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Sample records for cardiopulmonary function parameters

  1. Cardiopulmonary function and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, R W; Béïque, F; Kleiman, S J

    1995-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature dealing with cardiopulmonary function during and pulmonary function following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in order to describe the patterns of changes in these functions and the mechanisms involved as well as to identify areas of concern and lacunae in our knowledge. Information was obtained from a Medline literature search and the annual meeting supplements of Anesthesiology, Anesth Analg, Br J Anaesth, and Can J Anaesth. The principal findings were that changes in cardiovascular function due to the insufflation are characterized by an immediate decrease in cardiac index and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. In the next few minutes there is partial restoration of cardiac index and resistance but blood pressure and heart rate do not change. The pattern is the result of the interaction between increased abdominal pressure, neurohumoral responses and absorbed CO2. Pulmonary function changes are characterized by reduced compliance without large alterations in PaO2, but tissue oxygenation can be adversely affected due to reduced O2 delivery. A major difficulty in maintaining normocarbia is due to the abdominal distention reducing pulmonary compliance and to CO2 absorption. End tidal CO2 tension is not a reliable index of PaCO2, particularly in ASA III-IV patients. The pattern of lung function following LC is characterized by a transient reduction in lung volumes and capacities with a restrictive breathing pattern and the loss of the abdominal contribution to breathing. Atelectasis also occurs. These changes are qualitatively similar to but of a lesser magnitude than those following "open" abdominal operations. It is concluded that the changes in cardiopulmonary function during laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery lead us to suggest judicious invasive monitoring and careful interpretation in ASA III-IV patients. Lung function following extensive procedures in sick patients has not been

  2. MEASUREMENT OF CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION BY REBREATHING METHODOLOGY IN PIGLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a multiple gas rebreathing method for the measurement of cardiopulmonary function in mechanically ventilated neonates was evaluated. The following indices of cardiopulmonary function were assessed in 20 piglets (mean weight, 2.3 kg): (1) pulmonary capillary blood flow ...

  3. Cardiopulmonary function and scoliosis severity in idiopathic scoliosis children

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Seokwon; Eun, Lucy Yougmin; Kim, Nam Kyun; Jung, Jo Won; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Hak Sun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural lateral curvature of the spine of unknown etiology. The relationship between degree of spine curvature and cardiopulmonary function has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scoliosis and cardiopulmonary characteristics. Methods Ninety children who underwent preoperative pulmonary or cardiac evaluation at a single spine institution over 41 months were included. They were divided into the thora...

  4. EFFECT OF CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the pulmonary function in infants with or without pulmonary hypertension in congential ventricular septal defect (VSD). Methods Twenty infants with VSD were enrolled in the study from Jan. to Dec. 2004. They were divided into two groups: pulmonary hypertension group and non-pulmonary hypertension group, ten infants respectively. Pulmonary function parameters were measured before CPB and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24h after CPB, the following data were recorded: duration for mechanical ventilation (Tmv) and staying in the cardiac intensive care unit (Tcicu) after cardiac surgery. Results Before CPB, the pulmonary function parameters in non-pulmonary hypertension group were more superior than in pulmonary hypertension group ( P < 0. 01 ). By contraries, the pulmonary function parameters in every time stage after CPB statistically significant decreased in non-pulmonary hypertension group ( P < 0. 05),especially at 6, 9, and 15h after CPB ( P < 0. 01 ). In pulmonary hypertension group, the pulmonary function parameters in 3h after CPB were more improved than before CPB, though there was no statistical significance. But they had statistically significant decreased at 9, 12, 15h after CPB ( P <0. 05). There was a similar change in pulmonary function between two groups at 21,24h after CPB. Conclusion Exposure to CPB adversely affects pulmonary function after surgical repair of VSD in infants. We consider that the benefits of the surgical correction in infants with pulmonary hypertension outweight the negative effects of CPB on pulmonary function. We should improve cardiac function to avoid the presence of the nadir trough in pulmonary function. The infants with pulomonary hypertension also have ability to wean from mechanical ventilation as soon as possible, if the hemodynamics is stable, and without the responsive pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary hypertension crisis after surgical repair.

  5. Assessing Late Cardiopulmonary Function in Patients with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Using Exercise Cardiopulmonary Function Test and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lin, Ming-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) usually experience progressive right ventricle (RV) dysfunction due to pulmonary regurgitation (PR). This could further worsen the cardiopulmonary function. This study aimed to compare the changes in patient exercise cardiopulmonary test and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and consider the implication of these changes. Methods Our study examined repaired TOF patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) to obtain maximal (peak oxygen consumption, peak VO2) and submaximal parameters (oxygen uptake efficiency plateau, oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP), and ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production, VE/VCO2 slope). Additionally, the hemodynamic status was assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance. Criteria for exclusion included TOF patients with pulmonary atresia, atrioventricular septal defect, or absence of pulmonary valve syndrome. Results We enrolled 158 patients whose mean age at repair was 7.8 ± 9.1 years (range 0.1-49.2 years) and the mean patient age at CPET was 29.5 ± 12.2 years (range 7.0-57.0 years). Severe PR (PR fraction ≥ 40%) in 53 patients, moderate in 55, and mild (PR fraction 163 ml/m2. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 63 ± 8%, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) was 65 ± 12 ml/m2, and LVESVi was 25 ± 14 ml/m2. CPET revealed significantly decreased peak VO2 (68.5 ± 14.4% of predicted), and fair OUEP (90.3 ± 14.1% of predicted) and VE/VCO2 slope (27.1 ± 5.3). PR fraction and age at repair were negatively correlated with maximal and submaximal exercise indicators (peak VO2 and OUEP). Left ventricular (LV) function and size were positively correlated with peak VO2 and OUEP. Conclusions The results of CPET showed that patients with repaired TOF had a low maximal exercise capacity (peak VO2), but a fair submaximal exercise capacity (OUEP and VE/VCO2 slope), suggesting limited exercise capability in high

  6. Myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Aron-Frederik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodynamic function may be depressed in the early postoperative stages after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the analysis of the myocardial contractility in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and mild hypothermia. Methods Three indices of left ventricular myocardial contractile function (dP/dt, (dP/dt/P, and wall thickening were studied up to 6 hours after CPB in neonatal piglets (CPB group; n = 4. The contractility data were analysed and then compared to the data of newborn piglets who also underwent median thoracotomy and instrumentation for the same time intervals but without CPB (non-CPB group; n = 3. Results Left ventricular dP/dtmax and (dP/dtmax/P remained stable in CPB group, while dP/dtmax decreased in non-CPB group 5 hours postoperatively (1761 ± 205 mmHg/s at baseline vs. 1170 ± 205 mmHg/s after 5 h; p max and (dP/dtmax/P there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Comparably, although myocardial thickening decreased in the non-CPB group the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions The myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets remained stable 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass and mild hypothermia probably due to regional hypercontractility.

  7. Protective effects of hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function after myocardium ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪君; 王昕; 夏中元; 罗涛; 涂仲凡

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify the protective effects of hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and to explore the possible mechanism.Methods: Twenty-four male white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups. In the control group, ischemia/reperfusion animals(Group I/R, n=10) were subjected to thirty-minute occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery and two-hour reperfusion. Animals in hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning group (Group HHP, n=14) experienced brief systemic ischemia preconditioning through blood withdrawl to lower blood pressure to 40%-50% of the baseline before myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Blood sample was taken to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) changes with blood gas analysis. Myocardium specimens were sampled to examine apoptosis-related gene interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA. Results: Cardiac mechanical function and lung gas exchange remained stable in Group HHP with a significant increase in NO level; while in Group I/R without preconditioning, cardiopulmonary dysfunction was present after 2 h reperfusion associated with a significant reduction in NO formation and an increase in MDA (P<0.001). There was negative expression of ICE mRNA in the two groups.Conclusions: Hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning significantly improves cardiopulmonary function and increases NO formation and the protective benefit associated with hypovolemic hypotension preconditioning of the heart may be regulated through NO mediated mechanism.

  8. Myocardial edema and compromised left ventricular function attributable to dirofilariasis and cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D A; Davis, K L; Mehlhorn, U; Allen, S J; Laine, G A

    1995-02-01

    We investigated the relation between left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial edema in dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection that were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Dogs with and without D immitis were anesthetized by continuous thiopental infusion and were mechanically ventilated. Sonomicrometry crystals were placed on the long and short axes of the left ventricle, and a Millar pressure transducer was placed in the left ventricular chamber. Pressure-volume loops were digitized and continuously recorded. Dogs with and without D immitis were placed on standard hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 hour of aortic cross-clamp. Wet-to-dry weight ratio corrected for residual blood volume was used to quantitate the volume of myocardial edema. Preload recruitable stroke work was used as a preload-independent index of systolic function. Tau, the isovolumic relaxation time constant, was determined to assess diastolic relaxation. Dogs with D immitis had increased baseline myocardial wet-to-dry weight ratio. After cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial edema increased in all dogs. Acute edema attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass decreased preload recruitable stroke work in all dogs of both groups, and dogs with D immitis could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Myocardial edema increased diastolic relaxation times (tau) in dogs with and without D immitis. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass and heartworm infection induce myocardial edema. This edema compromises left ventricular systolic and diastolic function making D immitis an important confounding factor in weaning dogs from cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:7717590

  9. Hydrogen sulfide improves neural function in rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIN, JI-YAN; ZHANG, MIN-WEI; WANG, JIN-GAO; LI, HUI; WEI, HONG-YAN; LIU, RONG; DAI, GANG; LIAO, XIAO-XING

    2016-01-01

    The alleviation of brain injury is a key issue following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and exerts a protective effect on neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on neural functions following cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. A total of 60 rats were allocated at random into three groups. CA was induced to establish the model and CPR was performed after 6 min. Subsequently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine or saline was administered to the rats. Serum levels of H2S, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β were determined following CPR. In addition, neurological deficit scoring (NDS), the beam walking test (BWT), prehensile traction test and Morris water maze experiment were conducted. Neuronal apoptosis rates were detected in the hippocampal region following sacrifice. After CPR, as the H2S levels increased or decreased, the serum NSE and S100β concentrations decreased or increased, respectively (P<0.0w. The NDS results of the NaHS group were improved compared with those of the hydroxylamine group at 24 h after CPR (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze experiment, BWT and prehensile traction test the animals in the NaHS group performed best and rats in the hydroxylamine group performed worst. At day 7, the apoptotic index and the expression of caspase-3 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, while the expression of Bcl-2 increased in the NaHS group; and results of the hydroxylamine group were in contrast. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that H2S is able to improve neural function in rats following CPR. PMID:26893650

  10. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, J Stanek3, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, PA Evansky1, ER Lappi1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1...

  11. The effect of pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass on lung function in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Gerwin E.; Dodonov, Mikhail; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem; Milano, Aldo D.; Gu, Y. John; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiopulmonary bypass is still a major cause of lung injury and delay in pulmonary recovery after cardiac surgery. Although it has been shown that pulsatile flow induced by intra-aortic balloon pumping is beneficial for preserving lung function, it is not clear if the same beneficial effec

  12. Correlation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters with quality of life in stable COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, Mahsa; Safavi, Enayat; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Peiman, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background The precise head to head relationships between Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters and patients’ daily symptoms/activities and the disease social/emotional impact are less well defined. In this study, the correlation of COPD daily symptoms and quality of life [assessed by St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)] and COPD severity index (BODE-index) with CPET parameters were investigated. Methods Symptom-limited CPET was performed in 37 consecutive COPD (GOLD I-III) subjects during non-exacerbation phase. The SGRQ was also completed by each patient. Results SGRQ-score correlated negatively with FEV1 (r=−0.49, Prate (%WR-max) (r=−0.44, Pbreathing reserve (r=−0.50, PBreathing reserve were higher (P=0.04, breathing-reserve (r=−0.38, P=0.018). Conclusions The observed relationships between CPET parameter and daily subjective complaints in COPD were not strong. Those who discontinued the CPET because of leg fatigue were in the earlier stages of COPD. Significant negative correlation between ∆VO2/∆WR and BODE-index suggests that along with COPD progression, regardless of negative past history, other comorbidities such as cardiac/musculoskeletal problems should be sought.

  13. Cardiopulmonary function of dogs with plutonium-induced chronic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty dogs exposed by inhalation in the study, Toxicity of Inhaled 239PuO2 in Beagle Dogs, were evaluated for cardiopulmonary function. Another group of 10 dogs matched by age and sex, but not exposed to 239Pu, was also given the same cardiopulmonary function tests. The plutonium-exposed dogs were 7 or more years after exposure and ten of the dogs had clinical signs and pulmonary function values indicating radiation pneumonitis-pulmonary fibrosis. The occurrence of radiation pneumonitis-pulmonary fibrosis, a nonstochastic effect, over the same time period and range of lung doses as lung cancer, a stochastic effect, complicates the estimation of lung cancer risk for inhaled plutonium. 4 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  14. Esmolol added in repeated, cold, oxygenated blood cardioplegia improves myocardial function after cardiopulmonary bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Dahle, Geir Olav; Salminen, Pirjo-Riitta; Moen, Christian Arvei; Eliassen, Finn; Jonassen, Anne K.; Haaverstad, Rune; Matre, Knut; Grong, Ketil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated if the β-receptor blocking agent esmolol, added to standard oxygenated blood cardioplegia, improved myocardial function after weaning from bypass. Design: A block-randomized, blinded study. Setting: A university laboratory. Participants: Twenty anesthetized pigs, Norwegian Landrace. Interventions: After cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac arrest was induced with cold (12°C), oxygenated blood cardioplegia, enriched with either esmolol or vehi...

  15. Renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation during cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass: a modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Evans, Roger G.; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, Julian A.; Fry, Brendan C.; Layton, Anita T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury, a prevalent complication of cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is thought to be driven partly by hypoxic damage in the renal medulla. To determine the causes of medullary hypoxia during CPB, we modeled its impact on renal hemodynamics and function, and thus oxygen delivery and consumption in the renal medulla. The model incorporates autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the utilization of oxygen for tubular ...

  16. Effects of zero-balanced ultrafiltration on procalcitonin and respiratory function after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L O U; Yinglong, L I U; Jinping, L I U

    2007-09-01

    The abnormal conditions to which blood is subjected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) trigger an activation of the inflammatory response and cause pulmonary dysfunction. It has been suggested that high-volume, zero-balanced ultrafiltration (ZBUF) facilitates clearance of inflammatory mediators and improves post-operative pulmonary function. Procalcitonin, a newly discovered inflammatory mediator, has been found to be increased after CPB and has been proven to be an appropriate parameter for predicting pulmonary dysfunction secondary to CPB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zero-balanced ultrafiltration (ZBUF) on procalcitonin (PCT) and respiratory function of infants with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after CPB. Twenty infants with TOF undergoing open-heart total surgical correction were randomly assigned to two groups. The trial group was given ZBUF (50 ml/kg) and conventional ultrafiltration (CUF), while the control group was given CUF only. Plasma PCT and pulmonary function were monitored and compared between the two groups before the operation (T1), before rewarming (T2), at the end of the operation (T3), and at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after the operation (T4-T6). PCT was decreased in the trial group between 12 h and 48 h post-operatively, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The trial group's pulmonary compliance was higher at 12 h post-operatively (p 0.05). Intubation time was shorter in the trial group (P < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between peak PCT concentration and intubation time. ZBUF appeared to improve ventilation and shorten intubation time. The improved respiratory function may be due to the lower plasma PCT. PMID:18416220

  17. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; LI, Min-hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were r...

  18. Impact of training at ventilatory threshold on cardiopulmonary and functional capacity in overweight patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Takashi Aoike

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD and obesity are both associated with reduced physical capacity. The potential benefit of aerobic training on physical capacity has been recognized. The exercise intensity can be established using different methods mostly subjective or indirect. Ventilatory threshold (VT is a direct and objective method that allows prescribing exercise intensity according to individual capacity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of aerobic training at VT intensity on cardiopulmonary and functional capacities in CKD patients with excess of body weight. METHODS: Ten CKD patients (eight men, 49.7 ± 10.1 years; BMI 30.4 ± 3.5 kg/m², creatinine clearance 39.4 ± 9.8 mL/min/1.73 m² underwent training on a treadmill three times per week during 12 weeks. Cardiopulmonary capacity (ergoespirometry, functional capacity and clinical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: At the end of 12 weeks, VO2PEAK increased by 20%, and the speed at VO2PEAK increased by 16%. The training resulted in improvement in functional capacity tests, such as six-minute walk test (9.2%, two-minute step test (20.3%, arm curl test (16.3%, sit and stand test (35.7%, and time up and go test (15.3%. In addition, a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures was observed despite no change in body weight, sodium intake and antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise performed at VT intensity improved cardipulmonary and functional capacities of overweight CKD patients. Additional benefit on blood pressure was observed. These results suggest that VT can be effectively applied for prescribing exercise intensity in this particular group of patients.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of cardiopulmonary functional reserve in treated patients with pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wen-wen; WANG Le-min; CHE Lin; SONG Hao-ming; JIANG Jin-fa; XU Jia-hong; SHEN Yu-qin; ZHANG Qi-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no research,either at home or abroad,focusing on assessing the cardiopulmonary functional reserve and exercise tolerance in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE),but the benefits of early exercise are well recognized.The goals of this study were to assess cardiopulmonary functional reserve in treated PE patients using the inert gas rebreathing method of the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET),and to compare it with traditional methods.Methods CPET on the bicycle ergometer were performed in 40 patients with age,gender,body mass index,systolic blood pressure,and pulmonary function matched.The first group was the PE group composed of 16 PE patients (5 male,11 female) who were given the standard antithrombotic therapy for two weeks.The second group was composed of 24 normal individuals (10 male,14 female).Both groups were evaluated by cardiac ultrasound examination,6-minute walking test (6MVVT),and CPET.Results (1) Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) in the PE group increased significantly compared to the control group,(34.81±8.15) mmHg to (19.75±3.47) mmHg (P <0.01).But neither right atrial end-systolic diameter (RASD) nor right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVDD) in the PE patients had changed when compared with the controls.The 6-minute walk distance was significantly reduced in the PE patients compared with normal subjects,(447.81±79.20) m vs.(513.75±31.45) m (P <0.01).Both anaerobic threshold oxygen consumption (VO2AT) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were significantly lower in patients with PE,while CO2 equivalent ventilation (VE/VCO2 slope) was higher;VO2AT (9.44±3.82) ml·kg1.min-1 vs.(14.62±2.93) ml.kg-1.min-1 (P <0.01) and VO2peak (12.26±4.06) ml.kg-1.min-1 vs.(23.46±6.15) ml.kg-1.min-1 (P <0.01) and VE/VCO2 slope 35.47±6.66 vs.26.94±3.16 (P <0.01).There was no significant difference in resting cardiac output (CO) between the PE and normal groups,whereas peak cardiac output (peak CO)and the

  20. Use of the cardiopulmonary flow index to evaluate cardiac function in thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume is called the cardiopulmonary flow index (CPFI). The CPFI can be determined indirectly from the simultaneous recording of a radiocardiogram and an electrocardiogram. The CPFI and cardiac output were measured simultaneously in horses that were diagnosed as having cardiac disease. The results obtained from these subjects were compared with those from control animals and significant differences were found between the mean CPFI of the control horses and those with macroscopically visible myocardial fibrosis on post mortem examination. No significant differences were found between the means of the cardiac output measured in either of the groups of horses. The effect of pharmacological acceleration of the heart rate on the CPFI was also studied. Significant differences were found between the mean CPFI and the slopes of the regression lines of CPFI on heart rate of the control and principal groups of horses. These differences were greatest at heart rates near to the resting heart rates of the individuals. The CPFI was found to be a more sensitive measure of cardiac function than cardiac output, in the horses. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Superior Cardiac Function Via Anaplerotic Pyruvate in the Immature Swine Heart After Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-12-01

    Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) via carboxylation are linked to stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age 10-18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2]-13C-pyruvate (to achieve a final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 minutes starting either during weaning (Group I), after discontinuation (Group II) or without (Control) CPB. Hemodynamic data was collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the CAC via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total CAC entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment.

  2. Effect of 6 degrees head-down tilt on cardiopulmonary function: comparison with microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Fine, Janelle M.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Head-down tilt (HDT) of 6 degrees is a commonly used model of weightlessness, but there are few comparisons with actual microgravity. HYPOTHESIS: Our study was designed to prove that the changes in cardiopulmonary function seen in HDT would be similar to those seen in microgravity. METHODS: We compared measurements of cardiovascular and pulmonary function from three separate spaceflights of 14 to 17 d duration, with data collected during a 17-d period of HDT. RESULTS: HDT proved a good model of the cardiovascular response to microgravity, resulting in increases in cardiac output and stroke volume of a similar magnitude to those seen in microgravity, with a concomitant reduction in heart rate. By contrast, HDT was a poor model of the effects of microgravity on pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function in HDT approximated the changes seen in the 1-G supine posture, while in microgravity this was much closer to that seen in the 1-G upright position. The differences probably reflect the fact that changes in cardiovascular function result primarily from fluid shifts within the entire body, whereas changes in pulmonary ventilation are primarily a result of mechanical influences on the lung and chest and abdominal wall.

  3. Cardiopulmonary function of dogs with plutonium-induced chronic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs had signs of restrictive lung disease 1 to 5 years after exposure by inhalation to 239PuO2 aerosols. The 239PuO2 aerosols were monodisperse with activity median aerodynamic diameters of 0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 microns. The plutonium particles produced protracted alpha irradiation of the lungs. Ten dogs had specific initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) of 330 to 4100 kBq of 239PuO2/kg of body mass. The average onset time of clinical signs of lung injury was 3 years after exposure; the average time from the onset of signs until cardiorespiratory function evaluation was 5.5 years. A second group of 10 dogs had IPB of 110 to 2000 kBq of 239Pu/kg of body mass but no signs of lung injury. A third group of 10 dogs, not exposed to 239Pu, were matched for age and sex. Cardiopulmonary function tests were performed. Only the dogs in group I with signs of lung injury had a mild respiratory function disorder consisting of smaller lung volumes, reduced compliance, increased respiratory frequency and minute volume, and reduced carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Cardiac function of all three groups was similar. These findings indicate that alpha irradiation of the lungs of man could produce restrictive lung disease at long times after initial exposure

  4. Changes in cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Do-Youn; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after t...

  5. Impaired Cerebral Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Function in a Rat Model of Ventricular Fibrillation and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcardiac arrest brain injury significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity in patients suffering from cardiac arrest (CA. Evidence that shows that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a key factor in tissue damage after ischemia/reperfusion is accumulating. However, limited data are available regarding the cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and its relationship to the alterations of high-energy phosphate. Here, we sought to identify alterations of mitochondrial morphology and oxidative phosphorylation function as well as high-energy phosphates during CA and CPR in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF. We found that impairment of mitochondrial respiration and partial depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr developed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following a prolonged cardiac arrest. Optimal CPR might ameliorate the deranged phosphorus metabolism and preserve mitochondrial function. No obvious ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria have been found during CA. We conclude that CA causes cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction along with decay of high-energy phosphates, which would be mitigated with CPR. This study may broaden our understanding of the pathogenic processes underlying global cerebral ischemic injury and provide a potential therapeutic strategy that aimed at preserving cerebral mitochondrial function during CA.

  6. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  7. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) What is CPR? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important lifesaving technique that involves chest compressions and giving ...

  8. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral and muscle tissue parameters during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Reyhaneh; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Woldemichael, Ermias; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Toronov, Vladislav

    2015-03-01

    In this series of animal experiments on resuscitation after cardiac arrest we had a unique opportunity to measure hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) parameters directly on the brain dura, or on the brain through the intact pig skull, and simultaneously the muscle hNIRS parameters. Simultaneously the arterial blood pressure and carotid and femoral blood flow were recorded in real time using invasive sensors. We used a novel hyperspectral signalprocessing algorithm to extract time-dependent concentrations of water, hemoglobin, and redox state of cytochrome c oxidase during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. In addition in order to assess the validity of the non-invasive brain measurements the obtained results from the open brain was compared to the results acquired through the skull. The comparison of hNIRS data acquired on brain surface and through the adult pig skull shows that in both cases the hemoglobin and the redox state cytochrome c oxidase changed in similar ways in similar situations and in agreement with blood pressure and flow changes. The comparison of simultaneously measured brain and muscle changes showed expected differences. Overall the results show feasibility of transcranial hNIRS measurements cerebral parameters including the redox state of cytochrome oxidase in human cardiac arrest patients.

  9. [Controlled study of the effect of sports training on cardiopulmonary functions in asthmatic children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, T; Köhl, C; Mansfeld, H J

    1990-09-01

    The influence of physical training on the cardiopulmonary system and on lung function of asthmatic children was determined in a controlled study. The children were all indoor patients of the Hochgebirgsklinik Davos, Switzerland. 36 children at the age of 10 to 16 years entered the study. They were placed into either a "free running group", a "swimming group" or a "control group." The children of the training groups underwent a training of at least 10 units of 30 minutes each in 3 weeks. The control group did not participate in any regular physical training. Heart rate was measured before and after a bicycle ergometer exercise of 5 minutes at 2.5 watts/kg body weight. This was repeated at the end of the study. In the "free running group" a significant decrease of the heart rate at rest (p less than 0.05) and at the end of bicycle ergometer exercise (p less than 0.01) could be seen. In the "swimming group" the decrease of the latter was significant (p less than 0.05). In both groups an increase in work tolerance could be demonstrated, but not in the "control group." In all three groups an improvement of lung function (IVC, FEV1) was found, but it was not significant in any of the groups. The small improvement might be due to a reduction in allergen exposure and better medical treatment. The study confirms the possibility of physical training of children with asthma even if exercise-induced asthmatic signs and symptoms are present. PMID:2263585

  10. Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Respiratory Mucociliary Function in an Experimental Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sánchez-Véliz

    Full Text Available The impact of cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB on the respiratory mucociliary function is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of CPB and interruption of mechanical ventilation on the respiratory mucociliary system.Twenty-two pigs were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10 or CPB group (n = 12. After the induction of anesthesia, a tracheostomy was performed, and tracheal tissue samples were excised (T0 from both groups. All animals underwent thoracotomy. In the CPB group, an aorto-bicaval CPB was installed and maintained for 90 minutes. During the CPB, mechanical ventilation was interrupted, and the tracheal tube was disconnected. A second tracheal tissue sample was obtained 180 minutes after the tracheostomy (T180. Mucus samples were collected from the trachea using a bronchoscope at T0, T90 and T180. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF and in situ mucociliary transport (MCT were studied in ex vivo tracheal epithelium. Mucus viscosity (MV was assessed using a cone-plate viscometer. Qualitative tracheal histological analysis was performed at T180 tissue samples.CBF decreased in the CPB group (13.1 ± 1.9 Hz vs. 11.1 ± 2.1 Hz, p < 0.05 but not in the control group (13.1 ± 1 Hz vs. 13 ± 2.9 Hz. At T90, viscosity was increased in the CPB group compared to the control (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in in situ MCT. Tracheal histology in the CPB group showed areas of ciliated epithelium loss, submucosal edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells.CPB acutely contributed to alterations in tracheal mucocilliary function.

  11. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5–18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = −0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = −0.309). Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD. PMID:26765431

  12. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise.Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5-18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = -0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = -0.309).Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD. PMID:26765431

  13. Influence of different intravascular volume therapies on platelet function in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, J; Knothe, C; Zickmann, B; Andres, P; Dapper, F; Hempelmann, G

    1993-06-01

    The influence of four different kinds of intravascular volume replacement on platelet function was investigated in 60 patients undergoing elective aortocoronary bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In a randomized sequence, high-molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch solution (HMW-HES, mean molecular weight [Mw] 450,000 d), low-molecular weight HES (LMW-HES, Mw 200,000 d), 3.5% gelatin or 5% albumin were infused preoperatively to double reduced filling pressure (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [PCWP] inductors: ADP, epinephrine, collagen). Maximum aggregation, maximum gradient of aggregation, and platelet volume were measured before, during, and after CPB until the first postoperative day. HMW-HES 840 +/- 90 mL, LMW 850 +/- 100 mL, gelatin 950 +/- 110 mL, and albumin 810 +/- 100 mL were given preoperatively. Maximum platelet aggregation (ranging from -23% to -44% relative from baseline value) and maximum gradient of platelet aggregation (ranging from -26% to -45% relative from baseline values) were reduced only in the HMW-HES patients. After CPB, aggregometry also was impaired most markedly in these patients. The other volume groups showed less reduction in platelet aggregation and were similar to the untreated control. On the first postoperative day, aggregation variables had returned almost to baseline in all patients. Platelet volume was the same among the groups within the investigation period. Postbypass blood loss was highest in the HMW-HES group (890 +/- 180 mL). There was significant (P < 0.04) correlation in this group between blood loss and change in platelet aggregation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7684579

  14. Platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass using multiple electrode aggregometry: comparison of centrifugal and roller pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehara, Hiromu; Takano, Tamaki; Ohashi, Noburo; Terasaki, Takamitsu; Amano, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood trauma may be lower with centrifugal pumps (CPs) than with roller pumps (RPs) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), because, unlike RPs, CPs do not compress the tubing, and shear stress is considered lower in CPs than in RPs. However, relative platelet function remains unclear. Using multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), we compared platelet function with CP and RP. Ten swine underwent CPB for 3 h, with five weaned off using CP and five using RP. Platelet function was measured using MEA, as were hemoglobin concentration and platelet count, before sternotomy, after heparin infusion, 30 min and 3 h after starting CPB, after protamine infusion, and 60 min after stopping CPB. Platelet activation was initiated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), and thrombin receptor-activating protein 6 (TRAP). Fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF4), and β-thromboglobin (β-TG) concentrations were measured before sternotomy and 60 min after stopping CPB. In the CP group and using ADP, aggregation was significantly reduced 30 min (P = 0.019) and 3 h (P = 0.027) after starting CPB, recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB was stopped. In the RP group, aggregation was significantly decreased 30 min (P = 0.007) and 3 h (P = 0.003) after starting CPB and after protamine administration (P = 0.028). With AA, aggregation significantly decreased 30 min after starting CPB in both the CP (P = 0.012) and RP (P = 0.016) groups, slightly increasing 3 h after starting CPB and after protamine infusion, and recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB cessation. With TRAP, aggregation in the CP and RP groups decreased 30 min after starting the pump, although changes were not significant; aggregation gradually recovered after 3 h and returned to baseline 60 min after the pumps were stopped. There were no significant differences at all sampling points of MEA. In both groups, fibrinogen, PF4, and β-TG concentrations were similar 60 min after pump cessation and before sternotomy

  15. The Effect of Low Tidal Volume Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Pulmonary Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Safarpour; Mohammad Hosein Bakhshaei; Ahmad Moradi; Afshin Farhanchi; Maryam Davoudi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and it is believed to result from the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this study, we investigated the effect of low tidal volume ventilation during CPB on postoperative gas exchange and lung mechanics. Methods: This prospective randomized study included 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. In 50 patients, low tidal volume ventilation [tidal volum...

  16. [Cardiopulmonary Comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Frederik; von Hardenberg, Albrecht; Böhm, Michael; Bals, Robert; Maack, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary diseases are primary causes of global morbidity and mortality. Since the prevalence of both cardiac and pulmonary diseases increases with age, cardiopulmonary comorbidities inflict especially the elderly. Due to the tight physiological connection of the heart and the lung, diseases of both organs affect each other beyond a mere coincidence. At the same time, due to the similarity of their respective symptoms, their differentiation is challenging in clinical practice and therefore, comorbidities can be easily overlooked. This article provides an overview on the characteristics of cardiopulmonary comorbidities and their specific-, but also mutual pathophysiology. PMID:26886042

  17. Triiodothyronine increases myocardial function and pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle after reperfusion in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Aaron K; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy; Rosiers, Christine Des; Portman, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) supplementation improves clinical outcomes in infants after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass by unknown mechanisms. We utilized a translational model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC), thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-(13)Carbon((13)C)]pyruvate for 40 min (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (control) or immediately after reperfusion (I/R) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (I/R-Tr) received T3 (1.2 μg/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC) using [2-(13)C]pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When compared with I/R, T3 (group I/R-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after I/R while elevating flux of both PDC and PC (∼4-fold). Although neither I/R nor I/R-Tr modified absolute CAC levels, T3 inhibited I/R-induced reductions in their molar percent enrichment. Furthermore, (13)C-labeling of CAC intermediates suggests that T3 may decrease entry of unlabeled carbons at the level of oxaloacetate through anaplerosis or exchange reaction with asparate. T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC fluxes, thereby providing potential substrate for elevated cardiac function after reperfusion. This T3-induced increase in pyruvate fluxes occurs with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Our labeling data raise the possibility that T3 reduces reliance on amino acids for anaplerosis after reperfusion.

  18. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, F; Mercogliano, D; Cavalletti, C; Caruso, A; Pomini, P

    1996-01-01

    The cardiopathic patient can sustain acute heart failure during pregnancy. In such cases, if open heart operation is necessary to save the patient's life, the fetus could be seriously compromised after exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. From 1958 to 1992, 69 reports of cardiac operations during pregnancy with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass have been published. Maternal mortality was 2.9%. Embryofetal mortality was 20.2%. Examining only the last 40 patients, maternal and embryofetal mortality were 0.0% and 12.5%, respectively. Embryofetal mortality was 24.0% when hypothermia was used, compared with 0.0% while operating in normothermia. Maternal mortality did not change. The use of hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass provoked uterine contractions in several patients. Hypothermia decreases O2 exchange through the placenta. Pump flow and mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass seem to be the most important parameters that influence fetal oxygenation. We speculate that cardiac operation is not a contraindication to pregnancy prolongation. PMID:8561577

  19. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  20. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  1. The Effect of Low Tidal Volume Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Pulmonary Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Safarpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and it is believed to result from the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. In this study, we investigated the effect of low tidal volume ventilation during CPB on postoperative gas exchange and lung mechanics.Methods: This prospective randomized study included 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. In 50 patients, low tidal volume ventilation [tidal volume (TV = 3 ml/kg, respiratory rate (RR = 12/min, fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2= 1.0, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP = 5 cmH2O] was applied during CPB (group I; and in the other 50 patients (group II, the lungs were open to the atmosphere without ventilation. Measurements were taken preoperatively,after CPB, and before discharge.Results: Post-bypass PaO2 (just after CPB 85 versus75 was higher significantly in group I (P value < 0.05. Decrease in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (25% versus 30% and forced vital capacity (32% versus 35% was less significant in group I. Also, time to extubation (5 hrs versus 5.5 hrs was shorter in group I.Conclusion: Continued low tidal volume ventilation during CPB improved post-bypass oxygenation and lung mechanics.

  2. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass in coronary artery bypass surgeries (on-pump versus off-pump) on erectile function and endothelium-derived nitric oxide levels

    OpenAIRE

    Onder Canguven; Selami Albayrak; Ahmet Selimoglu; Muhsin Balaban; Ahmet Sasmazel; Ayse Baysal

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on the erectile function and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (eNO) levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients were randomized into two groups depending on use of cardiopulmonary bypass in CABG surgery. The erectile function was evaluated by using the IIEF-5 questionnaire. The plasma eNO levels were determined at baseline and after reactive hyperemia before and after surger...

  3. Effects of inhaled 144Ce on cardiopulmonary function and histopathology of the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve dogs inhaled single doses of relatively insoluble particles containing 144Ce and six dogs inhaled particles containing stable cerium as controls. Pulmonary function, clinical, and radiographic evaluations were performed serially. The dogs developed progressive radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis similar to that previously reported for whole-lung irradiation from internal or external sources. Focal histologic changes in bronchioles and alveoli were detected functionally during treadmill and tube-breathing stresses at a time when the dogs' clinical and radiographic appearances were normal. Moderate functional impairment was associated with more severe inflammatory and proliferative changes in airways and alveoli. Severe impairment resulted from progressive fibrosis and scarring. These were several strong correlations between functional indices and histological scores. There was a nonlinear relationship between cumulative radiation dose and effects, and once the functional alterations became clinically evident, the disease progressed with little further increase in dose

  4. Baseline Cardiopulmonary Function as an Independent Prognostic Factor for Survival of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Single-Center Analysis of 161 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Little is known about the effects of cardiopulmonary function on the prognosis of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of the effects of tumor- and patient-related factors and parameters of cardiopulmonary function and heart morphology on the feasibility, toxicity, and prognosis was performed. Results: Cardiopulmonary function had no effect on the toxicity or feasibility of treatment; effects on survival were observed in the univariate analysis. Median survival varied as follows: cardiac function: 13.0 ± 1.6 months for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 50% vs. 10.0 ± 1.9 months for LVEF ≤ 50% (p = 0.003); pulmonary function: 16.0 ± 0.6 months for no lung function deficits (vital capacity [VC] ≥ 60%, forced expiratory volume in 1 s ≥ 80%, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≥60%) vs. 14.0 ± 1.5 months for one or two function deficits vs. 8.0 ± 1.5 months for three lung function deficits (p = 0.001); T stage: 19.0 ± 3.1 months for rcT0/cT1/cT2 vs. 12.0 ± 0.8 months for cT3/cT4 (p = 0.039); and age: 11.0 ± 1.5 months for <60 years vs. 18.0 ± 2.5 months for 60-69 years vs. 12.0 ± 1.2 months for ≥70 years (p = 0.008). Prognostic factors identified in the multivariate analysis were LVEF ≤50% (p = 0.043; hazard ratio [HR], 1.74), reduced pulmonary function (p = 0.001; HR, 1.71 or 5.05) and T stage (p = 0.026; HR: 1.71). Conclusions: In addition to T-stage, cardiac and pulmonary function variables affected the survival of non-small-cell lung cancer patients after chemoradiotherapy.

  5. Testing an intervention to improve functional capability in advanced cardiopulmonary illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Steele, Bonnie G; Hunziker, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The development of a conceptually driven exercise and self-management intervention for improving functional capability and reducing health care costs using social cognitive theory is described. The intervention has 2 components: a 1-month outpatient exercise intervention followed by a home component, lasting 5 months. The intervention is expected to have significant impact on daily function, quality of life, gait/balance, self-efficacy, and health care utilization in persons with advanced heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We report preliminary results related to process-related variables, including feasibility, safety, and intervention adherence. Intervention outcomes are currently under study and will be reported when available.

  6. Influence of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Tian Song; Ming Yang; Kun-Peng Li; Juan Xu; Chuan-Ming Bai; Ji-Wu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and analyze the influence of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods:A total of 42 patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass during the period of June 2014 to January 2016 were randomly divided into the control group of 21 cases and the observation group of 21 cases. The control group was treated with routine postoperative treatment, and the observation group was treated with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the basic treatment of control group, then the myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism indexes of the two groups before the surgery and at 2 h, 12 h and 24 h after the surgery were respectively detected and compared.Results: There were no significant difference in myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism indexes between two groups before the surgery (allP>0.05), while the myocardial enzymes and serum cardiac function indexes of the observation group at 2 h ,12 h and 24 h after the surgery were all significantly lower than those of control group, the oxygen metabolism indexes were significantly better than the levels of control group (allP<0.05).Conclusions:The recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide can effectively improve the myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism state of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and it has application value for the patients with the surgery is higher.

  7. Preliminary investigation of cardiopulmonary function in stroke patients with stable heart failure and exertional dyspnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Yu-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, perceived dyspnea, degree of fatigue, and activity of daily living with motor function and neurological status in stroke patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF). This was a cohort study in a tertiary care medical center. Stroke patients with CHF and exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association class I–III) were recruited. The baseline characteristics included duration of disease, Brunnstrom stage, spirometry, resting heart rate, resting oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), Borg scale, fatigue scale, and Barthel index. A total of 47 stroke patients (24 males, 23 females, mean age 65.9 ± 11.5 years) were included. The average Brunnstrom stages of affected limbs were 3.6 ± 1.3 over the proximal parts and 3.5 ± 1.4 over the distal parts of upper limbs, and 3.9 ± 0.9 over lower limbs. The average forced vital capacity (FVC) was 2.0 ± 0.8 L, with a predicted FVC% of 67.9 ± 18.8%, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 1.6 ± 0.7 L, predicted FEV1% of 70.6 ± 20.1%, FEV1/FVC of 84.2 ± 10.5%, and maximum mid-expiratory flow of 65.4 ± 29.5%. The average MIP and MEP were −52.9 ± 33.3 cmH2O and 60.8 ± 29.0 cmH2O, respectively. The Borg scale was 1.5 ± 0.8. MIP was negatively associated with the average Brunnstrom stage of the proximal (r = −0.318, P lower extremities (r = −0.288, P lower extremities (r = −0.311, P limbs. FVC was more strongly associated with MIP and MEP than predicted FVC%. FEV1/FVC may be used as a reference for the pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:27749577

  8. Relationship between aerobic and anaerobic parameters and functional classification in wheelchair basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira, C A B; Vancini, R L; Minozzo, F C; Sousa, B S; Dubas, J P; Andrade, M S; Steinberg, L L; da Silva, A C

    2010-08-01

    Participation in sports for individuals with disabilities continues to gain popularity. In order to provide fair and equitable competition among persons with different disabilities and functional capacity, a separate functional classification system has been devised for each sport. The aims of the present study were to evaluate aerobic and anaerobic performance of wheelchair basketball athletes and verify a correlation with the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation functional classification system. For this, 17 highly trained male Brazilian basketball wheelchair athletes (25.4+/-4.4 years) from the national team who had taken part in the Athens 2004 Paralympic Games were assessed. These athletes were submitted to cardiopulmonary exercise testing and Wingate-like 30-s sprint test using upper limbs. The present study demonstrated that the functional classification score correlated with relative (r=0.90; Pcourt, which also correlated with aerobic and anaerobic performance parameters of the elite wheelchair basketball players. PMID:19793219

  9. Hypergeometric Functions with Integral Parameter Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1971-01-01

    For a generalized hypergeometric function pFq(z) with positive integral differences between certain numerator and denominator parameters, a formula expressing the pFq(z) as a finite sum of lower-order functions is proved. From this formula, Minton's two summation theorems for p = q + 1, z = 1 are...

  10. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  11. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  12. Cardiopulmonary stress testing using ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system: The relationship between vascular endothelial function and cardiac response in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akima, Takashi; Tabata, Hirotsugu [Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takase, Bonpei [National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)] [and others

    2002-02-01

    The relationship in the title was studied with a new type ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system. Subjects were 12 male patients with ischemic heart diseases. After cardiac scintigraphy at rest of {sup 99m}Tc-human serum albumin (740 MBq) with GE Mirenium, patients wore the C-VEST jacket (Capintec medset cardiolight), which consisted from 2 radioactivity detectors and Holter ECG recorder, and underwent the cardiopulmonary stress testing with Treadmill Ramp exercise to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT), VO{sub 2}, left ventricular ejection flow (EF) and stroke volume (SV). Vascular endothelial function was recorded by ultrasonography of brachial artery by monitoring the flow-mediated dilation (FD). Mean EF at rest was 56% and there was no relationship between VO{sub 2} at rest or exercise and FD. However, the relationship between FD and change of SV or EF from rest to AT was recognized and thus FD was suggested to participate in cardiac function change at exercise of those patients. (K.H.)

  13. Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination in healthy cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, W; Allen, D G; Dyson, D H; Pascoe, P J; O'Grady, M R

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination on the cardiopulmonary function of 11 healthy cats was studied. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured by thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and arterial blood gas analysis. Values for systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index and stroke volume were calculated. The cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, arterial blood pressure and arterial blood...

  14. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass during robotic cardiac surgery on pulmonary function%全机器人心脏手术麻醉中体外循环对肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖赛松; 高长青; 陈婷婷; 周琪; 李佳春; 王加利; 王瑶; 王刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass ( CPB ) on pulmonary function under the environment of one - lung ventilation ( OLV ) and carbon dioxide pneumothorax in robotic cardiac surgery. Methods Ninety - eight patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery using the da Vinci system, including 58 on - pump surgeries ( On - pump group, n = 58 ) and 40 off - pump surgeries ( Off- pump group, n =40 ). Mechanical ventilation parameters, airway peak pressure, and arterial blood gas were assessed at the following time points: 20 min after induction of anesthesia with two - lung ventilation ( Tl ), 25 min after OLV ( T2 ), 25 min after termination of CPB with OLV in on - pump group or 25 min after main surgery intervention in off - pump group ( T3 ), and 20 min before surgery finish ( T4 ). Dynamic lung compliance ( Cdyn ), alveolar - arterial PO2 different ( PA_aDO2 ), artery - alveolar P02 ratio ( a/A ) and oxygenation index ( OI) were then calculated. Results No significant differences were observed in pulmonary function parameters between T3 and T2 after operation in off - pump group. But in on - pump group, compared with those in T2, PETCO2 , Ppeak, PaCO2 and PA-aDO2 in T3 were higher whereas SpO2 , Cdyn, PaO2 , OI and a/A were lower ( P 0.05);两组T3时刻组间比较,On-pump组比Off-pump组Ppeak、PaCO2、PA-aDO2高,SpO2、Cdyn、PaO2、OI、a/A低(P<0.01).结论 在机器人心脏手术麻醉中,体外循环将使肺通气功能和换气功能明显降低,耐受OLV的能力下降.

  15. A Filled Function with Adjustable Parameters for Unconstrained Global Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGYou-lin; LIXiao-yan

    2004-01-01

    A filled function with adjustable parameters is suggested in this paper for finding a global minimum point of a general class of nonlinear programming problems with a bounded and closed domain. This function has two adjustable parameters. We will discuss the properties of the proposed filled function. Conditions on this function and on the values of parameters are given so that the constructed function has the desired properties of traditional filled function.

  16. Pulsatile compared with nonpulsatile perfusion using a centrifugal pump for cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass grafting. Effects on systemic haemodynamics, oxygenation, and inflammatory response parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, J J; Dhaese, H; Fransen, G; Verrelst, P; Rondelez, L; Gevaert, L; van Becelaere, M; Schelstraete, E

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow delivery with a centrifugal pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in two randomized groups of 19 patients each. All patients received a standard anaesthetic and surgical protocol. Pulsatile perfusion during CPB was created by accelerating the baseline pump speed of the Sarns centrifugal pump at a rate of 50 cycles per minute. Measurements included perioperative systemic haemodynamics and oxygen exchange, total haemolytic complement (CH50), polymorphonuclear (neutrophil) granulocyte (PMN) count and plasma granulocyte elastase bound to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (E-alpha 1-PI). Laboratory measurements were corrected for haemodilution. During and after CPB there were only a few significant differences between the groups in systemic haemodynamics and oxygenation, i.e. a lower mean arterial blood pressure after the end of CPB in the nonpulsatile group (65 mmHg, SD = 11 vs 76 mmHg, SD = 11) and a lower SvO2 during rewarming on CPB in the nonpulsatile group (62%, SD = 8 vs 67%, SD = 8). The decrease in percentage of PMNs in the total white blood cell count during CPB was greater in the nonpulsatile group than in the pulsatile group (from 61 to 46% vs 63 to 53% of prebypass value). The steep increase of PMN count at the end of CPB and postoperatively was comparable in both groups. The maximal decrease of CH50 levels, occurring after surgery, was significantly higher in the nonpulsatile group (70% SD = 15 vs 79%, SD = 16, of baseline value), suggesting a greater complement activation. E-alpha 1-PI levels increased significantly in both groups during and after CPB with higher peak levels, obtained at one hour after admission to an intensive care unit, in the nonpulsatile group (316 micrograms/l, SD = 102) than in the pulsatile group (247 micrograms/l, SD = 106). There was a partly inverse correlation between the peak postoperative elastase levels and

  17. EFECTOS DE LA HEMODILUCIÓN NORMOVOLÉMICA CON AUTODONACIÓN DE BAJO VOLUMEN SOBRE ALGUNOS PARÁMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS EN LA CIRUGÍA CARDIOVASCULAR CON CIRCULACIÓN EXTRACORPÓREA / Effects of normovolemic hemodilution with low volume autologous donations on various hematological parameters in cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanet García Cid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation is characterized by large perioperative blood loss and multifactorial disorders of coagulation parameters. For these reasons, there is frequent use of allogeneic transfusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of intentional normovolemic hemodilution, with low volume autologous donation, on some hematological parameters in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Method: A longitudinal, comparative, prospective study was performed in 27 patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, subjected to intentional low volume normovolemic hemodilution. The following parameters were studied: the patient's blood volume, bleeding count, hematocrit figures, platelet count, thromboplastin time and INR before and after hemodilution and autotransfusion. Results: A blood volume average extraction of 10.5% for men and 13,12 % for women was found, with a highly significant reduction in hematocrit, and a significant reduction in platelet, although both variables were within normal values, without involvement of the coagulation parameters with hemodilution. After autotransfusion, a highly significant increase in hematocrit and platelet count was found, with significant reduction of thromboplastin time and INR. Conclusions: The low volume normovolemic hemodilution does not produce clinically important changes in the studied hematological parameters, and autotransfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass improves these parameters.

  18. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, Liver Function Enzymes, Renal Function Parameters and Oxidative Stress Parameters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usunobun Usunomena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review a procarcinogen, the N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, liver and kidney functional enzymes (in assessing action of toxicants such as NDMA as well as oxidative stress parameters (in assessing the extent of free radical damage and scavenging. Catalase and hydro peroxidase enzymes convert hydrogen peroxide and hydro peroxides to non-radical forms and functions as natural antioxidant in human body. Enzymes like Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Catalase (CAT and compounds such as tocopherol and ascorbic acid can protect organisms against free radical damage. Lipid peroxidation is a mechanism generally recognized as being the most important in the pathogenesis of liver injury by a number of toxic compounds including NDMA.

  19. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zakkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB revolutionized cardiac surgery and contributed immensely to improved patients outcomes. CPB is associated with the activation of different coagulation, proinflammatory, survival cascades and altered redox state. Haemolysis, ischaemia, and perfusion injury and neutrophils activation during CPB play a pivotal role in oxidative stress and the associated activation of proinflammatory and proapoptotic signalling pathways which can affect the function and recovery of multiple organs such as the myocardium, lungs, and kidneys and influence clinical outcomes. The administration of agents with antioxidant properties during surgery either intravenously or in the cardioplegia solution may reduce ROS burst and oxidative stress during CPB. Alternatively, the use of modified circuits such as minibypass can modify both proinflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

  20. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Monk-Hansen, Tea;

    2014-01-01

    Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome...... early (E) and late (A) inflow velocities, and tissue Doppler diastolic (e′) and systolic (s′) velocities. Peak coronary flow velocity (CFV) was measured in the LAD using pulse-wave Doppler. CFR was calculated as the ratio between peak CFV at rest and during vasodilator stress. Median CFR was 2.22 (1...

  1. Thrombin during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, L Henry; Colman, Robert W

    2006-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ignites a massive defense reaction that stimulates all blood cells and five plasma protein systems to produce a myriad of vasoactive and cytotoxic substances, cell-signaling molecules, and upregulated cellular receptors. Thrombin is the key enzyme in the thrombotic portion of the defense reaction and is only partially suppressed by heparin. During CPB, thrombin is produced by both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathways and activated platelets. The routine use of a cell saver and the eventual introduction of direct thrombin inhibitors now offer the possibility of completely suppressing thrombin production and fibrinolysis during cardiac surgery with CPB. PMID:17126170

  2. Changes in Cardiopulmonary Reserve and Peripheral Arterial Function Concomitantly with Subclinical Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vitiello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Changes in cardiopulmonary reserve and biomarkers related to wall stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress concomitantly with the evaluation of peripheral arterial blood flow have not been investigated in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF compared with healthy subjects (CTL. Methods and Results. Eighteen HFpEF patients and 14 CTL were recruited. Plasma levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at rest. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP was measured at rest and peak exercise. Cardiopulmonary reserve was assessed using an exercise protocol with gas exchange analyses. Peripheral arterial blood flow was determined by strain gauge plethysmography. Peak VO2 (12.0±0.4 versus 19.1±1.1 mL/min/kg, P<0.001 and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (1.55±0.12 versus 2.06±0.14, P<0.05 were significantly decreased in HFpEF patients compared with CTL. BNP at rest and following stress, C-reactive-protein, interleukin-6, and TBARS were significantly elevated in HFpEF. Both basal and posthyperemic arterial blood flow were not significantly different between the HFpEF patients and CTL. Conclusions. HFpEF exhibits a severe reduction in cardiopulmonary reserve and oxygen uptake efficiency concomitantly with an elevation in a broad spectrum of biomarkers confirming an inflammatory and prooxidative status in patients with HFpEF.

  3. Fitting Ranked Linguistic Data with Two-Parameter Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that many ranked linguistic data can fit well with one-parameter models such as Zipf’s law for ranked word frequencies. However, in cases where discrepancies from the one-parameter model occur (these will come at the two extremes of the rank, it is natural to use one more parameter in the fitting model. In this paper, we compare several two-parameter models, including Beta function, Yule function, Weibull function—all can be framed as a multiple regression in the logarithmic scale—in their fitting performance of several ranked linguistic data, such as letter frequencies, word-spacings, and word frequencies. We observed that Beta function fits the ranked letter frequency the best, Yule function fits the ranked word-spacing distribution the best, and Altmann, Beta, Yule functions all slightly outperform the Zipf’s power-law function in word ranked- frequency distribution.

  4. An Empirical Study on the lnfluence of Weight Lifting Training on Children’s Cardio-Pulmonary Function%举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙玉萍

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of weight lifting training on children’s cardio-pulmonary function, this study tests cardio-pulmonary function index of newly-recruited male athletes from 10 to 12 before and after the experiment. The result shows that after a period of weight lifting training, teenagers demonstrate no difference in physical index such as heart rate or blood pressure, which suggests that weight lifting can improve teenagers’ pulmonary function and enhance their vital capacity.%为了解举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响。文章在实验前后对10-12岁新招进的男性运动员进行心肺功能指标测试,结果显示:经过一段时间举重运动训练后,少年身体机能心率、血压等指标未表现出差异,肺活量方面有着显著提高,表明举重运动能有效改善少年肺功能,提高肺活量。

  5. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Chandra Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery carried out on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in a pregnant woman is associated with poor neonatal outcomes although maternal outcomes are similar to cardiac surgery in non-pregnant women. Most adverse maternal and fetal outcomes from cardiac surgery during pregnancy are attributed to effects of CPB. The CPB is associated with utero-placental hypoperfusion due to a number of factors, which may translate into low fetal cardiac output, hypoxia and even death. Better maternal and fetal outcomes may be achieved by early pre-operative optimization of maternal cardiovascular status, use of perioperative fetal monitoring, optimization of CPB, delivery of a viable fetus before the operation and scheduling cardiac surgery on an elective basis during the second trimester.

  6. Improved parameter estimation for hydrological models using weighted object functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Zaadnoordijk, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of calibration of hydrological model parameters to different objective functions. Several functions are defined with weights depending upon the hydrological background. These are compared with an objective function based upon kriging. Calibration is applied to pi

  7. Developing pulmonary vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis, detected with non-invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dumitrescu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc may develop exercise intolerance due to musculoskeletal involvement, restrictive lung disease, left ventricular dysfunction, or pulmonary vasculopathy (PV. The latter is particularly important since it may lead to lethal pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We hypothesized that abnormalities during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in patients with SSc can identify PV leading to overt PAH. METHODS: Thirty SSc patients from the Harbor-UCLA Rheumatology clinic, not clinically suspected of having significant pulmonary vascular disease, were referred for this prospective study. Resting pulmonary function and exercise gas exchange were assessed, including peakVO2, anaerobic threshold (AT, heart rate-VO2 relationship (O2-pulse, exercise breathing reserve and parameters of ventilation-perfusion mismatching, as evidenced by elevated ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2 and reduced end-tidal pCO2 (PETCO2 at the AT. RESULTS: Gas exchange patterns were abnormal in 16 pts with specific cardiopulmonary disease physiology: Eleven patients had findings consistent with PV, while five had findings consistent with left-ventricular dysfunction (LVD. Although both groups had low peak VO2 and AT, a higher VE/VCO2 at AT and decreasing PETCO2 during early exercise distinguished PV from LVD. CONCLUSIONS: Previously undiagnosed exercise impairments due to LVD or PV were common in our SSc patients. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing may help to differentiate and detect these disorders early in patients with SSc.

  8. Hyperamylasemia following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H; Chung, Y T; Wu, G J; Hwang, F Y; Chen, K T; Peng, W L; Hung, C R

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the occurrence of postbypass hyperamylasemia, 75 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied from March 1989 to January 1990. There were 49 males and 26 females. Among them, 27 had congenital heart disease, 30 had valvular disease, and 18 had coronary artery disease. There were 27 patients with at least one elevated serum amylase sample after operation. Thus, the overall incidence of hyperamylasemia was 36%. As compared with the preoperative data (1.3%), there was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of hyperamylasemia (p less than 0.05). Three patients had overt clinical pancreatitis postoperatively. There was no positive correlation between the serum amylase level and the occurrence of pancreatitis (p greater than 0.05). Forty-two cases had a significant elevation of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) after CPB. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with pulsatile and nonpulsatile CPB (p greater than 0.05). Three patients (4%) died in our series. The causes of death were heart failure in two and fulminant pancreatitis associated with low cardiac output in one. Although our experience in dealing with pancreatitis improved survival, mortality was still high (33.3%) in our series. Nevertheless, there was no apparent correlation between mortality and postbypass hyperamylasemia (p greater than 0.05). Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of the occurrence of hyperamylasemia, and the analysis revealed that patients with coronary artery disease were susceptible to postbypass hyperamylasemia. Our studies indicate that the use of total serum amylase or ACCR to monitor for the occurrence of pancreatitis in postbypass patients is inadequate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1377742

  9. Effects of different doses of perindopril on cardiopulmonary exercise function in patients with chronic heart failure%不同剂量培哚普利对慢性心力衰竭患者运动心肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振英; 高华; 曹倩; 张建秀; 刘艳玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察不同剂量培哚普利对慢性心力衰竭患者运动心肺功能的影响。方法45例临床症状稳定的慢性心力衰竭患者在接受基础治疗的基础上随机分为两组:培哚普利4 mg组(n=21)和8 mg组(n=24)。分别在培哚普利治疗开始时和治疗3个月后评估其运动心肺功能、血压和血浆肌酐水平。运动心肺功能采用 Yaeger 心肺功能测试系统评定,采用 V-slope 法计算无氧阈值,观察指标有最大心率、最大摄氧量、无氧阈、氧脉搏(摄氧量/心率)、最大运动负荷和运动时间。运动试验采用症状限制性运动,运动方案采用改良的 Bruce 运动方案。结果两种剂量培哚普利治疗后患者运动时间、无氧阈、最大摄氧量、最大运动负荷等指标均较给药前显著改善(P<0.05);与4 mg组比较,8 mg组患者运动时间、最大摄氧量及最大运动负荷分别增加12.0%(P<0.05)、8.3%(P<0.05)、7.8%(P<0.05)。8 mg 培哚普利显著降低患者血压,对血浆肌酐无明显影响。结论8 mg 培哚普利较4 mg 更有效改善慢性心力衰竭患者运动心肺功能,患者耐受性较好。%Objective To investigate the effects of different doses of perindopril on cardiopulmonary exercise function in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods Forty-five patients with stable chronic heart failure who were receiving basic treatment for heart failure were randomly divided into 4 mg perindopril group (n=21) and 8 mg perindopril group (n=24). Cardiopulmonary exercise function, blood pressure and plasma creatinine were assessed respectively before and after 3 months perindopril treatment. Both groups underwent a symptom limited exercise testing using a modified-Bruce protocol. The parameters of cardiopulmonary function, including maximal heart rate (HRmax), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (AT), O2 pulse (oxygen consumption/heart rate

  10. The Effect of Aerobic Training for Lower Limbs on the Early Cardiopulmonary Function Recovery of Racing Athletes%下肢有氧训练对竞速运动员早期心肺功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王振涛

    2016-01-01

    为探讨下肢有氧训练对竞速运动员早期心肺功能恢复的影响,制定科学合理的有氧运动策略。本文基于对竞速运动员的运动特点及心肺功能情况全面了解,选取10名山东省竞速运动员作为测试对象,采用产自德国耶格公司的心肺功能测试系统,对训练对象进行下肢有氧训练,并对训练前后的心肺功能指标进行比较,利用EXCEL进行评测数据整理统计。结果表明:(1)受测运动员在心肺耐受时间、耐受负荷、肺部通气量和摄氧量等方面都得到了有效改善,加速了心肺功能的恢复;(2)适度的运动量非常重要,过小或者过大的训练量都不利于早期心肺功能的恢复;(3)男女运动员由于生理结构的差异性,机体指标存在差异,因此,在制定有氧训练策略时,应考虑性别差异。%To study the effect of aerobic training for lower limbs on the early cardiopulmonary function recovery of racing athletes, this paper selected ten athletes who were known well their profiles about the movement characteristics and cardiopulmonary function to detect them with the cardiopulmonary function detector made in Germany and compared cardiopulmonary function indexes before and after exercise with EXCEL to analyze the test data. The results showed that tested athletes effectively improved in the cardiopulmonary tolerance time, resistance load, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen uptake etc. and accelerated the cardiopulmonary function recovery. It was important for early cardiopulmonary function recovery to suitably exercise rather than an excess. In view of physiological differences between men and women, when athletes were trained, they were treated differently according to a gender.

  11. The Continuity of Barrier Function with Respect to the Parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxiang LI; Jun YAN

    2009-01-01

    The authors study the continuity of barrier function Be(x) with respect to the parameter.A sufficient condition which makes Bc(x) be continuous with respect to c is obtained,and an example of discontinuity when the condition is not satisfied is also constructed.

  12. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  13. Ginzburg-Landau functional for three order parameter problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinh, Nguyen; Lan, Nguyen Tri

    2016-06-01

    A model is presented utilizing a generic Hamiltonian with equal pairings in channels based on quantum field theory and functional integral formalism, to show the correlation among the order parameters which are described in multi-component Ginzburg-Landau functional. In the vicinity of the phase transition, the further perturbative expansions of the functional around the mean-field theory in the auxiliary fields are carried out with the aim of leading to a possible solution for the coexistence of many phases. The work is motivated by the recent theoretical researches and experimental evidences of the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in U and Ce compounds.

  14. Modeling of state parameter and hardening function for granular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳乐; 李建中

    2004-01-01

    A modified plastic strain energy as hardening state parameter for dense sand was proposed, based on the results from a series of drained plane strain tests on saturated dense Japanese Toyoura sand with precise stress and strain measurements along many stress paths. In addition, a unique hardening function between the plastic strain energy and the instantaneous stress path was also presented, which was independent of stress history. The proposed state parameter and hardening function was directly verified by the simple numerical integration method. It is shown that the proposed hardening function is independent of stress history and stress path and is appropriate to be used as the hardening rule in constitutive modeling for dense sand, and it is also capable of simulating the effects on the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path for dense sand.

  15. Anesthetic Effects on Damage of Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Function Caused by Cardiopulmonary Bypass%麻醉药物对体外循环致肠道屏障功能损害作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏日娜(综述); 于建设; 温再和(审校)

    2015-01-01

    肠道是全身应激反应的重要靶器官,又是全身炎症反应综合征、多器官功能障碍综合征的重要诱因。而临床患者当中手术创伤、应激反应、严重感染、休克、心血管外科手术中体外循环等均可导致肠黏膜屏障功能受损,这些过程最终导致肠屏障通透性增加,继而与脓毒症、全身炎症反应综合征、多器官功能障碍综合征发生有密切关系。在临床实践中证实许多常规麻醉药物预处理对体外循环引起的肠道缺血/再灌注损伤有保护作用,继而减轻肠黏膜损伤。%The gut is an important target organ of the systemic stress response ,and an important cause of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome ( SIRS ) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome ( MODS ) . Surgical trauma,stress,shock,infection,cardiopulmonary bypass all can lead to impaired intestinal mucosal barrier function.These processes eventually lead to intestinal mucosal permeability increase,which is closely associated with sepsis,SIRS and MODS.In clinical practice it′s confirmed that many conventional anesthetics preconditioning can protect the intestine from ischemia reperfusion injury due to cardiopulmonary bypass and decrease the damage of intestinal mucosa .

  16. Adaptive generalized functional synchronization of Chaotic systems with unknown parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dong-Feng; Han Pu

    2008-01-01

    A universal adaptive generalized functional synchronization approach to any two different or identical chaotic systems with unknown parameters is proposed,based on a unified mathematical expression of a large class of chaotic system.Self-adaptive parameter law and control law are given in the form of a theorem.The synchronization between the three-dimensional R(o)ssler chaotic system and the four-dimensional Chen's hyper-chaotic system is studied as an example for illustration.The computer simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  17. Cardiopulmonary interactions during mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.V. Cherpanath (Thomas); W.K. Lagrand (Wim); M.J. Schultz (Marcus); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCardiopulmonary interactions induced by mechan-ical ventilation are complex and only partly understood. Ap-plied tidal volumes and/or airway pressures largely mediate changes in right ventricular preload and afterload. Effects on left ventricular function are mostly secondary to changes

  18. On Parameter Differentiation for Integral Representations of Associated Legendre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Cohl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For integral representations of associated Legendre functions in terms of modified Bessel functions, we establish justification for differentiation under the integral sign with respect to parameters. With this justification, derivatives for associated Legendre functions of the first and second kind with respect to the degree are evaluated at odd-half-integer degrees, for general complex-orders, and derivatives with respect to the order are evaluated at integer-orders, for general complex-degrees. We also discuss the properties of the complex function f: C{−1,1}→C given by f(z=z/((z+1^{1/2}(z−1^{1/2}.

  19. Connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Khare; Uday Sukhatme

    2004-11-01

    The simplest formulas connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters were first obtained over two hundred years ago by John Landen. His approach was to change integration variables in elliptic integrals. We show that Landen’s formulas and their subsequent generalizations can also be obtained from a different approach, using which we also obtain several new Landen transformations. Our new method is based on recently obtained periodic solutions of physically interesting non-linear differential equations and remarkable new cyclic identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions.

  20. Probability of detection as a function of multiple influencing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Mato

    2014-10-15

    Non-destructive testing is subject to measurement uncertainties. In safety critical applications the reliability assessment of its capability to detect flaws is therefore necessary. In most applications, the flaw size is the single most important parameter that influences the probability of detection (POD) of the flaw. That is why the POD is typically calculated and expressed as a function of the flaw size. The capability of the inspection system to detect flaws is established by comparing the size of reliably detected flaw with the size of the flaw that is critical for the structural integrity. Applications where several factors have an important influence on the POD are investigated in this dissertation. To devise a reliable estimation of the NDT system capability it is necessary to express the POD as a function of all these factors. A multi-parameter POD model is developed. It enables POD to be calculated and expressed as a function of several influencing parameters. The model was tested on the data from the ultrasonic inspection of copper and cast iron components with artificial flaws. Also, a technique to spatially present POD data called the volume POD is developed. The fusion of the POD data coming from multiple inspections of the same component with different sensors is performed to reach the overall POD of the inspection system.

  1. Functional clinical typology of the foot and kinematic gait parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Marenčáková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The foot plays a key role in a standing posture, walking and running performance. Changes in its structure or function may alter upper segments of kinematic chain which can lead to formation of musculoskeletal disorders. Although functional clinical typology provides a complex view of foot kinesiology there is a lack of knowledge and evidence about influences of different foot types on human gait. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse differences of kinematic gait parameters of lower extremity joints and pelvis between functional clinical foot types in healthy young men. Methods: Three-dimensional kinematic analysis by the Vicon Motion Capture MX System device in synchronization with 2 Kistler force platforms was used to obtain kinematic data from 18 healthy men (mean age 23.2 ± 1.9 years. The functional clinical foot type was clinically examined and sorted into 3 basic foot type groups - forefoot varus (FFvar, rearfoot varus (RFvar and forefoot valgus (FFvalg. Peak angular values and range of an angular displacement in all of three movement planes were analysed for pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joint. For statistical analysis of kinematic gait parameters differences between foot types Mann Whitney U test at a statistical significance level p < .05 and Cohen's coefficient d for effect size were used. Results: This study showed that functional clinical foot type can affect kinematic parameters of gait in the joints of the lower limb and pelvis. Significant differences were presented in the FFvar in comparison with other two foot type groups with middle and high size of effect. The most alterations were observed in pelvis area and in a sagittal plane of movement. Nevertheless, significant differences between FFvalg and RFvar foot types were not noticed. Conclusions: Functional clinical foot typology provides one of the possible methods to describe foot structure and function. Our results showed that foot type could

  2. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye;

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...... of the hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...

  3. Mini cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsatli, Raed A.

    2012-01-01

    This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anesthetic management and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered...

  4. Influência da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Effects of respiratory physiotherapy on the cardiopulmonary function of very low birth weight newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Nicolau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de RNPT com peso de nascimento menor que 1500g, sendo verificados os valores de frequência cardíaca (FC, saturação de oxigênio (SatO2, frequência respiratória (FR e pressão arterial sistêmica (PA antes e após a fisioterapia respiratória e a aspiração endotraqueal. Os RNPT incluídos foram avaliados em sessões sequenciais entre o 3º-7º dias de vida por dois fisioterapeutas da unidade neonatal. Os valores de FC, SatO2 e PA foram coletados por monitorização eletrônica e a FR, por cronômetro. Na análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste de ANOVA para medidas repetidas, sendo significante pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of respiratory physiotherapy on cardiopulmonary function of ventilated preterm newborns infants (PTNB. METHODS: This prospective study included PTNB with birth weight lower than 1500g. Before and after respiratory physiotherapy and endotracheal suction, the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation (O2Sat, respiratory rate (RR and blood pressure (BP. The newborns were evaluated in consecutive sessions between the 3rd-7th day of life by two therapists in the neonatal unit. HR, O2Sat and BP data were collected by electronic monitoring and RR by a stopwatch. Results were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 PTNB, 57% females, with a mean birth weight of 1024g and a mean gestational age of 29.5 weeks. Only three PTNB had a 5th minute Apgar lower than 5. Respiratory Distress Syndrome was the most prevalent disease (88%. In total, 252 physiotherapy sessions were applied to these 42 infants. HR, RR, O2Sat and BP remained within the physiological limits after procedures, including endotracheal suction. CONCLUSIONS: Procedures for physiotherapy

  5. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  6. 高强度间歇性耐力训练对大学生心肺功能的影响%Effects of high-intensity interval endurance training on improving college students'cardiopulmonary function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丰; 王磊; 曹震宇; 王尊; 晁敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究高强度间歇性耐力训练对大学生心肺功能的影响。方法:58名健康大学生分为男生组31人、女生组27人,2组进行9个阶段为期9周的渐进性增强高强度间歇性耐力训练,所有受试者训练前后均进行心肺运动试验(CPET),主要监测指标包括安静心率、安静血压、峰值摄氧量(VO2peak)、通气阈值(VT)及力竭时值(TTE)。结果:经过9个阶段的高强度间歇性耐力训练,2组安静心率均较训练前下降(P<0.01),但安静血压训练前后差异无统计学意义;2组VO2peak及TTE均较训练前提高(P<0.05);VT总体及男生组训练前后差异无统计学意义,但女生组较训练前明显提高(P<0.05)。结论:高强度间歇性耐力训练可改善大学生心肺功能。%Objective:To examine the effect of high intensity intermittent endurance training (HIIT ) on college students'cardiopulmonary function .Methods:Fifty‐eight healthy college students were divided into male group (n=31) and female group (n=27) .Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was performed on all students before and af‐ter the 9 sessions of HIIT on a cycle ergometer for 9 weeks ,and the main monitoring indicators included heart rate (HR) ,blood pressure ,VO2peak ,VT ,and TTE .Results:The results indicated that HR was increased after 9 training sessions in both two groups (P<0 .01) ,and blood pressure had no obvious change after training .VO2 peak and TTE in two groups were increased after training as compared with those before training (P< 0 .05) .The students in the male group had no obvious change in VT after the training ,and VT in female group and after train‐ing was significantly increased as compared with that before training (P<0 .05) .Conclusion:HIIT can improve col‐lege students'cardiopulmonary function .

  7. Evaluation of coma patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ying-ying; YANG Qing-lin; PANG Ying; LV Xiang-ping

    2005-01-01

    Background Coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commonly seen in daily clinical practice. How to objectively evaluate brain function after CPR is essential to the following treatment. Coma patients after CPR had been studied prospectively at the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital since 2002. In this study, we focused on the topic of how to evaluate the severity of coma after CPR .Methods From April 2002 to November 2004, patients in coma 24 hours after CPR were monitored, the evaluation methods included Glasgow coma score (GCS),brain stem reflection, and spinal reflection. Laboratory evaluation included electroencephalography (EEG),brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), short latency somatosensory evoked potential (SLSEP), and transcranial Doppler (TCD) .Results Twenty-four of 35 patients(68.57%)were in deep coma. The GCS was 3 except for 2 patients;EEG was evaluated not less than grade Ⅳ except for 4 patients, BAEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 3 patients, and SLSEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 1 patient.Twenty-four patients died within 1 month and 11 of them(45.83%)were determined as brain death. Glasgow outcome score (GOS) was evaluated as grade Ⅰ. Eleven of the 35 patients survived and their consciousness changed from deep coma to coma vigil. EEG was evaluated as gradeⅠin 5 patients, BAEP and SLSEP were evaluated as grade Ⅰ in 3 patients, and GOS was all evaluated as grade Ⅱ among the 11 patients.Two patients(18.18%)regained consciousness in 35 and 90 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and GOS was evaluated as grade Ⅳ and Ⅲ, respectively.Conclusion Combined or continuous evaluation of clinical examinations and laboratory tests can accurately and objectively determine brain function after CPR.

  8. Estimation of parameters of K-meson structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the multiparton recombination model with Kuti-Weisskopf parametrization the available experimental data on inclusive spectra of vector and tensor mesons in the reactions K±p→MX (M=ρ, φ, K(890), K(1430) in kaon fragmentation range at high energies (32-110 GeV/c) have been analyzed. The analysis was aimed at obtaining the parameters of the K-meson structure functions. The kaon strange sea suppression factor is found to the λS=0.18±0.01. The fractions of the kaon longitudinal momentum carried away by the strange and nonstrage valence quarks and by sea partons are, respectively, NV>=0.17, SV>=0.30, and S>=0.53

  9. Multiple dimensions of cardiopulmonary dyspnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiang-na; XIONG Chang-ming; YAO Wei; FANG Qiu-hong; ZHU Yuan-jue; CHENG Xian-sheng; Karel P Van de Woestijne

    2011-01-01

    Background The current theory of dyspnea perception presumes a multidimensional conception of dyspnea.However,its validity in patients with cardiopulmonary dyspnea has not been investigated.Methods A respiratory symptom checklist incorporating spontaneously reported descriptors of sensory experiences of breathing discomfort,affective aspects,and behavioral items was administered to 396 patients with asthma,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),diffuse parenchymal lung disease,pulmonary vascular disease,chronic heart failure,and medically unexplained dyspnea.Symptom factors measuring different qualitative components of dyspnea were derived by a principal component analysis.The separation of patient groups was achieved by a variance analysis on symptom factors.Results Seven factors appeared to measure three dimensions of dyspnea:sensory (difficulty breathing and phase of respiration,depth and frequency of breathing,urge to breathe,wheeze),affective (chest tightness,anxiety),and behavioral (refraining from physical activity) dimensions.Difficulty breathing and phase of respiration occurred more often in COPD,followed by asthma (R2=0.12).Urge to breathe was unique for patients with medically unexplained dyspnea (R2=0.12).Wheeze occurred most frequently in asthma,followed by COPD and heart failure (R2=0.17).Chest tightness was specifically linked to medically unexplained dyspnea and asthma (R2=0.04).Anxiety characterized medically unexplained dyspnea (R2=0.08).Refraining from physical activity appeared more often in heart failure,pulmonary vascular disease,and COPD (R2=0.15).Conclusions Three dimensions with seven qualitative components of dyspnea appeared in cardiopulmonary disease and the components under each dimension allowed separation of different patient groups.These findings may serve as a validation on the multiple dimensions of cardiopulmonary dyspnea.

  10. Value of the mean response time in assessment of the cardiopulmonary functions of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%摄氧量平均反应时间在重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者心肺功能评估中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盼盼; 刘锦铭; 杨文兰; 孙兴国

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者在心肺运动试验(cardiopulmonary exercise test,CPET)检测零负荷热身期中的摄氧量动力学改变特点,研究零负荷热身期间摄氧量平均反应时间(mean response time,MRT)与COPD患者心肺功能及常规肺功能的相关性,探讨MRT值评价重度COPD患者心肺功能的应用价值.方法 对41例重度COPD患者和30名正常健康者进行常规肺功能检测及症状限制性功率逐渐递增方案下的CPET.按照逐次呼吸法对呼吸交换参数进行收集.结果 重度COPD组的MRT值明显长于正常对照组(P<0.01).MRT值与峰值摄氧量(peak VO2)、峰值摄氧量占预计值百分比(peak VOz%pred)、公斤摄氧量、最大运动功率、最大运动功率占预计值百分比、分钟通气量、分钟通气量占预计值百分比、peak O2 pulse及peak VO2 pulse%pred均呈负相关(P值均<0.001);MRT值与用力肺活量(FVC)、第1秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)、第1秒用力呼气容积占预计值百分比、FEV1/FVC、最大通气量、最大通气量占预计值百分比、一氧化碳弥散量及一氧化碳弥散量占预计值百分比均呈负相关(P<0.001);与气道阻力、气道阻力占预计值百分比及GOLD分级呈正相关(P<0.001).结论 热身期中的MRT可应用于重度COPD患者的心肺功能评估,并且与GOLD指南中的COPD分级明显相关,为低强度运动水平下评价心肺功能提供了有效的指标.%Objective To better understand the oxygen uptake kinetics during the 3 minutes of unloaded exercise of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), to investigate the relationship between the mean response time (MRT)for oxygen consumption(VO2)and the exercise capacity, and to evaluate the usage of the MRT as one of the parameters to judge the cardiopulmonary functions of the patients with severe COPD. Methods We evaluated 41 severe patients with COPD and

  11. Coastline complexity: A parameter for functional classification of coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, J.D.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Bennett, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    To understand the role of the world's coastal zone (CZ) in global biogeochemical fluxes (particularly those of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediments) we must generalise from a limited number of observations associated with a few well-studied coastal systems to the global scale. Global generalisation must be based on globally available data and on robust techniques for classification and upscaling. These requirements impose severe constraints on the set of variables that can be used to extract information about local CZ functions such as advective and metabolic fluxes, and differences resulting from changes in biotic communities. Coastal complexity (plan-view tortuosity of the coastline) is a potentially useful parameter, since it interacts strongly with both marine and terrestrial forcing functions to determine coastal energy regimes and water residence times, and since 'open' vs. 'sheltered' categories are important components of most coastal habitat classification schemes. This study employs the World Vector Shoreline (WVS) dataset, originally developed at a scale of 1:250 000. Coastline complexity measures are generated using a modification of the Angle Measurement Technique (AMT), in which the basic measurement is the angle between two lines of specified length drawn from a selected point to the closest points of intersection with the coastline. Repetition of these measurements for different lengths at the same point yields a distribution of angles descriptive of the extent and scale of complexity in the vicinity of that point; repetition of the process at different points on the coast provides a basis for comparing both the extent and the characteristic scale of coastline variation along different reaches of the coast. The coast of northwestern Mexico (Baja California and the Gulf of California) was used as a case study for initial development and testing of the method. The characteristic angle distribution plots generated by the AMT analysis were

  12. The impact of structural and functional parameters in glaucoma patients on patient-reported visual functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hirneiß

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of structural changes of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, and visual field loss, on functional impairment assessed by patient-reported visual functioning in glaucoma. METHODS: Patients with glaucomatous optic nerve damage were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was obtained with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Function was assessed by patient-reported visual functioning using the Rasch-calibrated Glaucoma Activity Limitation 9 (GAL-9 questionnaire and standard automated perimetry. The impact of peripapillary RNFL loss on functional impairment was analyzed with correlation and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 176 eyes from 88 glaucoma patients were included. The SD-OCT assessed temporal-superior and temporal-inferior RNFL sector of the worse eye revealed significant correlation with the GAL-9 scores (r=-0.298, p=0.011 and r=-0.251, p=0.033, respectively. In mutivariate regression analysis, the best predictors for patient-reported visual functioning were visual acuity of the better eye and mean defect of the worse eye (R(2=0.334, while structural parameters could not enhance the prediction of GAL-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported visual functioning of patients with glaucoma is better predicted by visual performance data than structural parameters. However, some structural changes of the worse eye are significantly correlated with patient-reported visual functioning.

  13. Estimation of parameters of K-meson structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of multiparton recombination model with the use of the Kuti-Weisskopf parametrization there have been analyzed the available experimental data on inclusive spectra of the vector and tensor mesons in the reactions K±p → MX (M=ρ, φ, K(890), K(1430) in the kaon fragmentation region at high energies (32-110 GeV/c) with the aim to extract the parameters of the K-meson structure functions. For the suppression factor of the kaon strange sea the value λs=0.18±0.01 is obtained. The kaon longitudinal momentum fraction carried away by nonstrange valence quarks and sea partons respectively are NV>=0.17, SV>=0.30 and S>=0.53. Estimates are obtained for the summary longitudinal momentum fractions carried away by nonstrange sea quark-antiquark pairs NS>=0.23±0.06, strange sea quark-antiquark pairs SS>=0.02±0.01 and gluons G>=0.28±0.09. 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Effect of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Gut Mucosal Barrier Function in Patients Undergoing Cardiac-Valve Replacement%体外循环对瓣膜置换术患者肠黏膜屏障功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 孙莹杰; 张铁铮

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the gut mucosal barrier function during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and the relative mechanisms thereof. Methods: Twenty patients underwent heart valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Blood samples of the jugular vein from 20 CPB patients were drawn following 6 time points, before CPB (T1), 10 min after aortic crossclamp release (T2), immediately at the end of CPB (T3), 2 h after operation(T4), 6 h after operation(T3) and 18 h after operation(T6). The levels of blood intestinal fatty acid binding protein (1-FABP), interleukin(IL)-6, IL-10 and D-lactate were detected. Blood samples were also taken for blood gas analysis and blood glucose detection. Results: Comparing with T, (before CPB), serum concentrations of D-lactate and I-FABP elevated obviously at T2, T3, T4and T5(P < 0.05), and reached its peak value at T5. The serum concentration of I-FABP and D-Lactate were still higher than that at Ti at T6 (P < 0.05). The peak of I-FABP was correlated with peaks of serum glucose and lactate. Conclusion: The gut mucosal barrier function was damaged during CPB, which might be related to the stress response of nervous- endocrine system and immunity system.%目的:探讨围体外循环期瓣膜置换术患者肠黏膜屏障功能的变化及可能机制.方法:选择体外循环(CPB)心脏瓣膜置换术患者20例,按时点采取中心静脉血标本测定血清肠型脂肪酸结合蛋白(I-FABP)、白细胞介素(IL)-6、IL-10及D-乳酸水平,同时行静脉血气分析和血糖监测.结果:与CPB前比较,主动脉开放10 min时,血清D-乳酸和I-FABP值即显著升高;术后2h血浆D-乳酸达峰值,I-FABP维持较高水平;术后6h血浆I-FABP达峰值;术后18h血清D-乳酸和I-FABP值仍高于基础值.术后6h血浆I-FABP峰值与血糖和乳酸峰值呈正相关.结论:围CPB期肠黏膜屏障功能受损.神经-内分泌-免疫系统共同参与的应激反应与肠黏膜屏障功能损伤有关.

  15. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Behrend; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni;

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances in the peri- or postoperative period may contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We therefore examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (d...

  16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre C. Zago; Cristine E. Nunes; Viviane R. da Cunha; Euler Manenti; Luís Carlos Bodanese

    1999-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of...

  17. LUCAS - Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assist System

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Qiuming

    2011-01-01

    Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assist System (LUCAS) is a mechanical device providing automatic 5 cm deep chest compressions and active decompressions back to normal anatomical position with a frequency of 100 per minute, and a duty cycle of 50%, i.e., LUCAS is constructed to give chest compressions according to the latest international guidelines in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of the thesis was to study cardiac arrest using different porcine models of ventricular fi...

  18. Vasopressin decreases neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chi; Zhu, Zhe; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council recently recommended that vasopressin can be used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, instead of epinephrine. However, the guidelines do not discuss the effects of vasopressin during cerebral resuscitation. In this study, we intraperitoneally injected epinephrine and/or vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. The results demonstrated that, compared with epinephrine alone, ...

  19. A Study of Body Compositions and Cardiopulmonary Function of University Students%大学生身体成分和心肺功能的测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佩娜; 吴炜

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a research on the comparison of body composition and cardiopulmonary function between male and female university students.The research involves 582 students aging from 18 to 23 from a university in Zhejiang province. It indicates that male students are distinctively higher than female students in body weight,body mass index,fat free mass,muscle mass,muscle mass ratio,body moisturemass, protein mass,intracellular fluid,extracellular fluid,basic metabolic rate,waist⁃hip ratio,trunk muscle mass, limbs muscle mass ( upper left,upper right,lower left and lower right respectively) and presumption of bone mass,while female students are distinctively higher than male students in fat mass, body fat percentage, edema index,trunk fat mass,limbs fat mass( lower left and lower right respectively) and scores of health as⁃sessment.The index of fat control and muscle control differs distinctively between male and female students. The difference also suggests that male students need, more than female students, to lose fat and build muscles.Last but not least,female students are distinctively lower than male students in functional capacity and maximum oxygen uptake.%文章以浙江省某本科院校582名18~23岁大学生为研究对象,测定了他们的身体成分和心肺功能状况。研究结果显示:男生在体重、身体质量指数、去脂体重、肌肉重量等17项指标上得分高于女生,且男女生存在显著差异。而女生则在脂肪量、体脂率、水肿指数、躯干脂肪量等7项指标上得分高于男生,且男女生存在显著差异。在脂肪控制和肌肉控制方面,男生比女生更需要减脂、增肌,两项指标均存在显著的性别差异。女生功能能力和最大摄氧量均低于男生,且统计检验表明男女生存在显著差异。

  20. Identifiability of altimetry-based rating curve parameters in function of river morphological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; André Garambois, Pierre; Calmant, Stéphane; Paiva, Rodrigo; Walter, Collischonn; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frédérique; Monnier, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Estimating river discharge for ungauged river reaches from satellite measurements is not straightforward given the nonlinearity of flow behavior with respect to measurable and non measurable hydraulic parameters. As a matter of facts, current satellite datasets do not give access to key parameters such as river bed topography and roughness. A unique set of almost one thousand altimetry-based rating curves was built by fit of ENVISAT and Jason-2 water stages with discharges obtained from the MGB-IPH rainfall-runoff model in the Amazon basin. These rated discharges were successfully validated towards simulated discharges (Ens = 0.70) and in-situ discharges (Ens = 0.71) and are not mission-dependent. The rating curve writes Q = a(Z-Z0)b*sqrt(S), with Z the water surface elevation and S its slope gained from satellite altimetry, a and b power law coefficient and exponent and Z0 the river bed elevation such as Q(Z0) = 0. For several river reaches in the Amazon basin where ADCP measurements are available, the Z0 values are fairly well validated with a relative error lower than 10%. The present contribution aims at relating the identifiability and the physical meaning of a, b and Z0given various hydraulic and geomorphologic conditions. Synthetic river bathymetries sampling a wide range of rivers and inflow discharges are used to perform twin experiments. A shallow water model is run for generating synthetic satellite observations, and then rating curve parameters are determined for each river section thanks to a MCMC algorithm. Thanks to twin experiments, it is shown that rating curve formulation with water surface slope, i.e. closer from Manning equation form, improves parameter identifiability. The compensation between parameters is limited, especially for reaches with little water surface variability. Rating curve parameters are analyzed for riffle and pools for small to large rivers, different river slopes and cross section shapes. It is shown that the river bed

  1. Internal pressure and solubility parameter as a function of pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    maximum contrary to solubility parameter. An indirect method was chosen to estimate internal pressure, using thermal expansivities (determined by microcalorimetry) and isothermal compressibilities (determined by density measurements). The uncertainty is within 2% for the expansivity and 0.1% for the...

  2. 有氧运动对维持性血液透析患者生理功能、心肺耐力及生活质量的影响%Effects of aerobic exercise training on physical functioning, cardiopulmonary endurance and health related quality of life in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣欣; 宋桂芸; 宿志梅; 恽小平; 马迎春

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the effect of the 12-week aerobic exercise on physiology function, cardiopulmonary endurance and health related life quality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods Fourteen patients from our hospital were enrolled in this study. We measured peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), metabolic equivalents (METs) and stress test duration while taking treadmill exercise of Bruce Sport program, meanwhile, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. Furthermore, the physical function was evaluated by the results of six-minute walking test (6MWT), cardiopulmonary endurance was measured by VO2peak, METs and stress test duration, and health related quality of life was evaluated by the Health-Related Short Form questionnaire (SF-36) recommended by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/ DOQI) clinical practice. Aerobic exercise was defined as treadmill exercise in inter-dialysis of moderate intensity that reaches 50%~80% VO2peak. The strategy of exercise was 30 minutes each time, three times per week for 12 weeks, which included 15 minutes warming-up before exercises and 5 minutes relaxing after exercises. We then evaluated the parameters after 12 weeks, and explored if there were statistical differences in these parameters before and after aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Results 6MWT slightly enhanced (Z =-1.132, P= 0.241), and VO2peak and stress test duration increased obviously (Z =-2.226, P =0.028 and Z=-2.701, P =0.007, respectively). MRTs was partially improvement but without statistical significance (Z = -1.632, P =0.103). The results of SF-36 improved significantly (Z =-2.701, P=0.007) after the 12-week exercise. Conclusion The 12-week exercise can partially improve physiological function, cardiopulmonary endurance and health related quality of life in M.HD patients.%目的 探讨12周有氧运动对维持性血液透析(maintenance hemodialysis,MHD)患者生理功能、心肺耐力、健康相关生活质量的影响.

  3. NLC Luminosity as a Function of Beam Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Nosochkov, Yu M; Raubenheimer, T O; Seryi, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Realistic calculation of NLC luminosity has been performed using particle tracking in DIMAD and beam-beam simulations in GUINEA-PIG code for various values of beam emittance, energy and beta functions at the Interaction Point (IP). Results of the simulations are compared with analytic luminosity calculations. The optimum range of IP beta functions for high luminosity was identified.

  4. Town planning parameters in the function of building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Protić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building is that consuming the least energy while providing comfort. The energy consumption of buildings, in general, as well as in Serbia, is among other things conditioned by the heating, cooling and lighting requirements with a goal of achieving of thermal and light comfort. Heating energy consumption is the result of heat loss and gain, and their values, in addition to other parameters, depend on town planning parameters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of impact of building different exposures to wind as well as on impact of the different prevailing orientations on energy efficiency of buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 36042: Optimizacija arhitektonskog i urbanističkog planiranja i projektovanja u funkciji održivog razvoja Srbije

  5. Cardiopulmonary effects of intermittent mandatory ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M E; Downs, J B

    1980-01-01

    IMV is a combination of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation. For numerous reasons, IMV is potentially more advantageous than conventional techniques. By maintaining spontaneous breathing, mechanical augmentation can be titrated to adjust alveolar minute ventilation levels to normal, thereby decreasing the incidence of respiratory alkalemia. There are major differences between the cardiopulmonary effects of IMV and conventional mechanical ventilation. Spontaneous inspiration decreases Ppl and results in better distribution of inspired gas, a better V/Q, and less physiological dead space. In addition, transmural filling pressures, venous return, and cardiac output are more normal than during conventional mechanical ventilation. Maintenance of spontaneous ventilation lowers mean Paw and pulmonary vascular resistance. If venous admixture occurs, it can be minimized by titrating PEEP. Thus, more effective therapy for hypoxemia is possible. If spontaneous breathing is to persist and be efective, work-of-breathing must be minimized. This can be accomplished best when a continuous flow of gas provides optimal CPAP to maintain FRC and to minimize the effects of decreased compliance without depressing cardiac function. PMID:7007253

  6. Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guohua

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB. Methods A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all the patients, 33(1.4% developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3% cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3% of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1% of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1% of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1% of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1% of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1% of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8% accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2% underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2% deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%. Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. Conclusions Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients.

  7. Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals: adjusting parameters to binding energies

    CERN Document Server

    Niksic, T; Ring, P

    2008-01-01

    We study a particular class of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals in which only nucleon degrees of freedom are explicitly used in the construction of effective interaction terms. Short-distance (high-momentum) correlations, as well as intermediate and long-range dynamics, are encoded in the medium (nucleon density) dependence of the strength functionals of an effective interaction Lagrangian. Guided by the density dependence of microscopic nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter, a phenomenological ansatz for the density-dependent coupling functionals is accurately determined in self-consistent mean-field calculations of binding energies of a large set of axially deformed nuclei. The relationship between the nuclear matter volume, surface and symmetry energies, and the corresponding predictions for nuclear masses is analyzed in detail. The resulting best-fit parametrization of the nuclear energy density functional is further tested in calculations of properties of spherical and deformed medium-he...

  8. Combinatorics of the three-parameter PASEP partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Josuat-Vergès, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    We consider a partially asymmetric exclusion process (PASEP) on a finite number of sites with open and directed boundary conditions. Its partition function was calculated by Blythe, Evans, Colaiori, and Essler. It is known to be a generating function of permutation tableaux by the combinatorial interpretation of Corteel and Williams. We prove bijectively two new combinatorial interpretations. The first one is in terms of weighted Motzkin paths called Laguerre histories and is obtained by refining a bijection of Foata and Zeilberger. Secondly we show that this partition function is the generating function of permutations with respect to right-to-left minima, right-to-left maxima, ascents, and 31-2 patterns, by refining a bijection of Francon and Viennot. Then we give a new formula for the partition function which generalizes the one of Blythe & al. It is proved in two combinatorial ways. The first proof is an enumeration of lattice paths which are known to be a solution of the Matrix Ansatz of Derrida &...

  9. Graft function and nutritional parameters in stable postrenal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anita; Sharma, R K; Gupta, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a method for the assessment of nutritional status. We studied the effect of graft function on nutritional status in postrenal 45 transplant patients with borderline to good allograft function using BIA. The patients had a mean serum creatinine of 1.42 ± 0.42 mg% and mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 45.1 ± 14.1 mL/min. Based on BIA-derived GFR, the patients were divided into two groups; group 1: borderline graft function GFR nutritional status compared with those in group 2. Based on phase angle, there were significant differences between group A (phase angle 4.0) in extracellular water (P nutritional status, but when compared with healthy individuals as assessed by BIA, there were significant differences in FM, FFM, and body cell mass. In conclusion, BIA was more sensitive to evaluate nutritional depletion than SGA in transplant patients with borderline.

  10. A new four-parameter empirical potential energy function for diatomic molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Rafi; Reem Al-Tuwirqi; Hanaa Farhan; I A Khan

    2007-06-01

    A new empirical four-parameter function is proposed for the construction of potential curves of 15 stable states of diatomic molecules. The parameters are evaluated in terms of experimentally known spectroscopic constants. On comparing its performance with other functions, the proposed function is found to be simple and reliable for a wide range of molecules.

  11. Successful application of acute cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derya ztrk; Erturul Altinbilek; Murat Koyuncu; Bedriye Mge Snmez; ilem altili; Ibrahim Ikzcel; Cemil Kavalci; Glsm Kavalci

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the quality and correct the deficiencies of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedures performed in patients who developed cardiopulmonary cardiopulmonary arrest before or after Emergency Department admission. Methods: This study was conducted on patients who were applied CPR atŞŞişli Etfal Training and Research and Research Hospital, Emergency Department between 01 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the patients' data. The study data were analyzed in SPSS 18.0 software package. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 155 patients who were applied CPR were included in the analysis. Among the study patients, seventy eight (50.3%) were brought to Emergency Department after developing cardiopulmonary arrest while 77 (49.7%) developed cardiopulmonary arrest at Emergency Department. The mean age of the study population was (66 ± 16) years and 64%of the patients were male. The initial rhythms of the CPR-applied patients were different (P 0.05). The CPR response time was longer in ED (P Conclusions: The scientific data obtained in this study suggest that an early response and therapy improves outcomes in CPR procedure.

  12. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Junyu; Luo Manlin; Pan Wanli; Li Na; Peng Wei

    2016-01-01

    The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explic...

  13. "Orpheus" cardiopulmonary bypass simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard W; Pybus, David A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques. PMID:18293807

  14. Graft function and nutritional parameters in stable postrenal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a method for the assessment of nutritional status. We studied the effect of graft function on nutritional status in postrenal 45 transplant patients with borderline to good allograft function using BIA. The patients had a mean serum creatinine of 1.42 ± 0.42 mg% and mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR of 45.1 ± 14.1 mL/min. Based on BIA-derived GFR, the patients were divided into two groups; group 1: borderline graft function GFR 4.0 in extracellular water (P <0.015, intracellular water (P <0.002, plasma fluid (P <0.016, interstitial fluid (P <0.016, and body cell mass (P <0.024. Subjective global assessment (SGA scores showed that transplant patients had normal nutritional status, but when compared with healthy individuals as assessed by BIA, there were significant differences in FM, FFM, and body cell mass. In conclusion, BIA was more sensitive to evaluate nutritional depletion than SGA in transplant patients with borderline.

  15. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  16. Clinical value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing derived oxygen uptake efficiency parameters in patients with end-stage chronic heart failure%终末期慢性心力衰竭患者运动中摄氧通气效率指标的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志南; 黄洁; 孙兴国; 谭晓越; 李子煦; 胡盛寿

    2015-01-01

    cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) derived performance of oxygen uptake and ventilation efficiency parameters,including oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP),oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES),(V)E/(V)CO2 slope and lowest (V)E/(V)CO2,in patients with end-stage chronic heart failure(CHF) and evaluate their clinical value on monitoring cardiac function and hemodynamic status.Methods A total of 26 end-stage CHF patients considered for heart transplantation were enrolled in this study.CPET,echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic examinations with Swan-Ganz flowing balloon catheter were performed.Correlation analysis was made between oxygen uptake and ventilation efficiency parameters from CPET and echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters.Results OUEP and OUES showed good correlation with peak oxygen consumption (peak (V)O2) (r =0.535,P < 0.01 ; r =0.840,P < 0.001).In end-stage CHF patients,the slope of OUEP with respect to peak (V)O2 is about 32,but the slope of OUES with respect to peak (V)O2 is only about 2.The difference was 16 times.The change of OUEP was more sensitive and significant than those of OUES and peak (V)O2 (P < 0.05).OUEP,peak (V)O2 (% pred),(V)E/(V)CO2 slope and lowest (V)E/(V)CO2 were all correlated well with non-invasive hemodynamic parameters peak cardiac output (r=0.535,P<0.01; r=0.652,P<0.001; r=-0.640,P<0.001 ; r=-0.606,P=0.001 respectively) and peak cardiac index (r =0.556,P<0.01;r =0.772,P <0.001; r =-0.641,P < 0.001 ; r =-0.620,P < 0.001 respectively) derived from CPET,but not correlated with invasive hemodynamic parameters cardiac output and cardiac index at rest (P >0.05).Both peak (V)O2 (% pred) and (V)E/(V)CO2 slope were significantly correlated with invasive hemodynamic parameters systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (r =-0.424,P < 0.05 ; r =0.509,P < 0.01) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r=-0.479,P<0.05; r=0.405,P<0.05).Peak (V)O2(%pred)was also significantly correlated with pulmonary capillary

  17. Teamwork and leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Sabina; Johansson, Anna C; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Rock, Laura; Howell, Michael D; Marsch, Stephan

    2011-06-14

    Despite substantial efforts to make cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) algorithms known to healthcare workers, the outcome of CPR has remained poor during the past decades. Resuscitation teams often deviate from algorithms of CPR. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to technical skills of individual rescuers, human factors such as teamwork and leadership affect adherence to algorithms and hence the outcome of CPR. This review describes the state of the science linking team interactions to the performance of CPR. Because logistical barriers make controlled measurement of team interaction in the earliest moments of real-life resuscitations challenging, our review focuses mainly on high-fidelity human simulator studies. This technique allows in-depth investigation of complex human interactions using precise and reproducible methods. It also removes variability in the clinical parameters of resuscitation, thus letting researchers study human factors and team interactions without confounding by clinical variability from resuscitation to resuscitation. Research has shown that a prolonged process of team building and poor leadership behavior are associated with significant shortcomings in CPR. Teamwork and leadership training have been shown to improve subsequent team performance during resuscitation and have recently been included in guidelines for advanced life support courses. We propose that further studies on the effects of team interactions on performance of complex medical emergency interventions such as resuscitation are needed. Future efforts to better understand the influence of team factors (e.g., team member status, team hierarchy, handling of human errors), individual factors (e.g., sex differences, perceived stress), and external factors (e.g., equipment, algorithms, institutional characteristics) on team performance in resuscitation situations are critical to improve CPR performance and medical outcomes of patients.

  18. 体外循环行肺动脉灌注液对术后肺功能的保护%Protection of Postoperative Lung Function by Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pulmonary Artery Perfusion Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇; 康忠奎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) pulmonary perfusion on postoperative lung function. Methods Thirty patients receiving purely artificial mitral valve replacement surgery with CPB between January 2007 and April 2011 were randomly divided into the lung protection group and the control group with 15 patients in each. For patients in the lung protection group, pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic protective solution during the CPB period was performed, while patients in the control group received no protective solution. Then, we monitored respiratory index (RJ), oxygenation index (01), IL-6, and TNF-a after induction of anesthesia, 10 minutes after aortic cross-clamping, and 10 minutes, 2 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after aortic opening, and preoperative and postoperative pulmonary artery pressure (PAPm), static lung compliance (CLS), and airway resistance (AR). Furthermore, we compared the ICU caring time, postoperative ventilation time, hospital stay and the presence of postoperative complications between the two groups. Results IL-6, TNF-a, RJ, OI, PAPm, AR, and CLS between the two group of patients had significant differences (P 0.05). Conclusion Pulmonary arterial perfusion during CPB has a protective effect on postoperative pulmonary function.%目的 探讨体外循环(CPB)期间行肺动脉灌注液对术后肺功能的保护作用.方法 2007年1月-2011年4月30例在CPB下行单纯二尖瓣人工机械瓣置换术患者,随机分成肺保护组和对照组各15例,肺保护组患者CPB期间经肺动脉灌注低温肺保护液,对照组患者CPB期间未经肺动脉灌注低温肺保护液.监测两组患者在麻醉诱导后、阻断主动脉10 mm及开放主动脉10 min,2、12、24 h各时间点的呼吸指数(RI)、氧合指数(OI)、白介素6 (IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)及术前、术后肺动脉压力(PAPm)、静态肺顺应性(CLS)、气道阻力(AR)变化,并比较术后ICU监护时间、术

  19. A Note on the Item Information Function of the Four-Parameter Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on four-parameter logistic (4PL) model as an extension of the usual three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with an upper asymptote possibly different from 1. For a given item with fixed item parameters, Lord derived the value of the latent ability level that maximizes the item information function under the 3PL model. The…

  20. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1, both RR and SBP trended towards preflight

  1. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J S M; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Santos-Júnior, F F U; Carlos, P S; Silva, R C; Lucci, C M; Báo, S N; Ceccatto, V M; Barbosa, R

    2013-08-01

    Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP) and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34), animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13 ± 0.05 V and 52.31 ± 1.95 µs (control group, n=13) to 2.84 ± 0.06 V and 59.71 ± 2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15), respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63 ± 7.49 to 79.14 ± 5.59 m/s) but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function. PMID:23969978

  2. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.M. Alves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34, animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13±0.05 V and 52.31±1.95 µs (control group, n=13 to 2.84±0.06 V and 59.71±2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15, respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63±7.49 to 79.14±5.59 m/s but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function.

  3. A novel rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest without blood priming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weihua; Zhang Yanbo; Liu Donghai; Zhu Yaobin; Qiao Chenhui; Wang Jiaxiang; Xu Yulin

    2014-01-01

    Background Large animal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) models are expensive,and prevent assessment of neurocognitive function,and difficulties with long-term recovery.The purpose of this study was to establish a novel rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest without blood priming.Methods Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 450-560 g were randomized to CPB with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and control groups,with 10 rats each.The experimental protocols,including blood and crystalloid fluid administration,anesthesia,orotracheal intubation,ventilation,cannulation,and heparinization were identical in both groups.After inducing cardiac arrest,the circuit was turned off and rats were left in a DHCA state for 15 minutes.Rats were rewarmed to 34℃ to 35℃ over a period of 36 to 42 minutes using CPB-assisted rewarming,a heating blanket,and a heating lamp along with administration of 0.1 mEq of sodium bicarbonate and 0.14 mEq of calcium chloride.The remaining priming volume was reinfused and animals were weaned from CPB.Results All CPB with DHCA processes were successfully achieved.Blood gas analysis and hemodynamic parameters were in the normal range.The vital signs of all rats were stable.Conclusions Our CPB circuit has several novel features,including a small priming volume,active cooling/rewarming processes,vacuum-assisted venous drainage,peripheral cannulation without thoracotomy or stemotomy,and an accurate means of monitoring peripheral tissue oxygenation.

  4. Is a fully heparin-bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Sarah; Bilal, Haris; Zaman, Mahvash; Tang, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    A best-evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Is a fully heparin bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?’ Altogether more than 792 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of...

  5. One-parameter quasi-filled function algorithm for nonlinear integer programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG You-lin; HAN Bo-shun

    2005-01-01

    A definition of the quasi-filled function for nonlinear integer programming problem is given in this paper. A quasi-filled function satisfying our definition is presented. This function contains only one parameter. The properties of the proposed quasi-filled function and the method using this quasi-filled function to solve nonlinear integer programming problem are also discussed in this paper. Numerical results indicated the efficiency and reliability of the proposed quasi-filled function algorithm.

  6. A One-parameter Filled Function Method for Nonlinear Integer Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a new definition of the filled function for nonlinear integer programming problem. A filled function satisfying our definition is presented. This function contains only one parameter. The properties of the proposed filled function and the method using this filled function to solve nonlinear integer programming problem are also discussed. Numerical results indicate the efficiency and reliability of the proposed filled function algorithm.

  7. Physiological consequences : Cardiopulmonary, vestibular, and sensory aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsch, H.; Albery, W.; Banks, R.D.; Bles, W.

    2000-01-01

    Discussing the physiological consequences of enhanced fighter manoeuvrability (EFM), aspects of cardiopulmonary reactions will be seen during high G manoeuvres, especially the combination of negative G-load followed by high G-onset manoeuvres ("push-pull"). The aircraft's capability to reach high al

  8. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago Alexandre C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of life chain, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation courses for professionals who work in emergency medical services, the automated external defibrillator, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and mobile intensive care units, among others. New concepts, strategies and structures motivated by new advances have also modified the treatment and improved the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital setting. Among them, we can cite the concept of cerebral resuscitation, the application of the life chain, the creation of the universal life support algorithm, the adjustment of drug doses, new techniques - measure of the end-tidal carbon dioxide levels and of the coronary perfusion pressure - and new drugs under research.

  9. Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in polytraumatized patients. a longitudinal, prospective and observational study of the procedure-related impact on cardiopulmonary- and inflammatory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husebye Elisabeth E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early intramedullary nailing (IMN of long bone fractures in severely injured patients has been evaluated as beneficial, but has also been associated with increased inflammation, multi organ failure (MOF and morbidity. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact of primary femoral IMN on coagulation-, fibrinolysis-, inflammatory- and cardiopulmonary responses in polytraumatized patients. Methods Twelve adult polytraumatized patients with femoral shaft fractures were included. Serial blood samples were collected to evaluate coagulation-, fibrinolytic-, and cytokine activation in arterial blood. A flow-directed pulmonary artery (PA catheter was inserted prior to IMN. Cardiopulmonary function parameters were recorded peri- and postoperatively. The clinical course of the patients and complications were monitored and recorded daily. Results Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS was 31 ± 2.6. No procedure-related effect of the primary IMN on coagulation- and fibrinolysis activation was evident. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α increased significantly from 6 hours post procedure to peak levels on the third postoperative day. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 increased from the first to the third postoperative day. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 peaked on the first postoperative day. A procedure-related transient hemodynamic response was observed on indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRI two hours post procedure. 11/12 patients developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, 7/12 pneumonia, 3/12 acute lung injury (ALI, 3/12 adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 3/12 sepsis, 0/12 wound infection. Conclusion In the polytraumatized patients with femoral shaft fractures operated with primary IMN we observed a substantial response related to the initial trauma. We could not demonstrate any major additional IMN-related impact on the inflammatory responses or on the cardiopulmonary function parameters. These results have to be interpreted

  10. Simulation of γ spectrum-shifting based on the parameter adjustment of Gaussian function space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the statistical characteristics of energy spectrum and the features of spectrum-shifting in spectrometry, the parameter adjustment method of Gaussian function space was applied in the simulation of spectrum-shifting. The transient characteristics of energy spectrum were described by the Gaussian function space, and then the Gaussian function space was transferred by parameter adjustment method. Furthermore, the spectrum-shifting in measurement of energy spectrum was simulated. The applied example shows that the parameters can be adjusted flexibly by this method to meet the various requirements in simulation of energy spectrum-shifting. This method was one parameterized simulation method with good performance for the practical application. (authors)

  11. A Comparison of Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Parameters. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnipke, Deborah L.; Roussos, Louis A.; Pashley, Peter J.

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are conducted to investigate how items function in various subgroups. The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) DIF statistic is used at the Law School Admission Council and other testing companies. When item functioning can be well-described in terms of a one- or two-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model…

  12. Morphologic,mechanical and functional sonographic parameters of arteries in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎殳

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the risk factors of cardiovascular disease exist in early stage of ADPKD patients with normal renal function. Methods Morphologic , mechanical and functional sonographic parameters of arteries were examined by high-frequency ultrasonography in 32 hypertensive and 28 normotensive ADPKD patients with preserved renal function, 25 patients with es-

  13. Analysis and prediction of the alpha-function parameters used in cubic equations of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Privata, Romain; Viscontea, Maxime; Zazoua-Khames, Anis;

    2015-01-01

    evidenced and fixed. A new class of purely predictive alpha functions was derived by applying group-contribution (GC) methods to the prediction of alpha function parameters. The interest of such an approach is discussed and compared to another predictive approach (use of generalized alpha functions coupled...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging derived left ventricular global and region function parameters in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆莉莎

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish cardiac magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)derived left ventricular(LV)global and region function parameters in normal adults.Methods Twenty normal adults were examined with fast imaging employing steady-state(Fiesta)acquisition sequence of cardiac MRI,LV global function and LV region function were measured at basal,middle,apical level and at 16

  15. Parameter selection of support vector machine for function approximation based on chaos optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a novel machine learning method,which has the ability to approximate nonlinear functions with arbitrary accuracy.Setting parameters well is very crucial for SVM learning results and generalization ability,and now there is no systematic,general method for parameter selection.In this article,the SVM parameter selection for function approximation is regarded as a compound optimization problem and a mutative scale chaos optimization algorithm is employed to search for optimal parameter values.The chaos optimization algorithm is an effective way for global optimal and the mutative scale chaos algorithm could improve the search efficiency and accuracy.Several simulation examples show the sensitivity of the SVM parameters and demonstrate the superiority of this proposed method for nonlinear function approximation.

  16. History of the evolution of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karlis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references on CPR go back to the era of Ancient Egypt (3100 B.C.. Although the technique for mouth to mouth ventilation was known in ancient times, its efficacy was demonstrated just in 1958. The ease and efficacy of chest compressions were demonstrated in 1960. Electrical defibrillation may have begun in 1775, but it was applied to a victim of cardiac arrest in the 1950s. Conclusion: CPR is currently a rapidly evolving field of medical science. According to latest data, there is evidence that high quality chest compressions, prompt defibrillation if applicable and treatment of reversible causes improve Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references

  17. The Direction Function of Materialistic Dialectics for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Prehospital Emergency%唯物辩证法在院前心肺复苏实践中的指导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑进

    2011-01-01

    According to the viewpoint of materialistic dialectics , this paper analyzed some contradictory problem of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pre-hospital emergency, and proposed some ideas to resolve this problem too. It benefits for professional and nonprofessional rescuer in pre-hospital emergency care.%在院前心肺复苏实践中,我们会遇到很多矛盾的问题.本文从唯物辩证法的角度出发,分析了院前心肺复苏中一些比较棘手的问题,并为解决这些问题提出建议,对从事院前急救的医学专业人士以及非医学专业人士均具有一定的启发意义.

  18. CLINICAL ADVANTAGES OF TOTAL CAVOPULMONARY ANASTOMOSIS WITHOUT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-min Chu; Qing-yu Wu; Jian-ping Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate surgical methods and results of extracardiac conduit total cavopulmonary anastomosis (ECTCPA) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods From May 2000 to April 2003, 11 patients with functional univentricle underwent off-pump EC-TCPA (noCPB group). Their postoperative outcome was retrospectively compared with a 17-patient group who underwent EC-TCPA with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB group) over a concurrent time period.Results There was 1 operative death in no-CPB group and 2 in CPB group; early postoperative hemodynamics appeared to significantly improve in no-CPB group. Blood and platelet transfusions decreased and blood plasma transfusion significantly lowered in no-CPB group compared with CPB group (P = 0.036). Postoperative courses of patients in no-CPB group were smooth and event free, and extubation time was substantially short. Intensive cares unit stay (P=0.04) and hospital stay (P= 0.02) postoperation were significantly shorter, hospital costs were significantly reduced (P= 0.004) in no-CPB group compared with CPB group.Conclusions EC-TCPA without use of CPB is not a difficult procedure; the procedure results in improvement in postoperative hemodynamics, and decreased use of blood and blood products. It is a more efficient operation with more short recovery time and reduced hospital stay.

  19. Cardiopulmonary Circuit Models for Predicting Injury to the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Wing, Sarah; Bassingthwaighte, James; Neal, Maxwell

    2004-11-01

    Circuit models have been used extensively in physiology to describe cardiopulmonary function. Such models are being used in the DARPA Virtual Soldier (VS) Project* to predict the response to injury or physiological stress. The most complex model consists of systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a four-chamber heart sub-model. This model also includes baroreceptor feedback, airway mechanics, gas exchange, and pleural pressure influence on the circulation. As part of the VS Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been evaluating various cardiopulmonary circuit models for predicting the effects of injury to the heart. We describe, from a physicist's perspective, the concept of building circuit models, discuss both unstressed and stressed models, and show how the stressed models are used to predict effects of specific wounds. *This work was supported by a grant from the DARPA, executed by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command/TATRC Cooperative Agreement, Contract # W81XWH-04-2-0012. The submitted manuscript has been authored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed for the U.S. DOE by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purpose.

  20. Quasi-Newton methods for parameter estimation in functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dennis W.

    1988-01-01

    A state-space approach to parameter estimation in linear functional differential equations is developed using the theory of linear evolution equations. A locally convergent quasi-Newton type algorithm is applied to distributed systems with particular emphasis on parameters that induce unbounded perturbations of the state. The algorithm is computationally implemented on several functional differential equations, including coefficient and delay estimation in linear delay-differential equations.

  1. Structure-Function Parameters in the Convective Boundary Layer from Large-Eddy Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, L. J.; Wyngaard, J. C.

    1995-11-01

    The conventional theory of the scattering of transmitted acoustic, microwave, and optical radiation by turbulence uses the refractive index structure-function parameter CN2. The authors calculate the vertical profiles of the structure function parameters on which CN2 depends, those for temperature and humility, CT2 and CQ2, and their joint structure-function parameter, CTQ, from large-eddy simulation (LES) data for convective boundary layers. The results agree well with experimental measurements.Modern views of wave propagation through turbulence with substantial intermittency, such as that found in the high Reynolds number flows in geophysics, suggest that the structure-function parameter be interpreted as a local flow variable rather than the traditional ensemble average. Through the refined Kolmogorov-Obukhov similarity hypotheses, a set of local structure-function parameters is defined that depends on locally averaged values of the molecular destruction rates of velocity and scalar variances. Through analysis of the locally averaged variance budgets, the coupling between the resolvable-scale fields in LFS and these local destruction rates are outlined, with the focus on scalars. Using data from direct numerical simulation, we test two models of the locally averaged destruction rate of scalar variance. Each emulates its approximately lognormal statistics and can be used with LES codes, enabling predictions of local structure-function parameter fields.

  2. Emergent cardiopulmonary bypass during pectus excavatum repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Craner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum is a chest wall deformity that produces significant cardiopulmonary disability and is typically seen in younger patients. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum or Nuss procedure has become a widely accepted technique for adult and pediatric patients. Although it is carried out through a thoracoscopic approach, the procedure is associated with a number of potential intraoperative and post-operative complications. We present a case of cardiac perforation requiring emergent cardiopulmonary bypass in a 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome and previous mitral valve repair undergoing a Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. This case illustrates the importance of vigilance and preparation by the surgeons, anesthesia providers as well as the institution to be prepared with resources to handle the possible complications. This includes available cardiac surgical backup, perfusionist support and adequate blood product availability.

  3. Stimulation of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex enhances ventricular contractility in awake dogs: a mathematical analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Moslehpour, Mohsen; Hammond, Robert L; Ichinose, Masashi; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Evan, Sell; O'Leary, Donal S; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2014-08-15

    The cardiopulmonary baroreflex responds to an increase in central venous pressure (CVP) by decreasing total peripheral resistance and increasing heart rate (HR) in dogs. However, the direction of ventricular contractility change is not well understood. The aim was to elucidate the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility during normal physiological conditions via a mathematical analysis. Spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations in maximal ventricular elastance (Emax), which is perhaps the best available index of ventricular contractility, CVP, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and HR were measured from awake dogs at rest before and after β-adrenergic receptor blockade. An autoregressive exogenous input model was employed to jointly identify the three causal transfer functions relating beat-to-beat fluctuations in CVP to Emax (CVP → Emax), which characterizes the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility, ABP to Emax, which characterizes the arterial baroreflex control of ventricular contractility, and HR to Emax, which characterizes the force-frequency relation. The CVP → Emax transfer function showed a static gain of 0.037 ± 0.010 ml(-1) (different from zero; P < 0.05) and an overall time constant of 3.2 ± 1.2 s. Hence, Emax would increase and reach steady state in ∼16 s in response to a step increase in CVP, without any change to ABP or HR, due to the cardiopulmonary baroreflex. Following β-adrenergic receptor blockade, the CVP → Emax transfer function showed a static gain of 0.0007 ± 0.0113 ml(-1) (different from control; P < 0.10). Hence, Emax would change little in steady state in response to a step increase in CVP. Stimulation of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex increases ventricular contractility through β-adrenergic receptor system mediation.

  4. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be...

  5. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    M Adib Hajbaghery; H. Akbari; GA. Mousavi

    2005-01-01

    Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and unt...

  6. The Experiment and Comparative Study of Dragon Dance and Lion Dance Sports to College Students' Cardiopulmonary Function Impact%舞龙与舞狮运动项目对大学生心肺等功能影响的实验、对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康杰; 喻庆; 龙伟; 杨鹏; 叶小宁

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the dragon dance and lion dance movement and the influence on college students' cardiopulmonary function such as the difference between the two projects, this paper, taking shaanxi normal university dragon-lion dance of dragon dance team (5 people) and the lion dance routine practice (northern lion) as experiment object to heart rate, blood pressure and vital capacity index to determine index weight. The results show that the dragon dance, lion dance movement all belong to medium and large strength movement; But two exercise intensity have different characteristics, dragon dance sports emphasize cardiorespiratory endurance, and the lion dance puts forward higher requirements on power;After two months of training university students' cardiopulmonary function and training than before received the varying degree enhancement.%为了了解舞龙与舞狮运动对大学生心肺等功能的影响以及两个项目之间的差别,本文以陕西师范大学龙狮队队员进行舞龙(五人)和舞狮(北狮)规定套路练习为测试对象进行心率、血压、肺活量体重指数等多项指标进行测定。结果表明:舞龙、舞狮运动均属于中、大强度运动;但是两种运动强度特点也有所不同,舞龙运动强调心肺的耐力、而舞狮则对爆发力提出了更高的要求;经过两个月的训练大学生的心肺功能与训练前相比都得到了不同程度的增强。

  7. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib Hajbaghery

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and until defibrillation, duration and result of CPR, frequency of tracheal intubations and time served for it were collected in a checklist. Results: In six months study, 206 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempted. The survival rate was similar for both sexes. Short-term survival observed in19.9% of cases and only 5.3% survived to discharge. Conclusions: Duration of CPR, time of the first defibrillation, response time and the location of cardiac arrest are the key predictors of survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital CPR strategies require improvement. This study promotes a national study on post CPR survival for accurate data on our performance in attention to chain of survival. KeyWords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, Survival rate, Iran

  8. Reproducibility of physiologic parameters obtained using functional computed tomography in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Stantz, Keith M.; Steinmetz, Rosemary; Hutchins, Gary D.; Liang, Yun

    2004-04-01

    High-speed X-ray computed tomography (CT) has the potential to observe the transport of iodinated radio-opaque contrast agent (CA) through tissue enabling the quantification of tissue physiology in organs and tumors. The concentration of Iodine in the tissue and in the left ventricle is extracted as a function of time and is fit to a compartmental model for physiologic parameter estimation. The reproducibility of the physiologic parameters depend on the (1) The image-sampling rate. According to our simulations 5-second sampling is required for CA injection rates of 1.0ml/min (2) the compartmental model should reflect the real tissue function to give meaning results. In order to verify these limits a functional CT study was carried out in a group of 3 mice. Dynamic CT scans were performed on all the mice with 0.5ml/min, 1ml/min and 2ml/min CA injection rates. The physiologic parameters were extracted using 4 parameter and 6 parameter two compartmental models (2CM). Single factor ANOVA did not indicate a significant difference in the perfusion, in the kidneys for the different injection rates. The physiologic parameter obtained using the 6-parameter 2CM model was in line with literature values and the 6-parameter significantly improves chi-square goodness of fits for two cases.

  9. Synthetically quantitative evaluation function of characteristic parameters on CO2 arc welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The statistical probability and their variation regularity of the measurable characteristic parameters in the CO2 arc welding droplet short-circuiting transfer process have been studied. The statistical analysis shows that the sensitivity of each characteristic parameter with regard to the variation of the short-circuiting transfer process is different. The sensitivity of 4 kinds among these characteristic parameters is more intense than that of the short-circuiting transfer frequency. In order to take account of the synthetic influence of these characteristic parameters, by means of the characteristic parameters synthetic value, a quantitative evaluation function is built up to describe and evaluate the short-circuiting transfer process of CO2 arc welding in real time. The testing shows that the evaluation function can give a suitable synthetic valuation for the short-circuiting transfer process with a variety of welding variables.

  10. Reference Values and Gender Differences of the Functional Parameters in Romanian Elite Junior Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian NAGEL; Claudiu AVRAM

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the reference values and gender differences regarding fitness, strength, and time reaction of the Romanian elite junior tennis players. Material and Methods: Thirty four junior tennis players (19 male, 15 female) with a mean age of 15 years were selected from the database of the Cardiopulmonary Effort Testing and Physical Performance Laboratory from Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, West University of Timisoara. To be included in the study, a tennis player had to ...

  11. Kernel Function and Parameters Optimization in KICA for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kernel independent component analysis (KICA is a blind signal separation method which has a good effect for the treatment of non-linear signal. For introducing kernel techniques, the choices of kernel function and its kernel parameter have a great influence on the analytic results. A kernel function and its parameters optimization method is proposed on the basis of the similarity of source fault signals and kernel independent component. The similarity parameter is proposed to verify the merits or defects of KICA by using different kernel function and parameters. The simulation studies are processed, and the simulation conclusion is verified by the actual diagnostic case. These provide guidance for the application of the KICA method in the mechanical fault diagnosis.

  12. Obtaining the Varshni potential function using the 2-body Kaxiras–Pandey parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIK-CHENG LIM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A generalized version of the Varshni potential function was adopted by Kaxiras and Pandey for describing the 2-body energy portion of multi-body condensed matter. The former’s simplicity and resemblance to a Morse potential allows faster computation while the latter’s greater number of parameters allows better curve-fitting of spectroscopic data. This paper shows one set of parameter conversion from the Varshni function to the 2-body portion of the Kaxiras–Pandey function, and vice versa two sets of parameter conversion. The latter two sets reveal good correlation between plotted curves, and were verified by the imposition of equal energy curvatures at equilibrium and equal energy integral from equilibrium to dissociation. These parameter conversions can also be attained more easily by equating the product of indices (for short range and the summation of index reciprocals (for long range.

  13. Design of Safety Parameter Monitoring Function in a Research Reactor Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of the safety parameter monitoring system (SPDS) is to help operating personnel in the control room make quick assessments of the plant safety status. Thus, the basic function of the SPDS is a provision of a continuous indication of plant parameters or derived variables representative of the safety status of the plant. NUREG-0737 Supplement 1 provides details of the functional criteria for the SPDS, as one of the action plan requirements from TMI accident. The system provides various functions as follows: · Alerting based on safety function decision logics, · Success path analysis to achieve the integrity of the safety functions, · 3 layer display architecture - safety function, success path display for each safety function, system summary and equipment details for each safety function, · Integration with computer-based procedure. According to a Notice of the NSSC No. 2012-31, a research reactor facility generating more than 2 MW of power should also be furnished with the SPDS for emergency preparedness. Generally, a research reactor is a small size facility, and its number of instrumentations is fewer than that of NPPs. In particular, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions from an economic perspective. Therefore, a safety parameter display system optimized for a research reactor facility must be proposed. This paper provides the requirement analysis results and proposes the design of safety parameter monitoring function for a research reactor. The safety parameter monitoring function supporting control room personnel during emergency conditions should be designed in a research reactor facility. The facility size and number of signals are smaller than that of the power plants. Also, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions of nuclear power plants from an economic perspective. Thus, a safety parameter display system optimized to a research reactor must be proposed. First, we found important design items

  14. The Item Parameter Replication Method for Detecting Differential Functioning in the Polytomous DFIT Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Nambury S.; Fortmann-Johnson, Kristen A.; Kim, Wonsuk; Morris, Scott B.; Nering, Michael L.; Oshima, T. C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent study of Oshima, Raju, and Nanda proposes the item parameter replication (IPR) method for assessing statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index within the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) framework. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have found that the appropriate cutoff…

  15. Physiological basis of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in patients with lung or heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafeiris Louvaris

    2015-06-01

    Shortness of breath associated with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and peripheral muscle discomfort are the major factors that limit exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and those with congestive heart failure (CHF. Both of these symptoms negatively impact on patients’ daily physical activity levels. In turn, poor daily physical activity is commonly associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes partially reverse muscle weakness and dysfunction and increase functional capacity in both COPD and CHF. However, benefits gained from participation in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes are regressing soon after the completion of these programmes. Moreover, several barriers limit access and uptake of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes by eligible patients. A potential solution to the underutilisation of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation is the implementation of tele-rehabilitation interventions at home using information and communications technologies. Thus, tele-rehabilitation may be useful to encourage and educate patients with COPD or CHF on how best to maintain and/or further enhance daily physical activity levels.

  16. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explicit formulation of the model can be deduced. The proposed technique takes suitable method of selecting sample points, which are used to calculate the values of the model parameters. By comparing with the Quasi-Newton method, the results verify accuracy and reliability of this method.

  17. Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/acepromazine combination in hypovolemic cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, W; Allen, D G; Dyson, D H; Black, W D; Goldberg, M T; Valliant, A E

    1988-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/ acepromazine combination was studied in ten cats subjected to a 25% whole blood volume loss. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured via thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated from these data. Posthemorrhage, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, heart rate and...

  18. Witnessed arrest, but not delayed bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves prehospital cardiac arrest survivial

    OpenAIRE

    Vukmir, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: This prospective, randomised, double blinded clinical intervention trial enrolled 874 prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients encountered in a prehospital urban, suburban, and rural regional emergency medical service (EMS) area. This group underwent conventional advanced cardiac life support intervention followed by empiric early administration of sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/l), monitoring conventional resuscitation parameters. Survival was measured as presence of vital signs on em...

  19. Estimation of the reliability function for two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh or Burr type X distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Pathak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Problem Statement: The two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution has been widely used especially in the modelling of life time event data. It provides a statistical model which has a wide variety of application in many areas and the main advantage is its ability in the context of life time event among other distributions. The uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimation methods are the way to estimate the parameters of the distribution. In this study we explore and compare the performance of the uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators of the reliability function R(t=P(X>t and P=P(X>Y for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution. Approach: A new technique of obtaining these parametric functions is introduced in which major role is played by the powers of the parameter(s and the functional forms of the parametric functions to be estimated are not needed.  We explore the performance of these estimators numerically under varying conditions. Through the simulation study a comparison are made on the performance of these estimators with respect to the Biasness, Mean Square Error (MSE, 95% confidence length and corresponding coverage percentage. Conclusion: Based on the results of simulation study the UMVUES of R(t and ‘P’ for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution found to be superior than MLES of R(t and ‘P’.

  20. Two-parameters quasi-filled function algorithm for nonlinear integer programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xiang; SHANG You-lin; ZHANG Lian-sheng

    2006-01-01

    A quasi-filled function for nonlinear integer programming problem is given in this paper. This function contains two parameters which are easily to be chosen. Theoretical properties of the proposed quasi-filled function are investigated. Moreover,we also propose a new solution algorithm using this quasi-filled function to solve nonlinear integer programming problem in this paper. The examples with 2 to 6 variables are tested and computational results indicated the efficiency and reliability of the proposed quasi-filled function algorithm.

  1. Intelligent, Robust Control of Deteriorated Turbofan Engines via Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.

  2. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Manjón, G., E-mail: manjon@us.es [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ({sup 152}Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis.

  3. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter (152Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis

  4. Design Considerations of Structural Parameters in Resonant Tunneling Diode by None-Equilibrium Green Function Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. Charmi; M.H. Yousefi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of structural parameters like Quantum well width, barrier width, spacer width, contact width and contact doping, on performance of Resonant Tunneling Diode using full quantum simulation. The simulation is based on a self-consistent solution of the Poisson equation and Schrodinger equation with open boundary conditions, within the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. The effects of varying the structural parameters is investigated in terms of the output c...

  5. Conventional hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass increases the serum lactate level in adult cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass on lactate level in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Design: An observational study. Setting: Prince Sultan cardiac center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: The study included 283 patients classified into two groups: Hemofiltration group (n=138, hemofiltration was done during CPB. Control group (n = 145, patients without hemofiltration. Interventions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements and Main Results: Monitors included hematocrit, lactate levels, mixed venous oxygen saturation, amount of fluid removal during hemofiltration and urine output. The lactate elevated in group H than group C (P < 0.05, and the PH showed metabolic acidosis in group H (P < 0.05. The mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The hematocrit was higher in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The urine output was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to hemoconcentration, elevated lactate level and increased inotropic support. There are some recommendations for hemofiltration: First; Hemofiltration should be limited for patients with impaired renal function, positive fluid balance, reduced response to diuretics or prolonged bypass time more than 2 hours. Second; Minimal amount of fluids should be administered to maintain adequate cardiac output and reduction of priming volumes is preferable to maintain controlled hemodilution. Third; it should be done before weaning of or after cardiopulmonary bypass and not during the whole time of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  6. Mathematical model for studying the variation of the electrical parameters in functioning of nonlinear loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Raluca; Rat, Cezara

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a study concerning the variation of the most important electrical parameters, measured during the functioning of an electrothermal installation with electromagnetic induction. Two measuring methods are described: the first method consists in using a power and energy quality analyzer and the second uses a data acquisition system that contains an adapting interface and a data acquisition board connected to a computer. In order to compute the electrical parameters, a LabVIEW application was designed. The data acquisition system is able to measure in real time the variation of the parameters and also to save the obtained information.

  7. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 ≤ z ≤ 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat ΛCDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of ∼ 20% and the cold dark matter with ∼ 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on Ωbaryon, Ω cdm, ns, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with ∼ 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

  8. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Fisica Teorica; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L.A.N. da; Gaia, M.A.G.; Ramos, B.; Ogando, R.; Makler, M. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 {<=} z {<=} 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat {Lambda}CDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of {approx} 20% and the cold dark matter with {approx} 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on {Omega}{sub baryon}, {Omega} c{sub dm}, n{sub s}, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with {approx} 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4420 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  11. A Three-Parameter S-Shaped Function of Flood Return Period and Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Chaochao Li; Xiaotao Cheng; Na Li; Zhongmin Liang; Yanyan Wang; Song Han

    2016-01-01

    With growing flood risk due to increased urbanization, flood damage assessment and flood risk management must be reconsidered. To demonstrate and assess the new features and trends of flood risk in urbanized areas, a novel S-shaped function of return period and damage (R-D) is proposed. The function contains three parameters, which are defined as the maximum flood damage A, critical return period Rc, and integrated loss coefficient k. A basic framework for flood damage assessment was establis...

  12. Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Ommerborn, Michelle; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Michael Fuck, Lars; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Hans-Michael Raab, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the results of a preceding retrospective pilot study by means of a prospective controlled investigation including a larger sample size. Therefore, the aim of this clinical investigation was to analyze the relationship between sleep bruxism and several functional and occlusal parameters. The null hypothesis of this study was that there would be no differences among sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism controls regarding several functional and occlusal...

  13. Effect of intercostal stretch on pulmonary function parameters among healthy males

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Ku Badlisyah Ku; Das, Srijit; Jagannathan, Madhana Gopal; Kamaruddin, Kamaria; Leonard, Joseph H; Mohan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    The use of manual stretching procedures has become more prevalent in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy to improve pulmonary functions. However, limited evidence exists regarding evaluation of their effectiveness. The study aimed to determine the impact of Intercostal (IC) stretch in improving the dynamic pulmonary function parameters (Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC % and respiratory rate among healthy adults. Thirty healthy male sub...

  14. MODAL PARAMETERS EXTRACTION WITH CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTION AND CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM UNDER UNKNOWN EXCITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In most of real operational conditions only response data are measurable while the actual excitations are unknown, so modal parameter must be extracted only from responses. This paper gives a theoretical formulation for the cross-correlation functions and cross-power spectra between the outputs under the assumption of white-noise excitation. It widens the field of modal analysis under ambient excitation because many classical methods by impulse response functions or frequency response functions can be used easily for modal analysis under unknown excitation. The Polyreference Complex Exponential method and Eigensystem Realization Algorithm using cross-correlation functions in time domain and Orthogonal Polynomial method using cross-power spectra in frequency domain are applied to a steel frame to extract modal parameters under operational conditions. The modal properties of the steel frame from these three methods are compared with those from frequency response functions analysis. The results show that the modal analysis method using cross-correlation functions or cross-power spectra presented in this paper can extract modal parameters efficiently under unknown excitation.

  15. Red Kidney: Kidney Transplant From a Deceased Donor Who Received Massive Blood Transfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard; Hanif, Faisal; Prasad, Padmini; Ahmad, Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Here, we present a case of a deceased-donor kidney transplant. The brain-dead donor had received a massive blood transfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, which lead to hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, acute kidney injury, and renal replacement therapy. The kidney appeared red after in situ flush. Postoperatively, the recipient developed delayed graft function. Protocol biopsy during the postoperative period revealed the widespread deposition of heme pigment in the renal tubules. Massive blood transfusion and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery are associated with hemolysis and heme pigment deposition in the renal tubules, which subsequently lead to acute kidney injury. Kidneys from such donors appear red and, while this does not preclude transplant, are likely to develop delayed graft function. PMID:26030717

  16. One-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithm for one-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter is proposed in this paper. A piecewise linear chaotic map with changeable-parameter P is chosen, and cipher block chaining mode (CBC) is introduced to ensure that the parameter P in each iteration is dynamically decided by the last-time iteration value and the corresponding message bit in different positions. The final Hash value is obtained by means of the linear transform on the iteration sequence. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that our algorithm can satisfy all the performance requirements of Hash function in an efficient and flexible manner. It is practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for E-commerce

  17. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  18. Evaluation of optimal goal of glucose control and the effect on ventricular function in patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass%体外循环心脏手术围手术期血糖控制目标及其对心功能影响的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 穆心苇; 章淬; 施乾坤

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究不同血糖控制目标对体外循环心脏手术患者围手术期心功能的影响,探讨心脏手术围手术期合理的血糖目标.方法 选择体外循环心脏手术患者584例,随机分为三组:从手术开始直至术后24 h目标血糖控制于4.4~6.1 mmol/L(即80~110 mg/dl,A组)、7.2~8.3 mmol/L(即130~150 mg/dl,B组)和血糖控制于10.0~11.1 mmol/L的对照组(即180~200 mg/dl,RT组),记录各组患者血糖控制情况,观察对比各组血流动力学指标以及围手术期左心室收缩功能、新发心律失常以及低血糖发生情况.结果 围手术期A组、B组相对于RT组血流动力学更加平稳(P<0.001),左心室收缩功能优于RT组(P<0.001),A组低血糖发生明显高于B组及RT组(P<0.05).结论 心脏手术围手术期强化胰岛素治疗将血糖控制在4.4~6.1 mmol/L、7.2~8.3 mmol/L均有利于术后心脏收缩功能的恢复,但将血控制于≤8.3 mmol/L较≤6.1 mmol/L更加安全.%Objective To investigate the influence on ventricular function of different levels of glucose control in patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, therefore to assess the optimal glucose control goal. Methods A total of 584 patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly divided into three groups according to the target glucose control levels from surgery beginning to postoperative 24 hours:Group A,blood glucose maintained between 4. 4-6. 1 mmol/L( 80-110 mg/dl ), Group B,7. 2-8. 3 mmol/L (130-150 mg/dl ) and routine treatment group, 10.0-11.1 mmol/L ( 180-200 mg/dl). The blood glucose, haemodynamics indexes, perioperative left ventricle systolic function, new arrhythmia and hypoglycemia were observed. Results Group A and Group B hold a more stable haemodynamics compared with routine treatment group ( P<0.001 ),and perioperative left ventricle systolic function of Group A and Group B were better than that of routine treatment group( P <0. 001 ),no

  19. Effect of preoperative exercise training on cardiopulmonary function in perioperative period of lung cancer patients with COPD%术前运动训练对肺癌合并 COPD 患者围术期心肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺斌; 李新; 张鹏; 曹玎

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨术前心肺运动训练对肺癌合并慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者围术期心肺功能及术后并发症的影响。方法选取98例拟行肺癌切除术且合并COPD的肺癌患者,随机分为观察组和对照组各49例,两组术前均给予改善肺功能治疗,观察组同时行心肺运动训练2周。比较两组术前1天静态肺功能[用力肺活量(FVC)、1秒用力呼气容积、最大自主通气量(MVV)、一氧化碳弥散总量(DLCO)及术后预计FEV1]运动心肺功能[最大摄氧量(VO2max)、公斤摄氧量(VO2/kg)、无氧阈(AT)、氧脉搏(O2 pulse)、最大心率、最大分钟通气量(VEmax)及呼吸困难指数]的变化。比较两组术后并发症、氧疗时间、机械通气时间和住院时间。结果观察组FVC、MVV、DL CO、VO2 max、VO2/kg、AT、O2 pulse、VEmax较对照组均有不同程度的改善(P均<0.05);两组术后总体心肺并发症及单个并发症的发生率、术后氧疗时间、机械通气时间及住院天数比较差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。结论术前心肺运动训练能明显改善肺癌合并 COPD患者的心肺功能,减少术后并发症、缩短住院时间,利于患者早日康复。%Objective To investigate the effect of preoperatively cardiopulmonary exercise training on the cardiopul -monary function and postoperative complications in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) .Methods Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with COPD who would receive lung cancer resection were randomly divided into two groups:the observation group and the control group , 49 cases in each group .Both groups were treated to improve the lung function before surgery , and the observation group was treated with cardiopulmonary exercise training for two weeks .The indicators of static lung function and dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise were compared between the two groups the day

  20. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stickland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference. In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.

  1. Conflicting Physiological and Genomic Cardiopulmonary Effects of Recruitment Maneuvers in Murine Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Voiriot, Guillaume; Zhou, Tong; Marcos, Elisabeth; Dudek, Steven M.; Jacobson, Jeff R.; Machado, Roberto,; Adnot, Serge; Brochard, Laurent; Maitre, Bernard; Joe G N Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Low tidal volume ventilation, although promoting atelectasis, is a protective strategy against ventilator-induced lung injury. Deep inflation (DI) recruitment maneuvers restore lung volumes, but potentially compromise lung parenchymal and vascular function via repetitive overdistention. Our objective was to examine cardiopulmonary physiological and transcriptional consequences of recruitment maneuvers. C57/BL6 mice challenged with either PBS or LPS via aspiration were placed on mechanical ven...

  2. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Mitsutomo; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our technique of using median sternotomy to perform double lung transplantations with cardiopulmonary bypass. By sparing the respiratory muscles, median sternotomy is probably less invasive and preserves lung function. Furthermore, it causes less long-term discomfort than intercostal...... thoracotomy. Although exposure of the pleural space is less optimal, abundant pleural adhesions can be dissected, particularly in the left posterior pleural cavity, using pericardial traction stitches, exposing the retrocardiac pleura with minimal manipulation of the heart....

  3. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran; Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to ...

  4. Circadian affective, cardiopulmonary, and cortisol variability in depressed and nondepressed individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Spiegel, David; Taylor, C. Barr

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or vagal dysregulation. We investigated circadian mood variation and HPA-axis and autonomic function in older (≥55 years) depressed and nondepressed volunteers at risk for CVD by assessing diurnal positive and negative affect (PA, NA), cortisol, and cardiopulmonary variables in 46 moderately depressed and 19 nondepressed volunteers with elevated CVD risk. Participants sat...

  5. Analysis of Left Ventricular Functional Parameters in Normal Korean Subjects by ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for refinement in noninvasive and quantitative assessment of left ventricular (LU) function is increasing. To assess normal values of left ventricular functional parameters during both systole and diastole by scintigraphic method using computerized triple-head gamma camera and to evaluate correlations between these parameters. ECG gated blood pool scan with 99mTc-Human serum albumin was performed in 94 normal Korean subjects. Ejection fraction (EF), systolic parameters [peak emptying rate (PER), average emptying rate (AER), time to peak emptying rate (TPER)], and diastolic parameters [peak filling rate (PFR), average filling rate (AFR), time to peak filling rate (TPFR)] were obtained by analysis of LV time-activity curve, the correlation of these parameters to the age and sex, and the correlation between these parameters were evaluated. 1) Mean value of ejection fraction in study subjects was 59.6 ± 5.25% and showed no significant correlation to age (r=0.08) and sex but showed most pronounced correlation to PFR (r=0.46, p<0.001), PER (r=0.41, p<0.001), AFR (r=0.34, p<0.001) and AER (r=0.28, p<0.01). 2) Mean values of systolic parameters were as follows: PER=3.22 + 0.50 end-diastolic volume/sec, AER =2.22 + 0.45 end-diastolic volume/sec, TPER=103.5 + 29.30 msec. They showed no significant correlation to age and sex. 3) Mean values of diastolic parameters were as follows: PFR=2.71+0.51 end-diastolic volume/sec, AFR=1.830.44 end-diastolic volume/sec, TPFR=132.1 + 33.45 msec. They showed strong correlation to age (r=-0/70, -0.64, 0.37, p<0.001). Left ventricular functional parameters in normal Korean subjects were obtained reliably by computerized scintigraphic method and may be applied to the evaluation of cardiac function in diseased patients.

  6. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  7. Extended SOA to Enable Web Service Discovery on Non Functional Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandan Tiwari Dr. Nirmal Dagdee Dr. Aruna Tiwari Divesh Dixit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current Service Oriented Architecture (SOA standards, namely the concept of Web services and service registry lacks mechanism for managing the services’ nonfunctional properties of Web Services. Currently there is no standard that is capable of accurately representing quality of service parameters of web services. Such non functional properties are expressed by the term “Quality of Service (QoS”. QoS for Web services is an important decisive factor for service selection. Therefore it is important to extend the SOA so that non-functional characteristics of a web service can be determined at run-time and consumers are bound to a service that best meet their functional as well as non-functional requirements. Major research challenges in discovering Web services include, differentiating between services that share similar functionalities, improving Quality of Service (QoS, and enabling clients to customize the discovery process. To enable QoS enabled web services discovery, it is needed that a third party (other than service provider and service broker monitors quality of web service. In this paper, an extended web services framework based on SOA for enabling Web Service discovery based on QoS parameters such as availability and response time is proposed thereby maintaining the appropriate dynamic values of these QoS parameters.

  8. Precise and full extraction of the coupling-of-mode parameters with periodic Green's function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林基明; 吴浩东; 王宁; 仇洪冰; 水永安

    2003-01-01

    Precise extraction of coupling-of-mode (COM) parameters plays a key role in the design for modern high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. An accurate and efficient analysis of characteristics for SAW propagating under periodic metal gratings has been developed based on the concept of harmonic admittance and periodic Green's function. Some further improvement is made on the numerical algorithm, such as isolation of the logarithmic singularity, asymptotic simplification of periodic Green's function, and utilization of Chebyshev polynomials as basis functions of the charge distribution. The most important point is extraction of the phase of coupling reflection coefficient by the characteris- tics of standing wave on the edges of stopband. This approach leads to a fast, precise and full extraction of COM parameters. The results and discussions for several materials have been presented.

  9. Parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional for systems with multiple time delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Yong HE

    2004-01-01

    The separation of the Lyapunov matrices and system matrices plays an important role when one uses parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional handling systems with polytopic type uncertainties.The delay-dependent robust stability problem for systems with polytopic type uncertainties is discussed by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional.The derivative term in the derivative of Lyapunov functional is reserved and the free weighting matrices are employed to express the relationship between the terms in the system equation such that the Lyapunov matrices are not involved in any product terms with the system matrices.In addition,the relationships between the terms in the Leibniz Newton formula are also described by some free weighting matrices and some delay-dependent stability conditions are derived.Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed criteria are more effective than the previous results.

  10. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter,...

  11. Simulating and analyzing engineering parameters of Kyushu Earthquake, Japan, 1997, by empirical Green function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongchao; Chen, Xueliang; Gao, Mengtan; Jiang, Han; Li, Tiefei

    2016-09-01

    Earthquake engineering parameters are very important in the engineering field, especially engineering anti-seismic design and earthquake disaster prevention. In this study, we focus on simulating earthquake engineering parameters by the empirical Green's function method. The simulated earthquake (MJMA6.5) occurred in Kyushu, Japan, 1997. Horizontal ground motion is separated as fault parallel and fault normal, in order to assess characteristics of two new direction components. Broadband frequency range of ground motion simulation is from 0.1 to 20 Hz. Through comparing observed parameters and synthetic parameters, we analyzed distribution characteristics of earthquake engineering parameters. From the comparison, the simulated waveform has high similarity with the observed waveform. We found the following. (1) Near-field PGA attenuates radically all around with strip radiation patterns in fault parallel while radiation patterns of fault normal is circular; PGV has a good similarity between observed record and synthetic record, but has different distribution characteristic in different components. (2) Rupture direction and terrain have a large influence on 90 % significant duration. (3) Arias Intensity is attenuating with increasing epicenter distance. Observed values have a high similarity with synthetic values. (4) Predominant period is very different in the part of Kyushu in fault normal. It is affected greatly by site conditions. (5) Most parameters have good reference values where the hypo-central is less than 35 km. (6) The GOF values of all these parameters are generally higher than 45 which means a good result according to Olsen's classification criterion. Not all parameters can fit well. Given these synthetic ground motion parameters, seismic hazard analysis can be performed and earthquake disaster analysis can be conducted in future urban planning.

  12. Quadrupolar glass freezing in solid hydrogen: Distribution functions for the orientational axial and eccentric order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic model for two-dimensional distribution function P(σ,η) for quadrupolar glass freezing of axial (σ) and eccentric (η) order parameters in solid hydrogen is considered within the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick mean-field approach. Assuming the exchange interactions between axial and eccentric quadrupoles to be independent Gaussian random variables with variance J2/N and K2/N, respectively (with N being the number of lattice sites), we derived a set of self-consistent equations for quadrupolar order parameters and the corresponding local susceptibilities. While for J≠K the axial quadrupolar order parameter is nonvanishing in the high-temperature phase due to broken local symmetry and the corresponding quadrupolar susceptibility exhibits smeared-out behavior, the eccentric order parameter becomes zero at well-defined critical temperature depending on the ratio K/J. Furthermore, the properties of the P(σ,η) distribution function are investigated by introducing a single effective order parameter σeff (1eff<0) directly related to the second frequency moment of the nuclear magnetic resonance line shapes. Comparison of the present microscopic theory with earlier phenomenological approaches to the problem is also made

  13. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  14. A Formulation of the Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Parameter with Practical Implications. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Louis A.; Schnipke, Deborah L.; Pashley, Peter J.

    The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) differential item functioning (DIF) parameter for uniform DIF is well defined when item responses follow the two-parameter-logistic (2PPL) item response function (IRF), but not when they follow the three-parameter-logistic (3PL) IRF, the model typically used with multiple choice items. This research report presents a…

  15. Forecasting of electronic devices lifetime on the basis of activation models of functional parameters drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, I. N.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a model of functional parameters drift for electronic devices, allowing predicting their lifetime. The method of model parameters estimation is developed. The developed model allows optimizing the accelerated tests modes, taking into account the complex impact of stress factors. The results are applicable for modern electronic devices with a failure rate less than 1 FIT. The results are applicable if the physical and chemical processes leading to electronic devices degradation have an activation mechanism; the activation process is due to the temperature.

  16. Generalized weighted functional proportional mean combining forecasting model and its method of parameter estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玉成; 盛昭瀚

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of combining forecasting model based on the generalized weighted functional proportional mean is proposed and the parameter estimation method of its weighting coefficients by means of the algorithm of quadratic programming is given. This model has extensive representation. It is a new kind of aggregative method of group forecasting.By taking the suitable combining form of the forecasting models and seeking the optimal parameter, the optimal combining form can be obtained and the forecasting accuracy can be improved. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by an example.

  17. Renal function parameters of Thai vegans compared with non-vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-01-01

    In Asia, vegetarianism is a well-established eating behavior. It appears that the adoption of a vegan diet leads to a lessening of several health risk factors. Although vegetarianism has some notable effects on the hematological system, the effect on the nephrological system has not been well clarified. The pattern of renal function parameters was studied in 25 Thai vegans compared with 25 non-vegetarians. Of the studied parameters, it was found that urine protein was significantly different (p vegans and controls. Vegans had significantly lower urine protein level.

  18. Cosmological Parameter Estimation and Window Function in Counts-in-Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Y.; Matsubara, T.

    2006-11-01

    We estimate the cosmological parameter bounds expected from the counts-in-cells analysis of the galaxy distributions of SDSS samples, which are the Main Galaxies (MGs) and the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We use the m-weight Epanechnikov kernel as window function with expectation of improving the bounds of parameters. We apply the Fisher Information Matrix Analysis, which can estimate the minimum expected parameter bounds without any data. In this analysis, we derive the covariance matrix that includes the consideration of overlapping of cells. As a result, we found that the signal to noise of the LRG sample is bigger than that of the MG sample because the range of data using is only linear scale. Therefore, the LRG sample is more suitable for parameter estimation. For the LRG sample, about six hundred data points are sufficient to get maximum effect on parameter bounds. Large parameter set results in poor bounds because of degeneracy, the matter density, the baryon fraction, the neutrino density and σ2 8 including the amplitude of the power spectrum, the linear bias and the Kaiser effect seems to be an appropriate set.

  19. Discriminant analysis of pulmonary function parameters. Healthy adults versus mild asthmatics and moderate asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Volume-time (V-T and flow-volume (F-V curves were measured in all the subjects of nonsmoking young males (mean value 26.3 yrs. of age, healthy and asthmatics. Eleven parameters of pulmonary function tests composed of two V-T, six F-V, and three mean time constant (MTC parameters, were calculated from the curves. These parameters were used in the two analyses through the all possible selection procedure (APSP discriminating between healthy adults and mild asthmatics and also between healthy and moderate. Flow rate at 75% of FVC (V75 proved to be the most useful parameter and V50 the next best in both analyses. The probability of misclassification using all eleven parameters was 19.64% in the analysis of healthy adults and mild asthmatics, and 4.29% in the analysis of healthy adults and moderate asthmatics. There was a little difference in the parameters selected at every step. The discriminant analysis proved that the flow-volume patterns were different according to the severity of bronchial asthma. Thus flow-volume recognition was considered to be important in analyzing the severity of bronchial asthma.

  20. Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle Alicia; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Hans-Michael Raab, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to verify the results of a preceding retrospective pilot study by means of a prospective controlled investigation including a larger sample size. Therefore, the aim of this clinical investigation was to analyze the relationship between sleep bruxism and several functional and occlusal parameters. The null hypothesis of this study was that there would be no differences among sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism controls regarding several functional and occlusal parameters. Fifty-eight sleep bruxism subjects and 31 controls participated in this study. The diagnosis sleep bruxism was based on clinical criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sixteen functional and occlusal parameters were recorded clinically or from dental study casts. Similar to the recently published retrospective pilot study, with a mean slide of 0.77 mm (s.d., 0.69 mm) in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.4 mm (s.d., 0.57 mm) in the control group, the evaluation of the mean comparison between the two groups demonstrated a larger slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation in sleep bruxism subjects (Mann-Whitney U-test; P=0.008). However, following Bonferroni adjustment, none of the 16 occlusal and functional variables differed significantly between the sleep bruxism subjects and the non-sleep bruxism controls. The present study shows that the occlusal and functional parameters evaluated do not differ between sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism subjects. However, as the literature reveals a possible association between bruxism and certain subgroups of temporomandibular disorders, it appears advisable to incorporate the individual adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system into future investigations. PMID:22935746

  1. Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

  2. Seasonal changes in functional parameters of the hemolymph of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ciacci

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available n bivalves, many functional parameters show seasonal changes in relation to both abiotic (such as temperature and salinity and biotic factors (such as gonad maturation, food availability. Available data indicate that also immune parameters can show seasonal fluctuations in the marine mussel Mytilus spp.. In this work we report data on hemocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS and phagocytic activity, as well as on soluble lysozyme activity, in the hemolymph of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis collected over a 24 month period in the Adriatic Sea (2006-2007. The results indicate that all the parameters measured show seasonal fluctuations over the year, with lysozyme activity showing the largest changes. Lowest LMS values were observed in early winter and early autumn, whereas maximal values of phagocytic activity were observed in winter and increasing serum lysozyme activities were recorded in autumn. The observed seasonal fluctuations are discussed in relation to both abiotic (temperature and biotic (changes in endogenous modulators factors.

  3. Function Optimization and Parameter Performance Analysis Based on Gravitation Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational search algorithm (GSA is a kind of swarm intelligence optimization algorithm based on the law of gravitation. The parameter initialization of all swarm intelligence optimization algorithms has an important influence on the global optimization ability. Seen from the basic principle of GSA, the convergence rate of GSA is determined by the gravitational constant and the acceleration of the particles. The optimization performances on six typical test functions are verified by the simulation experiments. The simulation results show that the convergence speed of the GSA algorithm is relatively sensitive to the setting of the algorithm parameters, and the GSA parameter can be used flexibly to improve the algorithm’s convergence velocity and improve the accuracy of the solutions.

  4. Design Considerations of Structural Parameters in Resonant Tunneling Diode by None-Equilibrium Green Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of structural parameters like Quantum well width, barrier width, spacer width, contact width and contact doping, on performance of Resonant Tunneling Diode using full quantum simulation. The simulation is based on a self-consistent solution of the Poisson equation and Schrodinger equation with open boundary conditions, within the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. The effects of varying the structural parameters is investigated in terms of the output current, peak current, valley current, peak to valley current ratio and the voltage associated with the peak current. Simulation results illustrate that the device performance can be improved by proper selection of the structural parameters.

  5. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats. PMID:27423150

  6. Multiobjective evolutionary optimization of the size, shape, and position parameters of radial basis function networks for function approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Rojas, I; Ortega, J; Pomares, H; Fernandez, F J; Diaz, A F

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to optimize radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) in order to approach target functions from a set of input-output pairs. The procedure allows the application of heuristics to improve the solution of the problem at hand by including some new genetic operators in the evolutionary process. These new operators are based on two well-known matrix transformations: singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal least squares (OLS), which have been used to define new mutation operators that produce local or global modifications in the radial basis functions (RBFs) of the networks (the individuals in the population in the evolutionary procedure). After analyzing the efficiency of the different operators, we have shown that the global mutation operators yield an improved procedure to adjust the parameters of the RBFNNs.

  7. Functional relationships for the estimation of van Genuchten parameter values in landfill processes models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jim; Zardava, Kiriaki; Nayagum, Dharumarajen; Powrie, William

    2015-04-01

    Numerical models of landfill processes need to be able to estimate the capillary pressure and relative permeability of waste as a function of moisture content using analytical equations such as the van Genuchten equations. The paper identifies the range of van Genuchten parameter values for use in models and proposes a formulaic relationship between these parameter values and saturated moisture content. The concept of porous material, its behaviour under unsaturated conditions and Mualem's integral transform equation that estimates relative permeability from capillary pressure are reviewed. The application of the algebraic form of the capillary pressure function proposed by van Genuchten and its application using Mualem's transform to obtain the van Genuchten algebraic functions for relative permeability are discussed. Functional relationships are identified between saturated moisture content and the van Genuchten parameters using a database of results from other sources. These relationships may be used in numerical modelling of unsaturated flow in landfilled waste where the saturated moisture content varies significantly as the result of compression, settlement and degradation. A 2D numerical model simulation of leachate recirculation is used to investigate the sensitivity of the simulation to the introduction of these functional relationships. It is found that the transient liquid and gas flows across the model boundaries appear to be insensitive to whether or not the functions are incorporated into the model algorithm. However it is observed that using the relationships does have some impact on the distribution of the degree of saturation throughout the model and on the transient behaviour of the way in which the recirculation recharges the waste. However it is not thought that this impact would be sufficient to influence the design of a leachate recirculation system. PMID:25573738

  8. The Translation between Functional Requirements and Design Parameters for Robust Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Husung, Stephan; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    computer aided functional tolerancing. Non-optimal tolerances yield potentials for cost improvements in manufacturing and more consistency of the functional performance of the product. In this contribution a framework is proposed to overcome the observed problems and increase the clarity, transparency......The specification of and justification for design parameter (DP) tolerances are primarily based on the acceptable variation of the functions’ performance and the functions’ sensitivity to the design parameters. However, why certain tolerances are needed is often not transparent, especially...... in complex products with multi-disciplinary development teams. In those cases, tolerance synthesis and analysis get complicated which introduces ambiguities and difficulties for system-integrators and lead engineers for the objective decision making in terms of trade-offs but also in terms of an efficient...

  9. Associations of Perfusate Biomarkers and Pump Parameters With Delayed Graft Function and Deceased Donor Kidney Allograft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, C R; Hall, I E; Bhangoo, R S; Ficek, J; Abt, P L; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Lin, H; Bimali, M; Murray, P T; Rao, V; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Reese, P P

    2016-05-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is increasingly used in deceased donor kidney transplantation, but controversy exists regarding the value of perfusion biomarkers and pump parameters for assessing organ quality. We prospectively determined associations between perfusate biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], kidney injury molecule 1, IL-18 and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP]) and pump parameters (resistance and flow) with outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-mo estimated GFR (eGFR). DGF occurred in 230 of 671 (34%) recipients. Only 1-h flow was inversely associated with DGF. Higher NGAL or L-FABP concentrations and increased resistance were inversely associated with 6-mo eGFR, whereas higher flow was associated with higher adjusted 6-mo eGFR. Discarded kidneys had consistently higher median resistance and lower median flow than transplanted kidneys, but median perfusate biomarker concentrations were either lower or not significantly different in discarded compared with transplanted kidneys. Notably, most recipients of transplanted kidneys with isolated "undesirable" biomarker levels or HMP parameters experienced acceptable 6-mo allograft function, suggesting these characteristics should not be used in isolation for discard decisions. Additional studies must confirm the utility of combining HMP measurements with other characteristics to assess kidney quality. PMID:26695524

  10. Recursive Parameter Method for Computing the Predicting Function of the Multivariable ARMAX Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    New method for computing the predicting function of the ARMAX model is proposed. The proposed method constructs a set of schemes for recursively computing the parameters in predicting function of the ARMAX model. In contrast to the existing method, that only gives results for the special case of the ARX model, the method presented is suitable not only for an SISO system, but also for an MIMO system. For the SISO system, the method presented here is even more convenient than the exisiting ones.

  11. eGFR is a reliable preoperative renal function parameter in patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki; Kosuge; Tokihiko; Sawada; Yoshimi; Iwasaki; Junji; Kita; Mitsugi; Shimoda; Nobumi; Tagaya; Keiichi; Kubota

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the validity of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a preoperative renal function parameter in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 147 patients with gastric cancer. Preoperative creatinine clearance (Ccr), eGFR, and preand postoperative serum creatinine (sCr) data were examined. Preoperative Ccr and eGFR were then compared for their reliability in predicting postoperative renal dysfunction. RESULTS: Among 110 patients with normal preo...

  12. Correlations for wiebe function parameters for combustion simulation in two-stroke small engines

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Lucas, José; Climent Puchades, Héctor; Pla Moreno, Benjamín; JIMENEZ MACEDO, VICTOR DANIEL

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Combustion simulation in two-stroke engines becomes necessary not only for engine performance prediction but also for scavenge evaluation, since in-cylinder pressure and temperature are highly influenced by combustion process evolution. Combustion simulation by using a Wiebe function is appropriate to be included in a 1D engine code for providing design criteria with fast and accurate calculations; the main drawback is the determination of the four Wiebe parameters needed ...

  13. Functional data analysis of experimental parameters obtained in PVA doped CdCl2 polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, M. B. Nanda; Urs, Gopal Krishne; Somashekar, R.

    2016-05-01

    Using solution casting method, PVA based polymer composites films with various concentrations of CdCl2 were prepared. Prepared polymer composites films were investigated using XRD. Crystallite size for different concentrations of CdCl2 are computed here using Williamson and Hall plot (WH plot), an in-house program developed by us. To correlate between two independent physical parameters size and conductivity, we have chosen functional data analysis to estimate the maxima and minima in these polymer composites systems.

  14. Comparison of open cholecystectomy with laparoscopic cholecystectomy using latest variables of pulmonary functions as parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of open cholecystectomy with laparoscopic cholecystectomy using latest variables of pulmonary functions as parameters To compare open holecystectomy with laparoscopic cholecystectomy using latest variables of pulmonary functions as parameters. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, CMH Rawalpindi from May 2010 to Nov 2010. Patients and Methods: Patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis subjected to elective cholecystectomy were studied. The patients were divided into two groups. Open Cholecystectomy was performed on patients in group I, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in patients in group II. Respiratory function tests were performed preoperatively and on the morning of the 1st post-operative day. Results: Preoperative pulmonary function tests were normal and did not differ significantly between the two groups. After operation a significant reduction in the FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in first second), FEV6 (Forced expiratory volume in first six seconds) and their ratio FEV1/FEV6 occurred after both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, mean reductions in FEV1, FEV6 and FEV1/FEV6 in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group were significantly (p<0.05) less as compared with those after open holecystectomy. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy causes less impairment of lung function than cholecystectomy performed through a subcostal incision. (author)

  15. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be safely anti-coagulated using heparin for CPB procedures when monitored with ACT, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography. Postoperative chest tube losses were 360 mL, less than half our institutional average. Anticoagulation for the pre-and post-operative phase is also discussed. PMID:26834284

  16. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices.

  17. PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF VSI FED PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR BY USING HARTLEY MODULATING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses modeling and parameter estimation of PMSM. The design of a control system for a high performance drive requires a mathematical model of the motor. This is usually derived fromphysical principles, then the parameters of the motor are determined through off-line testing or estimated on-line from input/output operating records data. The dynamics of synchronous motor can be described by a set of differential equations relating voltages, currents, speed and torque. The equations represented in d-q axes variables in the rotor reference frame using park’s transformation are presented. A parameter estimation technique employing the Hartley modulating function (HMF is detailed. Using the data obtained from open loop simulation physical parameters such as stator resistance andinductances as well as mechanical parameters such as moment of inertia and viscous friction coefficient have been estimated with a fair amount of accuracy. This estimate has been found to be quite sensitive to the choice of sampling period.

  18. Optimizing parameters of a technical system using quality function deployment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkowicz, M.; Gwiazda, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the practical use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) on the example of a mechanized mining support. Firstly it gives a short description of this method and shows how the designing process, from the constructor point of view, looks like. The proposed method allows optimizing construction parameters and comparing them as well as adapting to customer requirements. QFD helps to determine the full set of crucial construction parameters and then their importance and difficulty of their execution. Secondly it shows chosen technical system and presents its construction with figures of the existing and future optimized model. The construction parameters were selected from the designer point of view. The method helps to specify a complete set of construction parameters, from the point of view, of the designed technical system and customer requirements. The QFD matrix can be adjusted depending on designing needs and not every part of it has to be considered. Designers can choose which parts are the most important. Due to this QFD can be a very flexible tool. The most important is to define relationships occurring between parameters and that part cannot be eliminated from the analysis.

  19. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICYT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: mancass@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Chen, Pisin, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA) and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-15

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x)) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well. -- Highlights: •Function-composition generalization of parametric isospectral potentials is presented. •Mielnik one-parameter family of harmonic potentials is obtained as a particular case. •Graphical discussion of regular and singular regions in the parameter space is given.

  20. Affinity functions: recognizing essential parameters in fuzzy connectedness based image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Krzysztof C.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2009-02-01

    Fuzzy connectedness (FC) constitutes an important class of image segmentation schemas. Although affinity functions represent the core aspect (main variability parameter) of FC algorithms, they have not been studied systematically in the literature. In this paper, we present a thorough study to fill this gap. Our analysis is based on the notion of equivalent affinities: if any two equivalent affinities are used in the same FC schema to produce two versions of the algorithm, then these algorithms are equivalent in the sense that they lead to identical segmentations. We give a complete characterization of the affinity equivalence and show that many natural definitions of affinity functions and their parameters used in the literature are redundant in the sense that different definitions and values of such parameters lead to equivalent affinities. We also show that two main affinity types - homogeneity based and object feature based - are equivalent, respectively, to the difference quotient of the intensity function and Rosenfeld's degree of connectivity. In addition, we demonstrate that any segmentation obtained via relative fuzzy connectedness (RFC) algorithm can be viewed as segmentation obtained via absolute fuzzy connectedness (AFC) algorithm with an automatic and adaptive threshold detection. We finish with an analysis of possible ways of combining different component affinities that result in non equivalent affinities.

  1. Alveolar proteinosis lung lavage using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, A P; Pelias, A; Johnston, R F; Goel, I P; Hakki, H I; Oslick, T; Shinnick, J P

    1981-01-01

    An adult case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis presented with an arterial oxygen tension of 27 mmHg (3.6 kPa) while breathing air. Dangerous hypoxaemia during lung lavage was avoided by using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

  2. Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cardiopulmonary disease increases with age. Degenerative valvular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arrhythmias are common in the geriatric dog. Chronic bronchial disease, pulmonary neoplasia, and arrhythmias occur in the geriatric cat. Systemic diseases in both species often show cardiopulmonary manifestations. Medical management to treat the underlying disease and to control clinical signs is complicated by altered absorption, metabolism, and elimination of drugs

  3. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-06-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  4. Effect of Inhalation of Tiotropium Bromide Combined with Bisoprolol on Cardiopulmonary Function of Patients with COPD%吸入噻托溴铵联合比索洛尔对 COPD 患者心肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新春; 邓超英; 杨劼; 朱艳; 孙杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨吸入噻托溴铵联合比索洛尔对慢性阻塞性肺疾病( COPD)稳定期患者呼吸肌功能相关指标、运动耐力及心肺功能的影响。方法回顾性分析我院89例 COPD 稳定期患者的临床资料,根据治疗方案分为对照组和观察组,对照组40例在基础治疗上吸入噻托溴铵治疗,观察组49例在对照组基础上给予比索洛尔口服治疗,检测两组治疗前后心肺功能、呼吸肌相关指标、运动耐力及用药安全性;随访12个月,记录急性发作次数、心力衰竭发生率及死亡率。结果两组患者治疗后心肺功能、运动耐力和呼吸肌功能相关指标均较治疗前明显改善( P ﹤0.05)。观察组治疗后左心室舒张末期内径、脑钠肽、吸气时间比例和急性期发作次数显著低于对照组( P ﹤0.05);而左心室射血分数、最大吸气压力、最大呼气压力、呼吸浅快指数和6 min 步行距离显著高于对照组(P ﹤0.05)。两组不良反应发生率、随访心力衰竭发生率和死亡率比较差异无统计学意义( P ﹥0.05)。结论吸入噻托溴铵联合比索洛尔用于COPD 稳定期治疗能够改善心肺功能,提高呼吸肌耐力和运动耐力。%Objective To investigate effects of inhalation of Tiotropium Bromide combined with Bisoprolol on re-lated indexes of respiratory muscle,exercise tolerance and cardiopulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)in stable phase. Methods Clinical data of 89 COPD patients in stable phase admitted was retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into control group(n = 40)and observation group(n = 49)according to therapeutic methods. Control group was treated with inhalation of Tiotropium Bromide based on basic therapy,while observation group was added with Bisoprolol orally based on the treatment of control group. The cardiopulmonary func-tion,related indexes of respiratory muscle

  5. Assessment of various parameters in the estimation of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lythgoe, M.F.; Gordon, I.; Khader, Z.; Smith, T.; Anderson, P.J. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    Differential renal function (DRF) is an important parameter that should be assessed from virtually every dynamic renogram. With the introduction of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG3), a tracer with a high renal extraction, the estimation of DRF might hopefully become accurate and reproducible both between observers in the same institution and also between institutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different parameters on the estimation of DRF. To this end we investigated two groups of children: group A, comprising 35 children with a single kidney (27 of whom had poor renal function), and group B, comprising 20 children with two kidneys and normal global function who also had an associated {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA). The variables assessed for their effect on the estimation of DRF were: different operators, the choice of renal regions of interest (ROIs), the applied background subtraction, and six different techniques for analysis of the renogram. The six techniques were based on: linear regression of the slopes in the Rutland-Patlak plot, matrix deconvolution, differential method, integral method, linear regression of the slope of the renograms, and the area under the curve of the renogram. The estimation of DRF was less dependent upon both observer and method in patients with two normally functioning kidneys than in patients with a single kidney. The inter-observer comparison among children in either group was not dependent on either ROI or background subtraction. However, in patients with poor renal function the method of choice for the estimation of DRF was dependent on background subtraction, though not ROI. In children with two kidneys and normal renal function, the estimation of DRF from the 24 techniques gave similar results. Methods that produced DRF values closest to expected results, from either group of children, were the Rutland-Patlak plot and matrix deconvolution methods

  6. The Effects of Smoking on Anterior Segment Parameters, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Pupillary Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Ekinci Köktekir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the alterations in the anterior segment parameters, retinal nerve fiber layer, and pupillary functions in smokers. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 45 eyes of 45 smokers and 45 eyes of 45 non-smoker control subjects were evaluated. All patients underwent measurement of anterior segment parameters with optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR, mesopic and photopic pupillary diameter with an aberrometer device, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with optical coherence tomography, and dry-eye assessment with Schirmer’s test. The results were compared with independent t-test by SPSS 16.0 Inc., and a p-value lower than 0.05 was determined as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between both groups in terms of mesopic pupil diameters that were measured with both OLCR and aberrometer device (p=0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Schirmer scores were also significantly decreased in smokers (p=0.001. The other measured parameters demonstrated no difference between smokers and non-smokers (p>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Smoking may affect pupillary functions, especially the mesopic pupillary diameter, and may cause a deficiency in pupil response under dark circumstances. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 11-4

  7. Parameter estimation for stiff equations of biosystems using radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto Masahiro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modeling of dynamic systems requires estimating kinetic parameters from experimentally measured time-courses. Conventional global optimization methods used for parameter estimation, e.g. genetic algorithms (GA, consume enormous computational time because they require iterative numerical integrations for differential equations. When the target model is stiff, the computational time for reaching a solution increases further. Results In an attempt to solve this problem, we explored a learning technique that uses radial basis function networks (RBFN to achieve a parameter estimation for biochemical models. RBFN reduce the number of numerical integrations by replacing derivatives with slopes derived from the distribution of searching points. To introduce a slight search bias, we implemented additional data selection using a GA that searches data-sparse areas at low computational cost. In addition, we adopted logarithmic transformation that smoothes the fitness surface to obtain a solution simply. We conducted numerical experiments to validate our methods and compared the results with those obtained by GA. We found that the calculation time decreased by more than 50% and the convergence rate increased from 60% to 90%. Conclusion In this work, our RBFN technique was effective for parameter optimization of stiff biochemical models.

  8. Global motion perception in children with amblyopia as a function of spatial and temporal stimulus parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Sum, Brian; Giaschi, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Global motion sensitivity in typically developing children depends on the spatial (Δx) and temporal (Δt) displacement parameters of the motion stimulus. Specifically, sensitivity for small Δx values matures at a later age, suggesting it may be the most vulnerable to damage by amblyopia. To explore this possibility, we compared motion coherence thresholds of children with amblyopia (7-14years old) to age-matched controls. Three Δx values were used with two Δt values, yielding six conditions covering a range of speeds (0.3-30deg/s). We predicted children with amblyopia would show normal coherence thresholds for the same parameters on which 5-year-olds previously demonstrated mature performance, and elevated coherence thresholds for parameters on which 5-year-olds demonstrated immaturities. Consistent with this, we found that children with amblyopia showed deficits with amblyopic eye viewing compared to controls for small and medium Δx values, regardless of Δt value. The fellow eye showed similar results at the smaller Δt. These results confirm that global motion perception in children with amblyopia is particularly deficient at the finer spatial scales that typically mature later in development. An additional implication is that carefully designed stimuli that are adequately sensitive must be used to assess global motion function in developmental disorders. Stimulus parameters for which performance matures early in life may not reveal global motion perception deficits. PMID:27426263

  9. Multi Objective Optimization of Weld Parameters of Boiler Steel Using Fuzzy Based Desirability Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Satheesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure differential across the wall of pressure vessels is potentially dangerous and has caused many fatal accidents in the history of their development and operation. For this reason the structural integrity of weldments is critical to the performance of pressure vessels. In recent years much research has been conducted to the study of variations in welding parameters and consumables on the mechanical properties of pressure vessel steel weldments to optimize weld integrity and ensure pressure vessels are safe. The quality of weld is a very important working aspect for the manufacturing and construction industries. Because of high quality and reliability, Submerged Arc Welding (SAW is one of the chief metal joining processes employed in industry. This paper addresses the application of desirability function approach combined with fuzzy logic analysis to optimize the multiple quality characteristics (bead reinforcement, bead width, bead penetration and dilution of submerged arc welding process parameters of SA 516 Grade 70 steels(boiler steel. Experiments were conducted using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with varying the weld parameters of welding current, arc voltage, welding speed and electrode stickout. By analyzing the response table and response graph of the fuzzy reasoning grade, optimal parameters were obtained. Solutions from this method can be useful for pressure vessel manufacturers and operators to search an optimal solution of welding condition.

  10. STUDY OF ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS OF SWIMMERS OF INDORE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is well known that exercise has a significant ef fect on respiratory functions. Swimming is considered to be a very good exercise for maintaining proper health and also has a profound effect on the lu ng functions of an individual; the present study was carried out in 60 young male adults of Ei ghteen to Thirty years of age group to assess their Anthropometric parameters and Pulmonary Functi ons METHODS: Thirty male swimmers who used to swim for at least two years regularly w ere compared with age and sex matched thirty controls who were not involved in any routin e exercise. Lung volumes were recorded by Pulmonary Function test machine and analyzed statis tically. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It was found that Lung volumes were higher in swimmers . Swimming exercise affects lung volume measurements as respiratory muscles including the di aphragm of swimmers are required to develop greater pressure as a consequence of immersi on in water during respiratory cycle. This may lead to functional improvement in these muscles and also alterations in elasticity of lung and chest wall or of ventilatory muscles, leading t o an improvement in forced vital capacity and other lung functions of swimmers. KEY WORDS: Swimmers, Pulmonary Functions

  11. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB.

  12. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB. PMID:6166815

  13. Function of parotid gland following irradiation and its relation to biological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan); Yamamoto, M.; Takeda, M.

    1980-09-01

    The function of the parotid gland in the mouse (synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase) following X irradiation was analyzed in relation to the parameters of surviving acinar cell fraction, DNA or protein content, and wet weight of the gland. Both synthesis and secretion of amylase in parotid were essentially unchanged when mice were irradiated with a dose of up to 3000 rad. When mice were irradiated and then given a proliferative stimulus of isoproterenol, latent lethal damage in the acinar cell population was expressed and resulted in cell degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The mean value of amylase activity per gland in similarly treated parotids was, however, totally unaffected. The relationship between amylase activity per gland and the other biological parameters was analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicate that amylase activity per surviving acinar cell increased proportionately to compensate for the loss of acinar cells.

  14. A Gaussian mixture model based cost function for parameter estimation of chaotic biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekofteh, Yasser; Jafari, Sajad; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Hashemi Golpayegani, S. Mohammad Reza; Almasganj, Farshad

    2015-02-01

    As we know, many biological systems such as neurons or the heart can exhibit chaotic behavior. Conventional methods for parameter estimation in models of these systems have some limitations caused by sensitivity to initial conditions. In this paper, a novel cost function is proposed to overcome those limitations by building a statistical model on the distribution of the real system attractor in state space. This cost function is defined by the use of a likelihood score in a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) which is fitted to the observed attractor generated by the real system. Using that learned GMM, a similarity score can be defined by the computed likelihood score of the model time series. We have applied the proposed method to the parameter estimation of two important biological systems, a neuron and a cardiac pacemaker, which show chaotic behavior. Some simulated experiments are given to verify the usefulness of the proposed approach in clean and noisy conditions. The results show the adequacy of the proposed cost function.

  15. Generalised analysis of the potential of an enterprise as a function of environmental parameters (theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapeychik Igor M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the frameworks of the author’s concept of the potential of an enterprise as the ability to conduct its immanently appropriate activity and also the idea of presentation of the size of the potential in the form of potential function from parameters of the state of an enterprise and foreign economic environment the article develops a scientific and methodical approach to construction and analysis of the potential function of an enterprise. The offered approach envisages building an economic and mathematical model of an enterprise of the optimisation type with consideration of environmental factors, determination of the size of economic potential as a maximum possible (optimal with the set condition of an enterprise and external environment of net income, statistical test of the model with possible values of external parameters (formation of statistical sampling of the graph of the potential function of an enterprise and application of statistical methods including methods of correlation, factor and regression analysis, for the study of its properties. Operability of this approach is shown on the example of the study of properties of the potential function of a model enterprise. In the course of approbation the article demonstrates its ability to reveal specific features of impact of external factors on economic potential of an enterprise; establishes, as a common regularity, differential influence of various environmental factors, caused not only by the nature of these factors, but also production and economic specific features and specific state of an enterprise. The article shows that the quantitative values of the force of influence of the said factors upon the value of economic potential, obtained during statistical analysis of the potential function of an enterprise, could serve as an instrument of ranking these factors by the priority level in the goal setting tasks at the stage of formation of the strategy of enterprise development

  16. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P Perfusion temperature did not influence cytokine release, organ injury, or coagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care. PMID:26581834

  17. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  18. Impact parameter and source selected correlation functions with a 4π multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in the domain of (light charged) particle interferometry in nuclear physics, a complete study of proton an deuteron correlation functions is presented with both impact parameter and emission source selections. The correlations were determined for the system 129Xe + natSn at 45 and 50 AMeV using the 4π multidetector INDRA at GANIL as an event selector as well as a particle correlator. Very short emission times are found for all the selections indicating possible contributions from a fast and preequilibrium process. (author)

  19. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros; Quirijn de Jong van Lier; Aline de Holanda Nunes Maia; Fábio Vale Scarpare

    2013-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTF) were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs) of the van Genuchten model (1980) to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf), totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets:...

  20. Detection and Parameter Estimation of Multicomponent LFM Signal Based on the Cubic Phase Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Jiang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for the detection and parameters estimation of LFM signal is presented in this paper. By the computation of the cubic phase function (CPF of the signal, it is shown that the CPF is concentrated along the frequency rate law of the signal, and the peak of the CPF yields the estimate of the frequency rate. The initial frequency and amplitude can be obtained by the dechirp technique and fast Fourier transform. And for multicomponent signal, the CLEAN technique combined with the CPF is proposed to detect the weak components submerged by the stronger components. The statistical performance is analyzed and the simulation results are shown simultaneously.

  1. Computerized System for Evaluating Small Arm Projectile Trajectory Parameters Involving Space Time Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jauhari

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of certain parameters of the trajectory of a small arm projectile on the basis of Siacci approximation requires the values of space (S and Time (T functions as tabulated in the Ingalls and Hodsock ballistic tables. The development is reported of a computerized system, whereby the necessity of referring to these tables has been completely obviated. Programme flow-char has been presented and the logic behind the flow of programme has been made explicit. The programme has been executed successfully on the DCM Microsystem 1121.

  2. Comparative study of the protective effect using hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Pei-li; FU Qing-lin; ZHANG Xin-zhong; ZHANG-Jie; QIN Yuan-xu; CUI Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the detrimental influence of normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary by-pass during open - heart surgery on immunity function,cytokines and complements. Methods Forty patients with con-genital or rheumatic heart disease were randomized to receive the two strategies: normothermie CPB (study group) andhypothermic CPB (control group) ,20 cases in each group. Venous blood samples were collected at each time points ofpreoperation, end of CPB, day 1,4,7,14 postoperatively to examine the plasma level of IL - 2, TNF - α, C3, C4, IgG,IgM, IgA, CD3, CD4, CD8. Results IL -2 in both groups decreased significantly at day 1,4, and returned to normal atday 7 postoperatively. IL - 2 in control group was significantly lower than that in study group postoperatively. TNF - α intwo groups was all higher at time points of end of CPB,day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group,it returned to normallevel at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in control group, it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before oper-ation ,and returned to normal at day 14 postoperatively. C3 in study group was significantly lower at time points of endof CPB,day 1,7 postoperatively than that in control group;C3 in both groups was all higher at time points of end ofCPB, day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group, it returned to normal level at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in controlgroup,it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before operation and returned to normal at day 14 postopera-tively. CA in study group at time points of end of CPB, day 1 postoperatively was significantly lower than that in controlgroup;C4 in both groups was all lower at time points of end of CPB, day 1,4 postoperatively than that before operation.The results showed that IgA after operation in both groups was significantly lower than that before operation, and re-turned to normal at day 7 postoperatively;IgA in study group at day 1 postoperatively was higher than that in controlgroup. IgG in

  3. The prediction of Fe Mössbauer parameters by the density functional theory: a benchmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochevarov, Arteum D; Friesner, Richard A; Lippard, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    We report the performance of eight density functionals (B3LYP, BPW91, OLYP, O3LYP, M06, M06-2X, PBE, and SVWN5) in two Gaussian basis sets (Wachters and Partridge-1 on iron atoms; cc-pVDZ on the rest of atoms) for the prediction of the isomer shift (IS) and the quadrupole splitting (QS) parameters of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Two sources of geometry (density functional theory-optimized and X-ray) are used. Our data set consists of 31 iron-containing compounds (35 signals), the Mössbauer spectra of which were determined at liquid helium temperature and where the X-ray geometries are known. Our results indicate that the larger and uncontracted Partridge-1 basis set produces slightly more accurate linear correlations of electronic density used for the prediction of IS and noticeably more accurate results for the QS parameter. We confirm and discuss the earlier observation of Noodleman and co-workers that different oxidation states of iron produce different IS calibration lines. The B3LYP and O3LYP functionals have the lowest errors for either IS or QS. BPW91, OLYP, PBE, and M06 have a mixed success whereas SVWN5 and M06-2X demonstrate the worst performance. Finally, our calibrations and conclusions regarding the best functional to compute the Mössbauer characteristics are applied to candidate structures for the peroxo and Q intermediates of the enzyme methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH), and compared to experimental data in the literature. PMID:21258606

  4. Gluon density and $F_{2}$ functions from BK equation with impact parameter dependence in DIS on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sergey, Bondarenko

    2008-01-01

    The DIS process on nuclei is considered in the framework of LO BK equation with local impact parameter dependence. Solving BK equation parameters for initial conditions of GBW type found in \\cite{Serg1} were used. Integrated gluon density function and $F_2$ nucleus structure function for different nuclei are calculated. Obtained results are compared with the different parameterizations of integrated gluon density function from \\cite{Flor,Eskola1,Eskola2,Tywon}. The anomalous dimensions and saturation scales for different nuclei are calculated at different energies. Fitting obtained results, expressions for the form of saturation scale are obtained for the proton and different nuclei as functions of impact parameter and energy.

  5. Pistachio diet improves erectile function parameters and serum lipid profiles in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Kayıgil, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Antep pistachio on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) parameters and serum lipid levels in patients with ED. A total of 17 married male patients with ED for at least 12 months were included in this prospective study. Patients were put on a 100 g pistachio nuts diet for 3 weeks. IIEF and PCDU were evaluated before and after the pistachio diet. In addition, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were measured before and after dietary modifications from all subjects. Mean IIEF-15 score was 36 ± 7.5 before the diet and 54.2 ± 4.9 after the diet (P=0.001). Similarly, an increase in all five domains of IIEF was observed after the diet (Ppistachio diet were 35.5 ± 15.2 and 43.3 ± 12.4 cm s(-1), respectively (P=0.018). After the pistachio diet, TC and LDL levels decreased significantly, whereas HDL level increased (P=0.008, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). We demonstrated that a pistachio diet improved IIEF scores and PCDU parameters without any associated side effects in patients with ED. Furthermore, the lipid parameters showed statistically significant improvements after this diet.

  6. PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF THE MARGINAL CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AND OF THE COPULA APPLIED IN HYDROLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ciuiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will estimate the parameters of the cumulative distribution functions for marginals for bi-variates and, at the same time, those of the copula that connects them, using a sample of a uniform random variable that depends on these parameters. We will also use the \\chi_{1;0.99}^2=9.6349 test for the validation of the model. In fact, the proposed method is a generalization of the PWM (Probability Weighted Moments method used in literature. For the PWM method there are also used some moments of a uniform random variable, but only for a marginal. In our method we use the uniform random variable for both the marginal and the copula. As an application, we will consider the maximum discharges and the volumes of the floods on the Danube River, connected by a copula in a given gauge station. In this case study, we will estimate the parameters for both the marginal distributions and the copula using the method presented in this paper.

  7. A STUDY ON CARDIOPULMONARY CHANGES WITH EXERCISE IN ADOLESCENT BOYS AND GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important part of keeping adolescents healthy . The prevalence of obesity - related hypertension , in children and adolescents is on the rise . Exercise regimen can reverse or retard the rate of progression from prehypertension to hypertension in adolescents . The incidence of lung diseases including bronchial asthma is high in adolescent age group . There are gender differences in cardiopulmonary changes with exercise . The pulmonary function testing during exercise is often used for further assessme nt and determ in ing the degree of airway impairment and response to treatment . The present study was performed t o study the effect of various intensity of exercise on cardiopulmonary variables and to evaluate quantitative relationship between the variables . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is carried out in a group of 100 healthy First year medical students of both sexes , who were not regular athletes . The subjects being medical students presented an added advantage of belonging to matching age groups of between 18 - 21 years of comparable physical standards and also medically screened at the time of admission . Before undertaking the exercise regimen blood hemoglobin concentration , RMV , MVV , FVC , FEV1 , PEFR , RR , HR and Blood Pressure ( BP were determined in all the subjects . Then the subject exercised on a bicycle ergometer with incremental loads . The Pulse Rate of the subject is noted and mentioned as the heart rate per minute . During the exercise the pulse was monitored by a pulse Oximeter . Blood Pressure was manually measured using standard mercury sphygmomanometer . The recordings before exercise , during exercise and 30 minutes after end of exercise of FVC , FEV - 1 and PEFR were measured using a digital spirometer . RESULTS: All the observations recorded in Group - A ( Boys subjects and of Group - B ( Girls subjects were noted . The arithmetical mean , standard deviation and standard

  8. The effect of cytoflavin on functional and metabolic parameters rat liver in pancreatonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sukach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of diagnosis and treatment of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis is an urgent. So it is interesting to study the effectiveness of a multicomponent antihypoxant and antioxidant cytoflavin to reduce violations of the detoxifying properties of the liver in experimental pancreatitis and reduce the severity of pancreatic endotoxemia. Pancreatic modeled by introducing into the pancreas of autobile in a dose of 0,15 ml/kg. Cytoflavin was injected into animals of a comparison group in a dose 0,21 ml/kg in 5 minutes after the model of pancreatic necrosis. We determined the activity of enzymes: alanine transaminase, amylase, and gamma glutamyltransferase, the content of direct bilirubin, glucose, and urea. After modeling of pancreatic necrosis in two days, there are signs of acute liver failure, as evidenced by the differences in the studied parameters of blood and hepatic portal vein: increased alanine transaminase and gamma glutamyltransferase, the change in concentration of metabolic products, such as direct bilirubin and urea. In addition, decreased glucose levels. Introduction of cytoflavin approached the control values the basic biochemical parameters of liver function: decreased hyperenzymemia, exchange function of the liver was restored, which is probably due to antihypoxic, membrane and antioxidant effects of the drug.

  9. Kinetic parameter calculation as function of burn-up of candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameter calculation as function of burn-up of candu reactor. Kinetic marameter calculation as function of burp-up of CANDU reactor with Canflex fuel type-CANDU has been done. This type of fuel is currently being develop, so kinetic parameter such as effective delay neutron fraction (.......), delay neutron decay constant ( .... ) and prompt neutron generation time ( ...... ) are very important for analysis of reactor operation safety. WIMS-CRNL code was used to generate macroscopic cross section and reaction rate based on transport theory. Fast and thermal neutron velocity and macroscopic cross section fission product of the unit cell were determined by KINETIC Code. The result of calculation showed that the value of effective delay neutron fraction was 7,785616 x 10-3 at the beginning of operation at burn-up of 0 MWD/T and after the reactor operated at burn-up of 7,2231 x 10-3 MWD/T was 4,962766 x 10-3, or reduced by 36%. The value of prompt generation time was 9,982703 x 10-4 s at the beginning of operation at burn-up of 0 MWD/T and 8,965416 x 10-4 s after the reactor operated at burn-up of 7,2231 x 103 MWD/T, or reduced by 10%. The result of calculation showed that the values of effective delay neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time are still great enough

  10. Clinical significance of sleep bruxism on several occlusal and functional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Zimmer, Stefan; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang Hans-michael; Schaefer, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between various functional and occlusal parameters and sleep bruxism. Thirty-nine (39) sleep bruxism patients and 30 controls participated in this investigation. The assessment of sleep bruxism was performed using the Bruxcore Bruxism-Monitoring Device (BBMD) combined with a new computer-based analyzing method. Sixteen functional and/or occlusal parameters were recorded. With a mean slide of 0.95 mm in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.42 mm in the control group (Mann Whitney U test; p<0.003), results solely demonstrated a significant group difference regarding the length of a slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation. The results suggest that the slightly pronounced slide could be of clinical importance in the development of increased wear facets in patients with current sleep bruxism activity. Following further evaluation including polysomnographic recordings, the BBMD combined with this new analyzing technique seems to be a clinically feasible instrument that allows the practitioner to quantify abrasion over a short period. PMID:21032978

  11. Computation of the halo mass function using physical collapse parameters: application to non-standard cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achitouv, I.; Weller, J. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München (Germany); Wagner, C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 5748 Garching bei München (Germany); Rasera, Y., E-mail: Ixandra.Achitouv@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: cwagner@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: jochen.weller@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: yann.rasera@obspm.fr [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    In this article we compare the halo mass function predicted by the excursion set theory with a drifting diffusive barrier against the results of N-body simulations for several cosmological models. This includes the standard ΛCDM case for a large range of halo masses, models with different types of primordial non-Gaussianity, and the Ratra-Peebles quintessence model of Dark Energy. We show that in all those cosmological scenarios, the abundance of dark matter halos can be described by a drifting diffusive barrier, where the two parameters describing the barrier have physical content. In the case of the Gaussian ΛCDM, the statistics are precise enough to actually predict those parameters at different redshifts from the initial conditions. Furthermore, we found that the stochasticity in the barrier is non-negligible making the simple deterministic spherical collapse model a bad approximation even at very high halo masses. We also show that using the standard excursion set approach with a barrier inspired by peak patches leads to inconsistent predictions of the halo mass function.

  12. Determination of the functional state of the fruits by parameters of the electric impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Guseva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To assess the freshness of various products are often used measuring impedance module. But due to the structure of plant foods diagnostic value should have exactly a complex component of impedance. Article tasked with developing criteria for assessing the functional state of the products subject to a comprehensive component of the impedance. Research methodology. To determine the functional status of the fruit were measured module and phase of impedance at the three frequencies of 20, 100 and 500 kHz. Criteria for recognition of functional status deter-mined by the dynamics of changes in the parameters of the complex impedance due to destructive processes caused by dehydration and putrefaction processes. Data processing and analysis. On the basis of experimental data obtained at three frequencies modeled frequency and phase response and their changes during losing of freshness and appear-ance of destructive processes. Discussion and conclusions. In fresh and stale fruit modulus and phase of the impedance at low and high frequencies have characteristic differences. But this is especially evident on the phase–frequency characteristic, which can be seen that the value of the phase with the loss of freshness at low frequency decreases and increases at high more than twice during one week. Therefore, to assess the functional state of fresh and stale products we suggest use phase portraits of phase response.

  13. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture parameters of concrete CT specimen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents numerical study on the fracture parameters of concrete compact tension test specimens of different sizes using cohesive crack model. As softening function is the main ingredient of the cohesive crack model, seven numbers of widely used softening functions are incorporated in the model based on enhanced algorithm. It is found that the difference between the highest and the lowest peak loads obtained using various softening functions (except linear) is less than about 9%. The peak load predicted by the linear softening curve is about 16% larger than that of mean peak load predicted by other softening functions. The cohesive crack model with linear softening yields the fracture process zones lower by approximately 30–50% than those obtained by using the other softening relations for specimen size range 200–600 mm. The numerical results are further compared with a reference test result available in the literature. It is observed that some of softening relations (except linear) predict the experimentally obtained peak load up to 6% of accuracy whereas the linear softening curve overestimates it by about 30%. The numerically gained softening branch of load-displacement curves compare well with the experimental observation.

  14. The Cardiopulmonary effect of passive movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loram

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven articles were reviewed on the cardiopulmonary effects of passive movements. These included two articles on theneurological effects of passive movements. Of the eleven articles, four were considered to have level II evidence in accordance with Sackett’s rules of evidence. There was little consensus regarding the rate or duration of passive movements. There were some suggestions that upper limb movement produces a greater ventilatory response than lower limb movement. There was a statistically significant increase (p< 0.05 in minute ventilation when the movement was done at a rate of 40 repetitions per minute or more, but this change may not be clinically significant. Passive movements were not detrimental to neurosurgical patients with a normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, although the values of the intracranial pressure were not stated.  The studies were limited in that eight of the eleven had small sample sizes and most studies were conducted using normal subjects. Further studies with higher levels of evidence need to be  conducted to verify any results reported to date in the literature. Studies that are relevant to clinical practice also need to be conducted in populations such as sedated intensive care patients.

  15. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Bakken, Kristian; D'Elia, Emilia; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-08-01

    Exercise intolerance, indicated by dyspnea and fatigue during exertion, is a cardinal manifestation of heart failure (HF). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) precisely defines maximum exercise capacity through measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO2). Peak VO2 values have a critical role in informing patient selection for advanced HF interventions such as heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices. Oxygen uptake and ventilatory patterns obtained during the submaximal portion of CPET are also valuable to recognize because of their ease of ascertainment during low-level exercise, relevance to ability to perform activities of daily living, independence from volitional effort, and strong relationship to prognosis in HF. The ability of peak VO2 and other CPET variables to be measured reproducibly and to accurately reflect HF severity is increasingly recognized and endorsed by scientific statements. Integration of CPET with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and cardiac imaging during exercise provides comprehensive characterization of multisystem reserve capacity that can inform prognosis and the need for cardiac interventions. Here, we review both practical aspects of conducting CPETs in patients with HF for clinical and research purposes as well as interpretation of gas exchange patterns across the spectrum of preclinical HF to advanced HF. PMID:27289406

  16. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  17. 体外循环术对先天性心脏病儿童围术期凝血功能的影响及临床意义%Study on the clinical significance and effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on intraoperative blood clotting function in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯永健; 杨宁; 董斌; 徐远久

    2015-01-01

    目的观察先天性心脏病儿童行体外循环术中凝血功能的变化,并分析其监测的应用价值。方法选取2012年1月至2013年12月间30例先天性心脏病体外循环术患儿为研究组,并且选取同期15例先天性心脏病非外循环术患儿为对照组。观察两组患儿手术前后的凝血功能变化。结果研究组患儿手术前后凝血指标比较差异无统计学意义( P >0.05);研究组患儿术后24 h 凝血指标显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P 0. 05). The changes in blood coagula-tion parameters in patients of study group in 24 h after surgery were significantly lower than those of control group,and the difference was statisti-cally significant( P < 0. 05). The difference in PLT counts in 3 h after surgery in patients with Fallot′s tetralogy and ventricular septal defect im-mediately after surgery and 3 h after surgery was statistically significant( P < 0. 05). The difference in levels of FIB in patients with Fallot′s tetral-ogy and patients with ventricular septal defect at immediately and 24 h after surgery was statistically significant( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The application of bypass circulation is better than traditional non - cardiopulmonary bypass in surgical treatment of patients with Fallot′s tetralogy and ventricular septal defect in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease,it had certain impact on coagulation parameters,but they return to nor-mal in 24 h after surgery. It is important to strengthen the monitoring of clinical coagulation parameters,hence it can better guide surgeons in oper-ations,thereby it may reduce the risk of surgery,and it is important to apply in clinical practice.

  18. SOMETIMES POOL TESTIMATION OF SCALE PARAMETER FOR NEGATIVE EXPONENTIAL MODEL UNDER GENERAL ENTROPY LOSS FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Srivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a sometimes pool testimator of scale parameter (mean life of negative exponential distribution under general entropy loss function, when it is assume that both the guarantees are known If a real life situation is modeled by this distribution having mean life time of certain items as θ1 and now it is suspected that the mean life may change due to some technological advances and assumes the value θ2 then we may have conditional information on θ1 as θ1≥θ2 (however θ1 may be less than or equal to θ2 .This uncertainty can be resolved by using preliminary testing and then a sometimes pool testimator is proposed for θ1The risk properties of this estimator have been studied under General entropy loss function and it is claimed that the estimator dominates the never pool estimator (in terms of having smaller risk in certain range of life ratio. Use of a general entropy loss function facilitates to control the risk of proposed estimators for various directions and degrees of asymmetry.

  19. Introducing parameters of linear function at undergraduate level: use of geogebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin İlhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The newly founded universities increase the number of high school graduates taking a seat in a university class. Among them the ones who are not well prepared in mathematics, mostly in the social sciences students, face learning difficulties in the first year mathematics course at undergraduate level. The notion of the function which is the foundation of the first year undergraduate mathematics course is a difficult part of mathematics curriculum especially for the under risk new students of social sciences. To overcome the problem, an intervention is applied in the course as Geogebra creating visual learning environment. Teaching of function is organized with the method of contextual teaching and learning (CTL by using the REACT strategy. The instruction is started with the Relating, the first step of strategy, to reach each student’s background to relate it with their daily life. Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQis used to get students’ reflection about the lecture and has used the reflections, especially the ones who see the point of relating, to form the sample group of the study. The activity including geogebra is developed to apply second step of strategy as Experiencing. The task is organized as to investigate the effects of change in the parameters of a linear function. After analysing research documents, findings reveal that students have benefits from two important words as visual and concrete in dealing with Geogebra as a member of Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments (DIMLE.

  20. Managing the Inflammatory Response after Cardiopulmonary Bypass : Review of the Studies in Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liguori, Gabriel Romero; Kanas, Alexandre Fligelman; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies performed in animal models that evaluated therapeutic interventions to inflammatory response and microcirculatory changes after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: It was used the search strategy ("Cardiopulmonary Bypass" (MeSH)) and ("Microcirculation" (MeSH) or "Inflammat

  1. Optimal rate of direct estimators in systems of ordinary differential equations linear in functions of the parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dattner, IM Itai; Klaassen, CAJ

    2015-01-01

    Many processes in biology, chemistry, physics, medicine, and engineering are modeled by a system of differential equations. Such a system is usually characterized via unknown parameters and estimating their ‘true’ value is thus required. In this paper we focus on the quite common systems for which the derivatives of the states may be written as sums of products of a function of the states and a function of the parameters. ¶ For such a system linear in functions of the unknown parameters...

  2. 胞二磷胆碱提高心肺复苏效果和减轻心肌损伤的作用研究%The effects of CDP-Choline on the improvement of the successful rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and post-resuscitation cardiac function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄煜; 何庆; 詹磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of CDP-Choline on the improvement of recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and protection against myocardial injury in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into four groups:control group (n =5,no asphyxia),model group (n =10),adrenaline group (n =10) and CDP-Choline group (n =10).Cardiac arrest (CA) was induced by asphyxia,and then CPR was initiated.Drugs were administered at 5 minutes before CPR and at the initiation of CPR.Equal amount of normal saline was given in the control group and the model group.The hemodynamic parameters were monitored during CPR and after ROSC.After 2 hours,the myocardial tissue of the rats was harvested to assess the degree of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by measuring ATPase activity,superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content.Results Compared with the model group,the rate of ROSC was significantly elevated (90%,80% vs.20%,both P<0.01) in the CDP-Choline group and the adrenaline group,the time of achieving ROSC (s) was shorter (53 ± 10,55 ± 9 vs.95 ± 7,both P<0.01),and the heart rate (HR,bpm) and mean arterial pressure (MAP,mm Hg,1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) at 2 hours after CPR were higher (HR:222.78 ±41.55,167.75 ± 11.76 vs.131.50 ±0.70; MAP:36.53 ±8.69,39.30 ±6.45 vs.30.19 ±5.15,all P<0.01).The cardiac function [the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure increase/decline (± dp/dt max)] in the CDP-Choline group was gradually stabilized and significantly higher than that in the model and the adrenaline groups.The cardiac function in the adrenaline group was higher than that of the model group,but it was in a tendency of lowering.Compared with the model group and the adrenaline group,the reduction of Na+-K+-ATPase (μmol· mg-1· h-1) and SOD (U/mg) activity were significantly increased in the CDP-Choline group (Na+-K+-ATPase:7.35 ± 0.20 vs.5.11 ± 0.69,4.70 ± 0.41; SOD activity:320.65 ± 47.25 vs.225

  3. Excitation functions of parameters in Erlang distribution, Schwinger mechanism, and Tsallis statistics in RHIC BES program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Experimental results of the transverse-momentum distributions of φ mesons and Ω hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Moreover, the STAR experimental transverse-momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in Ω hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV. (orig.)

  4. Excitation functions of parameters in Erlang distribution, Schwinger mechanism, and Tsallis statistics in RHIC BES program

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Li-Na; Lacey, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results of the transverse momentum distributions of phi mesons and $\\Omega$ hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Meanwhile, the STAR experimental transverse momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in $\\Omega$ hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV.

  5. Robust L1 filtering with pole constraint in a disk via parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanhui; Wen Qiyong; Wang Junling; Wang Changhong; Gao Huijun

    2005-01-01

    The problem of robust L1 filtering with pole constraint in a disk for linear continuous polytopic uncertain systems is discussed. The attention is focused on design a linear asymptotically stable filter such that the filtering error system remains robustly stable, and has a L1 performance constraint and pole constraint in a disk. The new robust L1 performance criteria and regional pole placement condition are obtained via parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions method. Upon the proposed multiobjective performance criteria and by means of LMI technique, both full-order and reducedorder robust L1 filter with suitable dynamic behavior can be obtained from the solution of convex optimization problems.Compared with earlier result in the quadratic framework, this approach turns out to be less conservative. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by a numerical example.

  6. Prematurity and Related Biochemical Outcomes: Study of Bone Mineralization and Renal Function Parameters in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Singh Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    phosphorus levels were found to be significantly decreased, and serum ALP, creatinine, and electrolytes were found to be significantly increased (<0.001 at 28–30 weeks as compared to controls, but serum calcium and phosphorous levels were found to be insignificantly decreased, whereas serum ALP activities were found to be insignificantly increased at 28–30 weeks as compared to 30–32 weeks of gestational age in preterm babies. It can be concluded that high serum ALP activity and low serum calcium and phosphorus levels are associated with preterm babies. A significant difference in the mean values of these renal function parameters was also obtained, except for serum sodium and potassium.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of strain modal parameters by Bayesian method using frequency response function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Yi Weijian; Zhihua Yi

    2007-01-01

    Structural strain modes are able to detect changes in local structural performance, but errors are inevitably intermixed in the measured data. In this paper, strain modal parameters are considered as random variables, and their uncertainty is analyzed by a Bayesian method based on the structural frequency response function (FRF). The estimates of strain modal parameters with maximal posterior probability are determined. Several independent measurements of the FRF of a four-story reinforced concrete frame structural model were performed in the laboratory. The ability to identify the stiffness change in a concrete column using the strain mode was verified. It is shown that the uncertainty of the natural frequency is very small. Compared with the displacement mode shape, the variations of strain mode shapes at each point are quite different. The damping ratios are more affected by the types of test systems. Except for the case where a high order strain mode does not identify local damage, the first order strain mode can provide an exact indication of the damage location.

  8. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  9. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Predictors of Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has shown improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR. The aim of this study was to determine factors predictive of survival in extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR). Methods Consecutive 85 adult patients (median age, 59 years; range, 18 to 85 years; 56 males) who underwent E-CPR from May 2005 to December 2012 were evaluated. Results Causes of arrest were cardiogenic in 62 patients (72.9%), septic in 18 patients (21.2%), and hypovolemic in 3 patients (3.5%), while the etiology was not specified in 2 patients (2.4%). The survival rate in patients with septic etiology was significantly poorer compared with those with another etiology (0% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008). Septic etiology (hazard ratio [HR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 5.44; p=0.002) and the interval between arrest and ECLS initiation (HR, 1.05 by 10 minutes increment; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for mortality. When the predictive value of the E-CPR timing for in-hospital mortality was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method, the greatest accuracy was obtained at a cutoff of 60.5 minutes (area under the curve, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80; p=0.032) with 47.8% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The survival rate was significantly different according to the cutoff of 60.5 minutes (p=0.001). Conclusion These results indicate that efforts should be made to minimize the time between arrest and ECLS application, optimally within 60 minutes. In addition, E-CPR in patients with septic etiology showed grave outcomes, suggesting it to be of questionable benefit in these patients. PMID:27525236

  10. Acute posthypoxic myoclonus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwes Aline

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute posthypoxic myoclonus (PHM can occur in patients admitted after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and is considered to have a poor prognosis. The origin can be cortical and/or subcortical and this might be an important determinant for treatment options and prognosis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether acute PHM originates from cortical or subcortical structures, using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP and electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods Patients with acute PHM (focal myoclonus or status myoclonus within 72 hours after CPR were retrospectively selected from a multicenter cohort study. All patients were treated with hypothermia. Criteria for cortical origin of the myoclonus were: giant SEP potentials; or epileptic activity, status epilepticus, or generalized periodic discharges on the EEG (no back-averaging was used. Good outcome was defined as good recovery or moderate disability after 6 months. Results Acute PHM was reported in 79/391 patients (20%. SEPs were available in 51/79 patients and in 27 of them (53% N20 potentials were present. Giant potentials were seen in 3 patients. EEGs were available in 36/79 patients with 23/36 (64% patients fulfilling criteria for a cortical origin. Nine patients (12% had a good outcome. A broad variety of drugs was used for treatment. Conclusions The results of this study show that acute PHM originates from subcortical, as well as cortical structures. Outcome of patients admitted after CPR who develop acute PHM in this cohort was better than previously reported in literature. The broad variety of drugs used for treatment shows the existing uncertainty about optimal treatment.

  11. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  12. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  13. Source parameters of intermediate-depth Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes from empirical Green's functions modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oth, Adrien; Wenzel, Friedemann; Radulian, Mircea

    2007-06-01

    Several source parameters (source dimensions, slip, particle velocity, static and dynamic stress drop) are determined for the moderate-size October 27th, 2004 ( MW = 5.8), and the large August 30th, 1986 ( MW = 7.1) and March 4th, 1977 ( MW = 7.4) Vrancea (Romania) intermediate-depth earthquakes. For this purpose, the empirical Green's functions method of Irikura [e.g. Irikura, K. (1983). Semi-Empirical Estimation of Strong Ground Motions during Large Earthquakes. Bull. Dis. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., 33, Part 2, No. 298, 63-104., Irikura, K. (1986). Prediction of strong acceleration motions using empirical Green's function, in Proceedings of the 7th Japan earthquake engineering symposium, 151-156., Irikura, K. (1999). Techniques for the simulation of strong ground motion and deterministic seismic hazard analysis, in Proceedings of the advanced study course seismotectonic and microzonation techniques in earthquake engineering: integrated training in earthquake risk reduction practices, Kefallinia, 453-554.] is used to generate synthetic time series from recordings of smaller events (with 4 ≤ MW ≤ 5) in order to estimate several parameters characterizing the so-called strong motion generation area, which is defined as an extended area with homogeneous slip and rise time and, for crustal earthquakes, corresponds to an asperity of about 100 bar stress release [Miyake, H., T. Iwata and K. Irikura (2003). Source characterization for broadband ground-motion simulation: Kinematic heterogeneous source model and strong motion generation area. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 93, 2531-2545.] The parameters are obtained by acceleration envelope and displacement waveform inversion for the 2004 and 1986 events and MSK intensity pattern inversion for the 1977 event using a genetic algorithm. The strong motion recordings of the analyzed Vrancea earthquakes as well as the MSK intensity pattern of the 1977 earthquake can be well reproduced using relatively small strong motion

  14. The effects of physical training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid disorders and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Regular physical activity is widely accepted as factor that reduces all-cause mortality and improves a number of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid profile and endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The study included seventy patients with stable CAD. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I - 33 patients with CAD and with regular aerobic physical training during cardiovascular rehabilitation program phase II for 3 weeks in our rehabilitation center and 3 weeks after that in their home setting, and the group II (control - 37 patients with CAD and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise training consisted of continual aerobic exercise for 45 minutes on a treadmill, room bicycle or walking, three times a week. We determined lipid and cardiovascular parameters and nitric oxide (NO concentration at the beginning and after a six-week of training. Results. There were no significant differences in body weight, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the start and at the end of physical training program. Physical training significantly reduced body mass index after six weeks compared to the initial and control values. Physical training significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after a six-week training period (p < 0.05. Heart rate was significantly lower after a training period as compared to the control (p < 0.05. A significant reduction of triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration after cardiovascular rehabilitation were registered (p < 0.05. The concentration of triglycerides was significantly lower while NO and HDL-C were higher after six weeks in the exercise training group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Dynamic training can improve blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and reduce the

  15. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.

  19. Estimation of CN Parameter for Small Agricultural Watersheds Using Asymptotic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kowalik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a possibility of using asymptotic functions to determine the value of curve number (CN parameter as a function of rainfall in small agricultural watersheds. It also compares the actually calculated CN with its values provided in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS National Engineering Handbook Section 4: Hydrology (NEH-4 and Technical Release 20 (TR-20. The analysis showed that empirical CN values presented in the National Engineering Handbook tables differed from the actually observed values. Calculations revealed a strong correlation between the observed CN and precipitation (P. In three of the analyzed watersheds, a typical pattern of the observed CN stabilization during abundant precipitation was perceived. It was found that Model 2, based on a kinetics equation, most effectively described the P-CN relationship. In most cases, the observed CN in the investigated watersheds was similar to the empirical CN, corresponding to average moisture conditions set out by NEH-4. Model 2 also provided the greatest stability of CN at 90% sampled event rainfall.

  20. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Capone, Domenico; Mogami, Roberto; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences].E mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Cunha, Daniel Leme da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2007-11-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  1. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  2. Assessing parameter variability in a photosynthesis model within and between plant functional types using global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A.J.; Molen, van der M.K.; Leuning, R.; Arneth, A.; Delpierre, N.; Gash, J.H.C.; Lindroth, A.; Richardson, A.D.; Verbeeck, H.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vegetation component in climate models has advanced since the late 1960s from a uniform prescription of surface parameters to plant functional types (PFTs). PFTs are used in global land-surface models to provide parameter values for every model grid cell. With a simple photosynthesis model we de

  3. Relative importance of energy dependent diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the analysis of fusion excitation function data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the relative importance of the energy dependence of diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the description of the fusion excitation function data of some heavy ion systems in near barrier energy region. The effects of the energy dependent diffuseness parameter are found to be much more prominent in comparison to those of barrier position. (authors)

  4. Relative importance of energy dependent diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the analysis of fusion excitation function data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharab Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the relative importance of the energy dependence of diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the description of the fusion excitation function data of some heavy ion systems in near barrier energy region. The effects of the energy dependent diffuseness parameter are found to be much more prominent in comparison to those of barrier position.

  5. Generalized function of the parameters in the storage-discharge relation for low flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Kazumasa; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    The accurate estimation of low flows can contribute to better water resource management and more reliable evaluation of the impact of climate change on water resources. For the case of low flows, the nonlinearity of the discharge Q associated with the storage S was originally proposed by Horton (1936) as the power function Q=KSN, where K is a constant and N is the exponent. Although the Q(S) relations for groundwater runoff from unconfined aquifers have been treated as second-order polynomial functions on the basis of the hydraulic investigation by Ding (1966), the general power function Q = KNSN was introduced into the unit hydrograph model for overland flow and the parameters K and N were calibrated by Ding (2011). According to recent studies, the value of the exponent N is varied between 1 and 3 or higher by calibration (e.g., Wittenberg, 1994 and Ding, 2011); however, it is currently unclear whether the optimum value of N has the rule. Fujimura et al. (2014) applied the general power function Q = KNSN for low flows in mountainous basins over a period spanning more than 10 years using hourly data, and carried out sensitivity analysis using a hydrological model for 19 900 sets of the two parameters K and N, in which the exponent N was varied between 1 and 100 in steps of 0.5. The results showed that the optimum relation between N and K could be characterized by the exponential function K=1/(α Nβ), where α and β are constants. Moreover, the lowest error in the sensitivity analysis was obtained by using an exponent N of 100. The aim of this study is to extend the previous study of Fujimura et al. to clarify the properties of the K(N) relations. A sensitivity analysis is performed efficiently using a hydrological model, in which the exponent N is varied between 1 and 100 000 along the neighborhood of the exponential function K=1/(α Nβ). The hourly hydrological model used in this study comprises the Diskin-Nazimov infiltration model, groundwater recharge and

  6. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter

  7. Misonidazole neurotoxicity in the mouse: evaluation of functional, pharmacokinetic, electrophysiologic and morphologic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neurotoxic effects of chronic administration of misonidazole (0.3 mg/g/day, 5 times weekly) were investigated in Balb/cKa mice over 12 weeks; a variety of measurements were used, including functional and clinical performance, morphologic, electrophysiologic and pharmacokinetic parameters. The half life of drug for a single dose was greater in brain (3 hrs) compared to serum (1.2 hrs); these values decreased to 1.9 hrs and 1.0 hrs respectively after 3 weeks. Misonidazole induced a peripheral lesion after three weeks with a total administered dose of 13.5 g/m2 or exposure dose of 57 to 75 mM X hrs, which is similar to the doses that cause neuropathy in humans. There was some suggestion of a central neurological deficit related to locomotor control and balance; however, no gross morphological damage was found in the brain. The sequence of effects demonstrated began at 3 to 4 weeks and included: 1) morphologic damage to peripheral nerves; 2) hyperactivity and listlessness; 3) a decrease in rotarod retention time which reached a value 50% of that of saline injected control mice at 8 to 10 weeks; 4) walking on tip-toes with a slightly hunched back (4 to 6 weeks); and 5) an increase in hind foot splay (6 to 7 weeks). The morphologic damage primarily involved the more distal portions of the nerves supplying the interosseous muscles and footpads of the hind limbs. The damage was more severe and progressed more rapidly with time in these distal areas compared to the more proximal regions of the nerves. No marked changes were found in nerve conduction velocity although neuropathy produced by acrylamide produced significant decreases. The changes in neurological parameters reported here may be useful in the further evaluation of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers

  8. Comparative evaluation of several parameters of glycemic homeostasis in patients with functional pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rostislavovna Mikityuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate glycemic homeostasis in patients with acromegaly and hyperprolactinaemia due to functional pituitary adenoma.Materials and Methods. We enrolled 48 patients with somatotropinoma (Group 1, 19 patients with somatomammotropinoma (Group 2 and 24 patients with prolactinoma (Group 3 with no history of glycemic disorders. Median age was 48.63±9.98 years; median disease duration was 13.1±6.9 years. The comparison group was composed of overweight or obese patients (n=75. We conducted a comparative analysis of glycemic parameters (Glc0, immunoreactive insulin, HOMA2_S%, HOMA2_B% и HOMA2_IR, Ssum and S under isolated segments of the glycemic curve. We also tested their correlation with plasma levels of growth hormone, prolactin and IGF-1.Results. We detected hyperinsulinemia (>20 μU/mL in 35.1% of participants from Group 1, 33.3% and 25% from groups 2 and 3, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between glycemic parameters of the study groups, though patients were mildly insulin resistant (HOMA2_IR 1.88 to 2.38 units independantly from tumour secretory activity. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized by significantly higher fasting blood glucose levels vs. comparison group (though still within the reference values, and glucose homeostasis was maintained with lower activity of pancreatic β-cells. Average Ssumanalysis showed lower glucose tolerance in groups 1 and 2 vs. Group 3. Median S values under isolated glycemic curve segments were significantly higher than in comparison group. Plasma levels of growth hormone did not correlate with Ssum and S parameters in groups 1 and 2. There was a linear correlation between Ssum and plasma IGF-1 levels in patients from Group 1 (r=0.45; p=0.006. We also noted that Ssum had a non-linear correlation with plasma prolactin levels in patients from Group 3 (r=0.41; p<0.05.Conclusion. Postprandial area under the glycemic curve has positive linear association with

  9. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V; Rooney, William D; Garzotto, Mark G; Springer, Charles S

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (K(trans)) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  10. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V.; Rooney, William D.; Garzotto, Mark G.; Springer, Charles S.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (Ktrans) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  11. Quantitative Functional Imaging Using Dynamic Positron Computed Tomography and Rapid Parameter Estimation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppe, Robert Allen

    Positron computed tomography (PCT) is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides both three dimensional imaging capability and quantitative measurements of local tissue radioactivity concentrations in vivo. This allows the development of non-invasive methods that employ the principles of tracer kinetics for determining physiological properties such as mass specific blood flow, tissue pH, and rates of substrate transport or utilization. A physiologically based, two-compartment tracer kinetic model was derived to mathematically describe the exchange of a radioindicator between blood and tissue. The model was adapted for use with dynamic sequences of data acquired with a positron tomograph. Rapid estimation techniques were implemented to produce functional images of the model parameters by analyzing each individual pixel sequence of the image data. A detailed analysis of the performance characteristics of three different parameter estimation schemes was performed. The analysis included examination of errors caused by statistical uncertainties in the measured data, errors in the timing of the data, and errors caused by violation of various assumptions of the tracer kinetic model. Two specific radioindicators were investigated. ('18)F -fluoromethane, an inert freely diffusible gas, was used for local quantitative determinations of both cerebral blood flow and tissue:blood partition coefficient. A method was developed that did not require direct sampling of arterial blood for the absolute scaling of flow values. The arterial input concentration time course was obtained by assuming that the alveolar or end-tidal expired breath radioactivity concentration is proportional to the arterial blood concentration. The scale of the input function was obtained from a series of venous blood concentration measurements. The method of absolute scaling using venous samples was validated in four studies, performed on normal volunteers, in which directly measured arterial concentrations

  12. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care.

  13. The use of VEPs for CNS monitoring during continuous cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, N K; Taylor, M J; Coles, J G; Prieur, B J; Burrows, F A

    1987-07-01

    Cerebral function was monitored with the use of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 16 infants (mean age 9.9 +/- 4.3 months) during surgery for congenital cardiac anomalies. While hypothermia was employed in all patients, half (8) remained on continuous cardiopulmonary bypass (CCB) while the rest were cooled to lower temperatures before the induction of circulatory stasis and venous exsanguination (CA), i.e., profound hypothermic circulatory arrest (PHCA). VEPs were recorded before, during and after surgical intervention. Latency changes occurred in both the N100 and P145 components of the VEP as a function of systemic temperature during cooling in both groups. Differences in the VEPs were found between the two groups post-operatively, with the most interesting result being a greater increase in P145 latency in the CA group after rewarming. To the extent that VEPs reflect neurological status, our findings suggested that CCB was associated with less perturbation in acute neurological status than PHCA, and shorter arrest times and lower temperatures during CA were associated with the most favourable post-operative VEPs. Hence, intraoperative monitoring of VEPs appeared to be useful as an objective measure of the short-term effects of various cardiopulmonary procedures on neurophysiological function.

  14. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast. PMID:27220252

  15. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast.

  16. Heart and Lungs Protection Technique for Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pichugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardioplegic cardiac arrest with subsequent ischemic-reperfusion injuries can lead to the development of inflammation of the myocardium, leucocyte activation, and release of cardiac enzymes. Flow reduction to the bronchial arteries, causing low-flow lung ischemia, leads to the development of a pulmonary regional inflammatory response. Hypoventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is responsible for development of microatelectasis, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, poor compliance, and a higher incidence of infection. Based on these facts, prevention methods of these complications were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate constant coronary perfusion (CCP and the “beating heart” in combination with pulmonary artery perfusion (PAP and “ventilated lungs” technique for heart and lung protection in cardiac surgery with CPB.Methods. After ethical approval and written informed consent, 80 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with normothermic CPB were randomized in three groups. In the first group (22 patients, the crystalloid cardioplegia without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the second group (30 patients, the CCP and “beating heart” without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the third group (28 patients, the CCP with PAP and lung ventilation techniques were used. Clinical, functional parameters, myocardial damage markers (CK MB level, oxygenation index, and lung compliance were investigated.Results. There were higher rates of spontaneous cardiac recovery and lower doses of inotrops in the second and third groups. Myocardial contractility function was better preserved in the second and third groups. The post-operative levels of CK-MB were lower than in control group.  Three hours after surgery CK-MB levels in the second and third  groups were lower by 38.1% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight hours after surgery, CK-MB levels were lower in the second and third groups by 45.9% and

  17. The mass movement routing tool r.randomwalk and its functionalities for parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Julia; Mergili, Martin

    2016-04-01

    r.randomwalk is a GIS-based, multi-functional conceptual tool for mass movement routing. Starting from one to many release points or release areas, mass points are routed down through the digital elevation model until a defined break criterion is reached. Break criteria are defined by the user and may consist in an angle of reach or a related parameter (empirical-statistical relationships), in the drop of the flow velocity to zero (two-parameter friction model), or in the exceedance of a maximum runup height. Multiple break criteria may be combined. A constrained random walk approach is applied for the routing procedure, where the slope and the perpetuation of the flow direction determine the probability of the flow to move in a certain direction. r.randomwalk is implemented as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software and, as such, is open source. It can be obtained from http://www.mergili.at/randomwalk.html. Besides other innovative functionalities, r.randomwalk serves with built-in functionalities for the derivation of an impact indicator index (III) map with values in the range 0-1. III is derived from multiple model runs with different combinations of input parameters varied in a random or controlled way. It represents the fraction of model runs predicting an impact at a given pixel and is evaluated against the observed impact area through an ROC Plot. The related tool r.ranger facilitates the automated generation and evaluation of many III maps from a variety of sets of parameter combinations. We employ r.randomwalk and r.ranger for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Thereby we do not focus on parameter values, but - accounting for the uncertainty inherent in all parameters - on parameter ranges. In this sense, we demonstrate two strategies for parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization. We avoid to (i) use one-at-a-time parameter testing which would fail to account for interdependencies of the parameters, and (ii) to explore all possible

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Solé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called “Jaleo Menorquín”. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called “el bot”. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females, with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76, those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36 as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21. The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses.

  19. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermid, Richard M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Alatalo, Katherine [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp- CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocker, Alison F. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krajnović, Davor [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: richard.mcdermid@mq.edu.au [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  20. Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Thyroid Function Parameters in Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A considerable portion of patients with depressive disorders do not respond properly to medical treatment and need Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. On the other hand, as some beneficial effects of ECT are attributed to increase in thyroid hormones, levothyronin is used as an adjuvant prior to ECT. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function changes after ECT. Methods: This was an out come study done on depressed patients attending the psychiatric clinic who were resistant to medical therapy and therefore candidates for ECT. Blood samples were drawn before the first and the last ECT and serum levels of T3, T4, T3RU and TSH were measured. Results: Thirty-one patients (19 males and 12 females were enrolled the study. Serum levels of T3 and T3RU significantly increased by ECT (p-values of 0.0001 and 0.029, respectively. T3 increased in all 31 patients and this was true for both genders and all age groups and also for various durations of depression, but T4 and TSH levels decreased significantly (p-values of 0.025 and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that some effects of ECT may be primarily due to increased T3 levels and other parameters change accordingly. These findings need to be confirmed by further studies

  1. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, M.; Cervantes, I.; Gutierrez, J. P.; Gomez, M. D.; Valera, M.

    2014-06-01

    Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called Jaleo Menorquin. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called el bot. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females), with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76), those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36) as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21). The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses. (Author)

  2. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  3. THEORETICAL STUDY OF AN OSCILLATING WAVEFORM FUNCTION AND PARAMETERS FOR CONTROLLING THE NON-SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATION OF A MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Tingzhi; Liu Cai

    2004-01-01

    A new non-sinusoidal oscillation waveform is constructed for controlling the mold oscillation during continuous casting. Casting velocity and oscillation parameters are then established for a computer model of the continuous casting process. The waveform distortion coefficient ε of waveform function is close to the waveform distortion rate α, so ε is taken for ε when the basic parameters are selected initially. The waveform function can be created for the servo hydraulic system or the mechanical driving system. Industrial scale experiments show the waveform function is effective.

  4. The influence of biomaterials on inflammatory responses to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, J M; Matata, B M; Yin, H Q; Esposito, A; Mahiout, A; Taggart, D P; Lowe, G D

    1996-05-01

    The nature of cardiopulmonary bypass and the complexity of the inflammatory response make the detection and interpretation of a biomaterial influence difficult. However, if mediation of the inflammatory response is considered to be an appropriate clinical goal, alteration to the biomaterial influence merits further investigation.

  5. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  6. QUALITY-OF-LIFE AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY-RESUSCITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MIRANDA, DR

    1994-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the influence of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on the components of quality of life (QOL) of patients after discharge from the hospital. Design: Extracted from a prospective national survey on Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). Setting: Thirty-six ICUs of both

  7. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator. 870.4350 Section 870.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during...

  8. Release of endogenous vasopressors during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, K. H.; Haak, T; Keller, A; Bothner, U.; Lurie, K. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether plasma endothelin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol concentrations were higher during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients in whom resuscitation was successful than in those in whom it failed, and to measure the concentrations of these hormones in the immediate post-resuscitation phase. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Emergency medical service at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients wi...

  9. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    2006-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using u

  10. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Simon; Devereaux, P J;

    2008-01-01

    We sought to establish the efficacy and safety of prophylactic steroids in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials reporting the effects of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes after CPB. Outcomes examined were mortality...

  11. Towards all-order Laurent expansion of generalized hypergeometric functions around rational values of parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykov, M.Yu.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-07-15

    We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in {epsilon} of the Gauss hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+(p/q)+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z) and {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+ a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), where I{sub 1},I{sub 2},I{sub 3},p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and {epsilon} is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+c{epsilon};z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1}({gamma}(j))/({gamma}(1+j-(p)/(q))) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1) and the multiple rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1} ({gamma}(j+(p)/(q)))/({gamma}(1+j)) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1), where S{sub a}(j)={sigma}{sup j}{sub k=1}(1)/(k{sup a}) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p.1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon},(p)/(q)+B{sub p-1};z) and {sub p}F{sub p-1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon},(p)/(q)+A{sub p};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon};z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)

  12. Influence of emphysema distribution on pulmonary function parameters in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Novais e Bastos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact that the distribution of emphysema has on clinical and functional severity in patients with COPD. METHODS: The distribution of the emphysema was analyzed in COPD patients, who were classified according to a 5-point visual classification system of lung CT findings. We assessed the influence of emphysema distribution type on the clinical and functional presentation of COPD. We also evaluated hypoxemia after the six-minute walk test (6MWT and determined the six-minute walk distance (6MWD. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were included. The mean age was 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 91.9% were male, and all but one were smokers (mean smoking history, 62.7 ± 38.4 pack-years. The emphysema distribution was categorized as obviously upper lung-predominant (type 1, in 36.0% of the patients; slightly upper lung-predominant (type 2, in 25.6%; homogeneous between the upper and lower lung (type 3, in 16.3%; and slightly lower lung-predominant (type 4, in 22.1%. Type 2 emphysema distribution was associated with lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and DLCO. In comparison with the type 1 patients, the type 4 patients were more likely to have an FEV1 < 65% of the predicted value (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 1.43-33.45; p = 0.016, a 6MWD < 350 m (OR = 6.36, 95% CI: 1.26-32.18; p = 0.025, and post-6MWT hypoxemia (OR = 32.66, 95% CI: 3.26-326.84; p = 0.003. The type 3 patients had a higher RV/TLC ratio, although the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD appears to be greater in type 4 patients, and type 3 patients tend to have greater hyperinflation. The distribution of emphysema could have a major impact on functional parameters and should be considered in the evaluation of COPD patients.

  13. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  14. 血内脂素、尿酸水平与慢性肺源性心脏病及心肺功能相关性研究%The relationships among blood visfatin,blood uric acid levels and cardiopulmonary function in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉馨; 邓建能; 李永强; 张志海; 许健辉; 李映梅; 李青艳; 李丽荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨血内脂素及尿酸对慢性肺源性心脏病患者心、肺功能的影响及相关性。方法选取我院呼吸内科收治的慢性肺源性心脏病患者90例为观察组(肺心病组),其中 NYHA 心功能分级Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级各30例。选择同期来我院健康体检者40例为对照组。检测两组受试者血内脂素及尿酸水平,并检测肺心病患者血氧分压、肺功能,对检测结果进行统计学分析。结果肺心病组血内脂素水平明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P 均<0.001)。随着心功能级别的升高,血内脂素水平逐渐升高,心功能Ⅱ级与Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级比较,其内脂素水平差异有统计学意义(P 均<0.05),心肺功能下降与血内脂素水平呈正相关(r =0.827,P <0.05),表明血内脂素水平与慢性肺源性心脏病密切相关。此外,肺心病组血尿酸水平明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P 均<0.05);心功能Ⅱ级与Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级的血尿酸水平差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),且心肺功能下降与血尿酸水平呈正相关(r =0.806,P <0.05)。结论血内脂素水平及尿酸含量的监测对慢性肺源性心脏病患者的诊治有重要参考意义。%Objective To assess the effects of blood visfatin and uric acid on cardiopulmonary function in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease and their correlations. Methods Ninety patients with pulmo-nary heart disease who were cared at Respiratory Medicine Department of our hospital were selected as an ob-servation group,30 of them got NYHA class Ⅱ,30 of them got NYHA class Ⅲ,30 of them got NYHA classⅣ.At the same time,45 healthy controls were selected from Health Examination Center.The blood visfatin and uric acid levels were detected in the two groups,and artery blood oxygen partial pressure and cardiopulmo-nary function level were detected in observation and control groups,all date were analyzed statistically. Re-sults Comparing the observation group

  15. File management for experiment control parameters within a distributed function computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt to design and implement a computer system for control of and data collection from a set of laboratory experiments reveals that many of the experiments in the set require an extensive collection of parameters for their control. The operation of the experiments can be greatly simplified if a means can be found for storing these parameters between experiments and automatically accessing them as they are required. A subsystem for managing files of such experiment control parameters is discussed. 3 figures

  16. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients’ PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (p<0.001). In distinguishing ROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived. PMID:24639823

  17. Earlier application of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support rescues patients from severe cardiopulmonary failure using the APACHE III scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suk-Won; Yang, Hong-Suk; Lee, Sak; Youn, Young-Nam; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2009-12-01

    Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) is a widely accepted treatment for severe cardiopulmonary failure. This system, which uses a percutaneous approach and autopriming devices, can be rapidly applied in emergency situations. We sought to identify the risk factors that could help predict in-hospital mortality, and to assess its outcomes in survivors. During a 2-yr period, 50 patients underwent PCPS for the treatment of severe cardiopulmonary failure, and of those, 22 (44%) were classified as survivors and 28 (56%) as non-survivors. We compared the 2 groups for risk factors of in-hospital mortality and to establish proper PCPS timing. Twenty patients underwent PCPS for acute myocardial infarction, 20 for severe cardiopulmonary failure after cardiac surgery, 7 for acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 3 for acute myocarditis. Multivariate analysis showed that an acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score >or=50 prior to PCPS was the only significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (P=0.001). Overall 18-month survival was 42.2%. Cox analysis showed patients with APACHE III scores >or=50 had a poor prognosis (P=0.001). Earlier application of PCPS, and other preemptive strategies designed to optimize high-risk patients, may improve patient outcomes. Identifying patients with high APACHE scores at the beginning of PCPS may predict in-hospital mortality. Survivors, particularly those with higher APACHE scores, may require more frequent follow-up to improve overall survival.

  18. Characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals: a randomized controlled study in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengfen Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because the characteristics of blast waves in water are different from those in air and because kinetic energy is liberated by a pressure wave at the water-air interface, thoracic injuries from mine blasts in shoals may be serious. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals. METHODS: To study the characteristics of cardiopulmonary injury, 56 animals were divided randomly into three experimental groups (12 animals in the sham group, 22 animals in the land group and 22 animals in the shoal group. To examine the biomechanics of injury, 20 animals were divided randomly into the land group and the shoal group. In the experimental model, the water surface was at the level of the rabbit's xiphoid process, and paper electric detonators (600 mg RDX were used to simulate mines. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted, and arterial blood gases, serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB and other physiologic parameters were measured over a 12-hour period after detonation. Pressures in the thorax and abdomen and the acceleration of the thorax were measured. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that severe cardiopulmonary injury and dysfunction occur following exposure to mine blasts in shoals. Therefore, the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury may result from shear waves that produce strain at the water-air interface. Another mechanism of injury includes the propagation of the shock wave from the planta to the thorax, which causes a much higher peak overpressure in the abdomen than in the thorax; as a result, the abdominal organs and diaphragm are thrust into the thorax, damaging the lungs and heart.

  19. Estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters by remote sensing using radial basis function neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hua; HUANG Jing-feng; WANG Jian-wen; WANG Xiu-zhen; LIU Zhan-yu

    2007-01-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) data were recorded at two different sites of rice in two experiment fields including two cultivars, and three levels of nitrogen (N) application. Twenty-five Vegetation Indices (VIs) were used to predict the rice agronomic parameters including Leaf Area Index (LAI, m2 green leaf/m2 soil) and Green Leaf Chlorophyll Density (GLCD,mg chlorophyll/m2 soil) by the traditional regression models and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF). RBF emerged as a variant of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the late 1980's. A large variety of training algorithms has been tested for training RBF networks. In this study, Original RBF (ORBF), Gradient Descent RBF (GDRBF), and Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) were employed. Results showed that green waveband Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVIgreen) and TCARI/OSAVI have the best prediction power for LAI by exponent model and ORBF respectively, and that TCARI/OSAVI has the best prediction power for GLCD by exponent model and GDRBF. The best performances of RBF are compared with the traditional models, showing that the relationship between VIs and agronomic variables are further improved when RBF is used.Compared with the best traditional models, ORBF using TCARI/OSAVI improves the prediction power for LAI by lowering the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for 0.1119, and GDRBF using TCARI/OSAVI improves the prediction power for GLCD by lowering the RMSE for 26.7853. It is concluded that RBF provides a useful exploratory and predictive tool when applied to the sensitive VIs.

  20. A Parameter-Free Filled Function for Unconstrained Global Optimization%无约束全局最优化中的无参数填充函数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安澜; 张连生; 陈美霖

    2004-01-01

    The filled.function method is an approach for finding a global minimum of multi-dimensional functions. With more and more relevant research, it becomes a promising way used in unconstrained global optimization. Some filled functions with one or two parameters have already been suggested. However, there is no certain criterion to choose a parameter appropriately. In this paper, a parameter-free filled function was proposed. The definition of the original filled function and assumptions of the objective function given by Ge were improved according to the presented parameter-free filled function. The algorithm and numerical results of test functions were reported. Conclusions were drawn in the end.

  1. Direct estimates of food and eating production function parameters for 2004-12 using an ATUS/CEX synthetic dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar; Rios-Avila, Fernando; Kim, Kijong

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the presence of heterogeneity, by household type, in the elasticity of substitution between food expenditures and time and in the goods intensity parameter in the household food and eating production functions. We use a synthetic dataset constructed by statistically matching the American Time Use Survey and the Consumer Expenditure Survey. We establish the presence of heterogeneity in the elasticity of substitution and in the intensity parameter. We find that the elastici...

  2. Estimating the parameters of stochastic differential equations using a criterion function based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, A. David; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of parameters in the drift and diffusion terms of stochastic differential equations involves simulation and generally requires substantial data sets. We examine a method that can be applied when available time series are limited to less than 20 observations per replication. We compare and contrast parameter estimation for linear and nonlinear first-order stochastic differential equations using two criterion functions: one based on a Chi-square statistic, put forward by Hurn and Lin...

  3. Unique effects on hepatic function, lipid metabolism, bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Klipping, Christine; Zimmerman, Yvette; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver. In combination with drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG), E4 blocks ovulation and has less effect on haemostatic biomarkers in comparison with ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with DRSP. This study evaluates the impact of several doses of E4/DRSP and E4/LNG on safety parameters such as liver function, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrine parameters. Methods This was a dose-finding, s...

  4. Computing Likelihood Functions for High-Energy Physics Experiments when Distributions are Defined by Simulators with Nuisance Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Radford, M

    2008-01-01

    When searching for new phenomena in high-energy physics, statistical analysis is complicated by the presence of nuisance parameters, representing uncertainty in the physics of interactions or in detector properties. Another complication, even with no nuisance parameters, is that the probability distributions of the models are speci ed only by simulation programs, with no way of evaluating their probability density functions. I advocate expressing the result of an experiment by means of the likelihood function, rather than by frequentist con dence intervals or p-values. A likelihood function for this problem is dif- cult to obtain, however, for both of the reasons given above. I discuss ways of circumventing these problems by reducing dimensionality using a classi er and employing simulations with multiple values for the nuisance parameters.

  5. Effect of loading condition, specimen geometry, size-effect and softening function on double- fracture parameters of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents numerical investigation of the influence of the specimen geometry, loading condition, size-effect and softening function of concrete on double- fracture parameters. The input data needed for computation of the double- fracture parameters are obtained from the well-known version of Fictitious Crack Model (FCM). FCM is developed for three standard specimens: three-point bend test, compact tension specimen and four-point bend test of size range 100–600 mm at relative size of initial crack length 0.3. The analysis of numerical results shows some interesting behaviour of double- fracture parameters.

  6. Estudo da função pulmonar em pacientes submetidos a revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea com derivação intraluminal Pulmonary function study in patients who underwent myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass with an intraluminal shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rocha Pinto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available As alterações da função pulmonar nos pacientes submetidos a cirurgias com auxílio da Circulação Extracorpórea (CEC têm sido relatadas na literatura. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a função pulmonar de um grupo de pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem o uso da CEC. Foram estudados de maneira prospectiva 23 pacientes portadores de insuficiência coronariana e submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem CEC. A idade variou de 36 a 69 anos, sendo 16 pacientes do sexo masculino e sete do sexo feminino. A avaliação da função pulmonar foi feita através de espirometria e prova alvéolo-respiratória, realizadas no período pré-operatório, no quarto dia (PO4 e no décimo dia (PO10> pós-operatório. A análise dos dados revelou redução da Capacidade Vital (CV em 37,84% (pPulmonary complications are a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality in those patients undergoing operations utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary function after myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass using a intraluminal shunt. Twenty-three patients with coronary disease were submitted to surgery by this technique and pulmonary function testing was conducted consecutively. The surgeries were performed via a median sternotomy with a reversed saphenous vein and/or an internal mammary artery graft. The age ranged from 36 to 69 years (mean 56,3 years. The group was comprised by 16 men and seven women. The pulmonary function tests consisted of spirometric investigations and blood gases measurements with evaluation of intrapulmonary shunt degree, both analyzed during the preoperative period, at the 4th (PO4 and at the 10th (PO10 postoperative day. In spirometry were determinated the vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV, forced expiratory flow over middle half of FVC (FEF

  7. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Timur; Aslan, Meryem Doğan; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT) application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p 0.05). KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters.

  8. Characterization of Micro- and Nanometer Resolved Technical Surfaces with Function-oriented Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    The structural properties of technical surfaces become more important in the applications of micro and nanotechnology. The possible relationships between geometrical properties of technical surfaces and their functional behavior are commonly investigated by functional tests. Although functional tests may provide correlations between the measured variable and the functional behavior of products, available information is not always sufficient to understand reasons for the lack of functionality ...

  9. Effect of window function for measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter using fast fourier transform of tone-burst signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Jong Beom; Song, Dong Gil; Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In ultrasonic nonlinear parameter measurement using the fast Fourier transform(FFT) of tone-burst signals, the side lobe and leakage on spectrum because of finite time and non-periodicity of signals makes it difficult to measure the harmonic magnitudes accurately. The window function made it possible to resolve this problem. In this study, the effect of the Hanning and Turkey window functions on the experimental measurement of nonlinear parameters was analyzed. In addition, the effect of changes in tone burst signal number with changes in the window function on the experimental measurement was analyzed. The result for both window functions were similar and showed that they enabled reliable nonlinear parameter measurement. However, in order to restore original signal amplitude, the amplitude compensation coefficient should be considered for each window function. On a separate note, the larger number of tone bursts was advantageous for stable nonlinear parameter measurement, but this effect was more advantageous in the case of the Hanning window than the Tukey window.

  10. The Effect of Chemical Therapy with Bleomycin Sulfate on the Functional Parameters of the Endocrine Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bleomycin sulfate on parameters related to the functionality of pancreatic tissue, with emphasis on the glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, insulinemia and static secretion of insulin as well as the insulin receptor, and PKA, PKC and GLUT2 concentrations in the pancreatic islets. Design Twenty-four male rats were divided into 2 groups: control and treated with bleomycin (2.5 mg/kg, intratracheal mode. After 7 days, the animals were euthanized and the analyses were carried out. Statistics The normality and the homoscedasticity of the data distribution were tested and ANOVA was applied. The Tukey post hoc test followed ANOVA for the comparison of the static insulin secretion test at different glucose concentrations. Results In the glucose tolerance test, the bleomycin group showed a larger area (17,306±539 mg/dLx60min than that of the control group (9,151±517 mg/dLx60min and in the insulin tolerance test, there was a greater percentage fall in glycemia (8.08±0.56% in the bleomycin than in the control group (3.87±1.14%. The bleomycin group also presented a reduction in insulin secretion and an increase in plasmatic insulin concentration in the static insulin secretion test. With respect to the concentrations of the insulin receptor, GLUT2, PKC and PKA in the pancreatic islets of the bleomycin group, there was an increase in GLUT2 (48.4% and PKC (70.8% and a reduction in PKA (38.5%. Conclusion During treatment with bleomycin, innumerable chemical-metabolic alterations were unleashed in the tissues which were not primary targets of the chemical therapy and which could compromise the homeostasis of the systems taking part in the glycemic adjustment, predisposing the organism to the development of a pre-diabetic pattern whose degree of incidence or reversibility is still unknown to the scientific community.

  11. Assessment of left ventricular function parameters with a new three-dimensional shape model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansmann, P.M.; Lund, G.; Kemper, J.; Adam, G.; Stork, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg, Eppendorf (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Senegas, J. [Philips Research Europe (Germany); Muellerleile, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg, Eppendorf (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kardiologie/Angiologie

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate a 3D model of the left ventricle (LV) which allows calculation of LV function parameters on the basis of both short axis (SA) and long axis (LA) cine acquisitions. Comparison with the conventional Simpson's rule method in a volunteer and patient collective. Cine imaging was performed with a prospectively triggered SSFP sequence: trueFISP: TR 3.6 msec, TE 1.8 msec, bFFE: TR 3.0 msec, TE 1.4 msec, flip angle 60 , resolution 1.37 x 1.37 mm, slice thickness 8 mm, gap 2 mm in SA orientation from apex to basis and in radial LA orientation (spacing 15 ) in 11 volunteers and 27 patients with mitral valve insufficiency. Five different volume computations were compared: Simpson's rule based on all SA slices (M0), 3D shape model based on all SA slices (M1a), 3D shape model based on 3 SA slices (M1b), 3D shape model based on all SA and LA slices (M2a), and 3D shape model based on 3 SA slices and 1 LA slice (M2b). M 0 and M 1a give similar results (r: 0.99, b: 0.98). M 2a produces larger volumes than M 0 (b: 0.85) due to the inclusion of the LA contours. M 1b effectively reproduces the volumes computed with M 0 (r: 0.99, b: 1.02). M 2b effectively reproduces the volumes computed with M 2a (r: 0.99, b: 0.94). M 2b and M 0 give similar results in the patient collective (r: 0.99, b: 0.97). The proposed 3D shape model allows merging of information acquired in different orientations and thus the combination of SA and LA contours with better coverage of the left ventricle. It provides a suitable fit with a reduced number of segmented contours. (orig.)

  12. 模拟不同海拔氦氧潜水和体力负荷对人体心肺功能的影响%Effect of simulated different high altitude helium-oxygen diving and physical load on cardiopulmonary function of divers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪涛; 周述尧; 张延猛; 石路

    2013-01-01

    Objective To monitor physiological indexes of divers in simulated different high altitude helium-oxygen (heliox) diving,and also to explore the effect of different high-altitude diving and physical load on the cardiopulmonary function of divers.Methods In the dual-purpose hyperbaric-hypobaric chambers,4 divers were exposed to simulated altitudes of 50 (plain),3000,4000 and 5200 m for a succession of 9 days.The divers stayed at 50,3000 and 4000 m for 2 days respectively,but at 5200 m they stayed for 3 days.At 3000 and 4000 m,the divers conducted 30 m simulated dives,once a day.On the first day at 5200 m,the divers carried out a 30 m simulated dive,and on the second day a 50 m dive,but on the third day no diving activity was conducted.The duration of diving was all 60 minutes.Heart rate and stroke volume of the divers were detected every morning,after they sat at ease for 10 minutes.Heart rate,arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and exhaled end CO2 volume were measured after the divers took 1 min rest on the treadmill.Then,the divers had 5-minute treadmill exercise with load of 0.5 kg and speed of 60r/min.The pace of exercise was measured with a pacemeter,and heart rate and SaO2 at the end of each minute were detected for a succession of 5 minutes.After exercise,the divers sat at ease on the treadmill,and heart rate,SaO2 and exhaled end CO2 volume were recorded at the end of each minute for a succession of 3 minutes.Every afternoon,the divers carried out simulated dives,during which heart rate was monitored.(No diving at the plain,but the physiological indexes was measured,which was used as basic value).Change value of heart rate was the heart rate at the 5th minute subtracted by the recovery heart rate at the 3rd minute.The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was thus calculated according to heart rate by using the Astrand P.O nomogram.Results (1) When the simulated 30 m dive was performed at the altitudes of 3 000 and 4 000 m,the heart rates of the divers decreased by 9

  13. 踏板操对职业女性身体形态、心肺功能和脂代谢的影响%Effects of Step Aerobics on Professional Female′s Morphology,Cardiopulmonary Function and Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋君; 杨世强

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the body-building function of the step aerobics so as to provide experimental basis for the promotion of the exercise in the body-building field. Methods: test the body shape indicator, heart and lung function and relative lipid metabolism indicators of 32 professional females before and after the step aerobics exercise. Results: 1) Compared with the indicators before the exercise, their heart rates at rest were significantly decreased (P 〈 0.05) . The exercise indicators, such as the vital capacity (VC), FVC and other indicators of lung function significantly or very significantly increased (P 〈 0.05 or P 〈 0. 01) . 2) After 6 months' step aero- bic exercises, their weight, body fat percentage (BF), body fat weight (BF) and other indicators reduced signif- icantly or very significantly ( P 〈 0.05 or P 〈 0. 01 ) ; Lean body mass index and level significantly or very significantly increased ( P 〈 0.05 or P 〈 0.01 ) . 3) The serum triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels reduced significantly ( P 〈 0. 01 ), and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HI)L-c) were increased significantly ( P 〈 0.01) . Conclusion: The step aerobics can effectively improve the cardiopulmonary function, body composition and fat metabolism of the subjects. It is a good exercise method which can be promoted in the body-building field.%研究目的:探讨踏板操的健身功效,为踏板操在健身领域中的推广提供实验依据。方法:对健身房内参加踏板操锻炼的32名职业女性锻炼前后身体形态指标、心肺功能和相关脂代谢指标进行测试。结果:1)受试者安静心率与练习前相比显著降低(P〈0.05),台阶指数肺活量、用力肺活量等肺功能指标显著或极显著升高(P〈0.05或P〈0.01)。2)经过6个月踏板操练习后,体重、体脂百分比

  14. Protective Effect of Heparin-coated Circuits on the Platelets during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯伦; 胡志伟; 杨运海; 黄如清; 范慧敏; 孙宗全

    2003-01-01

    To observe the protective effect of heparin-coated circuits (HCC) on the platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). 23 patients with heart valve replacement were studied. The system heparin dose was 3 mg/kg in the control group (n= 15) and heparin-coated circuits in the HCC group (n = 8). Platelet count, α-granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140) concentrations were determined before CPB, at 60 min of CPB, 30 and 60 min after protamine administration, first 12 h after CPB, respectively. At end of CPB the arterial filters in the circuits were observed by electron microscopy. The amount of first 12-h postoperative blood loss was measured. There was significant reduction in platelet loss during and after CPB in the HCC group in contrast to the control group during CPB (P<0.05). During the first 12 h, postoperative blood loss was reduced in the HCC group as compared with that in the control group (218±61 ml, vs. 332±118 ml, P<0.05). Electron microscopy showed that in the HCC group the filter meshes and their fringes were clear and fragments of floccules were occasionally seen, without adherent cells or only few adherent cells on their surfaces, whereas several cellular and fibrous components were found to adhere to the surfaces of the filter meshes in the control group. This study indicates that heparin-coated circuits might reduce the platelet loss and activation during CPB and improve hemocompatibility of cardiopulmonary bypass equipment.

  15. Coordination of heart and lung co-development by a multipotent cardiopulmonary progenitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tien; Tian, Ying; Boogerd, Cornelis J; Lu, Min Min; Kadzik, Rachel S; Stewart, Kathleen M; Evans, Sylvia M; Morrisey, Edward E

    2013-08-29

    Co-development of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is a recent evolutionary adaption to terrestrial life that couples cardiac output with the gas exchange function of the lung. Here we show that the murine pulmonary vasculature develops even in the absence of lung development. We have identified a population of multipotent cardiopulmonary mesoderm progenitors (CPPs) within the posterior pole of the heart that are marked by the expression of Wnt2, Gli1 and Isl1. We show that CPPs arise from cardiac progenitors before lung development. Lineage tracing and clonal analysis demonstrates that CPPs generate the mesoderm lineages within the cardiac inflow tract and lung including cardiomyocytes, pulmonary vascular and airway smooth muscle, proximal vascular endothelium, and pericyte-like cells. CPPs are regulated by hedgehog expression from the foregut endoderm, which is required for connection of the pulmonary vasculature to the heart. Together, these studies identify a novel population of multipotent cardiopulmonary progenitors that coordinates heart and lung co-development that is required for adaptation to terrestrial existence.

  16. Parameter-free ansatz for inferring ground state wave functions of even potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Flego, S. P.; A. Plastino; Plastino, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's equation (SE) and the information-optimizing principle based on Fisher's information measure (FIM) are intimately linked, which entails the existence of a Legendre transform structure underlying the SE. In this comunication we show that the existence of such an structure allows, via the virial theorem, for the formulation of a parameter-free ground state's SE-ansatz for a rather large family of potentials. The parameter-free nature of the ansatz derives from the structural inf...

  17. Characteristics of the functional parameters of children of different somatotype during the period between 8 and 10 years

    OpenAIRE

    Слюсарчук, Виктор Васильевич

    2011-01-01

    Studied the expression and change in functional parameters of the same girls and boys of different somatotypes between 8 and 10 years. In ascertaining experiment was attended by 80 girls and boys who at baseline was 8 years old. Found that girls and boys the same age but different somatotypes. They are similar trends: a high level of features to ensure aerobic metabolic reactions, higher aerobic and anaerobic capacity lower, below the required functionality to most of the studied systems. The...

  18. Thyroid function parameters in normal pregnancies in an iodine sufficient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Moncayo

    2015-06-01

    General significance: The question of cognition and IQ development of children has been proposed to be associated with thyroid function. The addition of data regarding normal thyroid function during pregnancy will contribute to this research.

  19. Cole-Cole parameters for the dielectric properties of porcine tissues as a function of age at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C

    2010-08-01

    We have applied the Cole-Cole expression to the dielectric properties of tissues in the frequency range 0.4-10 GHz. The data underpinning the model relate to pig tissue as a function of age. Altogether, we provide the Cole-Cole parameters for 14 tissue types at three developmental stages.

  20. [Virtual educational proposal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for the neonate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilciane Ribeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Pereira, Irene Mari

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational proposal using virtual multimedia resources, to innovate, stimulate and diversify areas of communication and interaction, facilitating nurses' autonomous and reflexive process of teaching and learning. This is an applied research, following the cyclical and interactive phases of designing, planning, developing and implementing. The educational proposal was developed on the TelEduc platform, using specific tools for content organization and communication between students and administrator. The teaching modules were on the following themes: Module 1--Fundamentals of the heart anatomy and physiology in newborns; Module 2--Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest in newborns; Module 3--Planning nursing care; Module 4--Medications used in cardiopulmonary arrests in newborns; and Module 5--Cardiorespiratory arrest care in newborns. This study may contribute to innovating teaching in nursing from a virtual educational proposal on the important issue of newborn cardiopulmonary resuscitation care. PMID:20642055

  1. Role of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the postural regulation of renin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.A.; Marco, E.J.; Oliveri, C.; Otero, F.J.; Degrossi, O.; Moledo, L.I.; Julius, S.

    1987-04-01

    To change the stretch on cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors, large shifts of blood in the capacity space were elicited by tilting and by exerting positive lower body pressure in the tilted position. Twelve volunteers underwent invasive hemodynamic studies and in 10 other subjects cardiac size was determined by radionuclide cardiography. In all 22 subjects tilting caused the expected increase of renin, which was abolished by lower body compression. Decompression caused renin to increase again. Right atrial pressure in invasive studies and end-systolic and end-diastolic counts in noninvasive studies showed a significant and strong negative correlation with renin and norepinephrine levels. Thus, the degree of stretch of the cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors is a major determinant of reflex regulation of renin release in humans.

  2. Glycemic control and outcome related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Steven; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia, aggravated by cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients. Whereas hyperglycemia was originally perceived as an adaptive response to surgical stress, it is now clear that glycemic control is a strategy to reduce adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. The optimal blood glucose target, whether or not glycemic control should be initiated already intraoperatively, and whether or not perioperative glucose administration affects the impact of glycemic control on ischemia-reperfusion damage remain open questions. Hypoglycemia, the risk of which is increased with glycemic control, is also associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether brief episodes of hypoglycemia, rapidly corrected during glycemic control, have adverse effects on outcome. This review gives an overview of the currently available literature on glycemic control during and after cardiac surgery and focuses on the indicated open questions about this intervention for this specific patient population. PMID:26060029

  3. [Virtual educational proposal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for the neonate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilciane Ribeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Pereira, Irene Mari

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational proposal using virtual multimedia resources, to innovate, stimulate and diversify areas of communication and interaction, facilitating nurses' autonomous and reflexive process of teaching and learning. This is an applied research, following the cyclical and interactive phases of designing, planning, developing and implementing. The educational proposal was developed on the TelEduc platform, using specific tools for content organization and communication between students and administrator. The teaching modules were on the following themes: Module 1--Fundamentals of the heart anatomy and physiology in newborns; Module 2--Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest in newborns; Module 3--Planning nursing care; Module 4--Medications used in cardiopulmonary arrests in newborns; and Module 5--Cardiorespiratory arrest care in newborns. This study may contribute to innovating teaching in nursing from a virtual educational proposal on the important issue of newborn cardiopulmonary resuscitation care.

  4. Lethal systemic Degos disease with prominent cardio-pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degos disease (DD) is a rare obstructive vasculopathy characterized by distinctive skin lesions. Involvement of the soles, palms and genitalia is rare. In most cases disease has an unfavorable course and involves gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and occasionally other organs. Pleural and pericardial involvements are usually minor manifestations with prolonged course. Death occurs in approximately 50% of the patients usually due to intestinal perforation or central nervous system bleeding. We describe a 48-year-old man of lethal systemic DD. Widespread skin lesions with involvement of palm plantar surfaces, genitalia and scalp were ignored for 3 years, whereas the disease revealed its own malignant nature. The disorder progressed to nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary system that led to death after 5 months from onset of systemic involvement as severe restrictive cardio-pulmonary insufficiency. Autopsy showed diffuse fibrotic changes in serial membranes and internal organs. (author)

  5. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali; Urman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlat...

  6. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li; Lu, Yuan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them.

  7. Successful cardiopulmonary bypass in diabetics with anaphylactoid reactions to protamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, W. S.; Reid, K G; Hider, C F; Davidson, I. A.; Boulton, F. E.; Yap, P L

    1984-01-01

    Two insulin dependent diabetics with previous anaphylactic like (anaphylactoid) reactions to protamine underwent successful cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery surgery. Platelet concentrates instead of protamine were used to neutralise their systemic heparinisation. In both cases the anaphylactoid reactions first became apparent after administration of protamine sulphate at the end of cardiac catheterisation. These cases show that adverse reactions to protamine need not be a contraindi...

  8. Estimation of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S F; Stadeager, Carsten Preben; Siemkowicz, E

    1990-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cardiac output (CO) were measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients who were unsuccessfully resuscitated by use of C14-iodoantipyrine injected into the left ventricle. CO varied between 1.3 and 2.2 l/min with mean 1.8 +/- 0.6 l/min (+/- SD) (28 ml...... resuscitation showed signs of maldistribution suggestive of a patchy and incomplete perfusion....

  9. Current Care Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation : Implementation, skills and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    MÀkinen, Marja

    2010-01-01

    Background: The national resuscitation guidelines were published in Finland in 2002 and are based on international guidelines published in 2000. The main goal of the national guidelines, available on the Internet free of charge, is early defibrillation by nurses in an institutional setting. Aim: To study possible changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practices, especially concerning early defibrillation, nurses and students attitudes of guideline implementation and nurses and ...

  10. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-04-01

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well.

  11. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševerdija, Ervin E; Vranken, Nousjka P A; Teerenstra, Steven; Ganushchak, Yuri M; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p partial oxygen pressures changed. Cerebral tissue oximetry effectively identifies changes related to surgical events or vulnerable periods during cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation. PMID:26390677

  12. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševerdija, Ervin E; Vranken, Nousjka P A; Teerenstra, Steven; Ganushchak, Yuri M; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p retractor (p cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation.

  13. Parameter-free ansatz for inferring ground state wave functions of even potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Flego, S P; Plastino, A R

    2011-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's equation (SE) and the information-optimizing principle based on Fisher's information measure (FIM) are intimately linked, which entails the existence of a Legendre transform structure underlying the SE. In this comunication we show that the existence of such an structure allows, via the virial theorem, for the formulation of a parameter-free ground state's SE-ansatz for a rather large family of potentials. The parameter-free nature of the ansatz derives from the structural information it incorporates through its Legendre properties.

  14. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS...

  15. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and contrast media reactions in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To assess current knowledge and training in the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation within a radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard of knowledge about the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation among radiologists, radiographers and nurses were audited using a two-section questionnaire. Our results were compared against nationally accepted standards. Repeat audits were undertaken over a 28-month period. Three full audit cycles were completed. RESULTS: The initial audit confirmed that although a voluntary training programme was in place, knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques were below acceptable levels (set at 70%) for all staff members. The mean score for radiologists was 50%. Immediate changes instituted included retraining courses, the distribution of standard guidelines and the composition and distribution of two separate information handouts. Initial improvements were complemented by new wallcharts, which were distributed throughout the department, a series of lectures on management of contrast reactions and regular reviews with feedback to staff. In the third and final audit all staff groups had surpassed the required standard. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of contrast media reactions and resuscitation needs constant updating. Revision of skills requires a prescriptive programme; visual display of advice is a constant reminder. It is our contention all radiology departmental staff should consider it a personal duty to maintain their resuscitation skills at appropriate standards. O'Neill, J.M., McBride, K.D.(2001). Clinical Radiology 00, 000-000

  16. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  17. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Rie; Taniguchi, Fumika; Sawada, Maiko; Hamaoka, Saeko; Shibasaki, Masayuki; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sawa, Teiji; Nakayama, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants.

  18. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Soeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants.

  19. Characteristics of the functional parameters of children of different somatotype during the period between 8 and 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sljusarchuk Viktor Vasil'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studied the expression and change in functional parameters of the same girls and boys of different somatotypes between 8 and 10 years. In ascertaining experiment was attended by 80 girls and boys who at baseline was 8 years old. Found that girls and boys the same age but different somatotypes. They are similar trends: a high level of features to ensure aerobic metabolic reactions, higher aerobic and anaerobic capacity lower, below the required functionality to most of the studied systems. The features associated primarily with the age in which the possibility of a deteriorating system. The above must be considered when choosing the optimal parameters of physical activity and develop programs to improve the functionality of primary school children during physical education.

  20. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on postoperative cardiopulmonary function and quality of life after oesophagectomy%吸气肌训练对食管癌根治术后患者心肺功能及生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏利娟; 马亚飞; 伍军; 李利霞; 张三虎; 陈小莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of preoperative and postoperative inspiratory muscle training(IMT) on cardiopulmonary function and quality of life for patients undergoing esophagectomy.Methods Sixty patients who had received esophagectomy for esophageal cancer were randomly divided into an observation group (n =30) and a control group (n =30).All of the subjects were given conventional treatment (including preoperative health education,abdominal respiration training,pursed lip respiration training and expectoration training).On this basis,the patients in the treatment group were advised to do deep respiratory training using a breathing training device,four times a day,lasting 20 minutes each time,for 10 days (including five days before and five days after the operation).Respiratory muscle strength,blood gases,six minute walk test (6MWT) distances and Borg dyspnea scores were measured on admission,on the day prior to the operation and on the 1st,3rd and 5th day after the operation.And also on admission and on the 5th day after the operation their pulmonary function was tested,and their psychological status and quality of life were evaluated using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the Nottingham health profile (NHP) respectively.Results There was no significant difference in any index between the two groups on admission(P > 0.05).Everyone's respiratory function and exercise capacity were sharply decreased,and Borg dyspnea score increased on the first postoperative day,and then gradually and significantly improved in both groups compared to that on admission(P < 0.05).On the fifth postoperative day,the maximal inspiratory pressure of 67.41 ± 14.53 mmH2O,maximal ventilatory volume of 79.83 ± 5.37 L,6MWT of 427.19 ± 46.52 m,Borg score of 1.45 ± 0.48 points,postoperative anxiety score of 8.14 ±2.80 points,NHP total (128.91 ± 25.12 points),NHP pain score (24.66 ± 10.12 points),NHP sleeping score (25.18 ± 9.75 points),and NHP physical

  1. EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A p-LAPLACIAN NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH VARIABLE PARAMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By the generalized Borsuk theorem in coincidence degree theory, a p-Laplacian neutral functional differential equation is studied. A new result on the existence of periodic solution is obtained. The interest is that some coeffcient in it is not a constant function and its sign can be changeable, which is different from that in the known literatures.

  2. Tissue scattering parameter estimation through scattering phase function measurements by goniometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhu; Zhihua Ding; Martial Geiser

    2007-01-01

    @@ An automated optical system is built up to perform goniometric measurement of scattering phase function.Measurements of typical samples including monodisperse polystyrene micro-spheres solution, and mutlidisperse polystyrene micro-spheres solution are carried out in a dark room. The possibility of estimating the average particle size of phantom through analyzing its scattering phase function is demonstrated.

  3. Cardiopulmonary complications to chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic cardiovascular and pulmonary hemodynamic changes. A vasodilatatory state and a hyperdynamic circulation affecting the cardiac and pulmonary functions dominate the circulation. The recently defined cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may ...

  4. Cardiopulmonary complications in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic cardiovascular and pulmonary hemodynamic changes. A vasodilatatory state and a hyperdynamic circulation affecting the cardiac and pulmonary functions dominate the circulation. The recently defined cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may ...

  5. A new ensemble algorithm of differential evolution and backtracking search optimization algorithm with adaptive control parameter for function optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Nama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE is an effective and powerful approach and it has been widely used in different environments. However, the performance of DE is sensitive to the choice of control parameters. Thus, to obtain optimal performance, time-consuming parameter tuning is necessary. Backtracking Search Optimization Algorithm (BSA is a new evolutionary algorithm (EA for solving real-valued numerical optimization problems. An ensemble algorithm called E-BSADE is proposed which incorporates concepts from DE and BSA. The performance of E-BSADE is evaluated on several benchmark functions and is compared with basic DE, BSA and conventional DE mutation strategy.

  6. Changes in Pulmonary Functional Parameters after Surgical Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smiljanić, Iva; Kovač, Vladimir; Čimić, Mislav

    2009-01-01

    There is a controversy in results about influence of surgery on pulmonary function in idiopathic scoliosis. The aim of the study was to study pulmonary function in severe thoracic idiopathic scoliosis and to detect changes in pulmonary function after the three-dimensional anterior surgical correction in severe thoracic scoliosis. 91 patients at the age of 16±5.1yrs underwent surgery in order to make a correction of scoliotic deformity. All the curves were greater than 70° (86±5.1). Group I co...

  7. Experimental determination of solubility parameters of oils as a function of pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Duong, Diep; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the solubility parameter of dead and live crude oils was measured at 303.15 K and up to 300 bar, using the internal pressure approach. An indirect technique was chosen, using thermal expansivities (determined from microcalorimetric measurements) and isothermal compressibilities...... (calculated from density measurements). This method was tested on seven pure compounds, and the deviation with literature data is oils, and a deviation of

  8. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Amir LAKZIAN; Mohammad BANNAYAN AVAL; Nasrin GORBANZADEH

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC), -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP), -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay w...

  9. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface.

  10. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface. PMID:25319038

  11. Distributed-parameter problem solved on a hybrid computer by a modified function storage technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, N.J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes a method which is based on a function storage technique improved by a number of modifications; it fulfils the two main demands: the solution is based directly on the physical equations, and is accurate within 1%...

  12. Parameter estimation of soil hydraulic and thermal property functions for unsaturated porous media using the HYDRUS-2D code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhaei Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil hydraulic and thermal properties is essential for studies involving the combined effects of soil temperature and water input on water flow and redistribution processes under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the parameters characterizing these properties from a transient water flow and heat transport field experiment. Real-time sensors built by the authors were used to monitor soil temperatures at depths of 40, 80, 120, and 160 cm during a 10-hour long ring infiltration experiment. Water temperatures and cumulative infiltration from a single infiltration ring were monitored simultaneously. The soil hydraulic parameters (the saturated water content θ s, empirical shape parameters α and n, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and soil thermal conductivity parameters (coefficients b1, b2, and b3 in the thermal conductivity function were estimated from cumulative infiltration and temperature measurements by inversely solving a two-dimensional water flow and heat transport using HYDRUS-2D. Three scenarios with a different, sequentially decreasing number of optimized parameters were considered. In scenario 1, seven parameters (θ s, Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem. The results indicated that this scenario does not provide a unique solution. In scenario 2, six parameters (Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem. The results showed that this scenario also results in a non-unique solution. Only scenario 3, in which five parameters (α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem, provided a unique solution. The simulated soil temperatures and cumulative infiltration during the ring infiltration experiment compared reasonably well with their corresponding observed values.

  13. Next-generation biomarkers based on 100-parameter functional super-resolution microscopy TIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Walter; Gieseler, Anne; Krusche, Andreas; Serocka, Peter; Hillert, Reyk

    2012-06-15

    Functional super-resolution (fSR) microscopy is based on the automated toponome imaging system (TIS). fSR-TIS provides insight into the myriad of different cellular functionalities by direct imaging of large subcellular protein networks in morphologically intact cells and tissues, referred to as the toponome. By cyclical fluorescence imaging of at least 100 molecular cell components, fSR-TIS overcomes the spectral limitations of fluorescence microscopy, which is the essential condition for the detection of protein network structures in situ/in vivo. The resulting data sets precisely discriminate between cell types, subcellular structures, cell states and diseases (fSR). With up to 16 bits per protein, the power of combinatorial molecular discrimination (PCMD) is at least 2(100) per subcellular data point. It provides the dimensionality necessary to uncover thousands of distinct protein clusters including their subcellular hierarchies controlling protein network topology and function in the one cell or tissue section. Here we review the technology and findings showing that functional protein networks of the cell surface in different cancers encompass the same hierarchical and spatial coding principle, but express cancer-specific toponome codes within that scheme (referred to as TIS codes). Findings suggest that TIS codes, extracted from large-scale toponome data, have the potential to be next-generation biomarkers because of their cell type and disease specificity. This is functionally substantiated by the observation that blocking toponome-specific lead proteins results in disassembly of molecular networks and loss of function.

  14. 四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练对心率变异性的影响%Experimental Study on the Effects of Four-weeks' Swiss ball Core Stability Training on Cardiopulmonary and its Regulatory Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞; 赵敬国

    2012-01-01

    观察为期四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练(球上跪姿抬臂)对非运动员女大学生自主神经调节功能的影响.利用芬兰产的POLAR S810i遥测心率表作为工具,测量比较了四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练前后18名非运动员女大学生(实验组10人,对照组8人)心率变异性指标的变化.经过四周锻炼,实验组的10名受试者均能在瑞士球上维持跪姿抬臂标准姿势5 min.实验组的SD、RMSSD以及HF都出现了显著性增加(P<0.05);而心率则出现了显著性降低(P<0.05).对照组各项指标均未出现显著性差异(P>0.05).四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练可降低安静时交感神经的紧张性,增加副交感神经的紧张性.提示该训练方法对强身健体、缓解压力可能有显著性作用.%To observe the effects of four - weeks' Swiss ball core stability training (raising arms and kneeling on the Swiss ball) on heart rate variability (HRV) and maximal oxygen uptake in non - athlete female students. The changes of heart rate variability indexes, maximal oxygen uptake, blood pressure and heart rate in 18 non - athlete female students ( experiment group, n = 10 and control group, n = 8) were measured and analyzed with POLAR S810i heart rate monitor and polar precision performance SW produced in Finland and Monark Ergomedic 839E bicycle ergometer produced in Sweden before and after four - week's Swiss ball core stability training. In experimental group, the subjects all could maintain the posture of raising arms and kneeling on the Swiss ball for 5 min after four-week training. Comparing with the value before the training, the maximal oxygen absolute value was very significantly increased (P 0.05) in all indexes before and after in control group. Four - week Swiss ball core stability training can significantly improve cardiopulmonary function, decrease resting sympathetic nervous, increase parasympathetic nervous. It is suggested that this training method might have a

  15. Cardiopulmonary complications in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sφren Mφller; Jens H Henriksen

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic cardiovascular and pulmonary hemodynamic changes. A vasodilatatory state and a hyperdynamic circulation affecting the cardiac and pulmonary functions dominate the circulation.The recently defined cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may affect systolic and diastolic functions, and imply electromechanical abnormalities. In addition, the baroreceptor function and regulation of the circulatory homoeostasis is impaired. Pulmonary dysfunction involves diffusing abnormalities with the development of the hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension in some patients. Recent research has focused on the assertion that the hemodynamic and neurohumoral dysregulation are of major importance for the development of the cardiovascular and pulmonary complications in cirrhosis. This aspect is important to take into account in the management of these patients.

  16. Muscle strength and executive function as complementary parameters for the assessment of impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannyel Barbirato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between the quantitative results of functional and cognitive performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and disease severity; and to study the relationship between patients' functional and cognitive capacity and motor impairment (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS III. Method Twenty-nine subjects clinically diagnosed with PD were classified into three groups according to disease severity using the modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y. They were submitted to functional (Senior Fitness Test and neuropsychological tests. Stepwise regression analysis showed a significant association between H&Y and upper limb strength (r 2 =0.30; p=0.005 and executive function (r 2 =0.37; p=0.004. In relation to UPDRS III, there was a significant association between lower limb strength (r 2 =0.27; p=0.010 and global cognitive status (r 2 =0.24; p=0.024. Conclusion The implementation of simple tests of functional capacity associated with neuropsychological testing can help to assess disease severity and motor impairment, and can be used to monitor the response to treatment in PD.

  17. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Methods: Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening traini...

  18. A parameter-dependent refinement of the discrete Jensen's inequality for convex and mid-convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth László

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a new parameter-dependent refinement of the discrete Jensen's inequality is given for convex and mid-convex functions. The convergence of the introduced sequences is also studied. One of the proofs requires an interesting convergence theorem with probability theoretical background. We apply the results to define some new quasi-arithmetic and mixed symmetric means and study their monotonicity and convergence.

  19. Age-associated changes in pulmonary function: a comparison of pulmonary function parameters in healthy young adults and the elderly living in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wei-ying; LI Li; ZHAO Rong-ya; ZHU Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background The respiratory system changes with age and a better understanding of the changes contribute to detect and prevent respiratory dysfunctions in old population.The purpose of this study was to observe age-associated changes of pulmonary function parameters in healthy young adults and the elderly.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 male and female subjects aged 19 to 92 years.The subjects were divided into three groups by age:young adult (19-39 years),middle-aged adult (40-59 years),and the elderly (≥60 years).The pulmonary function was measured with routine examination methods and 13 parameters including vital capacity (VC),residual volume (RV),functional residual capacity (FRC),total lung capacity (TLC),RV/TLC,forced vital capacity (FVC),forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1),FEV1/FVC,peak expiratory flow (PEF),forced expiratory flow at 25% of FVC exhaled (FEF25),forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC exhaled (FEF50),diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO),and specific diffusion capacity of CO (KCO) were collected and analyzed.Changes in pulmonary function parameters among the pre-elderly and elderly subjects,especially the aging influence on FEV1/FVC and RV were studied further.Results Ten pulmonary function parameters including VC,FVC,FEV1,FEV1/FVC,PEF,FEF25,FEF50,TLC,DLCO and KCO decreased significantly with age in both male and female subjects (P <0.01).RV and RV/TLC were increased with age (P <0.01).FRC remained stable during aging.Except FRC,the linear relationship was significant between age and other pulmonary function parameters.In the pre-elderly and elderly subjects,RV had a non-significantly increasing tendency with age (P >0.05),and FEV1/FVC did not change significantly with age (P >0.05).Conclusion Total pulmonary function was declined with advancing age,but FRC was stable,and the increasing tendency of RV and decreasing tendency of FEV1/FVC obviously slowed down in the pre-elderly and

  20. Alterations of cardiovascular functional parameters after onset of heat stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M S; Pan, H F; Kao, T Y; Lin, M T

    1993-01-01

    The effects of heat stroke formation on electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) waveform parameters were assessed in rats under urethane anesthesia. Heat stroke was induced by exposing anesthetized rats to an environmental temperature of 42 degrees C. The movement in which arterial pressure began to decrease was taken as the onset of heat stroke. It was found that the duration of either P were, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave or QRS complex, as well as the amplitude of either P wave, Q wave, S wave or T wave were not affected after onset of heat stroke. However, the amplitude of R wave, the P-P interval, the R-R interval and the Q-T interval were significantly decreased after onset of heat stroke. In addition, the peak amplitude of systolic wave, dicrotic notch, diastolic wave, the duration of either systolic wave, a whole BP cycle, diastolic wave or dicrotic wave, the pulse pressure, as well as the mean arterial pressure were also decreased after onset of heat stroke. On the other hand, heat stroke formation increased the heart rate. The results demonstrated that alterations of these ECG and BP waveform parameters occurred after onset of heat stroke in rats.

  1. Is the common envelope ejection efficiency a function of the binary parameters?

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, P J; Knigge, C

    2011-01-01

    We reconstruct the common envelope (CE) phase for the current sample of observed white dwarf-main sequence post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs). We apply multi-regression analysis in order to investigate whether correlations exist between the CE ejection efficiencies, alpha_CE, inferred from the sample, and the binary parameters: white dwarf mass, secondary mass, orbital period at the point the CE commences, or the orbital period immediately after the CE phase. We do this with and without consideration for the internal energy of the progenitor primary giants' envelope. Our fits should pave the first steps towards an observationally motivated recipe for calculating alpha_CE using the binary parameters at the start of the CE phase, which will be useful for population synthesis calculations or models of compact binary evolution. If we do consider the internal energy of the giants' envelope, we find a statistically significant correlation between alpha_CE and the white dwarf mass. If we do not, a correlation is ...

  2. Surface-Layer Similarity Functions for Dissipation Rate and Structure Parameters of Temperature and Humidity Based on Eleven Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Hartogensis, Oscar K.

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, no consensus can be found on the exact form of the universal funtions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for the structure parameters of temperature, {C_T}^2 , and humidity, {C_q}^2 , and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, \\varepsilon . By combining 11 datasets and applying data treatment with spectral data filtering and error-weighted curve-fitting we first derived robust MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and \\varepsilon that cover a large stability range for both unstable and stable conditions. Second, as all data were gathered with the same instrumentation and were processed in the same way—in contrast to earlier studies—we were able to investigate the similarity of MOST functions across different datasets by defining MOST functions for all datasets individually. For {C_T}^2 and \\varepsilon we found no substantial differences in MOST functions for datasets over different surface types or moisture regimes. MOST functions of {C_q}^2 differ from that of {C_T}^2 , but we could not relate these differences to turbulence parameters often associated with non-local effects. Furthermore, we showed that limited stability ranges and a limited number of data points are plausible reasons for variations of MOST functions in the literature. Last, we investigated the sensitivity of fluxes to the uncertainty of MOST functions. We provide an overview of the uncertainty range for MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and \\varepsilon , and suggest their use in determining the uncertainty in surface fluxes.

  3. Surface-Layer Similarity Functions for Dissipation Rate and Structure Parameters of Temperature and Humidity Based on Eleven Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Hartogensis, Oscar K.

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, no consensus can be found on the exact form of the universal funtions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for the structure parameters of temperature, {C_T}^2, and humidity, {C_q}^2, and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ɛ. By combining 11 datasets and applying data treatment with spectral data filtering and error-weighted curve-fitting we first derived robust MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and ɛ that cover a large stability range for both unstable and stable conditions. Second, as all data were gathered with the same instrumentation and were processed in the same way—in contrast to earlier studies—we were able to investigate the similarity of MOST functions across different datasets by defining MOST functions for all datasets individually. For {C_T}^2 and ɛ we found no substantial differences in MOST functions for datasets over different surface types or moisture regimes. MOST functions of {C_q}^2 differ from that of {C_T}^2, but we could not relate these differences to turbulence parameters often associated with non-local effects. Furthermore, we showed that limited stability ranges and a limited number of data points are plausible reasons for variations of MOST functions in the literature. Last, we investigated the sensitivity of fluxes to the uncertainty of MOST functions. We provide an overview of the uncertainty range for MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and ɛ, and suggest their use in determining the uncertainty in surface fluxes.

  4. Modelling of migration from multi-layers and functional barriers: Estimation of parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dole, P.; Voulzatis, Y.; Vitrac, O.; Reynier, A.; Hankemeier, T.; Aucejo, S.; Feigenbaum, A.

    2006-01-01

    Functional barriers form parts of multi-layer packaging materials, which are deemed to protect the food from migration of a broad range of contaminants, e.g. those associated with reused packaging. Often, neither the presence nor the identity of the contaminants is known, so that safety assessment o

  5. 语类分析:功能参数%Analyzing Genre: Functional Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹姆斯·R·马丁; 王振华

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Resources This paper considers in a little more detail some recent developments that bear critically on the analyses undertaken.Essentially, these analyses are informed by the model of language known as systemic functional linguistics (hereafter SFL), especially the variety of that model which has evolved in Australia since 1975.The most accessible introduction to this variety of SFL is Eggins (1994).

  6. An Eight-Parameter Function for Simulating Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooling, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The toy model rocket is used extensively as an example of a realistic physical system. Teachers from grade school to the university level use them. Many teachers and students write computer programs to investigate rocket physics since the problem involves nonlinear functions related to air resistance and mass loss. This paper describes a nonlinear…

  7. Prognostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) for brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guibo; Jiang, Guohui; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) patients can experience neurological sequelae or even death after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) due to cerebral hypoxia- and ischemia-reperfusion-mediated brain injury. Thus, it is important to perform early prognostic evaluations in CA patients. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important tool for determining the prognosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy due to its real-time measurement of brain function. Based on EEG, burst suppression, a burst suppression ratio >0.239, periodic discharges, status epilepticus, stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic or ictal discharges, non-reactive EEG, and the BIS value based on quantitative EEG may be associated with the prognosis of CA after successful CPR. As measures of neural network integrity, the values of small-world characteristics of the neural network derived from EEG patterns have potential applications.

  8. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB. PMID:26613267

  9. An integrated mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system: model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonio; Cheng, Limei; Ursino, Mauro; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2016-04-01

    Several cardiovascular and pulmonary models have been proposed in the last few decades. However, very few have addressed the interactions between these two systems. Our group has developed an integrated cardiopulmonary model (CP Model) that mathematically describes the interactions between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, along with their main short-term control mechanisms. The model has been compared with human and animal data taken from published literature. Due to the volume of the work, the paper is divided in two parts. The present paper is on model development and normophysiology, whereas the second is on the model's validation on hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. The CP Model incorporates cardiovascular circulation, respiratory mechanics, tissue and alveolar gas exchange, as well as short-term neural control mechanisms acting on both the cardiovascular and the respiratory functions. The model is able to simulate physiological variables typically observed in adult humans under normal and pathological conditions and to explain the underlying mechanisms and dynamics. PMID:26683899

  10. Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rafati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262 who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using binomial and Chi Square tests. Of the patients included (n=2262, 741 patients (32.8% had successful CPR. The number of male patients requiring CPR was more than females in need of the procedure. The majority of patients requiring CPR were older than 60 years (56.4±17.9. The number of successful CPR cases in long-day shift (7:00 to 19:00 was more than that in the night shift (19:00 to 7:00. Furthermore, 413 (18.4% cases were resuscitated on holidays and 1849 (81.7% on the working days. The duration of CPR was 10 min or less in 710 (31.4% cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations which lasted less than 10 minutes were associated with better outcomes. The findings of the present study indicate that some manageable factors including the duration of CPR, working shift, working day (holiday or non-holiday could affect the CPR outcomes. The findings might also be taken as evidence to suggest that the allocation of more personnel in each shift especially in night shifts and holidays, planning to increase the personnel's CPR skills, and decreasing the waste time would result in the improvement of CPR outcome.

  11. Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Hasan; Saghafi, Abdollah; Saghafinia, Masoud; Panahi, Farzad; Hoseinpour, Mohamadjavad

    2011-03-01

    Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262) who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using binomial and tests. Of the patients included (n=2262), 741 patients (32.8%) had successful CPR. The number of male patients requiring CPR was more than females in need of the procedure. The majority of patients requiring CPR were older than 60 years (56.4±17.9). The number of successful CPR cases in long-day shift (7:00 to 19:00) was more than that in the night shift (19:00 to 7:00). Furthermore, 413 (18.4%) cases were resuscitated on holidays and 1849 (81.7%) on the working days. The duration of CPR was 10 min or less in 710 (31.4%) cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations which lasted less than 10 minutes were associated with better outcomes. The findings of the present study indicate that some manageable factors including the duration of CPR, working shift, working day (holiday or non-holiday) could affect the CPR outcomes. The findings might also be taken as evidence to suggest that the allocation of more personnel in each shift especially in night shifts and holidays, planning to increase the personnel's CPR skills, and decreasing the waste time would result in the improvement of CPR outcome. PMID:23365479

  12. Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from wheat straw: Effect of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaushik, Anupama; Ahuja, Dheeraj

    2016-10-01

    Aggregates of microfibrillated cellulose isolated from wheat straw fibers were subjected to propionylation under different processing conditions of time, temperature and concentration. The treated fibers were then homogenized to obtain surface modified nanofibrillated cellulose. For varying parameters, progress of propionylation and its effects on various characteristics was investigated by FTIR, degree of substitution, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, TEM, X-ray diffraction, static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Thermal stability of the nanofibrils was also investigated using thermogravimetric technique. FTIR analysis confirmed the propionylation of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers. The variations in reaction conditions such as time and temperature had shown considerable effect on degree of substitution (DS) and surface contact angle (CA). These characterization results represent the optimizing conditions under which cellulose nanofibrils with hydrophobic characteristics up to contact angle of 120° can be obtained. PMID:27312612

  13. [Effect of imipramine hydrochloride on urinary function and serum parameters in enuretic children: preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusano, S; Tomasi, P A; Mandras, R; Dilitala, G; Monni, A M; Belgrano, E

    1996-04-01

    We still do not know whether Imipramine works exactly as an antidiuretic. The aim of this study was to investigate any existing urinary or serum factor differences between 9 children with primary nocturnal enuresis and six age and sex matched controls and to see if therapy with Imipramine could modify these parameters. All subjects underwent an evaluation of daily and nightly urinary volume, daily fluid intake, morning plasma and urine osmolality, plasma aldosterone, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose. The results, using a one-way ANOVA, would suggest the following: 1) enuretic children have a higher 24 urinary volume with a reduced osmolality compared to controls; 2) Aldosterone does not seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of enuresis; 3) Imipramine HCL therapy does reduce the volume of urine lost in diapers, and its efficiency can be documented objectively; 4) Imipramine HCL's mechanism appears to be related to an increased renal water resorption. PMID:8777422

  14. Permeability parameter as a function of population density in classical infiltration equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nor Hafizah; Ahmad, Rohanin; Nordin, Syarifah Zyurina

    2014-12-01

    Rapid development of urban areas has caused many problems especially related to water issues. The increase in urban development also means the increase in impervious surfaces due to expansion of buildings, roads, parking lots to name a few. Impervious surfaces have low water permeability compared to pervious surfaces. Also, infiltration capacity is dependent on the permeability of the area and subsequently permeability is dependent on the surface conditions. In this paper, we study the infiltration capacity with the assumption that permeability parameter can be described in the term of the population density of the area. The modified model is based on the original form of Green-Ampt equation. The new model with population density is able to describe permeability, hence the infiltration capacity of an area.

  15. Geometric modeling, functional parameter calculation, and visualization of the in-vivo distended rectal wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Manduca, Armando; Camp, Jon J.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Robb, Richard A.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2006-03-01

    The rectum can distend to accommodate stool, and contracts in response to distention during defecation. Rectal motor dysfunctions are implicated in the pathophysiology of functional defecation disorders and fecal incontinence. These rectal motor functions can be studied by intra-luminal measurements of pressure by manometry, or combined with volume during rectal balloon distention. Pressure-volume (p-v) relationships provide a global index of rectal mechanical properties. However, balloon distention alone does not measure luminal radius or wall thickness, which are necessary to compute wall tension and stress respectively. It has been suggested that the elastic modulus, which is the linear slope of the stress-strain relationship, is a more accurate measure of wall stiffness. Also, measurements of compliance may not reflect differences in rectal diameter between subjects prior to inflation, and imaging is necessary to determine if, as has been suggested, rectal pressure-volume relationships are affected by extra-rectal structures. We have developed a technique to measure rectal stress:strain relationships in humans, by simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during rectal balloon distention. After a conditioning distention, a rectal balloon was distended with water from 0 to 400 ml in 50 ml steps, and imaged at each step with MRI. The fluid filled balloon was segmented from each volume, the phase-ordered binary volumes were transformed into a geometric characterization of the inflated rectal surface. Taken together with measurements of balloon pressure and of rectal wall thickness, this model of the rectal surface was used to calculate regional values of curvature, tension, strain, and stress for the rectum. In summary, this technique has the unique ability to non-invasively measure the rectal stress:strain relationship and also determine if rectal expansion is limited by extra-rectal structures. This functional information allows the direct clinical analysis

  16. Novel heart rate parameters for the assessment of autonomic nervous system function in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, M; Fifer, W P; Sahni, R; Signorini, M G

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance is a key factor in homeostatic control of cardiac activity, breathing and certain reflex reactions such as coughing, sneezing and swallowing and thus plays a crucial role for survival. ANS impairment has been related to many neonatal pathologies, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Moreover, some conditions have been identified as risk factors for SIDS, such as prone sleep position. There is an urgent need for timely and non-invasive assessment of ANS function in at-risk infants. Systematic measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) offers an optimal approach to access indirectly both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on ANS functioning. In this paper, data from premature infants collected in a sleep physiology laboratory in the NICU are presented: traditional and novel approaches to HRV analyses are applied and compared in order to evaluate their relative merits in the assessment of ANS activity and the influence of sleep position. Indices from time domain and nonlinear approaches contributed as markers of physiological development in premature infants. Moreover, significant differences were observed as a function of sleep position. PMID:27480495

  17. Photopeak shape function: Formulation based on stochastic event analysis and parameter estimation by the maximum-likelihood estimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model to describe the photopeak shape function has been developed by introducing an instrument function, which is a convolution of the statistical fluctuation of the charge carriers and the stochastic process of escape of the charge-carrier collection by capture at trapping centers. The photopeak shape function is a convolution of the instrument function and a Poisson probability-density functional representation of a reduced random summing event. The functions have been tested by using three coaxial, high-purity Ge detectors of a conventional type. The parameters were estimated by the maximum-likelihood estimation method. The position indicating the incident photon energy appeared at the centroid of the intrinsic normal distribution. The most probable peak-height position is no more than a ''conventional'' one, though it is commonly used in spectroscopy. The theory predicts the photopeak shape of many photons by folding an input function of the subject. The theory provides standards for the detector and the detection system. (orig.)

  18. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Adolescents With Dystrophinopathies : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Bart; Takken, Tim; Blank, A. Christian; van Moorsel, Huib; van der Pol, W. Ludo; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine exercise response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies. Methods: Exercise response on the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was compared with a standard care test protocol. Results: Nine boys (aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years) wi

  19. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  20. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Is Associated with the Morphologic and Functional Parameters in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Pudil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is mostly autosomal dominant disease of the myocardium, which is characterized by myocardial hypertrophy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is involved in myocyte function, growth, and survival. The aim of study was to analyze the clinical significance of VEGF in structural and functional changes in patient with HCM. Methods. In a group of 21 patients with nonobstructive HCM, we assessed serum VEGF and analyzed its association with morphological and functional parameters. Compared to healthy controls, serum VEGF was increased: 199 (IQR: 120.4–260.8 ng/L versus 20 (IQR: 14.8–37.7 ng/L, P<0.001. VEGF levels were associated with left atrium diameter (r=0.51, P=0.01, left ventricle ejection fraction (r=-0.56, P=0.01, fractional shortening (r=-0.54, P=0.02, left ventricular mass (r=0.61, P=0.03, LV mass index (r=0.46, P=0.04, vena cava inferior diameter (r=0.65, P=0.01, and peak gradient of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.46, P=0.03. Conclusions. Increased VEGF level is associated with structural and functional parameters in patients with HCM and serves as a potential tool for diagnostic process of these patients.

  1. Potential wrist ligament injury in rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Curran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrist pain in rescuers performing chest compressions as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been reported anecdotally and recently in the literature. Studies have indicated that rescuers apply as much as 644 N of force to the victim′s chest with each compression, while standards require one hundred compressions per minute. Recent research suggests that forces transmitted through the rescuers′ wrists of less than 10% of those seen during the performance of chest compressions significantly strain the scapholunate ligament. Biomechanical research should be performed to further evaluate this possible correlation. Compensation for worker injury maybe involved.

  2. A method of automatic control procedures cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.

  3. Lepirudin as an alternative to "heparin allergy" during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissis Haralabos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A treatment strategy of a difficult and unusual problem is presented. We are reporting a case of a patient who had a documented allergy to heparin and required Cardiac surgery for an ASD closure. The anticoagulation regime used during cardiopulmonary bypass was lepirudin based. This report indicates that r-hirudin provides effective anticoagulation, however unless ECT is monitoring, post operative hemorrhage is encountered. Therefore this case is unique not only because of its rarity but also by the fact that it presents the caveats encountered when ECT is not available.

  4. Estudo da função simpático-adrenal em crianças submetidas a cirurgia cardíaca com hipotermia de superfície, perfusão limitada e parada circulatória Simpathoadrenal function during cardiac surgery in infants using the technique of surface cooling, limited cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Firmin

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de catecolamina plasmática foram medidos em 20 crianças (idade média de 6,00 ± 5,86 meses; peso médio 5,3 ± 1,82 kg, durante a correção de defeitos cardíacos congênitos, usando-se a hipotermia de superfície (26ºC, perfusão cardiopulmonar limitada e parada circulatória (15ºC. Adrenalina e noradrenalina plasmática foram dosadas em amostras sangüíneas arteriais seriadas, usando-se a cromatografia. A hipotermia de superfície produziu um significante aumento de ambas as catecolaminas. Durante o resfriamento central, os níveis caíram devido à hemodiluição. Após o período de parada circulatória (23/64 minutos, média de 41,3, ocorreu um aumento das catecolaminas plasmáticas, que persistiu durante o reaquecimento. Após o reaquecimento, as catecolaminas plasmáticas permaneceram elevadas até o final do ato cirúrgico. Nossos resultados mostram que a técnica de hipotermia de superfície, perfusão cardiopulmonar limitada e parada circulatória, sob as nossas condições de anestesia, produziu significante aumento da concentração de adrenalina e noradrenalina plasmática, porém o significado biológico é, ainda, inseguro.Plasma catecholamine levels were measured in 20 infants (mean age 6.0 ± 5.86 months; mean weigh 5.3 ± 1.82 Kg, undergoing correction of congenital heart defects using surface cooling (26ºC, limited cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest (15ºC. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline were assayed in serial arterial blood samples using cromatography and electrochemical techniques. Surface cooling produced a significant rise in adrenaline and noradrenaline: the levels of both catecholamines fell, however, during core-cooling on cardiopulmonary bypass. Following the period of circulatory arrest (23/64 min, mean 41.3 min, there was a further increase in plasma catecholamines, which persisted during rewarming. Following rewarming, plasma catecholamines remained elevated untill the end of the

  5. Analysis of the strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels as a function of the hot rolling parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretero Olalla, V., E-mail: Victor.carretero@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Bliznuk, V., E-mail: vitaliy.bliznuk@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Sanchez, N., E-mail: nuria.sanchezmourino@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Global R and D Gent, OCAS NV Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, BE-9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Thibaux, P., E-mail: philippe.thibaux@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Global R and D Gent, OCAS NV Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, BE-9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Kestens, L.A.I., E-mail: leo.kestens@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Petrov, R.H., E-mail: Roumen.Petrov@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    The yield strength of different pipeline steel grades, rolled under four different conditions, was correlated with calculated strengthening contributions. Slabs with the same composition were rolled under identical roughing conditions but varied finish rolling temperature (FRT). Two cooling routes, consisting of accelerated water cooling condition (ACC) followed by slow cooling in an oven to simulate coiling and air cooling were applied after the last rolling pass. The microstructures obtained after each thermo mechanical controlled process (TMCP) schedule, were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties of the plates were determined by means of tensile tests and Charpy V-notch impact test. It was confirmed that a combination of fast cooling rate and low finish rolling temperature produces higher strength than the slow cooling rate and high finish rolling temperature. Contributions to the strengthening arising from the various microstructural features like solid solution strengthening, grain size, dislocation density and precipitation hardening, were analyzed using Taylor, Hall–Petch and Ashby–Orowan approaches. The root of the sum of the squares method was applied to link the experimental with the model-predicted strength. It is believed that this approach provides a better understanding of the effect of TMCP parameters on the microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels.

  6. Analysis of the strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels as a function of the hot rolling parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield strength of different pipeline steel grades, rolled under four different conditions, was correlated with calculated strengthening contributions. Slabs with the same composition were rolled under identical roughing conditions but varied finish rolling temperature (FRT). Two cooling routes, consisting of accelerated water cooling condition (ACC) followed by slow cooling in an oven to simulate coiling and air cooling were applied after the last rolling pass. The microstructures obtained after each thermo mechanical controlled process (TMCP) schedule, were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties of the plates were determined by means of tensile tests and Charpy V-notch impact test. It was confirmed that a combination of fast cooling rate and low finish rolling temperature produces higher strength than the slow cooling rate and high finish rolling temperature. Contributions to the strengthening arising from the various microstructural features like solid solution strengthening, grain size, dislocation density and precipitation hardening, were analyzed using Taylor, Hall–Petch and Ashby–Orowan approaches. The root of the sum of the squares method was applied to link the experimental with the model-predicted strength. It is believed that this approach provides a better understanding of the effect of TMCP parameters on the microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels

  7. Density functional theoretical (DFT) study for the prediction of spectroscopic parameters of ClCCCN

    CERN Document Server

    Varadwaj, P R

    2005-01-01

    DFT and RHF level calculations in conjunction with three different of basis sets have been used to investigate the variations in the bond lengths, dipole moment and rotational constants, IR frequencies, IR intensities and rotational invariants of ClCCCN. The nuclear quadrupole constants of chlorine and nitrogen of ClCCCN have been calculated on the experimental r$_{s}$ structure as well as on the B3PW91/6-311++g(d,p) optimized geometry and are found to be within the scale length of the experimental uncertainty. Linear regression analysis between the B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) level calculated and experimental B$_{o}$ values have been achieved for ClCCCN and BrCCCN. The slopes and intercepts obtained from the regression analysis were used to calculate the reasonable values of rotational constants of all the rare isotopic species of ClCCCN and BrCCCN as well having standard deviations $\\pm$0.048 MHz and $\\pm$0.015 MHz respectively. All the spectroscopic parameters obtained from DFT calculation shows satisfactory agree...

  8. The studies of mechanical properties and structure of ADI as function of austempering parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of ductile iron austempered using different parameters of austempering are presented. The aim of the investigations was to look closer into mechanical properties of this very attractive cast material. The experiment was carried out with commercial EN-GJS-500-7 grade ductile iron. The specimens were first solution heat treated 1 hour in 910oC and then isothermally quenched for different time in molten tin of different temperature. The mechanical properties heat treated specimens were tested using tensile test machine to evaluate Rp,0.2, Rm and A10. Moreover Brinell hardness tests were carried out for structure investigation conventional light microscopy only was used. It was discovered, that low yield strength ADI obtained for short time quenching at 275oC exhibited high strengthening effect while tensile strained. So it was concluded that this had to by cause by large amount of untransformed austenite, which FCC lattice providing large number of glide systems.

  9. Long-term abdominal adiposity activates several parameters of cardiac energy function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal obesity increases the incidence of cardiac events but reduces mortality when one of these events occurs. The phenomenon called obesity paradox might be related to myocardial energetics. This study was aimed at determining whether long-term abdominal adiposity alters cardiac energy function. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a Western-type (WD) diet for 8 months. The ex vivo coronary reactivity and mechanical function as well as the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and hydrogen peroxide release (mH2O2r) were determined. Abdominal adiposity was augmented by the WD. This was also the case for the coronary reactivity to acetylcholine, but the rate pressure product remained roughly stable despite a reduction of the left ventricle-developed pressure partly compensated by a slight increase in heart rate. The prolonged WD administration resulted in an improvement of mOxPhos, but the mH2O2r was exaggerated which was confirmed in the whole cell by a reduced aconitase to fumarase ratio. This did not modify the plasma oxidative stress due to an increased plasma antioxidant status. In conclusion, long-term WD administration improved the cardiac fitness and might predispose the organism to the obesity paradox. Conversely, the increased mitochondrial mH2O2r can precipitate the heart toward cardiomyopathy if the WD is maintained for a longer duration. PMID:26255304

  10. Microbial functional diversity enhances predictive models linking environmental parameters to ecosystem properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeff R; Welsh, Allana; Hallin, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms drive biogeochemical processes, but linking these processes to real changes in microbial communities under field conditions is not trivial. Here, we present a model-based approach to estimate independent contributions of microbial community shifts to ecosystem properties. The approach was tested empirically, using denitrification potential as our model process, in a spatial survey of arable land encompassing a range of edaphic conditions and two agricultural production systems. Soil nitrate was the most important single predictor of denitrification potential (the change in Akaike's information criterion, corrected for sample size, ΔAIC(c) = 20.29); however, the inclusion of biotic variables (particularly the evenness and size of denitrifier communities [ΔAIC(c) = 12.02], and the abundance of one denitrifier genotype [ΔAIC(c) = 18.04]) had a substantial effect on model precision, comparable to the inclusion of abiotic variables (biotic R2 = 0.28, abiotic R2 = 0.50, biotic + abiotic R2 = 0.76). This approach provides a valuable tool for explicitly linking microbial communities to ecosystem functioning. By making this link, we have demonstrated that including aspects of microbial community structure and diversity in biogeochemical models can improve predictions of nutrient cycling in ecosystems and enhance our understanding of ecosystem functionality.

  11. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  12. Critical Crossover Functions for Simple Fluids: Non-Analytical Scaling Determination of the Ising-Like Crossover Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Marre, Samuel; LeNeindre, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    A non-analytical scaling determination of the Ising-like crossover parameter is proposed considering the critical isochore of a simple fluid at finite distance from its critical temperature. The mean crossover functions, estimated from the bounded results of the massive renormalization scheme in field theory applied to the ( Φ 2) d2( n) model in three dimensions (d=3) and scalar order parameter (n=1), are used to formulate the corresponding scaling equations valid in two well-defined temperature ranges from the critical temperature. The validity range and the Ising-like nature of the corresponding crossover description are discussed in terms of a single Ising-like scale factor characterizing the critical isochore. The asymptotic value of this scale factor can be predicted within the Ising-like preasymptotic domain. Unfortunately, the absence of precise experimental data in such a close vicinity of the critical point leads the direct testing impossible. A contrario, from our scaling equations and the use of precise measurements performed at finite distance from the critical point, its local value can be estimated beyond the Ising-like preasymptotic domain. This non-analytical scaling determination only needs to make reference to the universal features estimated from the mean crossover functions and to introduce a single master dimensionless length common to all the simple fluids. This latter parameter guaranties the uniqueness of the physical length unit used for the theoretical crossover functions and the fluid singular properties when the generalized critical coordinates of the vapor-liquid critical point of each fluid are known. Xenon case along its critical isochore is considered as a typical example to demonstrate the singleness of the Ising-like crossover parameter. With the measurements at finite temperature range of the effective singular behaviors of the isothermal compressibility in the homogeneous domain, and the vapor-liquid coexisting densities in the

  13. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salahy, Mohamed; Shnawa, Bushra; Abed, Gamal; Mandour, Ahmed; Al-Ezzi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared with healthy normal subjects. Neutrophils levels were significantly higher in cases of falciparum malaria in comparison to healthy normal subjects. Serums AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct) in falciparum malaria patients were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than those of falciparum malaria of free individuals. Hematological and liver dysfunctions measured parameters were seen associated with moderate and severe parasitaemia infection. This study concludes that hematological and hepatic dysfunction parameters could be indicator of malaria in endemic regions. PMID:27051422

  14. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al-Salahy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah, Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared with healthy normal subjects. Neutrophils levels were significantly higher in cases of falciparum malaria in comparison to healthy normal subjects. Serums AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct in falciparum malaria patients were significantly higher (p<0.0001 than those of falciparum malaria of free individuals. Hematological and liver dysfunctions measured parameters were seen associated with moderate and severe parasitaemia infection. This study concludes that hematological and hepatic dysfunction parameters could be indicator of malaria in endemic regions.

  15. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salahy, Mohamed; Shnawa, Bushra; Abed, Gamal; Mandour, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared with healthy normal subjects. Neutrophils levels were significantly higher in cases of falciparum malaria in comparison to healthy normal subjects. Serums AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct) in falciparum malaria patients were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than those of falciparum malaria of free individuals. Hematological and liver dysfunctions measured parameters were seen associated with moderate and severe parasitaemia infection. This study concludes that hematological and hepatic dysfunction parameters could be indicator of malaria in endemic regions. PMID:27051422

  16. Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver function: a case-control study in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal level of thyroid hormones is important for normal hepatic function and thyroid dysfunction may modulate metabolic function of liver. The purpose of this study is to determine whether liver function is associated with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Thyroid and liver function tests were evaluated in 47 patients with overt (TSH ≥10.0 mIU/L and 77 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 6.0-9.9mIU/L and compared with 120 age-matched euthyroid controls. Subjects with overt hypothyroidism had significantly raised serum ALT, AST, ALP and total protein levels as compared to controls whereas subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly increased levels of serum ALT, ALP and total protein. Further, TSH showed significant positive correlation with AST and ALP values whereas fT3 and fT4 had a negative correlation with AST in overt hypothyroidism. Thus, overt hypothyroid state is associated with significant derangement in biochemical parameters of liver function. Hence, liver function should be regularly monitored in hypothyroid patients.

  17. Differences in Neural Activation as a Function of Risk-taking Task Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza eCongdon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence supporting a relationship between impulsivity and naturalistic risk-taking, the relationship of impulsivity with laboratory-based measures of risky decision-making remains unclear. One factor contributing to this gap in our understanding is the degree to which different risky decision-making tasks vary in their details. We conducted an fMRI investigation of the Angling Risk Task (ART, which is an improved behavioral measure of risky decision-making. In order to examine whether the observed pattern of neural activation was specific to the ART or generalizable, we also examined correlates of the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking (BART task in the same sample of 23 healthy adults. Exploratory analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between neural activation, performance, impulsivity and self-reported risk-taking. While activation in a valuation network was associated with reward tracking during the ART but not the BART, increased fronto-cingulate activation was seen during risky choice trials in the BART as compared to the ART. Thus, neural activation during risky decision-making trials differed between the two tasks, and this observation was likely driven by differences in task parameters, namely the absence vs. presence of ambiguity and/or stationary vs. increasing probability of loss on the ART and BART, respectively. Exploratory association analyses suggest that sensitivity of neural response to the magnitude of potential reward during the ART was associated with a suboptimal performance strategy, higher scores on a scale of dysfunctional impulsivity and a greater likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, while this pattern was not seen for the BART. Our results suggest that the ART is decomposable and associated with distinct patterns of neural activation; this represents a preliminary step towards characterizing a behavioral measure of risky decision-making that may support a better understanding of naturalistic risk-taking.

  18. Some parameters of thyroid function in Dutch-Miranda rats submitted to chronic treatment of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of thyroid function in rats whose blood lithium levels were maintained are investigated. At therapeutic levels during 1,5 to 2 months. Adult young male rats (isogenic Dutch-Miranda) of the same litter were randomly distributed into paired experimental and control groups of 3 animals. The animals were fed comercial chow and received tap water or LiCl 12,5 mM in distiled water to drink, ad-libitum. At the end of experimental period each animal received an intraperitoneal tracer dosis of I-131 (5-6 uCi), 72 h later their thyroids were removed, weighed and counted to determine the I-131 uptake. The pooled thyroids of each group were homogeneized and supernadant and particulate fractions were separed by centrifugation. TPO activity was determined in the pseudosolubilized particulate feaction. (Author)

  19. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Juscelino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD. Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active diet (AD with a control diet (CD devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313. Results Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P P P P = 0.0056, LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P P 1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013, hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497 and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123. The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P P Conclusion The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD.

  20. Effect of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae on pulmonary function parameters in a bovine respiratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, M; Prohl, A; Ostermann, C; Diller, R; Greub, G; Reinhold, P

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary dysfunction induced by experimental infection with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in calves. Intrabronchial inoculation with P. acanthamoebae was performed in 31 calves aged 2-3 months old at two different challenge doses of 10(8) and 10(10) inclusion-forming units (IFU) per animal. Control animals received heat inactivated bacteria. The effects on pulmonary gas exchange were determined by arterial blood gas analysis and haemoximetry during the 7 days post inoculation (DPI). For pulmonary function testing (PFT), impulse oscillometry, capnography, and measurement of O2 uptake were undertaken in spontaneously breathing animals 7 and 3 days before inoculation and were repeated until 10 DPI. In the early phase after challenge (1-3 DPI), mild hypoxaemia occurred, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in both tidal and alveolar volumes (each related to bodyweight, BW). In parallel, expiratory flow rate and specific ventilation (i.e. minute ventilation related to O2 uptake) were significantly increased. Minute and alveolar ventilations (each related to metabolic BW) increased significantly due to higher respiratory rates, lasting until 4 and 5 DPI, respectively. Oxygen uptake was slightly reduced during the first 2 days after challenge, but increased significantly during the recovery phase, from 4 to 8 DPI. No deterioration in respiratory mechanics or acid-base balance was observed. Respiratory infection with 10(10) IFU P. acanthamoebae per calf induced mild respiratory dysfunction, mainly characterised by hypoxaemia. The study's findings do not indicate severe pathophysiological consequences of P. acanthamoebae infection on pulmonary function in the bovine host. PMID:27240907

  1. The Effect of Repeat Cardiopulmonary bypass on Epicardial Microflow and Graft Flow during Intra-operative Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective The relationship between graft blood flow, epicardial microflow,mean arterial pressure and hemorheologic changes was studied during intraoperative heart failure.Methods These parameters were done to evaluate the use of repeated cardiopulmonary bypass supportfor the intraoperative heart failure following aorto-coronary bypass surgery. Included in this study were10 patients with a mean age of 7 0 and unstable angina undergoing coronary bypass grafting and suffer-ing from intraoperative heart failure. The epicardiai microflow, graft flow, mean arterial pressureand blood cell filterability were measured. Resluts During heart failure, the mean arterial pressurefell by 41 % ( P < 0. 01 ), graft flow by 67 % ( P < 0. 01 ) and epicardialmicro flow by 64 % ( P <0. 01 ). After 1 5 to 56 min of assisted cardiopulmonary bypass support, the epicardial mioroflow andgraft flow were partially restored, while red cell and white cell filterability was reduced by 31% and644 % respectively ( P < 0. 01 ). There were significant correlations between graft flow, epicardial mi-croflow, blooxd cell filterability and cardiopulmonary bypass time. All patients recovered and were dis-charged from the hospital. Conclusion It is concluded that the use of temporary assisted CPB sup-port to treat intrapoperative heart failure allows the recovery of the myocardium and thereby restores themean arterial pressure. The recovery of graft flow and epicardial flow occurred to a lesser extent. TheCPB support seemed to be suitable for about 60 rain probably because of increasing disturbance to theblood cell filterability, graft flow and the epicardial microcirculation.

  2. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duara Rajnish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1 cases where residual pump blood was used and (2 controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1 st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained.

  3. Total heart volume as a function of clinical and anthropometric parameters in a population of external beam radiation therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to determine anthropometric parameters leading to the least uncertain estimate of heart size when connecting a computational phantom to an external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) patient. From computed tomography images, we segmented the heart and calculated its total volume (THV) in a population of 270 EBRT patients of both sexes, aged 0.7–83 years. Our data were fitted using logistic growth functions. The patient age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area (BSA) were used as explanatory variables. For both genders, good fits were obtained with both weight (R2 = 0.89 for males and 0.83 for females) and BSA (R2 = 0.90 for males and 0.84 for females). These results demonstrate that, among anthropometric parameters, weight plays an important role in predicting THV. These findings should be taken into account when assigning a computational phantom to a patient. (paper)

  4. Estimation of arterial and cardiopulmonary total peripheral resistance baroreflex gain values: validation by chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Kim, Jong-Kyung; Li, Ying; Sala-Mercado, Javier; Hammond, Robert L; Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2006-05-01

    Feedback control of total peripheral resistance (TPR) by the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex systems is an important mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. Existing methods for measuring this TPR baroreflex mechanism typically aim to quantify only the gain value of one baroreflex system as it operates in open-loop conditions. As a result, the normal, integrated functioning of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of TPR remains to be fully elucidated. To this end, the laboratory of Mukkamala et al. (Mukkamala R, Toska K, and Cohen RJ. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 284: H947-H959, 2003) previously proposed a potentially noninvasive technique for estimating the closed-loop (dimensionless) gain values of the arterial TPR baroreflex (GA) and the cardiopulmonary TPR baroreflex (GC) by mathematical analysis of the subtle, beat-to-beat fluctuations in arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Here, we review the technique with additional details and describe its experimental evaluation with respect to spontaneous hemodynamic variability measured from seven conscious dogs, before and after chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation. The technique was able to correctly predict the group-average changes in GA and GC that have previously been shown to occur following chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation. That is, reflex control by the arterial TPR baroreflex was virtually abolished (GA = -2.1 +/- 0.6 to 0.3 +/- 0.2; P TPR baroreflex more than doubled (GC = -0.7 +/- 0.4 to -1.8 +/- 0.2; P TPR baroreflex functioning in both humans and animals in health and disease.

  5. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Zeng, Hongchun [First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Ultrasonography, Urumqi (China); Koestenberger, Martin [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  6. Long-term effect of early protein malnutrition on growth curve, hematological parameters and macrophage function of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Laraya, Rodrigo Domingues; Silva, Paula Roberta Colacino; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Felipe, Ionice; Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of mild-early maternal protein malnutrition on weight gain, hematological parameters and macrophage function in rats at adult age, we compared rats whose dams were fed diets containing either 9.5% (low protein-LPD) or 23% protein (normal-NPD) for the first 12 d of lactation. At 80 d of age, the functions of spreading, phagocytosis and killing Candida albicans were determined in resident peritoneal macrophages, whereas leukocytes and red blood cells were counted in peripheral blood. The number of resident peritoneal macrophages from LPD was the same as from NPD, but the ability of spreading and phagocytosing opsonised yeast was impaired. Besides, they were not able to block the germ tube formation or kill C. albicans to the same extent as in the control group. The low protein diet produced a significant reduction in the pups' growth and in hematological parameters although no difference was found in leukocyte counts. Taken together the data suggest that protein malnutrition during early lactation induces permanent alterations in macrophage function, body composition and hematological status, which are not restored completely even after a normal protein diet is supplied. PMID:17330504

  7. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  8. Better estimation of protein-DNA interaction parameters improve prediction of functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Flanagan Ruadhan A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing transcription factor binding motifs is a common bioinformatics task. For transcription factors with variable binding sites, we need to get many suboptimal binding sites in our training dataset to get accurate estimates of free energy penalties for deviating from the consensus DNA sequence. One procedure to do that involves a modified SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment method designed to produce many such sequences. Results We analyzed low stringency SELEX data for E. coli Catabolic Activator Protein (CAP, and we show here that appropriate quantitative analysis improves our ability to predict in vitro affinity. To obtain large number of sequences required for this analysis we used a SELEX SAGE protocol developed by Roulet et al. The sequences obtained from here were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The resulting bioinformatic model characterizes the sequence specificity of the protein more accurately than those sequence specificities predicted from previous analysis just by using a few known binding sites available in the literature. The consequences of this increase in accuracy for prediction of in vivo binding sites (and especially functional ones in the E. coli genome are also discussed. We measured the dissociation constants of several putative CAP binding sites by EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay and compared the affinities to the bioinformatics scores provided by methods like the weight matrix method and QPMEME (Quadratic Programming Method of Energy Matrix Estimation trained on known binding sites as well as on the new sites from SELEX SAGE data. We also checked predicted genome sites for conservation in the related species S. typhimurium. We found that bioinformatics scores based on SELEX SAGE data does better in terms of prediction of physical binding energies as well as in detecting functional sites. Conclusion We think that training binding site detection

  9. Pulmonary artery perfusion with HTK solution prevents lung injury in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-an; LIU Ying-long; LIU Jin-ping; LI Xiao-feng

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a novel adjunctive method, which can minimize the lung ischemic-reperfusion injury and inflammatory response. This study evaluated the protective effect of pulmonary perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution in corrections of congenital heart defects with pulmonary hypertension.Methods Between June 2009 and December 2009, 24 consecutive infants with congenital heart defects and pulmonary hypertension were randomly divided into perfused group (n=12) and control group (n=12). Oxygen index, alveolar-arterial O2gradient, serum levels of malondialchehyche (MDA), interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -10, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(slCAM-1), and P-selectin were measured before commencement and serially for 48 hours after termination of bypass.Results Oxygenation values were better preserved in the perfused group than in the control group. The serum levels of IL-6 increased immediately after CPB in both groups and returned to baseline at 48 hours after CPB, but it was restored faster and earlier in the perfused group. The serum levels of IL-8, slCAM-1, and MDA remained at baseline at each point after CPB in the perfused group and elevated significantly immediately after CPB in the control group, except for sICAM-1.The serum level of IL-10 increased immediately after CPB and decreased to baseline at 48 hours after CPB in both groups, but the IL-10 level in the perfused group was significantly higher than in the control group at 12 hours after CPB.The serum P-selectin levels in the control group immediately after CPB were significantly higher than prebypass levels.Moreover, there were no significant differences in postoperative clinical characters, except for the intubated time.Conclusion In infants with congenital heart defects, pulmonary perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution during cardiopulmonary bypass could ameliorate lung function and reduce the inflammatory response.

  10. Self-priming hemodynamic reservoir and inline flow meter for a cardiopulmonary bypass simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, David; Austin, Jon; Tallman, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Simulator exercises are used at Midwestern University to augment academic and laboratory training toward consolidating particular skills, increasing situation awareness, and preparing the student for practice within the team environment of an operating room. This paper describes an enhanced cardiopulmonary bypass simulator consisting of a self-priming hemodynamic reservoir that includes an inline flow meter. A typical cardiopulmonary bypass adult perfusion circuit was assembled using a roller pump console and integrated oxygenator/heat exchanger/reservoir and primed with 2 liters of water. For patient simulation, a soft-sided reservoir bag was mounted onto an inclined platform. A 1-liter soft-sided bag was placed just above the reservoir, providing an overflow reservoir. The priming line extended to the head of the mannequin. The arterial, venous, and suction lines extended through the open chest. The primed perfusion circuit was connected to ports on the filled reservoir bag. To test the patient simulation, the arterial pump output was adjusted to flow rates ranging from 1-7 liters per minute, with a complete interruption (to zero flow) between each test run. An inline flow meter was added to the bypass circuit and an analog to digital converter board was used to pass flow data into the computer-based simulation program. The use of an inclined hemodynamic reservoir bag proved to be self-priming and functional without problems over a wide range of flows tested. By including a reservoir with the mannequin, plus processing and displaying real-time flow data using the CPB-Sim simulation program, a higher fidelity and more realistic simulation experience was created. PMID:20648900

  11. Thioether profragrances: parameters influencing the performance of precursor-based fragrance delivery in functional perfumery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Umberto; Trachsel, Alain; Fankhauser, Peter; Berthier, Damien L; Benczédi, Daniel; Wang, Wei; Xi, Xiujuan; Shen, Youqing; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A series of thioether profragrances was prepared by reaction of different sulfanylalkanoates with δ-damascone and tested for their release efficiencies in a fabric-softener and an all-purpose cleaner application. Dynamic headspace analysis on dry cotton and on a ceramic plate revealed that the performance of the different precursors depended on the structure, but also on the particular conditions encountered in different applications. Moreover, profragrances derived from other α,β-unsaturated fragrance aldehydes and ketones were synthesized analogously and evaluated using the same test protocol. Thioethers were found to be suitable precursors to release the corresponding fragrances, but neither the quantity of profragrance deposited from an aqueous environment onto the target surface, nor the amount of fragrance released after deposition could be linearly correlated to the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of the compounds. Different sets of compounds were found to be the best performers for different types of applications. Only one of the compounds evaluated in the present work, namely the thiolactic acid derivative of δ-damascone, efficiently released the corresponding fragrance in both of the tested applications. Profragrance development for functional perfumery thus remains a partially empirical endeavour. More knowledge (and control) of the various application conditions are required for an efficient profragrance design. PMID:25408319

  12. The pulsed microwave damage trend of a bipolar transistor as a function of pulse parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zhen-Yang; Chai Chang-Chun; Ren Xing-Rong; Yang Yin-Tang; Zhao Ying-Bo; Qiao Li-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we conduct a theoretical study of the thermal accumulation effect of a typical bipolar transistor caused by high power pulsed microwaves (HPMs),and investigate the thermal accumulation effect as a function of pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and duty cycle.A study of the damage mechanism of the device is carried out from the variation analysis of the distribution of the electric field and the current density.The result shows that the accumulation temperature increases with PRF increasing and the threshold for the transistor is about 2 kHz.The response of the peak temperature induced by the injected single pulses indicates that the falling time is much longer than the rising time.Adopting the fitting method,the relationship between the peak temperature and the time during the rising edge and that between the peak temperature and the time during the falling edge are obtained.Moreover,the accumulation temperature decreases with duty cycle increasing for a certain mean power.

  13. Integrative modeling of small artery structure and function uncovers critical parameters for diameter regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed VanBavel

    Full Text Available Organ perfusion is regulated by vasoactivity and structural adaptation of small arteries and arterioles. These resistance vessels are sensitive to pressure, flow and a range of vasoactive stimuli. Several strongly interacting control loops exist. As an example, the myogenic response to a change of pressure influences the endothelial shear stress, thereby altering the contribution of shear-dependent dilation to the vascular tone. In addition, acute responses change the stimulus for structural adaptation and vice versa. Such control loops are able to maintain resistance vessels in a functional and stable state, characterized by regulated wall stress, shear stress, matched active and passive biomechanics and presence of vascular reserve. In this modeling study, four adaptation processes are identified that together with biomechanical properties effectuate such integrated regulation: control of tone, smooth muscle cell length adaptation, eutrophic matrix rearrangement and trophic responses. Their combined action maintains arteries in their optimal state, ready to cope with new challenges, allowing continuous long-term vasoregulation. The exclusion of any of these processes results in a poorly regulated state and in some cases instability of vascular structure.

  14. Gravity and the evolution of cardiopulmonary morphology in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Albert, James S; Sheehy, Coleman M; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-02-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse - significantly longer heart-head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart-to-head distance and length of vascular lung are co-adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes.

  15. Age-related changes in chest geometry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Schleien, C L; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Rogers, M C; Traystman, R J

    1987-06-01

    We studied alterations of chest geometry during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized immature swine. Pulsatile force was applied to the sternum in increments to determine the effects of increasing compression on chest geometry and intrathoracic vascular pressures. In 2-wk- and 1-mo-old piglets, permanent changes in chest shape developed due to incomplete recoil of the chest along the anteroposterior axis, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were generated. In 3-mo-old animals, permanent chest deformity did not develop, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were not produced. We propose a theoretical model of the chest as an elliptic cylinder. Pulsatile displacement along the minor axis of an ellipse produces a greater decrease in cross-sectional area than displacement of a circular cross section. As thoracic cross section became less circular due to deformity, greater changes in thoracic volume, and hence pressure, were produced. With extreme deformity at high force, pulsatile displacement became limited, diminishing pressure generation. We conclude that changes in chest geometry are important in producing intrathoracic intravascular pressure during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in piglets. PMID:3610916

  16. Do Radiologists Want/Need Training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prompt and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decreases morbidity and mortality following cardiopulmonary arrest. Radiologists are frequently confronted with severely ill patients, who may deteriorate at any time. Furthermore, they have to be aware of life-threatening reactions towards contrast media. This study was designed to assess experience and self-estimation of German-speaking radiologists in CPR and cardiac defibrillation (CD). Material and Methods: 650 German-speaking radiologists were audited by a specially designed questionnaire, which was sent via e-mail. The answers were expected to be re-mailed within a 2-month period. Results: The response rate was 12.6%. 72.8% of the responders had performed at least 1 CPR (range 9.5 ± 13.1) and 37% at least 1 CD. 67.9% had had opportunities to attend training courses, which had been utilized by 41.8% of them. The last training of the responders was more than 2 years ago in 69.2% and more than 5 years ago in 37%. Of all responders 75.6% expressed the need for further education. Conclusion: The small response rate indicates the small importance of CPR in the subpopulation surveyed. The vast majority of the responders, however, showed interest in basic and advanced life support and advocated regular updates. It seems reasonable that radiological Dept. themselves should organize courses in order to cope with their specific situations

  17. Endothelial Functioning and Hemodynamic Parameters in Rats with Subclinical Hypothyroid and the Effects of Thyroxine Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixia Gao

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH and its associations with atherosclerosis (AS and cardiovascular disease remain controversial. The purpose of our study was to observe changes in endothelial functioning and hemodynamics in rats with SCH and to determine whether L-thyroxine (L-T4 administration affects these changes.In total, sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following three groups with 20 rats each: control euthyroid rats, SCH rats and SCH rats that had been treated with thyroxine (SCH+T4. The SCH rats were induced by administration of 10 mg x kg(-1 x d(-1 methimazole (MMI once daily by gavage for 3 months. The SCH+T4 rats were administered the same dose of MMI for three months in addition to 2 μg x kg(-1 x d(-1 L-T4 once daily by gavage after 45 days of MMI administration. The control rats received physiological saline via gavage.The SCH group had significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and endothelin (ET levels and a lower nitric oxide (NO level than the control and SCH+T4 groups. The tail and carotid artery blood pressures, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and aorta ventralis blood flow were significantly lower in the SCH group than in the control and SCH+T4 groups. ACH treatment caused concentration-dependent relaxation, which was reduced in the SCH arteries compared with the control and SCH+T4 arteries. Histopathological examination revealed the absence of pathological changes in the SCH rat arteries.These findings demonstrate that L-T4 treatment ameliorates endothelial dysfunction and hemodynamic changes in SCH rats.

  18. Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Generalized Function Projective Synchronization of Different Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone substitution in female adrenal failure: no impact on endothelial function and cardiovascular parameters despite normalization of androgen status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Juel; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Sørensen, Keld E;

    2007-01-01

    -mg or placebo. Each treatment period was followed by a 2-month washout period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten females with documented adrenal failure were included. Androgen levels were measured. Cardiovascular evaluation was performed before and after every treatment period. Two patients left the study......BACKGROUND: Female adrenal insufficiency implicates reduced production of the adrenal androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and low androgen levels. Oral DHEA restores androgen deficit but the clinical implications and safety of substitution therapy is uncertain. A putative DHEA receptor...... androgen levels using 6 months of DHEA replacement in this pilot study did not affect cardiovascular parameters and endothelial function in female adrenal insufficiency...

  20. [Dynamics of functional parameters in different schemes for bronchial asthma therapy: results of the STRELA-ACT multicentre study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodova, L M; Kulikov, E S; Deev, I A; Cherniak, B A; Fassakhov, R S

    2011-01-01

    Different strategies for disease control in real clinical practice are compared in terms of dynamics of functional parameters in patients with persistent bronchial asthma. This prospective multicentre surveillance study was carried out in 19 Russian clinics using the common protocol. The patients were divided in 3 groups in accordance with the changes of basal antiinflammatory therapy during the study period. Group A--stepwise increase in the extent of combined salmoterol/fluticason therapy, group B--long-term stable-dose salmoterol/fluticason therapy, group C--salmoterol/fluticason therapy with gradual decrease of the dose and/or transition to an alternative variant. Statistical analysis using Statistica 6.0 program included data from 543 patients. The results suggest that the two first modalities increased the level of control (ACT test) and improved characteristics of external respiration throughout the study period. Strategy 3 was associated with a decrease in the external respiration function and the level of control.

  1. The effect of choral music on emotions, immune parameters and lung function during physiotherapy treatment of pneumonia and bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Le Roux

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Music, processed by the brain, has a strong impacton the emotions and health.  The Magnificat in D major of JS Bach communicates not only a positive emotion of happiness but also motivational behaviour. Infectious lung conditions are often associated with negative emotions which develop due to physiological changes. The hormonal action of the hypothalamuspituitary-adrenal axes (HPA could be negatively affected by emotions of anger and depression.  This will result in a disturbance of the mind-body inter-action.  Music therefore can exert a powerful influence on therapeutic benefits by changing the psychological status and the immune endocrine functions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of music, during respiratory physiotherapy treatment on a theemotional status, b neuroendocrine responses, c immune functions and d lung functions of subjects with infected lung conditions.Method and Materials: Forty subjects attending physiotherapy treatment was selected according to set criteria and randomly assigned to an experimental and control group. The parameters (Profile Of Mood State [POMS]; CD4:CD8 cell ratios; Cortisol; the Cortisol: DHEA ratio; PF; FEV1; FVC and FEV1/FVC % were measured on day 1before the treatment and on day 3 after the treatment.  Data were analysed with Statistica (Statsoft using the RepeatedANOVA tests. Results: Results indicated that the intervention of music had a positive effect on the immunological parameter (CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and on the cortisol and cortisol:DHEA ratio levels.  At the same time the psychological  status as measured by Profile of Mood States (POMS scale improved with a significant improvement in the lung functions.Conclusion: The research provided sufficient scientific evidence that music affects both the biomedical and psycho-somatic aspects of infectious lung conditions.

  2. Process modeling and parameter optimization using radial basis function neural network and genetic algorithm for laser welding of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Yue, Chen

    2015-11-01

    The welded joints of dissimilar materials have been widely used in automotive, ship and space industries. The joint quality is often evaluated by weld seam geometry, microstructures and mechanical properties. To obtain the desired weld seam geometry and improve the quality of welded joints, this paper proposes a process modeling and parameter optimization method to obtain the weld seam with minimum width and desired depth of penetration for laser butt welding of dissimilar materials. During the process, Taguchi experiments are conducted on the laser welding of the low carbon steel (Q235) and stainless steel (SUS301L-HT). The experimental results are used to develop the radial basis function neural network model, and the process parameters are optimized by genetic algorithm. The proposed method is validated by a confirmation experiment. Simultaneously, the microstructures and mechanical properties of the weld seam generated from optimal process parameters are further studied by optical microscopy and tensile strength test. Compared with the unoptimized weld seam, the welding defects are eliminated in the optimized weld seam and the mechanical properties are improved. The results show that the proposed method is effective and reliable for improving the quality of welded joints in practical production.

  3. Combined Computational Approach Based on Density Functional Theory and Artificial Neural Networks for Predicting The Solubility Parameters of Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, J Darío; Langner, Stefan; Salvador, Michael; Kontos, Janos; Jarvas, Gabor; Winkler, Florian; Machui, Florian; Görling, Andreas; Dallos, Andras; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2016-05-19

    The solubility of organic semiconductors in environmentally benign solvents is an important prerequisite for the widespread adoption of organic electronic appliances. Solubility can be determined by considering the cohesive forces in a liquid via Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). We report a numerical approach to determine the HSP of fullerenes using a mathematical tool based on artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN transforms the molecular surface charge density distribution (σ-profile) as determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations within the framework of a continuum solvation model into solubility parameters. We validate our model with experimentally determined HSP of the fullerenes C60, PC61BM, bisPC61BM, ICMA, ICBA, and PC71BM and through comparison with previously reported molecular dynamics calculations. Most excitingly, the ANN is able to correctly predict the dispersive contributions to the solubility parameters of the fullerenes although no explicit information on the van der Waals forces is present in the σ-profile. The presented theoretical DFT calculation in combination with the ANN mathematical tool can be easily extended to other π-conjugated, electronic material classes and offers a fast and reliable toolbox for future pathways that may include the design of green ink formulations for solution-processed optoelectronic devices. PMID:27070101

  4. The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiška Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle.We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the level of aerobic (AeT and anaerobic thresholds (AT, maximum heart rate (HRmax and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05 and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01 the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05.The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05 in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s. during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1, upper level of oxygen regime (A2 and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2 during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

  5. Influence on functional parameters of intestinal tract induced by short-term exposure to fumonisins contaminated corn chyme samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, F; Debellis, L; Garbetta, A; De Girolamo, A; Schena, R; Portincasa, P; Visconti, A

    2014-04-01

    The gut is a possible target toward mycotoxin fumonisins (FBs) exposure. The study aims to investigate the effects induced by FBs contaminated-corn chyme samples on functional parameters of human and rat intestine by using Ussing chamber. Fumonisins-contaminated corn and processed corn samples were undergone to in vitro digestion process and then added to luminal side. A reduction (about 90%) of short circuit current (Isc μA/cm(2)) during exposure of human colon tissues to fumonisins-free corn chyme samples was observed, probably related to increased chyme osmolality. This hyperosmotic stress could drain water towards the luminal compartment, modifying Na(+) and Cl(-) transports. The presence of FBs in corn chyme samples, independently to their concentration, did not affect significantly the Isc, probably related to their interference towards epithelial Na(+) transport, as assessed by using a specific inhibitor (Amiloride). The rat colon tract represents a more accessible model to study FBs toxicity showing a similar functional response to human. In the rat small intestine a significant reduction (about 15%) of Isc parameter during exposure to uncontaminated or FBs contaminated corn chyme samples was observed; therefore such model was not suitable to assess the FBs toxicity, probably because the prevalent glucose and amino acids electrogenic absorption overwhelmed the FBs influence on ionic transport. PMID:24480040

  6. Establishment of an animal model of non-transthoracic cardiopulmonary bypass in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Hong-wei; XIAO Ying-bin; LIU Mei; CHEN Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish an animal model of non-transthoracic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in rats. Methods: Ten adult male Sprague-Dawlay rats, weighing 350-500 g, were used in this study. CPB was established in these animals through cannulating the left carotid and right jugular vein for arterial perfusion and venous return. The components of perfusion circuit, especially the miniature oxygenator and cannula, were specially designed and improved. The mean arterial pressure was measured with a blood pressure meter through cannulating the left femoral artery. The hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were also monitored. Results: The rat model of non-transthoracic CPB was established successfully. The hemodynamical parameters were changed within an acceptable region during CPB. The miniature oxygenator was sufficient to meet the standard of satisfactory CPB.Conclusions: The rat model of non-transthoracic CPB established through the carotid and jugular cannulation is feasible, easily operated, safe, reliable, and economic. It is an ideal model for the pathophysiological research of CPB.

  7. Combined cardiopulmonary assessments with implantable telemetry device in conscious freely moving cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, S; Haefner, Paul; Fournier, S; Troncy, E; Moon, L B

    2010-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys were surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters recording ECG (DII), arterial pressure, physical activity, body temperature, and tidal volume. Respiratory rate (RR) and tidal volume (TV) were monitored simultaneously with the telemetry transmitter using impedance. Impedance-based monitoring of RR and TV by telemetry correlated with controlled TV and with pneumotachometer (>98%) in restrained animals. Control drugs with cardiovascular and respiratory effects, including saline, medetomidine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.04mg/kg) and cocaine (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg/kg) were administered intravenously. An averaging epoch of 5min was used for analysis of respiratory data. Medetomidine induced significant respiratory depression with decrease in RR and TV in freely moving animals while cocaine increased TV, RR and minute ventilation (MV) with concomitant increase in heart rate when compared with time matched values from saline-treated animals. The onset, duration and magnitude of cardiovascular and respiratory changes were correlated. This highlights the dependency of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The use of cardiopulmonary monitoring can allow continuous monitoring including during night time when variability of respiratory parameters is lower. Monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters in the same animals could also help to decrease the number of animals used in research. PMID:20570745

  8. Cardiopulmonary malformations in the inv/inv mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, T C; Miga, D E; Mjaatvedt, C H; Phelps, A L; Wessels, A

    2001-05-01

    The inv/inv mouse carries an insertional mutation in the inversin gene, (inv, for inversion of embryonic turning). Previously it had been reported that almost 100% of the homozygous offspring (inv/inv) were characterized by situs inversus totalis. In this report we identify the spectrum of cardiopulmonary anatomical abnormalities in inv/inv mice surviving to birth to determine whether the abnormalities seen are of the categories classically associated with human situs abnormalities. Stillborn mice, offspring that died unexpectedly (within 48 hr after birth), and neonates with phenotypic characteristics of situs inversus (right-sided stomachs, growth failure or jaundice) were processed for standard histological examination. Of 173 offspring, 34 (20%) neonates (11 stillborn, 9 unexpected deaths, and 14 mice with situs inversus phenotype) were examined, 27 of which were genotyped to be inv/inv. Interestingly, three inv/inv mice (11%) were found to have situs solitus. Twenty-four had situs inversus with normal, mirror-image cardiac anatomy (dextrocardia with atrioventricular concordance, ventriculoarterial concordance and a right aortic arch). The overall incidence of cardiovascular anomalies observed was 10 out of 27 (37%). The most frequent severe malformation, identified in 3 out of 27 animals, was a complex consisting of pulmonary infundibular stenosis/atresia with absence of pulmonary valve tissue and a ventricular septal defect. The pulmonary phenotype in inv/inv mice was situs inversus with occasional minor lobar abnormalities. We conclude that 1) cardiopulmonary malformations in inv/inv mice are not rare (37%), 2) the cardiopulmonary malformations observed in inv/inv specimens are not of the spectrum typically associated with human heterotaxia. In particular, inv/inv mice have a propensity for defects in the development of the right ventricular outflow tract and the interventricular septum, and 3) approximately one out of ten inv/inv mice is born with situs

  9. The advance of platelet preservation during cardiopulmonary bypass%围体外循环期血小板保护的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海燕; 史宏伟; 张媛

    2011-01-01

    Platelets can release α -granules when activated by various kinds of factors and then proceed to adhension, aggregation, contraction and releasing. Therefore, the quantities and qualities of platelets are decreased after cardiac operation. The function of platelets can be protected by some drugs used during cardiopulmonary bypass. Plateletphoresis can preserve the quantities and function of platelets by making some platelets avoid cardiopulmonary bypass. This review addresses the advance of platelet preservation during cardiopulmonary bypass.%在体外循环过程中,血小板可经各种途径被激活,导致α-颗粒释放,发生粘附、聚集、收缩、释放等反应,导致术后血小板数量和质量的下降.通过在围体外循环期使用某些药物可对血小板进行功能性保护,而血小板分离技术可使血小板避免体外循环的打击,得到数量和功能的双重保护.本文将就体外循环期间血小板保护的研究进展作一综速.

  10. Clinical evaluation of the Spiral Pump® after improvements to the original project in patients submitted to cardiac surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the results from Spiral Pump clinical trial after design modifications performed at its previous project. This pump applies axial end centrifugal hydraulic effects for blood pumping during cardiopulmonary bypass for patients under cardiac surgery. Methods: This study was performed in 52 patients (51% males, between 20 to 80 (67±14.4 years old weighing 53 to 102 (71.7±12.6 kg, mostly under myocardial revascularization surgery (34.6% and valvular surgery (32.8%. Besides the routine evaluation of the data observed in these cases, we monitored pump rotational speed, blood flow, cardiopulmonary bypass duration, urine free hemoglobin for blood cell trauma analysis (+ to 4+, lactate desidrogenase (UI/L, fibrinogen level (mg/dL and platelet count (nº/mm3. Results: Besides maintaining appropriate blood pressure and metabolic parameters it was also observed that the Free Hemoglobin levels remained normal, with a slight increase after 90 minutes of cardiopulmonary bypass. The Lactate Dehydrogenase showed an increase, with medians varying between 550-770 IU/L, whereas the decrease in Fibrinogen showed medians of 130-100 mg/dl. The number of platelets showed a slight decrease with the medians ranging from 240,000 to 200,000/mm3. No difficulty was observed during perfusion terminations, nor were there any immediate deaths, and all patients except one, were discharged in good condition. CONCLUSION: The Spiral Pump, as blood propeller during cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrated to be reliable and safe, comprising in a good option as original and national product for this kind of application.

  11. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  12. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly: a clinical and ethical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The daily practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in elderly patients has brought up the attention of outcome research and resource allocation. Determinants to predict survival have been well identified. There has been empirical evidence that CPR is of doubtful utility in the geriatric population, more studies have showed controversial data. Sometimes situations in which CPR needs to be given in the elderly, causes stress to healthcare providers, due to lack of communication of the patient's wishes and the belief that it will not be successful. It is of importance to state that we have the duty to identify on time the patients that will most likely benefit from CPR, and find out the preferences of the same. Whenever it is possible to institute these guidelines, we will avoid patient suffering.

  14. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing after laryngectomy: A connection conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Overstreet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presents with a new bronchogenic carcinoma 5 years after laryngectomy for recurrent laryngeal tumor and 13 years after chemoradiation for concurrent lung cancer with synchronous base-of-tongue tumor. Due to his complex history and perceived limited respiratory reserve, he was felt high risk for the completion pneumonectomy needed for resection of this new tumor. The attending surgeon requested a full cardiopulmonary exercise test for risk assessment prior to surgery. We found that there was no commercially available connector that would allow our CPET equipment to reliably collect respiratory gases from a patient with tracheostomy stoma or tube. We report here a simple coupling devised “in house” that allowed for the performance of an interpretable test leading to a significant change in medical care.

  15. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing after laryngectomy: A connection conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Shana; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Gross, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A patient presents with a new bronchogenic carcinoma 5 years after laryngectomy for recurrent laryngeal tumor and 13 years after chemoradiation for concurrent lung cancer with synchronous base-of-tongue tumor. Due to his complex history and perceived limited respiratory reserve, he was felt high risk for the completion pneumonectomy needed for resection of this new tumor. The attending surgeon requested a full cardiopulmonary exercise test for risk assessment prior to surgery. We found that there was no commercially available connector that would allow our CPET equipment to reliably collect respiratory gases from a patient with tracheostomy stoma or tube. We report here a simple coupling devised "in house" that allowed for the performance of an interpretable test leading to a significant change in medical care. PMID:26744642

  16. Voice advisory manikin versus instructor facilitated training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla; Rasmussen, Maria B;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training of healthcare staff in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is time-consuming and costly. It has been suggested to replace instructor facilitated (IF) training with an automated voice advisory manikin (VAM), which increases skill level by continuous verbal feedback during...... individual training. AIMS: To compare a VAM (ResusciAnne CPR skills station, Laerdal Medical A/S, Norway) with IF training in CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) in terms of skills retention after 3 months. METHODS: Forty-three second year medical students were included and CPR performance (ERC Guidelines...... for Resuscitation 2005) was assessed in a 2 min test before randomisation to either IF training in groups of 8 or individual VAM training. Immediately after training and after 3 months, CPR performance was assessed in identical 2 min tests. Laerdal PC Skill Reporting System 2.0 was used to collect data. To quantify...

  17. Electroencephalography during surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashein, G; Nessly, M L; Bledsoe, S W; Townes, B D; Davis, K B; Coppel, D B; Hornbein, T F

    1992-06-01

    After more than 30 yr of use, electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass has not gained wide clinical acceptance. To assess its utility to predict central nervous system injury, two-channel recordings were made from 78 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and anesthetized with fentanyl/diazepam/enflurane. The perfusion regimen included the use of high pump flow, a bubble oxygenator, and no arterial tubing filter. Target values were 28-32 degrees C for the minimum rectal temperature, 60-80 mmHg for mean arterial pressure, and 20-25% for hematocrit. Eight descriptors of the Fourier power spectra of the EEG were calculated off-line, and outcome comparisons were made with the results from neuropsychological tests. Among 58 patients yielding complete data of acceptable quality, a statistically significant reduction in total power was observed from prebypass to postbypass, accompanied by an increase in the fractional power in the theta and beta frequency bands and in the spectral edge frequency. The shifts in total and theta power were weakly associated with short-term but not with long-term changes in neuropsychological scores. Nearly 40% of the patients' EEGs were corrupted with electrical noise at some time during bypass. In 15 patients selected for having high-quality recordings and no neuropsychological deficit, an extensive statistical analysis failed to reveal any consistent variation in the EEG descriptors with hypothermia. Under the conditions studied, it appears that for other than gross signal dropout, the strong background variability in the EEG makes it have little value for detecting harbingers of brain injury.

  18. Antioxidative effect of propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-hai ZHANG; Shou-yong WANG; Shang-long YAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antioxidative potential of propofol (an intravenous anesthetic with a chemical structure similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as vitamin E) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS:Thirty adult patients referred for elective cardiac procedure with CPB were included and randomly allocated to a nously for anesthesia maintenance, whereas those allocated to the control group received fentanyl 10 μg/kg intravenously and inhaled enflurane (1%-1.5 %). Blood samples were collected at 7 time points: before the start of CPB,at 30 and 60 min of CPB, at the conclusion of CPB, 10 min after the administration of protamine, and 12 and 24 h after the cessation of CPB. Plasma levels of free F2-isoprostanes (sensitive markers of free radicals production)and complement C5a were determined by mass-spectrometric assay and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was observed at x200 magnification under a light microscope. RESULTS:Levels of F2-isoprostanes, complement C5a and neutrophil adhesion rate increased significantly during and after CPB in both groups. There were significantly higher levels of F2-isoprostanes, C5a, and more neutrophils adhering to endothelial cells in the control group than those in the propofol group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a great production of damaging free radicals. Propofol may be beneficial both as an anesthetic and as a potent free radical scavenger in patients presenting pathologies associated with free radical reactions during CPB.

  19. Clinical Study of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in the Evaluation of the Changes of Holistic Function of Patients With Esophagus Cancer After Chemotherapy%心肺运动试验评价食管癌患者化疗后整体功能变化的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴国; Curtis Hightower; 刘方; William W. Stringer; 葛万刚

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy has a serious damage on the holistic function of human body,while there is a lack of reliable methods for the objective and quantitative assessment of the changes of holistic function of patients after chemotherapy. Objective To investigate the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing(CPET)in the evaluation of the changes of holistic function of patients with esophagus cancer after chemotherapy. Methods From 2006 to 2007,we enrolled 6 Caucasian male patients with esophagus cancer who underwent preoperative chemotherapy in MD Anderson Cancer Center of University of Texas and conducted CPET examinations on them before and after chemotherapy. According to standard continuously increasing power scheme of UCLA Medical Center,we completed symptom - limited extreme sports and calculated the core indexes by standardized data analysis. The circulation indexes and respiration indexes in a quiescent state,a warm - up state,an anaerobic threshold(AT)state and an extreme state were derived by system software. Results Of the 6 esophagus cancer patients,only one patient had increase in AT and the rest patients all saw decrease in peak VO2 ,AT,peak oxygen pulse,oxygen uptake efficiency plateau,peak load power and increasing power movement time after chemotherapy;only one patient had decrease in the slope of ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide and the rest patients all had increase in the slope of ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide and the minimum ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide. The AT(L/ min,ml·min - 1 ·kg - 1 ,% pred),slope of ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide(slope,% pred),and increasing power movement time(min)after chemotherapy of the patients were not significantly different from those before chemotherapy(P > 0. 05);the peak VO2 (L/ min,ml·min - 1 · kg - 1 ,% pred),peak oxygen pulse(ml/ time,% pred),oxygen uptake efficiency plateau(ratio,% pred),and peak load power (W)were lower than those before chemotherapy

  20. The change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Shi; Yi-Xin Yang; Qian Xu; Yanhua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.Methods: Chose 89 patients with HDCP, they were set as HDCP group, chose another 60 cases health late pregnancy women and 42 cases non pregnant female, they were set as late pregnant group and non-pregnant control group, detected the platelet parameters: the average blood platelet count (PLT), platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and blood coagulation indexes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes in three groups.Results: (1) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PLT was significantly lower, while the MPV and PDW were significantly higher in HDCP group; PLT in late pregnant group was significantly lower than that in non-pregnant group, and there were no significantly difference of MPV and PDW in the two groups; (2) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PT and APTT levels were significantly lower, while FIB and D-D were significantly higher in HDCP group; The level of PT and APTT in late pregnant group were significantly lower, and FIB and D-D levels were significantly higher than that in non-pregnant group, However, The level of TT were no statistical significance difference among the three groups.Conclusion: HDCP existence phenomenon of platelet activation and apparent high coagulation state, dynamic detection of HDCP patients platelet parameters and blood coagulation indexes to prevent related complications, improve obstetrics safety is of great significance.

  1. Twin screw extrusion of kodo millet-chickpea blend: process parameter optimization, physico-chemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, R; Mishra, H N; Srivastav, P P

    2014-11-01

    Kodo millet-chickpea flour blend (70:30) was explored for development of directly expanded snack by twin-screw extrusion. Effect of process parameters like temperature (80-150 °C), screw speed (250-300 rpm) and feeder speed (15-30 rpm) on physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, crispiness) of extrudates were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Desirable crispy extrudates were obtained at higher screw speed 293 rpm, lower feeder speed 19 rpm, and medium to high temperature of 123 °C. Effect of extreme and intermediate process conditions on functional, proximate quality and colour of the extrudates were also evaluated.

  2. Complete switched modified function projective synchronization of a five-term chaotic system with uncertain parameters and disturbances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fei Yu; Chunhua Wang; Qiuzhen Wan; Yan Hu

    2013-02-01

    A five-term three-dimensional (3D) autonomous chaotic system with an exponential nonlinear term is reported in this paper. Basic dynamical behaviours of the chaotic system are further investigated. Then a new synchronization phenomenon, complete switched modified function projective synchronization (CSMFPS), for this novel five-term chaotic system with uncertain parameters and disturbances is investigated. This paper extends previous work, where CSMFPS of chaotic systems means that all the state variables of the drive system synchronize with different state variables of the response system. As the synchronization scheme has many combined forms, it is a promising type of synchronization and can provide greater security in secure communication. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a robust adaptive controller is contrived to acquire CSMFPS, parameter identification and suppress disturbances simultaneously. Finally, the Lorenz system and the new five-term chaotic system are taken as examples and the corresponding numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control scheme.

  3. Prognosis of hospital survivors after salvage from cardiopulmonary bypass with centrifugal cardiac assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J J; Walls, J T; Schmaltz, R A; Boley, T; Landreneau, R; Nawarawong, W

    1990-01-01

    Since October 1986, 6 hospital survivors who were salvaged from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with the Sarns centrifugal pump were observed. Centrifugal assist was employed only after failure to wean with usual resuscitative measures, including multiple high dose inotropes and intraaortic balloon pumping. There were five men and one woman, 46-59 years of age (mean 61 years). All patients had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, with two patients having had concomitant left ventricular aneurysmectomy and two aortic valve replacement. Five patients had left ventricular assist only and one had biventricular assist. Duration of assist ranged from 26 to 72 hr (mean 48 hr). Complications were ubiquitous, and the resultant prolonged hospitalization was resource intensive. All hospital survivors remain alive and are in New York Heart Association functional Class II, with an average follow-up of 24 months, (6-41 months). Compared with preoperative values, current left ventricular function is improved in 2 patients, has deteriorated in 3, and is unchanged in 1. Thus, the Sarns centrifugal pump will allow salvage of some patients who otherwise are not weanable from CPB. Survivors can expect a reasonable functional capacity as reflected by this experience.

  4. Assessment of cardiac autonomic functions by heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and QT dynamicity parameters in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Muhammet; Kabakcı, Giray; Cınar, Neşe; Erbaş, Tomris; Canpolat, Uğur; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Oto, Ali; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Yorgun, Hikmet; Sahiner, Levent; Dağdelen, Selçuk; Aytemir, Kudret

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. However, there is little data regarding cardiac autonomic functions in these patients. Herein, we aimed to investigate several parameters of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with acromegaly compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 20 newly diagnosed acromegalic patients (55% female, age:45.7 ± 12.6 years) and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent 24 h Holter recording. Heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated by subtracting 1st, 2nd and 3rd minute heart rates from maximal heart rate. All patients underwent heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dynamicity analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar except diabetes mellitus and hypertension among groups. Mean HRR1 (29.2 ± 12.3 vs 42.6 ± 6.5, p = 0.001), HRR2 (43.5 ± 15.6 vs 61.1 ± 10.8, p = 0.001) and HRR3 (46.4 ± 16.2 vs 65.8 ± 9.8, p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in control group. HRV parameters as, SDNN [standard deviation of all NN intervals] (p = 0.001), SDANN [SD of the 5 min mean RR intervals] (p = 0.001), RMSSD [root square of successive differences in RR interval] (p = 0.001), PNN50 [proportion of differences in successive NN intervals >50 ms] (p = 0.001) and high-frequency [HF] (p = 0.001) were significantly decreased in patients with acromegaly; but low frequency [LF] (p = 0.046) and LF/HF (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in acromegaly patients. QTec (p = 0.009), QTac/RR slope (p = 0.017) and QTec/RR slope (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with acromegaly. Additionally, there were significant negative correlation of disease duration with HRR2, HRR3, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, variability index. Our study results suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are impaired in patients with acromegaly. Further large scale studies are needed to exhibit the prognostic significance of impaired autonomic functions in patients with

  5. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Materials and Methods Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Results Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). Conclusion There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait. PMID:26632404

  6. Changing attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in older people: a 15-year follow-up study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P E

    2009-03-01

    while it is well established that individual patient preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may change with time, the stability of population preferences, especially during periods of social and economic change, has received little attention.

  7. Wireless System for Continuous Cardiopulmonary Monitoring in a Space Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the NJM Sense-It system based on small sensor tags, which include a cardiopulmonary MEMS sensor for measuring heartbeat and breath rates...

  8. Utilising cardiopulmonary bypass for cancer surgery. Malignancy-induced protein C deficiency and thrombophilia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, C

    2012-02-03

    Cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved over the last 30 years. It is an important tool for the cardiac surgeon today and also has applications in non-cardiac operations such as surgery to extract tumours. Such patients undergoing surgery for cancer may be at an increased risk of a thromboembolic event post surgery, due to disturbances in the normal clotting pathway leading to hypercoagulability. One such disturbance is malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency. A deficiency of Protein C can cause hypercoagulabitity. Recent studies have examined cardiopulmonary bypass and inherited Protein C deficiency. However, surgery for cancer patients with a malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency involving cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported. Surgery using CPB in these patients may result in increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to review the literature in order to discuss the occurrence, the aetiology and possible management of cancer patients with malignancy-induced Protein C deficiencies that require cardiopulmonary bypass for their surgery.

  9. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severdija, E.E.; Vranken, N.P.; Teerenstra, S.; Ganushchak, Y.M.; Weerwind, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A t

  10. Clinical Decision Support and Closed-Loop Control for Cardiopulmonary Management and Intensive Care Unit Sedation Using Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Behnood; Bailey, James M; Haddad, Wassim M; Tannenbaum, Allen R

    2012-03-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who require mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure also frequently require the administration of sedative agents. The need for sedation arises both from patient anxiety due to the loss of personal control and the unfamiliar and intrusive environment of the ICU, and also due to pain or other variants of noxious stimuli. While physicians select the agent(s) used for sedation and cardiovascular function, the actual administration of these agents is the responsibility of the nursing staff. If clinical decision support systems and closed-loop control systems could be developed for critical care monitoring and lifesaving interventions as well as the administration of sedation and cardiopulmonary management, the ICU nurse could be released from the intense monitoring of sedation, allowing her/him to focus on other critical tasks. One particularly attractive strategy is to utilize the knowledge and experience of skilled clinicians, capturing explicitly the rules expert clinicians use to decide on how to titrate drug doses depending on the level of sedation. In this paper, we extend the deterministic rule-based expert system for cardiopulmonary management and ICU sedation framework presented in [1] to a stochastic setting by using probability theory to quantify uncertainty and hence deal with more realistic clinical situations.

  11. Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites in sedentary subjects and sportsmen before and after a cardiopulmonary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Caimi, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of an exercise test on some indices of oxidative status and endothelial function, in trained and untrained subjects. We examined lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and their ratio before and after a cardiopulmonary test, using a cycloergometer. We enrolled 60 male subjects who practiced sport unprofessionally, subdivided in two groups (A and B) according to the values of VO2max. Group A included sportsmen with poor or fair aerobic fitness (VO2max 39 ml/Kg/min). The control group included 19 male sedentary subjects. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by detection of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS); the NOx were evaluated employing the Griess reagent. At rest, in comparison with sedentary controls, an increase in TBARS, NOx and TBARS/NOx ratio was found in all sportsmen and partially in the two groups. After the cardiopulmonary test, the increase of TBARS and TBARS/NOx ratio was significantly more evident in sedentary controls than in sportsmen. No variation was observed for NOx in any group. These data suggest that sportsmen are protected against the acute oxidative stress induced by an exercise test, and that protection is not strictly dependent on the aerobic fitness. PMID:22710809

  12. Ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass did not attenuate inflammatory response or affect postoperative outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Salman, Nevriye; Utku Unal, Ertekin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiopulmonary bypass causes a series of inflammatory events that have adverse effects on the outcome. The release of cytokines, including interleukins, plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the process. Simultaneously, cessation of ventilation and pulmonary blood flow contribute to ischaemia–reperfusion injury in the lungs when reperfusion is maintained. Collapse of the lungs during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to postoperative atelectasis, which correlates with the amount...

  13. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Bandera, Francesco; Secchi, Francesco; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach. PMID:26210719

  14. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Asti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach.

  15. Transesophageal echocardiography-guided thrombectomy of intracardiac renal cell carcinoma without cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Fouad Ghazi; Demos, Michael; Fermin, Lilibeth; Ciancio, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) resection has important anesthetic management implications, particularly when tumor extends, suprahepatic, into the right atrium. Use of transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is essential in identifying tumor extension and guiding resection. Latest surgical approach avoids venovenous and cardiopulmonary bypass yet requires special precautions and interventions on the anesthesiologist's part. We present a case of Level IV RCC resected without cardiopulmonary bypass and salvaged by TEE guidance and detection of residual intracardiac tumor. PMID:27716710

  16. Is it necessary to stent renal artery stenosis patients before cardiopulmonary bypass procedures?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin; YAN Hong-bing; LIU Rui-fang; CHENG Shu-juan; WANG Jian; ZHAO Han-jun; SONG Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor prognosis after cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether stent implantation before cardiopulmonary bypass has beneficial effect on development of AKI in renal artery stenosis (RAS) patients.Methods In this retrospective study, patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine (SCr, >106 μmol/L) were not included. Included patients (n=69) were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 31 RAS patients receiving no stent implantation before cardiopulmonary bypass. Group 2 included 38 RAS patients having received stent implantation just before cardiopulmonary bypass. To assess AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass, serum urea nitrogen, SCr and creatinine clearance were recorded at baseline, at the end of operation, during the first and second postoperative 24 hours.Results Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Serum urea nitrogen, SCr, creatinine clearance before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were also similar class groups. Incidence of AKI in group 1 was not significantly different from group 2. In group 1, AKI defined by RIFLE between occurred in 7 (22.6%) patients: 5 (16.1%) with RIFLE-R,2 (6.5%) with RIFLE-I, and no patients with RIFLE-F. In group 2, 10 patients (26.3%) had an episode of AKI during hospitalization: 6 (15.8%) had RIFLE-R, 4 (10.5%) had RIFLE-I, and no patients had RIFLE-F.Conclusions There are no data suggesting that it is necessary to stent RAS patients with normal SCr before cardiopulmonary bypass. However, it cannot be concluded that RAS is not associated with AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Fisioterapia, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lopes, S.L.B. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Benze, B.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Estatística, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR{sub peak}: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO{sub 2peak}: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO{sub 2VT}: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  19. Survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a major referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghafinia Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, by the code blue team at our center to compare with other centers. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from all adult patients who underwent CPR at our hospital from 2007 to 2008. CPR was performed on 290 patients and it was given 313 times. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated via binomial and chi square-tests. Results: Of the 290 patients included, 95 patients (30.4% had successful CPR. However, only 35 patients (12% were alive at discharge. The majority requiring CPR were above 60 years of age (61.7%. Males required CPR more than females. There were 125 women (43.1% and 165 males (56.9% aged 3 to 78 (average 59.6 years. Majority (179 of the cases (61.7% were above 60 years of age. Regarding the various wards, 54 cases (17.3% were in the internal medicine ward, 63 cases (20.1% in the surgery ward, 1 case (0.3% in the clinic, 11 cases (3.5% in the paraclinic, 116 cases (37.1% in the emergency (ER, 55 cases (17.5% in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU and Coronary Care Unit (CCU, and 13 cases (4.2% were in other wards. Cardiac massage was done in 133 cases (42.5%, defibrillation only via electroshock 3 cases (1%, and both were used in177 cases (56.5%. The ER had the most cases of CPR. Both cardiac massage and electroshock defibrillation were needed in most cases. Conclusion: In-hospital CPR for cardiopulmonary arrest was associated with 30.4% success at our center at the end of CPR but only 12% were alive at discharge. Duration of CPR> 10 minutes was predictive of significantly decreased survival to discharge.

  20. Mild Hypothermia Protects Pigs’ Gastric Mucosa After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation via Inhibiting Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Jian; Liu, Yuhong; Li, Yaqiang; Liu, Zhengxin

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mild hypothermia therapy on gastric mucosa after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced in pigs. After CPR, the surviving pigs were divided into mild hypothermia-treated and control groups. The changes in vital signs and hemodynamic parameters were monitored before cardiac arrest and at intervals of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation. Serum IL-6 was determined at the same time, and gastroscopy was performed. The pathologic changes were noted, and the expression of IL-6 was determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry under light. Results The heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output in both groups did not differ significantly. The gastric mucosa ulcer index evaluated by gastroscopy 2 h and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the mild hypothermic group was lower than that the control group (Pgastric mucosa in the mild hypothermic group 6–24 h after ROSC was lower than that in the control group (Pgastric mucosa IL-6 expression 0.5–4 h and 6, 12, and 24 h after ROSC was lower in the mild hypothermic group than in the control group (Pgastric mucosa after ROSC via inhibiting IL-6 production and relieving the inflammatory reaction. PMID:27694796

  1. Significance of adrenomedullin under cardiopulmonary bypass in children during surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi M

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effect of adrenomedullin (AM on fluid homeostasis under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, we investigated the serial changes in plasma AM and other parameters related to fluid homeostasis in 13 children (average age, 28.2 months with congenital heart disease during cardiac surgery under CPB. Arterial blood and urine samples were collected just after initiation of anesthesia, just before commencement of CPB, 10 min before the end of CPB, 60 min after CPB, and 24 h after operation. Plasma AM levels increased significantly 10 min before the end of CPB and decreased 24 h after operation. Urine volume increased transiently during CPB, which paralleled changes in AM. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma AM level correlated significantly with urinary vasopressin, urine volume, urinary sodium excretion, and plasma osmolarity. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that urine volume was the most significant determinant of plasma AM levels. Percent rise in AM during CPB relative to control period correlated with that of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (r = 0.57, P < 0.01. Our results suggest that AM plays an important role in fluid homeostasis under CPB in cooperation with other hormones involved in fluid homeostasis.

  2. A numerical performance assessment of a commercial cardiopulmonary by-pass blood heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Filippo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Pelosi, Alessandra; Reggiani, Stefano; Redaelli, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    We developed a numerical model, based on multi-physics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, to assist the design process of a plastic hollow-fiber bundle blood heat exchanger (BHE) integrated within the INSPIRE(TM), a blood oxygenator (OXY) for cardiopulmonary by-pass procedures, recently released by Sorin Group Italia. In a comparative study, we analyzed five different geometrical design solutions of the BHE module. Quantitative geometrical-dependent parameters providing a comprehensive evaluation of both the hemo- and thermo-dynamics performance of the device were extracted to identify the best-performing prototypical solution. A convenient design configuration was identified, characterized by (i) a uniform blood flow pattern within the fiber bundle, preventing blood flow shunting and the onset of stagnation/recirculation areas and/or high velocity pathways, (ii) an enhanced blood heating efficiency, and (iii) a reduced blood pressure drop. The selected design configuration was then prototyped and tested to experimentally characterize the device performance. Experimental results confirmed numerical predictions, proving the effectiveness of CFD modeling as a reliable tool for in silico identification of suitable working conditions of blood handling medical devices. Notably, the numerical approach limited the need for extensive prototyping, thus reducing the corresponding machinery costs and time-to-market. PMID:25890509

  3. Relation between Fresnel transform of input light field and the two-parameter Radon transform of Wigner function of the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hong-Yi; Hu Li-Yun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proves a new theorem on the relationship between optical field Wigner function's two-parameter Radon transform and optical Fresnel transform of the field, I.e., when an input field ψ(x') propagates through an optical [D (-B) (-C) A] system, the energy density of the output field is equal to the Radon transform of the Wigner function of the input field, where the Radon transform parameters are D, B. It prove this theorem in both spatial-domain and frequency-domain, in the latter case the Radon transform parameters are A, C 7.

  4. Multivariate benthic ecosystem functioning in the Arctic – benthic fluxes explained by environmental parameters in the southeastern Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Link

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems and their biogeochemical cycles are difficult to predict given the complex physical, biological and chemical interactions among the ecosystem components. We studied benthic biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic and the influence of short-term (seasonal to annual, long-term (annual to decadal and other environmental variability on their spatial distribution to provide a baseline for estimates of the impact of future changes. In summer 2009, we measured fluxes of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, soluble reactive phosphate and silicic acid at the sediment–water interface at eight sites in the southeastern Beaufort Sea at water depths from 45 to 580 m. The spatial pattern of the measured benthic boundary fluxes was heterogeneous. Multivariate analysis of flux data showed that no single or reduced combination of fluxes could explain the majority of spatial variation, indicating that oxygen flux is not representative of other nutrient sink–source dynamics. We tested the influence of eight environmental parameters on single benthic fluxes. Short-term environmental parameters (sinking flux of particulate organic carbon above the bottom, sediment surface Chl a were most important for explaining oxygen, ammonium and nitrate fluxes. Long-term parameters (porosity, surface manganese and iron concentration, bottom water oxygen concentrations together with δ13Corg signature explained most of the spatial variation in phosphate, nitrate and nitrite fluxes. Variation in pigments at the sediment surface was most important to explain variation in fluxes of silicic acid. In a model including all fluxes synchronously, the overall spatial distribution could be best explained (57% by the combination of sediment Chl a, phaeopigments, δ13Corg, surficial manganese and bottom water oxygen concentration. We conclude that it is necessary to consider long-term environmental variability along with

  5. Thrombocyte and thrombocyte function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970384 The mechanism of preserving platelet func-tion by aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass.YANG Tianyu(杨天宇), et al. Anesthesiol &Cardiòpulmon Bypass Lab, Cardiovasc Instit & FuwaiHosp, CAMS & PUMC, Beijing, 100037. Chin Cir J1996; 11(12): 739-742.

  6. Effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response syndrome after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Vretzkakis, Giorgos; Mikroulis, Dimitris; Mpakas, Andreas; Kesisis, Georgios; Arikas, Stamatis; Kolettas, Alexandros; Moschos, Giorgios; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Siminelakis, Stavros; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background The establishment of Extracorporeal Circulation (EC) significantly contributed to improvement of cardiac surgery, but this is accompanied by harmful side-effects. The most important of them is systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Many efforts have been undertaken to minimize this problem but unfortunately without satisfied solution to date. Materials and methods Lornoxicam is a non steroid anti-inflammatory drug which temporally inhibits the cycloxygenase. In this clinical trial we study the effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. In our study we conclude 14 volunteers patients with ischemic coronary disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with EC. In seven of them 16 mg lornoxicam was administered iv before the anesthesia induction and before the connection in heart-lung machine. In control group (7 patients) we administered the same amount of normal saline. Results Both groups are equal regarding pro-operative and intra-operative parameters. The inflammatory markers were calculated by Elisa method. We measured the levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, e-Selectin, p-Selectin) and matrix metaloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) just after anesthesia induction, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, just after the patients administration in ICU and after 8 and 24 hrs. In all patients we estimated the lung’s inflammatory reaction with lung biopsy taken at the begging and at the end of the operation. We calculated hemodynamics parameters: Cardiac Index (CI), Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI), Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Index (PVRI), Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index (LVSWI), Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index (RVSWI), and the Pulmonary arterial pressure, and respiratory parameters too: alveolo-arterial oxygen difference D (A-a), intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) and pulmonary Compliance. IL-6 levels of lornoxicam group were statistical

  7. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  8. SNAP-Tag Technology: A Useful Tool To Determine Affinity Constants and Other Functional Parameters of Novel Antibody Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesen, Judith; Sack, Markus; Seidel, Melanie; Fendel, Rolf; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Stein, Christoph

    2016-08-17

    Antibody derivatives, such as the single chain fragment variable (scFv), can be developed as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cancer research, especially in the form of fusion proteins. Such derivatives are easier to produce and modify than monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and achieve better tissue/tumor penetration. The genetic modification of scFvs is also much more straightforward than the challenging chemical modification of mAbs. Therefore, we constructed two scFvs derived from the approved monoclonal antibodies cetuximab (scFv2112) and panitumumab (scFv1711), both of which are specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a well-characterized solid tumor antigen. Both scFvs were genetically fused to the SNAP-tag, an engineered version of the human DNA repair enzyme O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase that allows the covalent coupling of benzylguanine (BG)-modified substrates such as fluorescent dyes. The SNAP-tag achieves controllable and irreversible protein modification and is an important tool for experimental studies in vitro and in vivo. The affinity constant of a scFv is a key functional parameter, especially in the context of a fusion protein. Therefore, we developed a method to define the affinity constants of scFv-SNAP fusion proteins by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. We could confirm that both scFvs retained their functionality after fusion to the SNAP-tag in a variety of procedures and assays, including ELISA, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. The experimental procedures described herein, and the new protocol for affinity determination by SPR spectroscopy, are suitable for the preclinical evaluation of diverse antibody formats and derivatives. PMID:27391930

  9. Using Parameters of Dynamic Pulse Function for 3d Modeling in LOD3 Based on Random Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehashrafi, B.

    2015-12-01

    The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated 3D model(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having 3D model in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the 3D model in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of Dynamic Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the 3D model contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is dynamically proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define

  10. Using Parameters of Dynamic Pulse Function for 3d Modeling in LOD3 Based on Random Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehashrafi, B.

    2015-12-01

    The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated 3D model(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having 3D model in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the 3D model in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of Dynamic Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the 3D model contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is dynamically proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define

  11. Orbital Fitness: An Overview of Space Shuttle Cardiopulmonary Exercise Physiology Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Limited observations regarding the cardiopulmonary responses to aerobic exercise had been conducted during short-duration spaceflight before the Space Shuttle program. This presentation focuses on the findings regarding changes observed in the cardiopulmonary exercise responses during and following Shuttle flights. During flight, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) remained unchanged as did the maximum work rate achievable during cycle exercise testing conducted during the last full flight day. Immediately following flight, the ubiquitous finding, confirmed by investigations conducted during the Spacelab Life Sciences missions 1 and 2 and by NASA Detailed Supplemental Objective studies, indicated that VO2max was reduced; however, the reduction in VO2max was transient and returned to preflight levels within 7 days following return. Studies regarding the influence of aerobic exercise countermeasures performed during flight on postflight performance were mostly limited to the examination of the heart rate (HR) response to submaximal exercise testing on landing day. These studies revealed that exercise HR was elevated in individuals who performed little to no exercise during their missions as compared to individuals who performed regular exercise. In addition, astronauts who performed little to no aerobic exercise during flight demonstrated an increased HR and lowered pulse pressure response to the standard stand test on landing day, indicating a decrease in orthostatic function in these individuals. With regard to exercise modality, four devices were examined during the Shuttle era: two treadmills, a cycle ergometer, and a rowing device. Although there were limited investigations regarding the use of these devices for exercise training aboard the Shuttle, there was no clear consensus reached regarding which proved to be a "superior" device. Each device had a unique operational or physiologic limitation associated with its use. In conclusion, exercise research conducted

  12. Explicit Expressions for Solar Panel Equivalent Circuit Parameters Based on Analytical Formulation and the Lambert W-Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation..., it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testing/calculation campaigns, the only information available for them being the manufacturer datasheet. The solution to this problem is the development of new and simple methods to define equivalent circuits able to reproduce the behavior of the panel for any working condition, from a very small amount of information. In the present work a direct and completely explicit method to extract solar cell parameters from the manufacturer datasheet is presented and tested. This method is based on analytical formulation which includes the use of the Lambert W-function to turn the series resistor equation explicit. The presented method is used to analyze commercial solar panel performance (i.e., the current-voltage–I-V–curve at different levels of irradiation and temperature. The analysis performed is based only on the information included in the manufacturer’s datasheet.

  13. Obtention of the parameters of the Voigt function using the least square fit method; Obtencion de los parametros de la funcion Voigt empleando el metodo de minimos cuadrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Ll, H.; Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H

    1990-01-15

    The fundamental parameters of the Voigt function are determined: lorentzian wide ({gamma}{sub L}) and gaussian wide ({gamma}{sub G}) with an error for almost all the cases inferior to 1% in the intervals 0.01 {<=} {gamma}{sub L} / {gamma}{sub G} {<=}1 and 0.3 {<=} {gamma}{sub G} / {gamma}{sub L} {<=}1. This is achieved using the least square fit method with an algebraic function, being obtained a simple method to obtain the fundamental parameters of the Voigt function used in many spectroscopies. (Author)

  14. Measurement of Vital Pulmonary Parameters of Sample Iranian Populations to Determine Reference Equations for Estimation of These Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrab Hajizadeh; Soghrat Faghihzadeh; Mohammad khaksari; Mohammad-Hosein Boskabadi; Akbar Pejhan; Mohammad Rostampour; Parvin Babaei; Mahin Dianat; Javad Naserian; Mohammad-Ebrahim Rezvani

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Normal values of cardio-pulmonary and hematic parameters are not the same in different populations rather these reference values are influenced by a variety of factors including age gender genetics and geographical region of living. The aim of this study was to identify the physiological values of pulmonary system in Iranian adult population and obtain the reference equations for these parameters. Methods: Sample subjects were randomly selected from cities in different regions o...

  15. A pulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass and its clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Kawai, T; Nishiyama, K; Murayama, Y; Toda, S; Wada, T; Kitaura, K; Sato, S; Kadowaki, M; Kanki, Y

    1988-09-01

    A pulsatile pump driven by a coil spring, which was designed and constructed by us, is described in this report. It consists of two main parts, a disposable blood chamber and a driving section. The blood chamber has two leaflet valves and a piston, which is covered with two bellofram rolling diaphragms and moves into the housing to draw in and eject the blood. The driving section consists of three cams, an electric motor and a coil spring. The ejection force is wholly produced by the compressed coil spring and is transmitted to the piston in the blood chamber by a rod. This pump allows the ejection pressure, the beat rates, and the stroke volume all to be changed independently. The performance of the pump was tested by using a circulation model where the beat rate was adjusted from 30 to 250 bpm. The output subsequently increased from 0.8 l/min to 5.7 l/min and the stroke volume, from 20.4 ml to 36.7 ml. This new pump has been used for clinical cardiopulmonary bypasses in 24 patients of open heart surgery and the pressure traces during perfusion resembled those of the patients' own hearts. PMID:3230723

  16. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: who should decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Zohar; Garasic, Mirko; Piperberg, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Whether to allow the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a highly contentious topic in recent years. Even though a great deal of evidence and professional guidelines support the option of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), many healthcare professionals still oppose it. One of the main arguments espoused by the latter is that family members should not be allowed for the sake of the patient's best interests, whether it is to increase his chances of survival, respect his privacy or leave his family with a last positive impression of him. In this paper, we examine the issue of FPDR from the patient's point of view. Since the patient requires CPR, he is invariably unconscious and therefore incompetent. We discuss the Autonomy Principle and the Three-Tiered process for surrogate decision making, as well as the Beneficence Principle and show that these are limited in providing us with an adequate tool for decision making in this particular case. Rather, we rely on a novel principle (or, rather, a novel specification of an existing principle) and a novel integrated model for surrogate decision making. We show that this model is more satisfactory in taking the patient's true wishes under consideration and encourages a joint decision making process by all parties involved. PMID:23557910

  17. Acute mesenteric ischemia after cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude

    2008-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a highly-lethal surgical emergency.Several pathophysiologic events (arterial obstruction,venous thrombosis and diffuse vasospasm) lead to a sudden decrease in mesenteric blood flow.Ischemia/reperfusion syndrome of the intestine is responsible for systemic abnormalities,leading to multi-organ failure and death.Early diagnosis is difficult because the clinical presentation is subtle,and the biological and radiological diagnostic tools lack sensitivity and specificity.Therapeutic options vary from conservative resuscitation,medical treatment,endovascular techniques and surgical resection and revascularization.A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis,and prompt treatment is the only hope of reducing the mortality rate.Studies are in progress to provide more accurate diagnostic tools for early diagnosis.AMI can complicate the post-operative course of patients following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB).Several factors contribute to the systemic hypo-perfusion state,which is the most frequent pathophysiologic event.In this particular setting,the clinical presentation of AMI can be misleading,while the laboratory and radiological diagnostic tests often produce inconclusive results.The management strategies are controversial,but early treatment is critical for saving lives.Based on the experience of our team,we consider prompt exploratory laparotomy,irrespective of the results of the diagnostic tests,is the only way to provide objective assessment and adequate treatment,leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate.

  18. Trainers’ Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mäkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers’ attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D, Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N=185 focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree. Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse’s Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation. Cronbach’s alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student’s t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p<0.01. Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p<0.01 were less confident about their Nurse’s Role (p<0.01 and Nontechnical Skills (p<0.01. Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills.

  19. The Role of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in IPF Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Triantafillidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In IPF, defects in lung mechanics and gas exchange manifest with exercise limitation due to dyspnea, the most prominent and disabling symptom. Aim. To evaluate the role of exercise testing through the 6MWT (6-minute walk test and CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the survival of patients with IPF. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study evaluating in 25 patients the relationship between exercise variables through both the 6MWT and CPET and survival. Results. By the end of the observational period 17 patients were alive (33% mortality. Observation ranged from 9 to 64 months. VE/VCO2 slope (slope of relation between minute ventilation and CO2 production, VO2 peak/kg (peak oxygen consumption/kg, VE/VCO2 ratio at anaerobic threshold, 6MWT distance, desaturation, and DLCO% were significant predictors of survival while VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg had the strongest correlation with outcome. The optimal model for mortality risk estimation was VO2 peak/kg + DLCO% combined. Furthermore, VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg were correlated with distance and desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusion. The integration of oxygen consumption and diffusing capacity proved to be a reliable predictor of survival because both variables reflect major underlying physiologic determinants of exercise limitation.

  20. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 . Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO 2 (PETCO 2 and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO 2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA. There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO 2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes.