these construction changes are changes of access routes and new places of potential interventions originates. Safety risks of inaccessible areas at the airport and inability to follow response time come with operations of the new runway. These risks are assessed and mitigated if necessary.

  10. Impacted and Fractured Biliary Basket: A Second Basket Rescue Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amine Benatta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old woman was treated with ERCP, ES, and biliary plastic stent, for large and multiple common bile duct stones. During a second ERCP basket extraction was impacted with a round entrapped stone. The basket handle was cut off; a metal sheath of extraendoscopic lithotriptor was advanced over the basket. The mechanical lithotripsy was complicated with basket traction wires fracturing, without breakage of the stone. A rescue standard basket was pushed until it caught the basket/stone complex. Using this method disengagement of the whole fractured basket/stone complex was achieved without need of surgery. It is the third case reported in the English literature.

  11. Impacted and Fractured Biliary Basket: A Second Basket Rescue Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatta, Mohammed Amine; Desjeux, Ariane; Barthet, Marc; Grimaud, Jean Charles; Gasmi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman was treated with ERCP, ES, and biliary plastic stent, for large and multiple common bile duct stones. During a second ERCP basket extraction was impacted with a round entrapped stone. The basket handle was cut off; a metal sheath of extraendoscopic lithotriptor was advanced over the basket. The mechanical lithotripsy was complicated with basket traction wires fracturing, without breakage of the stone. A rescue standard basket was pushed until it caught the basket/stone complex. Using this method disengagement of the whole fractured basket/stone complex was achieved without need of surgery. It is the third case reported in the English literature. PMID:27293442

  12. Impacted and Fractured Biliary Basket: A Second Basket Rescue Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatta, Mohammed Amine; Desjeux, Ariane; Barthet, Marc; Grimaud, Jean Charles; Gasmi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman was treated with ERCP, ES, and biliary plastic stent, for large and multiple common bile duct stones. During a second ERCP basket extraction was impacted with a round entrapped stone. The basket handle was cut off; a metal sheath of extraendoscopic lithotriptor was advanced over the basket. The mechanical lithotripsy was complicated with basket traction wires fracturing, without breakage of the stone. A rescue standard basket was pushed until it caught the basket/stone complex. Using this method disengagement of the whole fractured basket/stone complex was achieved without need of surgery. It is the third case reported in the English literature. PMID:27293442

  13. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  14. Establishment of a Rescue System for Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gassen, Uta; Collins, Fergal M.; Duprex, W. Paul; Rima, Bert K.

    2000-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been rescued from a full-length cDNA clone. Besides Measles virus (MV) and Rinderpest virus, a third morbillivirus is now available for genetic analysis using reverse genetics. A plasmid p(+)CDV was constructed by sequential cloning using the Onderstepoort vaccine strain large-plaque-forming variant. The presence of a T7 promoter allowed transcription of full-length antigenomic RNA by a T7 RNA polymerase, which was provided by a host range mutant of vaccinia v...

  15. National First-Aid and Mine Rescue Contest, Buffalo, NY, October 5-7, 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, H.F.; Alden, D.M.

    1960-01-01

    Report describes the National First-Aid and Mine Rescue Contest, the fifth after a lapse of 21 years, held in the Memorial Auditorium in Buffalo, under auspices of Bureau and Joseph A. Holmes Safety Association. Nine teams from 4 States participated in the mine rescue contest, and 43 teams from 8 States in the first-aid contest. Six teams entered as combination teams, participating in both mine rescue and first-aid contests.

  16. A critical review of the Mediterranean sea turtle rescue network: a web looking for a weaver

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Ullmann; Michael Stachowitsch

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in conservation biology is recognizing and bridging the gap between scientific results and specific action. We examine sea turtles—charismatic yet endangered flagship species—in the Mediterranean, a sea with historically high levels of exploitation and 22 coastal nations. We take sea turtle rescue facilities as a visible measure for implemented conservation action. Our study yielded 34 confirmed sea turtle rescue centers, 8 first-aid stations, and 7 informal rescue institutions cu...

  17. Model and algorithm for optimization of rescue center location of emergent catastrophe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ding-wei; ZHANG Guo-xiang

    2006-01-01

    The location of rescue centers is a key problem in optimal resource allocation and logistics in emergency response.We propose a mathematical model for rescue center location with the considerations of emergency occurrence probability,catastrophe diffusion function and rescue function.Because the catastrophe diffusion and rescue functions are both nonlinear and time-variable,it cannot be solved by common mathematical programming methods.We develop a heuristic embedded genetic algorithm for the special model solution.The computation based on a large number of examples with practical data has shown us satisfactory results.

  18. Association of blood products administration during cardiopulmonary bypass and excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Barrett, Sarah S; Barry, Kristen; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Donahue, Brian S; Harris, Zena L; Bichell, David P

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to study risk factors and post-operative outcomes associated with excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgeries performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support. A retrospective observational study was undertaken, and all consecutive pediatric heart surgeries over 1 year period were studied. Excessive post-operative bleeding was defined as 10 ml/kg/h of chest tube output for 1 h or 5 ml/kg/h for three consecutive hours in the first 12 h of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) stay. Risk factors including demographics, complexity of cardiac defect, CPB parameters, hematological studies, and post-operative morbidity and mortality were evaluated for excessive bleeding. 253 patients were studied, and 107 (42 %) met the criteria for excessive bleeding. Bayesian model averaging revealed that greater volume of blood products transfusion during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding. Multiple logistic regression analysis of blood products transfusion revealed that increased volume of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) administration for CPB prime and during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding (p = 0.028 and p = 0.0012, respectively). Proportional odds logistic regression revealed that excessive bleeding was associated with greater time to achieve negative fluid balance, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and duration of PCICU stay (p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple parameters. A greater volume of blood products administration, especially PRBCs transfusion for CPB prime, and during the CPB period is associated with excessive post-operative bleeding. Excessive bleeding is associated with worse post-operative outcomes.

  19. Peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass with modified assisted venous drainage and transthoracic aortic crossclamp: optimal management for robotic mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Hart, David E; Pappas, Patroklos S; Tatooles, Antone J

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with modified assisted venous drainage (MAVD) and transthoracic aortic cross-clamping to maintain a bloodless surgical field, adequate myocardial protection, systemic flow and pressure during robotic surgical repair of the mitral valve. Peripheral CPB was established with a standard Duraflo-coated closed circuit with femoral arterial and venous cannulation. An additional 17 Fr wire-bound cannula was inserted into the right internal jugular vein and drainage rates of 200-400 mL/min were regulated using a separate roller-head pump. A transthoracic aortic crossclamp with antegrade cardioplegia was used for myocardial protection. Mitral valve (MV) repair was then performed through two 1-cm ports for the robotic arms and a 4-cm intercostal incision for the camera and passing suture. From October 2001 to October 2002, 25 patients underwent robotic MV repair. Average surgical times include leaflet resection and repair, 20 min, and insertion of annuloplasty ring, 28 min; average perfusion times, crossclamp 88 min and total bypass time of 126 min. There were no incisional conversions, no reoperations for bleeding and no deaths, strokes or perioperative myocardial infarctions. Twenty-one (84%) patients were extubated in the operating room. Average LOS was 2.7 days with eight (32%) patients discharged home in less than 24 hours. In conclusion, peripheral CPB with gravity drainage of the lower body and MAVD of the upper body allow safe and effective support during robotically assisted minimally invasive MV repair. This approach may be applied to other forms of minimally invasive cardiac surgery that requires CPB. PMID:14604249

  20. VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND CUTTINGS PROPAGATION OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian pine or araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia is a coniferous tree with great economic, social and environmental importance in southern Brazil, being exploited for both wood production and for its edible pine nuts. However, no efficient cloning techniques are available and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetative rescue methods for cuttings propagation of the species. Shoots/cuttings were generated in two ways: 26 years old trees underwent coppicing and 20 years old trees had the primary branches on the upper third of crown pruned at 2, 20 and 50 cm from the main trunk. Orthotropic shoots were rooted after application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g.L-1. Coppicing produced 47 cuttings per plant with 90% orthotropic shoots, while pruning resulted in 182 cuttings per plant with 44% orthotropic shoots. Rooting success indexes were low with no influence of IBA, although they are slightly superior to the ones available in the literature for the species, ranging from 12 to 30% for the coppice shoots and from 0 to 28% for the branches shoots. We conclude that both vegetative rescue techniques are viable and have potentially important applications. Coppicing is recommended for the propagation aiming the production of wood, while shoots derived from the side branches of the crown are more appropriate for seeds orchards formation.

  1. SOCIAL MEDIA MANAGEMENT FOR A BAND : Case: Husky Rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Sampo

    2010-01-01

    The  goal  of  the  project  thesis  was  to  create,  produce  and  manage  the social  media  presence  of  a   Finnish  band  called  Husky  Rescue.  Husky Rescue  is  a  band  that  has  had  moderate  international   success.  The  thesis also  discusses  the  feasibility  of  starting  a  business  that  would  provide social   media  and  online  marketing  services  to  Finnish  artists. The  development  of  the  Internet  from  a  network  of  static  websites  to  a dynamic  co...

  2. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  3. Impaired microcirculatory perfusion in a rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass: the role of hemodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Nick J; de Lange, Fellery; Vonk, Alexander B A; Ahmed, Yunus; van den Brom, Charissa E; Bogaards, Sylvia; van Meurs, Matijs; Jongman, Rianne M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Begieneman, Mark P V; Niessen, Hans W; Baufreton, Christophe; Boer, Christa

    2016-03-01

    Although hemodilution is attributed as the main cause of microcirculatory impairment during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), this relationship has never been investigated. We investigated the distinct effects of hemodilution with or without CPB on microvascular perfusion and subsequent renal tissue injury in a rat model. Male Wistar rats (375-425 g) were anesthetized, prepared for cremaster muscle intravital microscopy, and subjected to CPB (n = 9), hemodilution alone (n = 9), or a sham procedure (n = 6). Microcirculatory recordings were performed at multiple time points and analyzed for perfusion characteristics. Kidney and lung tissue were investigated for mRNA expression for genes regulating inflammation and endothelial adhesion molecule expression. Renal injury was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Hematocrit levels dropped to 0.24 ± 0.03 l/l and 0.22 ± 0.02 l/l after onset of hemodilution with or without CPB. Microcirculatory perfusion remained unaltered in sham rats. Hemodilution alone induced a 13% decrease in perfused capillaries, after which recovery was observed. Onset of CPB reduced the perfused capillaries by 40% (9.2 ± 0.9 to 5.5 ± 1.5 perfused capillaries per microscope field; P perfusion, which cannot fully explain impaired microcirculation following cardiopulmonary bypass. CPB led to increased renal injury and endothelial adhesion molecule expression in the kidney and lung compared with hemodilution. Our findings suggest that microcirculatory impairment during CPB may play a role in the development of kidney injury.

  4. Protective Effect of Heparin-coated Circuits on the Platelets during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯伦; 胡志伟; 杨运海; 黄如清; 范慧敏; 孙宗全

    2003-01-01

    To observe the protective effect of heparin-coated circuits (HCC) on the platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). 23 patients with heart valve replacement were studied. The system heparin dose was 3 mg/kg in the control group (n= 15) and heparin-coated circuits in the HCC group (n = 8). Platelet count, α-granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140) concentrations were determined before CPB, at 60 min of CPB, 30 and 60 min after protamine administration, first 12 h after CPB, respectively. At end of CPB the arterial filters in the circuits were observed by electron microscopy. The amount of first 12-h postoperative blood loss was measured. There was significant reduction in platelet loss during and after CPB in the HCC group in contrast to the control group during CPB (P<0.05). During the first 12 h, postoperative blood loss was reduced in the HCC group as compared with that in the control group (218±61 ml, vs. 332±118 ml, P<0.05). Electron microscopy showed that in the HCC group the filter meshes and their fringes were clear and fragments of floccules were occasionally seen, without adherent cells or only few adherent cells on their surfaces, whereas several cellular and fibrous components were found to adhere to the surfaces of the filter meshes in the control group. This study indicates that heparin-coated circuits might reduce the platelet loss and activation during CPB and improve hemocompatibility of cardiopulmonary bypass equipment.

  5. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.

  6. Use of the cardiopulmonary flow index to evaluate cardiac function in thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume is called the cardiopulmonary flow index (CPFI). The CPFI can be determined indirectly from the simultaneous recording of a radiocardiogram and an electrocardiogram. The CPFI and cardiac output were measured simultaneously in horses that were diagnosed as having cardiac disease. The results obtained from these subjects were compared with those from control animals and significant differences were found between the mean CPFI of the control horses and those with macroscopically visible myocardial fibrosis on post mortem examination. No significant differences were found between the means of the cardiac output measured in either of the groups of horses. The effect of pharmacological acceleration of the heart rate on the CPFI was also studied. Significant differences were found between the mean CPFI and the slopes of the regression lines of CPFI on heart rate of the control and principal groups of horses. These differences were greatest at heart rates near to the resting heart rates of the individuals. The CPFI was found to be a more sensitive measure of cardiac function than cardiac output, in the horses. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Coordination of heart and lung co-development by a multipotent cardiopulmonary progenitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tien; Tian, Ying; Boogerd, Cornelis J; Lu, Min Min; Kadzik, Rachel S; Stewart, Kathleen M; Evans, Sylvia M; Morrisey, Edward E

    2013-08-29

    Co-development of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is a recent evolutionary adaption to terrestrial life that couples cardiac output with the gas exchange function of the lung. Here we show that the murine pulmonary vasculature develops even in the absence of lung development. We have identified a population of multipotent cardiopulmonary mesoderm progenitors (CPPs) within the posterior pole of the heart that are marked by the expression of Wnt2, Gli1 and Isl1. We show that CPPs arise from cardiac progenitors before lung development. Lineage tracing and clonal analysis demonstrates that CPPs generate the mesoderm lineages within the cardiac inflow tract and lung including cardiomyocytes, pulmonary vascular and airway smooth muscle, proximal vascular endothelium, and pericyte-like cells. CPPs are regulated by hedgehog expression from the foregut endoderm, which is required for connection of the pulmonary vasculature to the heart. Together, these studies identify a novel population of multipotent cardiopulmonary progenitors that coordinates heart and lung co-development that is required for adaptation to terrestrial existence.

  8. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  9. The use of VEPs for CNS monitoring during continuous cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, N K; Taylor, M J; Coles, J G; Prieur, B J; Burrows, F A

    1987-07-01

    Cerebral function was monitored with the use of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 16 infants (mean age 9.9 +/- 4.3 months) during surgery for congenital cardiac anomalies. While hypothermia was employed in all patients, half (8) remained on continuous cardiopulmonary bypass (CCB) while the rest were cooled to lower temperatures before the induction of circulatory stasis and venous exsanguination (CA), i.e., profound hypothermic circulatory arrest (PHCA). VEPs were recorded before, during and after surgical intervention. Latency changes occurred in both the N100 and P145 components of the VEP as a function of systemic temperature during cooling in both groups. Differences in the VEPs were found between the two groups post-operatively, with the most interesting result being a greater increase in P145 latency in the CA group after rewarming. To the extent that VEPs reflect neurological status, our findings suggested that CCB was associated with less perturbation in acute neurological status than PHCA, and shorter arrest times and lower temperatures during CA were associated with the most favourable post-operative VEPs. Hence, intraoperative monitoring of VEPs appeared to be useful as an objective measure of the short-term effects of various cardiopulmonary procedures on neurophysiological function.

  10. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-04-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: "Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia," "Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia," "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews," "Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia," "Jornal de Pediatria," "Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular," "Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira," Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P." and "São Paulo Medical Journal." These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined.

  11. Problems of Cold Agglutinins in Cardiac Surgery: How to Manage Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Myocardial Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Alizadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold agglutinins are of unique relevance in cardiac surgerybecause of the use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Cold autoimmune diseases are defined by the presence of abnormal circulating proteins (usually IgM or IgA antibodies that agglutinate in response to a decrease in body temperature. These disorders include cryoglobulinemia and cold hemagglutinin disease.Immunoglobulin M autoantibodies to red blood cells, which activateat varying levels of hypothermia, can cause catastrophic hemagglutination,microvascular thrombosis, or hemolysis. Management of anesthesia in these patients includes strict maintenance of normothermia. Patients scheduled for the surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass present significant challenges. Use of systemic hypothermia may be contraindicated, and cold cardioplegia solutions may precipitate intracoronary hemagglutination with consequent thrombosis, ischemia, or infarction. Management of CPB andmyocardial protection requires individualized planning. We describea case of MV repair and CABG in a patient with high titercold agglutinins and high thermal amplitude for antibody activation.Normothermic CPB and continuous warm blood cardioplegia weresuccessfully used.

  12. CPR时持续胸外按压的重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelFries; WanchunTang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of review Survival rates from cardiac arrest are unacceptably low. The present review aims to summarize recent contributions to cardiopulmonary resuscitation research in relation to hemodynamic consequences and especially survival resulting from interruption of chest compressions for defibrillation and rescue breathing. Recent findings Data from animal and human studies strongly support the negative consequences for overall survival when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is interrupted for rescue breathing and rhythm analysis. Furthermore, in settings of prolonged cardiac arrest electrical defibrillation may not have the highest priority as initial intervention. Summary Interruption of cardiopulmonary resuscitation negatively affects survival from cardiac arrest and more time dependent interventions are necessary.

  13. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  14. Rescue and Preliminary Application of a Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-lin HU; Qin SUN; Qu-zhi WANG; Yul-iang LIU; Yan-tao WU; Xiu-fan LIU

    2007-01-01

    Based on the complete genome sequence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) ZJI strain,seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify a cDNA fragment for constructing the plasmid pNDV/ZJI,which contained the full-length cDNA of the NDV ZJI strain.The pNDV/ZJI,with three helper plasmids,pCIneoNP,pCIneoP and pCIneoL,were then cotransfected into BSR-T7/5 cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase.After inoculation of the transfected cell culture supernatant into embryonated chicken eggs from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) flock,an infectious NDV ZJI strain was successfully rescued.Green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was amplified and inserted into the NDV full-length cDNA to generate a GFP-tagged recombinant plasmid pNDV/ZJIGFP.After cotransfection of the resultant plasmid and the three support plasmids into BSR-T7/5 cells,the recombinant NDV,NDV/ZJIGFP,was rescued.Specific green fluorescence was observed in BSR-T7/5 and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells 48h post-infection,indicating that the GFP gene was expressed at a relatively high level.NDV/ZJIGFP was inoculated into 10-day-old SPF chickens by oculonasal route.Four days post-infection,strong green fluorescence could be detected in the kidneys and tracheae,indicating that the recombinant GFP-tagged NDV could be a very useful tool for analysis of NDV dissemination and pathogenesis.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of cardiopulmonary functional reserve in treated patients with pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wen-wen; WANG Le-min; CHE Lin; SONG Hao-ming; JIANG Jin-fa; XU Jia-hong; SHEN Yu-qin; ZHANG Qi-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no research,either at home or abroad,focusing on assessing the cardiopulmonary functional reserve and exercise tolerance in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE),but the benefits of early exercise are well recognized.The goals of this study were to assess cardiopulmonary functional reserve in treated PE patients using the inert gas rebreathing method of the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET),and to compare it with traditional methods.Methods CPET on the bicycle ergometer were performed in 40 patients with age,gender,body mass index,systolic blood pressure,and pulmonary function matched.The first group was the PE group composed of 16 PE patients (5 male,11 female) who were given the standard antithrombotic therapy for two weeks.The second group was composed of 24 normal individuals (10 male,14 female).Both groups were evaluated by cardiac ultrasound examination,6-minute walking test (6MVVT),and CPET.Results (1) Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) in the PE group increased significantly compared to the control group,(34.81±8.15) mmHg to (19.75±3.47) mmHg (P <0.01).But neither right atrial end-systolic diameter (RASD) nor right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVDD) in the PE patients had changed when compared with the controls.The 6-minute walk distance was significantly reduced in the PE patients compared with normal subjects,(447.81±79.20) m vs.(513.75±31.45) m (P <0.01).Both anaerobic threshold oxygen consumption (VO2AT) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were significantly lower in patients with PE,while CO2 equivalent ventilation (VE/VCO2 slope) was higher;VO2AT (9.44±3.82) ml·kg1.min-1 vs.(14.62±2.93) ml.kg-1.min-1 (P <0.01) and VO2peak (12.26±4.06) ml.kg-1.min-1 vs.(23.46±6.15) ml.kg-1.min-1 (P <0.01) and VE/VCO2 slope 35.47±6.66 vs.26.94±3.16 (P <0.01).There was no significant difference in resting cardiac output (CO) between the PE and normal groups,whereas peak cardiac output (peak CO)and the

  16. Exercises commonly used in rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: cardiopulmonary responses and effect over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Boer, R.C. de; Broek, L. van den; Dekhuijzen, R.; Heijdra, Y.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare conventional exercise-based assessment of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) with improvement in training exercises employed during a PR program, and to describe the cardiopulmonary response of different training exercises during PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary di

  17. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rabczenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death. Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  18. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves survival in a rodent model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using high-dose epinephrine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaul, Conán

    2009-10-01

    Multiple interventions have been tested in models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to optimize drug use, chest compressions, and ventilation. None has studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on outcome. We hypothesized that because PEEP can reverse pulmonary atelectasis, lower pulmonary vascular resistance, and potentially improve cardiac output, its use during CPR would increase survival.

  19. Augmentation of abdominal organ perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass with a novel intra-aortic pulsatile catheter pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; De Kroon, T; Elstrodt, JM; van Oeveren, W; Boonstra, PW; Rakhorst, G

    2005-01-01

    Background: Current pulsatile pumps for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are far from satisfactory because of the poor pulsatility. This study was undertaken to examine the efficiency of a novel pulsatile catheter pump on pulsatility and its effect on abdominal organ perfusion during CPB. Methods: Twelv

  20. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing reveals onset of disease and response to treatment in a case of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Pia; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Bogaard, Harm Jan

    2012-01-01

    Patients affected by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) show a typical pattern of abnormalities on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). However, CPET is not routinely used as a screening method. We discuss a patient with hereditary PAH in whom CPET revealed onset of disease. Furthermore, we show that the abnormalities observed can improve in part by PAH-specific treatment. PMID:23130108

  1. Health effects and time course of particulate matter on the cardiopulmonary system in rats with lung inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, M.M.W.; Alink, G.M.; Kumarathasan, P.; Vincent, R.; Boere, A.J.F.; Cassee, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies associate health effects and particulate matter in ambient air. Exacerbation of the particle-induced inflammation can be a mechanism responsible for increased hospitalization and death due to cardiopulmonary events in high-risk groups of the population. Systems regulat

  2. Comparative Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of exhausts from Soy-Based Biofuels and Diesel in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of renewable energy sources raise concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative cardiopulmonary health effects of exhausts from (1) 100% soy biofuel (B100), (2) 20% soy biofuel + 80% low sulfur petroleum diesel (B20), and (3) 100% petroleum di...

  3. Clinical Effectiveness of Centrifugal Pump to Produce Pulsatile Flow During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; van Oeveren, Willem; Mungroop, Hubert E.; Epema, Anne H.; den Hamer, Inez J.; Keizer, Jorrit J.; Leuvenink, Ron P.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Although the centrifugal pump has been widely used as a nonpulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), little is known about its performance as a pulsatile pump for CPB, especially on its efficacy in producing hemodynamic energy and its clinical effectiveness. We performed a study to evaluate w

  4. [Informative value of cardio-pulmonary exertion test in dyspnea diagnosis among asbestos-cement goods production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabina, S A

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with diagnosis of respiratory system changes through cardio-pulmonary exertion test in dyspneic individuals over 10 years exposed to dust at work. The results help to assess changes in the cardio-respiratory system, further prognosis and expedience of continued work in the hazardous conditions. PMID:19882774

  5. In vitro effect of hemodilution on activated clotting time and high-dose thrombin time during cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyzen, RJ; vanOeveren, W; Wei, FY; Stellingwerf, P; Boonstra, PW; Gu, YJ

    1996-01-01

    Background. Extreme dilution of clotting factors, as may occur during pediatric or neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass, often leads to inadequate monitoring of anticoagulation with activated dotting time (ACT). In this study we postulate that the high-dose thrombin time (HiTT) is less influenced by extr

  6. Efficacy analysis of intravenous thrombolysis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of intravenous thrombolysis in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI)and cardiac arrest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Methods 120 patients with AMI and cardiac arrest admitted in our hospital from Mar2009 to Mar 2013 were divided into thrombolytic group(n=50)and control group(n=70)according to the

  7. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, J Stanek3, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, PA Evansky1, ER Lappi1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1...

  8. Comparison of current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran with American Society of Extracorporeal Technology’s standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faravan, Amir; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Toutounchi, Mohammad Zia; Ghanbari, Ameneh; Mazloomi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Standards have a significant role in showing the minimum level of optimal optimum and the expected performance. Since the perfusion technology staffs play an the leading role in providing the quality services to the patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass machine, this study aimed to assess the standards on how Iranian perfusion technology staffs evaluate and manage the patients during the cardiopulmonary bypass process and compare their practice with the recommended standards by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Methods: In this descriptive study, data was collected from 48 Iranian public hospitals and educational health centers through a researcher-created questionnaire. The data collection questionnaire assessed the standards which are recommended by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Results: Findings showed that appropriate measurements were carried out by the perfusion technology staffs to prevent the hemodilution and avoid the blood transfusion and unnecessary blood products, determine the initial dose of heparin based on one of the proposed methods, monitor the anticoagulants based on ACT measurement, and determine the additional doses of heparin during the cardiopulmonary bypass based on ACT or protamine titration. It was done only in 4.2% of hospitals and health centers. Conclusion: Current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran are inappropriate based on the standards of American Society of Cardiovascular Perfusion. This represents the necessity of authorities’ attention to the validation programs and development of the caring standards on one hand and continuous assessment of using these standards on the other hand. PMID:27489600

  9. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duara Rajnish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1 cases where residual pump blood was used and (2 controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1 st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained.

  10. Development of an improved polykaryon-based influenza virus rescue system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourret Vincent

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus rescue from transfected cells is an extremely useful technique that allows defined viral clones to be engineered for the purpose of rational vaccine design or fundamental reverse genetics studies. However, it is often hindered by low primary rescue success rates or yields, especially with field-derived viral strains. Approach We investigated the possibility of enhancing influenza virus rescue by eliciting cell fusion to increase the chances of having all necessary plasmids expressed within the same polykaryon. To this end we used the Maedi-Visna Virus envelope protein which has potent fusion activity in cells from a wide range of different species. Results Co-transfecting cells with the eight plasmids necessary to rescue influenza virus plus a plasmid expressing the Maedi-Visna Virus envelope protein resulted in increased rescue efficiency. In addition, partial complements of the 8-plasmid rescue system could be transfected into two separate populations of cells, which upon fusion led to live virus rescue. Conclusion The simple modification described here has the potential to improve the efficiency of the virus rescue process and expand the potential applications for reverse genetic studies.

  11. A Place to Call Home——Rescued moon bears get to live a decent life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On February 8, 2006, a piece of sad news came out of the Moon Bear Rescue Center in Chengdu, capital city of southwest China's Sichuan Province. Andrew, the first moon bear rescued by the Animals Asia Foundation, which sponsors the center, died of liver cancer, thought to have arisen from the massive infec-

  12. Measuring emotions of robot operators in urban search and rescue missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Giele, T.R.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility and reliability of measuring the (emotional) state of the robot operators in urban search and rescue missions in real-time. An experiment has been conducted, in which a high-fidelity team task in a realistic urban search and rescue setting was executed by fire fi

  13. 75 FR 18888 - Mine Rescue Teams and Arrangements for Emergency Medical Assistance and Transportation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Safety and Health Administration Mine Rescue Teams and Arrangements for Emergency Medical Assistance and... teams for underground coal mines on February 8, 2008. The United Mine Workers of America challenged the... revised its requirements for mine rescue teams for underground coal mines on June 17, 2009. The 2008...

  14. 78 FR 10637 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Mine Rescue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... regarding the ] availability of mine rescue teams, alternate mine rescue capability for small and remote... equipment and apparatus, physical requirements for team members and alternates, and experience and training... Federal Register on October 19, 2012 (77 FR 64360). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments...

  15. Investigation and analysis on disaster rescue professional skill of medical staff%医护人员灾害救援专业技能调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽虹; 刘轶博

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对医护人员灾害救援专业技能进行调查和研究,为提高我国灾害救援水平提供理论和实践支持.方法:采用文献资料调查法、问卷调查法和访谈法,用分层随机抽样和整群抽样相结合的方法,以我国东北三省6所三甲医院的2496名医护人员为研究对象.结果:大多数医护人员对参加现场进行灾害救援工作感到无信心.医护人员灾害救援专业技能水平低下.省会城14和其他城市医护人员灾害救援专业技能之间有差异性(P<0.05).绝大多数医护人员认为提高其灾害救援专业技能水平的最有效方法是开展灾害医学继续教育.结论:目前医护人员灾害救援专业技能水平较低,应大力开展灾害医学继续教育以提高我国灾害救援整体水平.%Ohjectives : To investigate the medical staffs professional skill of disaster rescue and to give theoretical and practical support for improving the capacity of Chinese disaster rescue. Methods: 2496 medical staffs in 6 tertiary hospitals in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang province were selected as research samples. Literature review, questionnaire and interview were used. Stratified random sampling and cluster sampling were the sampling methods. Results: Most medical staff worried ahout attending the disaster rescue work. Medical staff's disaster rescue professional skill capacity is low. the skill hetween capital city and other city are different ( P<0.05 ) .The most effective way of improving medical staffs disaster rescue skill is disaster medical continuation education. Conclusion: Medical staffs disaster rescue skill is inferior. We should development disaster medical continuing education in order to improve the level of Chinese disasters rescue.

  16. Activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2012-09-01

    Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A(1) receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA≥LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A(1) receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT(3) receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors [microinjections of N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 1 nmol in 100 nl) (n = 9) did not affect the reflex responses. We conclude that activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors uniformly inhibits neural and cardiovascular cardiopulmonary chemoreflex responses. A(1) adenosine receptors have no tonic modulatory effect on this reflex under normal conditions. However, when adenosine is released into the NTS (i.e., during stress or severe hypotension/ischemia), it may serve as negative feedback regulator for depressor and sympathoinhibitory reflexes

  17. Financing Corporate Rescues, Where Does the UK Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpareva Aruoriwo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Akpareva Aruoriwo aims to evaluate the adequacy of the framework available for the financing of corporate rescues in the UK. She examines the legal provision made for prioritising creditors who get involved after an insolvency has been declared, with reference to examples from America and Canada. Without post-insolvency funding, companies may find it very difficult to survive, and without protection for post-insolvency creditors, those creditors may not wish to provide this sort of funding. The author examines the arguments for and against this kind of creditor protection, looking at past calls for reforms to the law and the preparedness of the UK to adopt any reforms.

  18. Scene recognition for mine rescue robot localization based on vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yi-an; CAI Zi-xing; WANG Lu

    2008-01-01

    A new scene recognition system was presented based on fuzzy logic and hidden Markov model(HMM) that can be applied in mine rescue robot localization during emergencies. The system uses monocular camera to acquire omni-directional images of the mine environment where the robot locates. By adopting center-surround difference method, the salient local image regions are extracted from the images as natural landmarks. These landmarks are organized by using HMM to represent the scene where the robot is, and fuzzy logic strategy is used to match the scene and landmark. By this way, the localization problem, which is the scene recognition problem in the system, can be converted into the evaluation problem of HMM. The contributions of these skills make the system have the ability to deal with changes in scale, 2D rotation and viewpoint. The results of experiments also prove that the system has higher ratio of recognition and localization in both static and dynamic mine environments.

  19. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363

  20. Dense 3D Map Construction for Indoor Search and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Huang, Shoudong; Miró, Jaime Valls;

    2007-01-01

    in this scenario is that the robot moves in 6D and no odometry information is available. An extended information ?lter  EIF is used to estimate the state vector containing the sequence of camera poses and some selected 3D point features in the environment. Data association is performed using a combination of scale...... invariant feature transformation SIFT feature detection and matching, random sampling consensus RANSAC , and least square 3D point sets ?tting. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques developed.......The main contribution of this paper is a new simultaneous localization and mapping  SLAM algorithm for building dense three-dimensional maps using information ac- quired from a range imager and a conventional camera, for robotic search and rescue in unstructured indoor environments. A key challenge...

  1. Microbes Promote Amino Acid Harvest to Rescue Undernutrition in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Yamada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of nutritional disorders such as protein-specific malnutrition. However, the precise contribution of microbes to host energy balance during undernutrition is unclear. Here, we show that Issatchenkia orientalis, a fungal microbe isolated from field-caught Drosophila melanogaster, promotes amino acid harvest to rescue the lifespan of undernourished flies. Using radioisotope-labeled dietary components (amino acids, nucleotides, and sucrose to quantify nutrient transfer from food to microbe to fly, we demonstrate that I. orientalis extracts amino acids directly from nutrient-poor diets and increases protein flux to the fly. This microbial association restores body mass, protein, glycerol, and ATP levels and phenocopies the metabolic profile of adequately fed flies. Our study uncovers amino acid harvest as a fundamental mechanism linking microbial and host metabolism, and highlights Drosophila as a platform for quantitative studies of host-microbe relationships.

  2. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions

  3. Test Report : GS battery, EPC power HES RESCU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  4. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  5. CO{sub 2} in underground openings and mine rescue training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, J. [Freiburg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering and Special Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mine rescue training procedures related to dangerous gases in mines were discussed. Methods of detecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in abandoned opening and old adits were presented. High concentrations of CO{sub 2} combine with hemoglobin and lead to a lack of oxygen supply to the inner organs. Nitric acid forms in the alveoli and can lead to injuries or death after a period of 4 to 12 hours. Exposure to very high concentrations of CO{sub 2} can cause people to immediately lose consciousness. CO{sub 2} concentrations in the blood can change pH blood values. Members of mine rescue teams should be equipped with breathing equipment and be between 18 and 40 years old. Training rescue operations should be conducted 4 times per year. While larger mines have their own rescue teams, smaller mines must ensure that guest rescue teams are familiar with their mines. Various mine training activities were reviewed. 5 refs.

  6. Loss of tau rescues inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eMaphis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related tauopathies. Activated microglia spatially coexist with microtubule-associated protein tau (Mapt or tau-burdened neurons in the brains of human AD and non-AD tauopathies. Numerous studies have suggested that neuroinflammation precedes tau pathology and that induction or blockage of neuroinflammation via lipopolysaccharide (LPS or anti-inflammatory compounds (such as FK506 accelerate or block tau pathology, respectively in several animal models of tauopathy. We have previously demonstrated that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via deficiency of the microglia-specific chemokine (fractalkine receptor, CX3CR1, promotes tau pathology and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that tau mediates the neurotoxic effects of LPS in Cx3cr1-/- mice. First, Mapt+/+ neurons displayed elevated levels of Annexin V (A5 and TUNEL (markers of neurodegeneration when co-cultured with LPS-treated Cx3cr1-/-microglia, which is rescued in Mapt-/- neurons. Second, a neuronal population positive for phospho-S199 (AT8 tau in the dentate gyrus is also positive for activated or cleaved caspase (CC3 in the LPS-treated Cx3cr1-/- mice. Third, genetic deficiency for tau in Cx3cr1-/- mice resulted in reduced microglial activation, altered expression of inflammatory genes and a significant reduction in the number of neurons positive for CC3 compared to Cx3cr1-/- mice. Finally, Cx3cr1-/- mice exposed to LPS displayed a lack of inhibition in an open field exploratory behavioral test, which is rescued by tau deficiency. Taken together, our results suggest that pathological alterations in tau mediate inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and that deficiency of Mapt is neuroprotective. Thus, therapeutic approaches towards either reducing tau levels or blocking neuroinflammatory pathways may serve as a potential strategy in treating

  7. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis provides prognostic prediction in patients receiving extracorporeal life support

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Hui-Chun; Chang, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chen; Lo, Men-Tzung; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Ko, Wen-Je; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Chen, Ming-Fong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Buchman, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) can temporarily support cardiopulmonary function, and is occasionally used in resuscitation. Multi-scale entropy (MSE) derived from heart rate variability (HRV) is a powerful tool in outcome prediction of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis (MSsE), a new method derived from MSE, mitigates the effect of arrhythmia on analysis. The objective is to evaluate the prognostic value of MSsE in patients receiving...

  8. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis provides prognostic prediction in patients receiving extracorporeal life support

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Hui-Chun; Chang, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chen; Lo, Men-Tzung; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Ko, Wen-Je; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Chen, Ming-Fong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Buchman, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) can temporarily support cardiopulmonary function, and is occasionally used in resuscitation. Multi-scale entropy (MSE) derived from heart rate variability (HRV) is a powerful tool in outcome prediction of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis (MSsE), a new method derived from MSE, mitigates the effect of arrhythmia on analysis. The objective is to evaluate the prognostic value of MSsE in patients receiving ...

  9. NPC 15669 blocks neutrophil CD18 increase and lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bator

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, neutrophils become activated due to contact with extracorporeal surfaces and binding of complement fragments C3a and C5a, leading to extravasation and subsequent tissue damage. In this study, the effects of the leumedin NPC 15669 (N [9H - (2,7 dimethylfluorenyl - 9 - methoxy car bonyl]-L-leucine, a leukocyte recruitment inhibitor, were evaluated in a pig model of CPB. NPC 15669 caused significant inhibition of CPB associated increase in CD18 upregulation, lung tissue myeloperoxidase content, and percentage wet weight compared to controls. Lung histology revealed clear airways and minimal neutrophil infiltration in treated animals vs. significant oedema and cellular infiltration in controls. It is concluded that CPB causes a dramatic increase in neutrophil CD18, and that leumedins are effective in inhibiting neutrophil activation and subsequent tissue injury when administered during CPB.

  10. Management of a case of left tracheal sleeve pneumonectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthesia perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lung tumors with carinal involvement are frequently managed with tracheal sleeve pneumonectomy and tracheobronchial anastomosis without use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Various modes of ventilation have been described during tracheal resection and anastomosis. Use of CPB during this period allows the procedure to be conducted in a more controlled way. We performed tracheal sleeve pneumonectomy for adenoid cystic carcinoma of left lung involving carina. The surgery was performed in two stages. In the first stage, left pneumonectomy was performed and in the second stage after 48 h, tracheobronchial resection and anastomosis was performed under CPB. Second stage was delayed to avoid excessive bleeding (due to heparinization from the extensive vascular raw area left after pneumonectomy. Meticulous peri-operative planning and optimal post-operative care helped in successful management of a complex case, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality.

  11. Low-fidelity simulator for technical connection to the cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossien, Abdullrazak

    2016-01-01

    The technical simulator proposed in this study is an additional low-cost, reusable, reproducible and portable tool to guide trainees at all levels to effectively construct it in order to improve their surgical skills in connection with the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit. The simulator is a self-made portable box that can be used for an unrestricted number of procedures. It is supplied with self-made anatomical replicas that have been tested to simulate the flexible property of the real anatomy. The building process is detailed in this study. The connection to the CPB is performed by the usage of this simulator, in which surgical handling was tested. The total cost was calculated in Euros (about 3.5 Euros). PMID:26811507

  12. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy Gary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila. The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed.

  13. Prognostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) for brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guibo; Jiang, Guohui; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) patients can experience neurological sequelae or even death after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) due to cerebral hypoxia- and ischemia-reperfusion-mediated brain injury. Thus, it is important to perform early prognostic evaluations in CA patients. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important tool for determining the prognosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy due to its real-time measurement of brain function. Based on EEG, burst suppression, a burst suppression ratio >0.239, periodic discharges, status epilepticus, stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic or ictal discharges, non-reactive EEG, and the BIS value based on quantitative EEG may be associated with the prognosis of CA after successful CPR. As measures of neural network integrity, the values of small-world characteristics of the neural network derived from EEG patterns have potential applications.

  14. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševerdija, Ervin E; Vranken, Nousjka P A; Teerenstra, Steven; Ganushchak, Yuri M; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p partial oxygen pressures changed. Cerebral tissue oximetry effectively identifies changes related to surgical events or vulnerable periods during cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation. PMID:26390677

  15. Cardiopulmonary effects of using carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Shannon G; Cosford, Kevin; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya

    2011-09-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of capnoperitoneum were investigated in 8 spontaneously breathing, young adult female cats undergoing laparoscopic pancreatic biopsy (intra-abdominal pressure 12 mmHg). Cats were premedicated with acepromazine and hydromorphone, induced with ketamine and diazepam, and maintained using an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.13% in 100% oxygen. Direct systemic arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and isoflurane were recorded every 5 min before insufflation (baseline), during insufflation of the abdomen with CO(2), and following desufflation. Arterial blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 10 and 30 min of insufflation, and 5 min after desufflation for blood gases. The significant findings (P cats despite no artificial maintenance of minute ventilation. PMID:22379196

  16. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB. PMID:26613267

  17. Are the current guideline recommendations for neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation safe and effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    A recently published review of approaches to optimize chest compressions in the resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns discussed the current recommendations and explored potential determinants of effective neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, not all potential determinants of effective neonatal CPR were explored. Chest compression shallower than the current guideline recommendation of approximately 33% of the anterior-posterior (AP) chest diameter may be safer and more effective. From a physiological standpoint, high-velocity brief duration shallower compression may be more effective than current recommendations. The application of a 1- or 2-finger method of high-impulse CPR, which would depend on the size of the subject, may be more effective than using a 2-thumb (TT) encircling hands method of CPR. Adrenaline should not be used in the treatment of asphyxiated neonates and when necessary titrated vasopressin should be used. PMID:27220864

  18. A Review of the Performance of Artifact Filtering Algorithms for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushun Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various filtering strategies have been adopted and investigated to suppress the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR artifact. In this article, two types of artifact removal methods are reviewed: one is the method that removes CPR artifact using only ECG signals, and the other is the method with additional reference signals, such as acceleration, compression depth and transthoracic impedance. After filtering, the signal-to-noise ratio is improved from 0 dB to greater than 2.8 dB, the sensitivity is increased to > 90% as recommended by the American Heart Association, whereas the specificity was far from the recommended 95%, which is considered to be the major drawback of the available artifact removal methods. The overall performance of the adaptive filtering methods with additional reference signal outperforms the methods using only ECG signals. Further research should focus on the refinement of artifact filtering methods and the improvement of shock advice algorithms with the presence of CPR.

  19. Continuation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a Chinese hospital after unsuccessful EMS resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bo Yang; Yan Zhao; Fei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of the continuation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) following transportation to the emergency department in a Chinese hospital after unsuccessful emergency medical services (EMS) CPR. Methods From January 2002 to December 2007, emergency records of non-traumatic patients who were transported to a tertiary teaching hospital after unsuccessful EMS CPR were reviewed. Results Eigty-five patients were included, and 13 patients (15%) accomplished restoration of spontaneous circulation in our emergency department. Resuscitative possibility reached zero at around 23 minutes. One patient was discharged with a favourable neurologic outcome. Conclusions This study shows that the continuation of CPR is not futile and may improve outcomes. The outcomes should be re-evaluatad in the future when prehospital information can be combined with in-hospital information.

  20. An integrated mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system: model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonio; Cheng, Limei; Ursino, Mauro; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2016-04-01

    Several cardiovascular and pulmonary models have been proposed in the last few decades. However, very few have addressed the interactions between these two systems. Our group has developed an integrated cardiopulmonary model (CP Model) that mathematically describes the interactions between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, along with their main short-term control mechanisms. The model has been compared with human and animal data taken from published literature. Due to the volume of the work, the paper is divided in two parts. The present paper is on model development and normophysiology, whereas the second is on the model's validation on hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. The CP Model incorporates cardiovascular circulation, respiratory mechanics, tissue and alveolar gas exchange, as well as short-term neural control mechanisms acting on both the cardiovascular and the respiratory functions. The model is able to simulate physiological variables typically observed in adult humans under normal and pathological conditions and to explain the underlying mechanisms and dynamics. PMID:26683899

  1. Superior Cardiac Function Via Anaplerotic Pyruvate in the Immature Swine Heart After Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-12-01

    Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) via carboxylation are linked to stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age 10-18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2]-13C-pyruvate (to achieve a final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 minutes starting either during weaning (Group I), after discontinuation (Group II) or without (Control) CPB. Hemodynamic data was collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the CAC via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total CAC entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment.

  2. Relationship Between Reverse Remodeling and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Sant, Jetske Van't; Versteeg, Henneke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between left ventricular reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce and inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with a 1st-time CRT...... response (left ventricular end-systolic volume decrease ≥15%) and a comprehensive set of CPX results was examined. Echocardiographic responders (54%) demonstrated higher peak oxygen consumption and better exercise performance than nonresponders at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, only...... correlates of higher average oxygen consumption during exercise, and that nonischemic etiology and smaller pre-implantation QRS width were associated with better ventilatory efficiency over time. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 6 months of CRT there was a significant positive association between reverse...

  3. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Sundskard, Martin M; Jonassen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Absence of pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with reduced postoperative oxygenation. Effects of active pulmonary artery perfusion were explored in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: 90...... starting CPB and longitudinally in a mixed-effects model (MEM). Secondary outcomes were tracheal intubation time, serious adverse events, mortality, days alive outside the intensive care unit (ICU) and outside the hospital. RESULTS: 21 hours after starting CPB patients receiving pulmonary artery perfusion...... with normothermic oxygenated blood had a higher oxygenation index compared with no pulmonary perfusion (mean difference (MD) 0.94; 95% CI 0.05 to 1.83; p=0.04). The blood group had also a higher oxygenation index both longitudinally (MEM, p=0.009) and at 21 hours (MD 0.99; CI 0.29 to 1.69; p=0.007) compared...

  4. Differences in displayed pump flow compared to measured flow under varying conditions during simulated cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2008-07-01

    Errors in blood flow delivery due to shunting have been reported to reduce flow by, potentially, up to 40-83% during cardiopulmonary bypass. The standard roller-pump measures revolutions per minute and a calibration factor for different tubing sizes calculates and displays flow accordingly. We compared displayed roller-pump flow with ultrasonically measured flow to ascertain if measured flow correlated with the heart-lung pump flow reading. Comparison of flows was measured under varying conditions of pump run duration, temperature, viscosity, varying arterial\\/venous loops, occlusiveness, outlet pressure, use of silicone or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the roller race, different tubing diameters, and use of a venous vacuum-drainage device.

  5. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševerdija, Ervin E; Vranken, Nousjka P A; Teerenstra, Steven; Ganushchak, Yuri M; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p retractor (p cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation.

  6. Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Serrano, Inês de Lima; Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation. Biometrics data were collected from 1990 to 2010 from 38 calves, 29 of which still had the remnants of the umbilical cord and had been rescued from the Brazilian northeastern coastline (Group I), and nine individuals that were born in captivity and remained with their mothers (Group II). Among the measures obtained through biometry, the total length and weight of the animal were recorded. Given that the breastfeeding of calves occurs approximately until the age of 2 yr, data obtained until the 24th month of life of each individual were evaluated. An average increase in weight of 53.50 +/- 38.54 kg (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) was detected in Group I and a gain of 106.87 +/- 47.21 kg (mean +/- SD) in Group II. From months 13 to 24, no significant difference in the weight increment was observed. A similar pattern occurred with regard to the increase in the overall length during the first year, where animals from Group I grew 34.81 +/- 17.94 cm (mean +/- SD) and from Group II grew 83.83 +/- 28.21 cm, a statistically significant difference. The growth was not significantly different from 13 to 24 mo. The results found in this study identified the need for a review of the nutritional diet offered to orphaned calves rescued and kept in captivity. The results also support the need for a better adequacy of facilities for these animals as a way to encourage the management strategies adopted for manatee calves maintained in captivity.

  7. Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Serrano, Inês de Lima; Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation. Biometrics data were collected from 1990 to 2010 from 38 calves, 29 of which still had the remnants of the umbilical cord and had been rescued from the Brazilian northeastern coastline (Group I), and nine individuals that were born in captivity and remained with their mothers (Group II). Among the measures obtained through biometry, the total length and weight of the animal were recorded. Given that the breastfeeding of calves occurs approximately until the age of 2 yr, data obtained until the 24th month of life of each individual were evaluated. An average increase in weight of 53.50 +/- 38.54 kg (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) was detected in Group I and a gain of 106.87 +/- 47.21 kg (mean +/- SD) in Group II. From months 13 to 24, no significant difference in the weight increment was observed. A similar pattern occurred with regard to the increase in the overall length during the first year, where animals from Group I grew 34.81 +/- 17.94 cm (mean +/- SD) and from Group II grew 83.83 +/- 28.21 cm, a statistically significant difference. The growth was not significantly different from 13 to 24 mo. The results found in this study identified the need for a review of the nutritional diet offered to orphaned calves rescued and kept in captivity. The results also support the need for a better adequacy of facilities for these animals as a way to encourage the management strategies adopted for manatee calves maintained in captivity. PMID:23082512

  8. Pulmonary artery perfusion with HTK solution prevents lung injury in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-an; LIU Ying-long; LIU Jin-ping; LI Xiao-feng

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a novel adjunctive method, which can minimize the lung ischemic-reperfusion injury and inflammatory response. This study evaluated the protective effect of pulmonary perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution in corrections of congenital heart defects with pulmonary hypertension.Methods Between June 2009 and December 2009, 24 consecutive infants with congenital heart defects and pulmonary hypertension were randomly divided into perfused group (n=12) and control group (n=12). Oxygen index, alveolar-arterial O2gradient, serum levels of malondialchehyche (MDA), interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -10, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(slCAM-1), and P-selectin were measured before commencement and serially for 48 hours after termination of bypass.Results Oxygenation values were better preserved in the perfused group than in the control group. The serum levels of IL-6 increased immediately after CPB in both groups and returned to baseline at 48 hours after CPB, but it was restored faster and earlier in the perfused group. The serum levels of IL-8, slCAM-1, and MDA remained at baseline at each point after CPB in the perfused group and elevated significantly immediately after CPB in the control group, except for sICAM-1.The serum level of IL-10 increased immediately after CPB and decreased to baseline at 48 hours after CPB in both groups, but the IL-10 level in the perfused group was significantly higher than in the control group at 12 hours after CPB.The serum P-selectin levels in the control group immediately after CPB were significantly higher than prebypass levels.Moreover, there were no significant differences in postoperative clinical characters, except for the intubated time.Conclusion In infants with congenital heart defects, pulmonary perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution during cardiopulmonary bypass could ameliorate lung function and reduce the inflammatory response.

  9. A novel rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest without blood priming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weihua; Zhang Yanbo; Liu Donghai; Zhu Yaobin; Qiao Chenhui; Wang Jiaxiang; Xu Yulin

    2014-01-01

    Background Large animal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) models are expensive,and prevent assessment of neurocognitive function,and difficulties with long-term recovery.The purpose of this study was to establish a novel rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest without blood priming.Methods Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 450-560 g were randomized to CPB with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and control groups,with 10 rats each.The experimental protocols,including blood and crystalloid fluid administration,anesthesia,orotracheal intubation,ventilation,cannulation,and heparinization were identical in both groups.After inducing cardiac arrest,the circuit was turned off and rats were left in a DHCA state for 15 minutes.Rats were rewarmed to 34℃ to 35℃ over a period of 36 to 42 minutes using CPB-assisted rewarming,a heating blanket,and a heating lamp along with administration of 0.1 mEq of sodium bicarbonate and 0.14 mEq of calcium chloride.The remaining priming volume was reinfused and animals were weaned from CPB.Results All CPB with DHCA processes were successfully achieved.Blood gas analysis and hemodynamic parameters were in the normal range.The vital signs of all rats were stable.Conclusions Our CPB circuit has several novel features,including a small priming volume,active cooling/rewarming processes,vacuum-assisted venous drainage,peripheral cannulation without thoracotomy or stemotomy,and an accurate means of monitoring peripheral tissue oxygenation.

  10. Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rafati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262 who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using binomial and Chi Square tests. Of the patients included (n=2262, 741 patients (32.8% had successful CPR. The number of male patients requiring CPR was more than females in need of the procedure. The majority of patients requiring CPR were older than 60 years (56.4±17.9. The number of successful CPR cases in long-day shift (7:00 to 19:00 was more than that in the night shift (19:00 to 7:00. Furthermore, 413 (18.4% cases were resuscitated on holidays and 1849 (81.7% on the working days. The duration of CPR was 10 min or less in 710 (31.4% cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations which lasted less than 10 minutes were associated with better outcomes. The findings of the present study indicate that some manageable factors including the duration of CPR, working shift, working day (holiday or non-holiday could affect the CPR outcomes. The findings might also be taken as evidence to suggest that the allocation of more personnel in each shift especially in night shifts and holidays, planning to increase the personnel's CPR skills, and decreasing the waste time would result in the improvement of CPR outcome.

  11. Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Hasan; Saghafi, Abdollah; Saghafinia, Masoud; Panahi, Farzad; Hoseinpour, Mohamadjavad

    2011-03-01

    Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262) who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using binomial and tests. Of the patients included (n=2262), 741 patients (32.8%) had successful CPR. The number of male patients requiring CPR was more than females in need of the procedure. The majority of patients requiring CPR were older than 60 years (56.4±17.9). The number of successful CPR cases in long-day shift (7:00 to 19:00) was more than that in the night shift (19:00 to 7:00). Furthermore, 413 (18.4%) cases were resuscitated on holidays and 1849 (81.7%) on the working days. The duration of CPR was 10 min or less in 710 (31.4%) cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations which lasted less than 10 minutes were associated with better outcomes. The findings of the present study indicate that some manageable factors including the duration of CPR, working shift, working day (holiday or non-holiday) could affect the CPR outcomes. The findings might also be taken as evidence to suggest that the allocation of more personnel in each shift especially in night shifts and holidays, planning to increase the personnel's CPR skills, and decreasing the waste time would result in the improvement of CPR outcome. PMID:23365479

  12. Significance of the carboxyhemoglobin level for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanagawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At low concentrations, carbon monoxide (CO can confer cyto and tissue-protective effects, such as endogenous Heme oxygenase 1 expression, which has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic effects. The level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood is an indicator of the endogenous production of CO and inhaled CO. Aim of study: To investigate the significance of the value of carboxyhemoglobin for out-of-hospital (OH cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA. Materials and Methods: This study involved a medical chart review of cases treated from January to December 2005. The inclusion criteria included a patient who was transported to this department due to an OH CPA. The exclusion criteria included a patient who did not undergo blood gas analysis on arrival and who experienced CPA due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their final outcome of either survival or non-survival. Results: There was no significant difference associated with the sex, age, frequency of witness collapse, bystander cardiopulmonary arrest, electrocardiogram at scene, cause of CPA, value of PCO 2 , HCO3 - , and methemoglobin. The frequency of OH return of spontaneous circulation and the value of pH, PO 2 , base excess, and carboxyhemoglobin in the survival group were greater than those values in the non-survival group. There were no subjects whose carboxyhemoglobin level was 0% on arrival in the survival groups. Conclusion: There appeared to be an association between higher carboxyhemoglobin levels and survival in comparison with non-survival patients.

  13. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Brain Damage After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jincheng; Xie, Xuemeng; Pan, Hao; Wu, Ziqian; Lu, Wen; Yang, Guangtian

    2015-07-01

    Postcardiac arrest syndrome yields poor neurological outcomes, but the mechanisms underlying this condition remain poorly understood. This study investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is induced in injured brain after resuscitation. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 min of cardiac arrest (CA) and then resuscitated successfully. In the first experiment, animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h (n = 3 per group) after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Brain tissues were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. In the second experiment, either dimethyl sulfoxide or salubrinal (Sal; 1 mg/kg), an ER stress inhibitor, was injected 30 min before the induction of CA (n = 10 per group). Neurological deficits were evaluated 24 h after CA. Brain specimens were analyzed using electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays and immunohistochemistry. We found that the messenger RNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, X-box binding protein 1, C/EBP homologous protein, and caspase 12 were significantly elevated after resuscitation. We also observed that rats treated with Sal exhibited an improved neurological deficit score (32.3 ± 15.5 in the Sal group vs. 49.8 ± 20.9 in controls, P < 0.05). In addition, morphological improvements in the hippocampal ER were observed in the Sal group compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide group 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, in situ immunostaining revealed that markers of ER stress were significantly inhibited by Sal pretreatment. Our findings suggested that ER stress and the associated apoptotic pathways were activated in the hippocampus after resuscitation. Administration of Sal 30 min before cardiopulmonary resuscitation ameliorated neurological dysfunction 24 h after CA, possibly through the inhibition of ER stress after postresuscitation brain injury. PMID:25705860

  14. Self-priming hemodynamic reservoir and inline flow meter for a cardiopulmonary bypass simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, David; Austin, Jon; Tallman, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Simulator exercises are used at Midwestern University to augment academic and laboratory training toward consolidating particular skills, increasing situation awareness, and preparing the student for practice within the team environment of an operating room. This paper describes an enhanced cardiopulmonary bypass simulator consisting of a self-priming hemodynamic reservoir that includes an inline flow meter. A typical cardiopulmonary bypass adult perfusion circuit was assembled using a roller pump console and integrated oxygenator/heat exchanger/reservoir and primed with 2 liters of water. For patient simulation, a soft-sided reservoir bag was mounted onto an inclined platform. A 1-liter soft-sided bag was placed just above the reservoir, providing an overflow reservoir. The priming line extended to the head of the mannequin. The arterial, venous, and suction lines extended through the open chest. The primed perfusion circuit was connected to ports on the filled reservoir bag. To test the patient simulation, the arterial pump output was adjusted to flow rates ranging from 1-7 liters per minute, with a complete interruption (to zero flow) between each test run. An inline flow meter was added to the bypass circuit and an analog to digital converter board was used to pass flow data into the computer-based simulation program. The use of an inclined hemodynamic reservoir bag proved to be self-priming and functional without problems over a wide range of flows tested. By including a reservoir with the mannequin, plus processing and displaying real-time flow data using the CPB-Sim simulation program, a higher fidelity and more realistic simulation experience was created. PMID:20648900

  15. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – the gold standard in physical performance assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX is a modern procedure that allows us to evaluate the global performanceof a subject. Because CPX devices are expensive and less popular due to a less amount of specialists in this field, many oflaboratories uses the more common ECG stress tests for physical performance assessment. Aim: to demonstrate theimportance and accuracy of cardiopulmonary exercise testing comparing with traditional maximal electrocardiographic (ECGstress test without gas exchange analysis. Methods: 18th elite soccer players (age 22.7±6 years, body mass 74.6±9.5 kg,height 175.4±9.8 cm participated in the study. The subjects accomplished two treadmill effort tests with and without gasanalyses, in 2 consecutive days interval. Results: At the end of the study we noticed a highly significant statistical difference(p<0.0001 between the investigated testing methods. In gas exchange testing method we found a decreased level of all theparameters evaluated comparing to stress ECG: VO2 peak (ml*kg-1*min-1 = 55.4±5.2 vs. 67.8±5.7; AT (ml*kg-1*min-1 =41.2±7.6 vs. 47.4±6.9; VO2/HR (ml = 23.8±2.5 vs. 23.8±2.5. Conclusions: Asessment of exercise performance based solelyon a maximal stress ECG without gas analyzing is inaccurate. Furthermore, estimation of peak exercise responses based uponcalculation of VO2 peak from peak work rate are inappropriate in sportsman. The study demonstrate once again that CPXremain the most accurate and reliable test for detection of AT and for a comprehensive physical performance assessment andcannot be replace by other surrogate laboratory exercise tests like stress ECG.

  16. Subarachnoid clonidine and trauma response in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gissi da Rocha Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The intense trauma response triggered by cardiopulmonary bypass can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluated whether clonidine, a drug of the class of α-2 agonists, administered by spinal route, without association with local anesthetics or opioids, reduces this response in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Method: A total of 27 patients between 18 and 75 years old, divided by non-blinded fashion into a control group (15 and a clonidine group (12, were studied. All patients underwent identical technique of general anesthesia. Then, only the clonidine group received 1 μg kg−1 clonidine by spinal route. Levels of blood glucose, lactate and cortisol were measured at three consecutive times: T1, at the time of installation of invasive arterial pressure; T2, 10 min after the first dose for cardioplegia; and T3, at the time of skin suture; and troponin I values at T1 and T3. The variation of results between T2-T1, T3-T2, and T3-T1 was also evaluated. Results: There was a statistically significant difference only with respect to the variation in blood glucose in the clonidine group: T3-T2, p = 0.027 and T3-T1, p = 0.047. Conclusions: Spinal clonidine at a dose of 1 μg kg−1 did not decrease blood measurements of troponin, cortisol, or lactate. Blood glucose suffered a more moderate variation during the procedure in the clonidine group. This fact, already reported in the literature, requires further investigation to be clarified.

  17. TISSUE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN-ACTIVATOR AND FIBRIN MONOMERS SYNERGISTICALLY CAUSE PLATELET DYSFUNCTION DURING RETRANSFUSION OF SHED BLOOD AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAN, J; SCHONBERGER, J; HAAN, J; VANOEVEREN, W; EIJGELAAR, A

    1993-01-01

    Reduced hemostasis and bleeding tendency after cardiopulmonary bypass results from platelet dysfunction induced by the bypass procedure. The causes of this acquired platelet dysfunction are still subject to discussion, although, recently, greater emphasis has been placed on an overstimulated fibrino

  18. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF INEXPENSIVE THERMAL SENSORS AND SMALL UAS DEPLOYMENT FOR LIVING HUMAN DETECTION IN RESCUE MISSIONS APPLICATION SCENARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Levin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant efforts are invested by rescue agencies worldwide to save human lives during natural and man-made emergency situations including those that happen in wilderness locations. These emergency situations include but not limited to: accidents with alpinists, mountainous skiers, people hiking and lost in remote areas. Sometimes in a rescue operation hundreds of first responders are involved to save a single human life. There are two critical issues where geospatial imaging can be a very useful asset in rescue operations support: 1 human detection and 2 confirming a fact that detected a human being is alive. International group of researchers from the Unites States and Poland collaborated on a pilot research project devoted to identify a feasibility of use for the human detection and alive-human state confirmation small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs and inexpensive forward looking infrared (FLIR sensors. Equipment price for both research teams was below $8,000 including 3DR quadrotor UAV and Lepton longwave infrared (LWIR imager which costs around $250 (for the US team; DJI Inspire 1 UAS with commercial Tamarisc-320 thermal camera (for the Polish team. Specifically both collaborating groups performed independent experiments in the USA and Poland and shared imaging data of on the ground and airborne electro-optical and FLIR sensor imaging collected. In these experiments dead bodies were emulated by use of medical training dummies. Real humans were placed nearby as live human subjects. Electro-optical imagery was used for the research in optimal human detection algorithms. Furthermore, given the fact that a dead human body after several hours has a temperature of the surrounding environment our experiments were challenged by the SUAS data optimization, i.e., distance from SUAV to object so that the FLIR sensor is still capable to distinguish temperature differences between a dummy and a real human. Our experiments indicated feasibility of

  19. Feasibility Study of Inexpensive Thermal Sensors and Small Uas Deployment for Living Human Detection in Rescue Missions Application Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E.; Zarnowski, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Bialas, J.; Banaszek, A.; Banaszek, S.

    2016-06-01

    Significant efforts are invested by rescue agencies worldwide to save human lives during natural and man-made emergency situations including those that happen in wilderness locations. These emergency situations include but not limited to: accidents with alpinists, mountainous skiers, people hiking and lost in remote areas. Sometimes in a rescue operation hundreds of first responders are involved to save a single human life. There are two critical issues where geospatial imaging can be a very useful asset in rescue operations support: 1) human detection and 2) confirming a fact that detected a human being is alive. International group of researchers from the Unites States and Poland collaborated on a pilot research project devoted to identify a feasibility of use for the human detection and alive-human state confirmation small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs) and inexpensive forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensors. Equipment price for both research teams was below 8,000 including 3DR quadrotor UAV and Lepton longwave infrared (LWIR) imager which costs around 250 (for the US team); DJI Inspire 1 UAS with commercial Tamarisc-320 thermal camera (for the Polish team). Specifically both collaborating groups performed independent experiments in the USA and Poland and shared imaging data of on the ground and airborne electro-optical and FLIR sensor imaging collected. In these experiments dead bodies were emulated by use of medical training dummies. Real humans were placed nearby as live human subjects. Electro-optical imagery was used for the research in optimal human detection algorithms. Furthermore, given the fact that a dead human body after several hours has a temperature of the surrounding environment our experiments were challenged by the SUAS data optimization, i.e., distance from SUAV to object so that the FLIR sensor is still capable to distinguish temperature differences between a dummy and a real human. Our experiments indicated feasibility of use SUAVs and

  20. 从地震救援评价我国灾难救援的进步%Evaluate the China Disaster Rescue Progress in Earthquake Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远山; 王鹏; 姚蓝; 李毅; 黄子通

    2015-01-01

    近年来,我国频发的强烈地震造成了地震灾区生态破坏,人员伤亡及经济损失,震后的应急指挥、救援、医疗救治和防疫工作等起着重要的作用。本文通过比较近年来我国发生的三大地震(汶川地震、雅安地震、鲁甸地震)中政府等相关部门的应急响应及指挥、军队及专业救援队救援、医疗救援及防疫工作和新科技救援等几个方面,看我国在灾难救援中的进步。%In recent years , the frequent strong earthquakes cause the ecological damage of the earthquake stricken areas , casualties and economic losses , the post earthquake emergency command , rescue , medical treatment and epidemic prevention work plays an important role. This paper compare our country three big earthquake (earthquake, Ya′an earthquakes, Ludian earthquake) in recent years in government and other relevant departments of the emergency response and command , the army and professional teams rescue , medical rescue and epidemic prevention work and new technical rescue, to evaluate the progress in disaster rescue in our country.