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Sample records for cardiopulmonary function parameters

  1. Brain microvascular function during cardiopulmonary bypass

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    Sorensen, H.R.; Husum, B.; Waaben, J.; Andersen, K.; Andersen, L.I.; Gefke, K.; Kaarsen, A.L.; Gjedde, A.

    1987-11-01

    Emboli in the brain microvasculature may inhibit brain activity during cardiopulmonary bypass. Such hypothetical blockade, if confirmed, may be responsible for the reduction of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose observed in animals subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass. In previous studies of cerebral blood flow during bypass, brain microcirculation was not evaluated. In the present study in animals (pigs), reduction of the number of perfused capillaries was estimated by measurements of the capillary diffusion capacity for hydrophilic tracers of low permeability. Capillary diffusion capacity, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose were measured simultaneously by the integral method, different tracers being used with different circulation times. In eight animals subjected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and seven subjected to hypothermic bypass, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, and capillary diffusion capacity decreased significantly: cerebral blood flow from 63 to 43 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 34 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose from 43.0 to 23.0 mumol/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 14.1 mumol/100 gm/min in hypothermia. The capillary diffusion capacity declined markedly from 0.15 to 0.03 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia but only to 0.08 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia. We conclude that the decrease of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is caused by interruption of blood flow through a part of the capillary bed, possibly by microemboli, and that cerebral blood flow is an inadequate indicator of capillary blood flow. Further studies must clarify why normal microvascular function appears to be preserved during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  2. Effects of vitamin E and L-arginine on cardiopulmonary function and ascites parameters in broiler chickens reared under subnormal temperatures.

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    Lorenzoni, A G; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2006-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine (Arg) and vitamin E (VE) on ascites (pulmonary hypertension syndrome) parameters, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and cardiopulmonary performance after an acute challenge with epinephrine (Epi). One-day-old male broilers (n = 100) were fed a commercial corn-soybean meal-based diet meeting NRC (1994) requirements, including 1.2% Arg and 40 IU of VE/kg. In experiment 1, birds were provided tap water (control), water with 0.3% Arg (HArg), water with 400 IU of VE/L (HVE), or a combination of both compounds (Arg-VE). In experiment 2, the treatment groups were similar but the VE was incorporated in the diet (400 IU/ kg of feed). At d 18, temperature was reduced to amplify the incidence of pulmonary hypertension. Body weight and hematocrit were recorded weekly. From d 28 to 42, cardiopulmonary performance was evaluated in clinically healthy, anesthetized birds (n = 7 to 8/treatment). A pulmonary artery and a systemic artery were cannulated, the birds were allowed to stabilize for 10 min (basal), an i.v. injection of Epi was applied (1 or 0.5 mg/kg of BW, experiment 1 and 2, respectively), and a second dose was applied 20 min later. Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously and data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. The NOS activity was estimated through the conversion of 14C-Arginine to 14C-citrulline in isolated pulmonary arteries. Right/total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) was recorded at the end of the experiment. Body weight, RV/TV, and hematocrit values were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. The PAP increased (P < 0.01) within 30 s after Epi in all treatments, except the HArg treatment in experiment 2. Overall, the time taken for PAP to return to basal levels was longer in the Arg-VE birds and shorter in the HArg birds, particularly after the second challenge. However, although NOS activity was

  3. MEASUREMENT OF CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION BY REBREATHING METHODOLOGY IN PIGLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a multiple gas rebreathing method for the measurement of cardiopulmonary function in mechanically ventilated neonates was evaluated. The following indices of cardiopulmonary function were assessed in 20 piglets (mean weight, 2.3 kg): (1) pulmonary capillary blood flow ...

  4. Assessing Late Cardiopulmonary Function in Patients with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Using Exercise Cardiopulmonary Function Test and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lin, Ming-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) usually experience progressive right ventricle (RV) dysfunction due to pulmonary regurgitation (PR). This could further worsen the cardiopulmonary function. This study aimed to compare the changes in patient exercise cardiopulmonary test and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and consider the implication of these changes. Methods Our study examined repaired TOF patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) to obtain maximal (peak oxygen consumption, peak VO2) and submaximal parameters (oxygen uptake efficiency plateau, oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP), and ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production, VE/VCO2 slope). Additionally, the hemodynamic status was assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance. Criteria for exclusion included TOF patients with pulmonary atresia, atrioventricular septal defect, or absence of pulmonary valve syndrome. Results We enrolled 158 patients whose mean age at repair was 7.8 ± 9.1 years (range 0.1-49.2 years) and the mean patient age at CPET was 29.5 ± 12.2 years (range 7.0-57.0 years). Severe PR (PR fraction ≥ 40%) in 53 patients, moderate in 55, and mild (PR fraction 163 ml/m2. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 63 ± 8%, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) was 65 ± 12 ml/m2, and LVESVi was 25 ± 14 ml/m2. CPET revealed significantly decreased peak VO2 (68.5 ± 14.4% of predicted), and fair OUEP (90.3 ± 14.1% of predicted) and VE/VCO2 slope (27.1 ± 5.3). PR fraction and age at repair were negatively correlated with maximal and submaximal exercise indicators (peak VO2 and OUEP). Left ventricular (LV) function and size were positively correlated with peak VO2 and OUEP. Conclusions The results of CPET showed that patients with repaired TOF had a low maximal exercise capacity (peak VO2), but a fair submaximal exercise capacity (OUEP and VE/VCO2 slope), suggesting limited exercise capability in high

  5. A Multi Parameters Wearable Telemetric System for Cardio-Pulmonary Fitness of e-Health.

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    Chou, Tsung-Che; Chiu, Nan-Fu; Liao, Fang-Ren; Lu, Shey-Shi; Ping, Feng; Yang, Chang-Rung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2005-01-01

    We report a multi parameters cardio-pulmonary (CP) monitoring system with features of low power consumptions (30mA,3.3V), miniaturization (size 25 cm2), and wireless data communications (Frequency 96 MHz) for wearable applications in e-Health. Its target application is forthe evaluation of fitness of CP during exercises. We use aminiature bi-directional hot-wire sensor for respiratory function,an optical sensor for saturated blood oxygen level or plethsymograph, and two surface electrodes for single lead electrocardiograph. The fitness indexes include blood oxygen level, ECG, and respiratory functions, which will be used for the quantitative evaluation of the level of physical activity. PMID:17280978

  6. Changes in cardiopulmonary function induced by nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Erin E; Thompson, Leslie C; Shannahan, Jonathan H; Wingard, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are highly applicable in a variety of technological and biomedical fields because of their unique physicochemical properties. The increased development and utilization of NP has amplified human exposure and raised concerns regarding their potential to generate toxicity. The biological impacts of NP exposures have been shown to be dependent on aerodynamic size, chemical composition, and the route of exposure (oral, dermal, intravenous, and inhalation), while recent research has demonstrated the cardiovascular (CV) system as an important site of toxicity. Proposed mechanisms responsible for these effects include inflammation, oxidative stress, autonomic dysregulation, and direct interactions of NP with CV cells. Specifically, NP have been shown to impact vascular endothelial cell (EC) integrity, which may disrupt the dynamic endothelial regulation of vascular tone, possibly altering systemic vascular resistance and impairing the appropriate distribution of blood flow throughout the circulation. Cardiac consequences of NP-induced toxicity include disruption of heart rate and electrical activity via catecholamine release, increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and modified baroreceptor control of cardiac function. These and other CV outcomes likely contribute to adverse health effects promoting myocardial infarction, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and thrombosis. This review will assess the current knowledge regarding the principle sites of CV toxicity following NP exposure. Furthermore, we will propose mechanisms contributing to altered CV function and hypothesize possible outcomes resulting in decrements in human health. PMID:22915448

  7. Myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets after cardiopulmonary bypass

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    Popov Aron-Frederik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodynamic function may be depressed in the early postoperative stages after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the analysis of the myocardial contractility in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and mild hypothermia. Methods Three indices of left ventricular myocardial contractile function (dP/dt, (dP/dt/P, and wall thickening were studied up to 6 hours after CPB in neonatal piglets (CPB group; n = 4. The contractility data were analysed and then compared to the data of newborn piglets who also underwent median thoracotomy and instrumentation for the same time intervals but without CPB (non-CPB group; n = 3. Results Left ventricular dP/dtmax and (dP/dtmax/P remained stable in CPB group, while dP/dtmax decreased in non-CPB group 5 hours postoperatively (1761 ± 205 mmHg/s at baseline vs. 1170 ± 205 mmHg/s after 5 h; p max and (dP/dtmax/P there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Comparably, although myocardial thickening decreased in the non-CPB group the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions The myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets remained stable 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass and mild hypothermia probably due to regional hypercontractility.

  8. Myocardial edema and compromised left ventricular function attributable to dirofilariasis and cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D A; Davis, K L; Mehlhorn, U; Allen, S J; Laine, G A

    1995-02-01

    We investigated the relation between left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial edema in dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection that were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Dogs with and without D immitis were anesthetized by continuous thiopental infusion and were mechanically ventilated. Sonomicrometry crystals were placed on the long and short axes of the left ventricle, and a Millar pressure transducer was placed in the left ventricular chamber. Pressure-volume loops were digitized and continuously recorded. Dogs with and without D immitis were placed on standard hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 hour of aortic cross-clamp. Wet-to-dry weight ratio corrected for residual blood volume was used to quantitate the volume of myocardial edema. Preload recruitable stroke work was used as a preload-independent index of systolic function. Tau, the isovolumic relaxation time constant, was determined to assess diastolic relaxation. Dogs with D immitis had increased baseline myocardial wet-to-dry weight ratio. After cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial edema increased in all dogs. Acute edema attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass decreased preload recruitable stroke work in all dogs of both groups, and dogs with D immitis could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Myocardial edema increased diastolic relaxation times (tau) in dogs with and without D immitis. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass and heartworm infection induce myocardial edema. This edema compromises left ventricular systolic and diastolic function making D immitis an important confounding factor in weaning dogs from cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:7717590

  9. DOES MEAN PERFUSION PRESSURE DURING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS AFFECT RENAL FUNCTION?

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    Ramesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After cardiac surgery acute kidney injury (AKI is a common and serious condition carrying significant costs and is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB surgery, modifiable factors may contri bute to post - operative AKI. Their prevention might be a potential target for nephroprotection and any other morbidity after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The objective of the present study was to identify and determine whether intraoperative hypot ension or any other cofactor are independent risk factors for postoperative AKI defined by the RIFLE (renal Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of renal function and End - stage renal disease. On basis of this patients were divided into two groups according to rise in serum creatinine >0.3 mg/dl till 72 hrs postoperatively. Group B patients have developed AKI (n=34 and the remaining patients were in Group A. RESULT : In our study we have found that mean arterial pressure during CPB were less in group B patients compare to group A patients which was statistically significant (p<0.001. And in this group ICU stay and mortality rate were also high compare to group A pati ent who had not developed AKI. CONCLUSION: Lower MAP during CPB is associated with development of postoperative renal derangement, leads to increase ICU stay and mortality. Larger studies are required to further support the evidence

  10. The effect of pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass on lung function in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Gerwin E.; Dodonov, Mikhail; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem; Milano, Aldo D.; Gu, Y. John; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiopulmonary bypass is still a major cause of lung injury and delay in pulmonary recovery after cardiac surgery. Although it has been shown that pulsatile flow induced by intra-aortic balloon pumping is beneficial for preserving lung function, it is not clear if the same beneficial effec

  11. Correlation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters with quality of life in stable COPD patients

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    Mirdamadi, Mahsa; Safavi, Enayat; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Peiman, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background The precise head to head relationships between Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters and patients’ daily symptoms/activities and the disease social/emotional impact are less well defined. In this study, the correlation of COPD daily symptoms and quality of life [assessed by St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)] and COPD severity index (BODE-index) with CPET parameters were investigated. Methods Symptom-limited CPET was performed in 37 consecutive COPD (GOLD I-III) subjects during non-exacerbation phase. The SGRQ was also completed by each patient. Results SGRQ-score correlated negatively with FEV1 (r=−0.49, Prate (%WR-max) (r=−0.44, Pbreathing reserve (r=−0.50, PBreathing reserve were higher (P=0.04, breathing-reserve (r=−0.38, P=0.018). Conclusions The observed relationships between CPET parameter and daily subjective complaints in COPD were not strong. Those who discontinued the CPET because of leg fatigue were in the earlier stages of COPD. Significant negative correlation between ∆VO2/∆WR and BODE-index suggests that along with COPD progression, regardless of negative past history, other comorbidities such as cardiac/musculoskeletal problems should be sought.

  12. Cardiopulmonary function of dogs with plutonium-induced chronic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty dogs exposed by inhalation in the study, Toxicity of Inhaled 239PuO2 in Beagle Dogs, were evaluated for cardiopulmonary function. Another group of 10 dogs matched by age and sex, but not exposed to 239Pu, was also given the same cardiopulmonary function tests. The plutonium-exposed dogs were 7 or more years after exposure and ten of the dogs had clinical signs and pulmonary function values indicating radiation pneumonitis-pulmonary fibrosis. The occurrence of radiation pneumonitis-pulmonary fibrosis, a nonstochastic effect, over the same time period and range of lung doses as lung cancer, a stochastic effect, complicates the estimation of lung cancer risk for inhaled plutonium. 4 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  13. Cardiopulmonary parameters in propofol- or thiopental-anesthetized dogs induced to pulmonary hypertension by serotonin

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    P. C. Ferro Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe cardiopulmonary changes in propofol- or thiopental-anesthetized dogs induced to pulmonary hypertension (PH were evaluated. Twenty adult animals were randomly assigned to two groups: propofol group (PG and thiopental group (TG. In PG, propofol was used for induction (8(0.03mg.kg-1 and anesthesia maintenance (0.8mg.kg-1.minute-1, while, in TG, thiopental was used (22±2.92mg.kg-1; 0.5mg.kg-1.minute-1, respectively. Mechanical ventilation using time cycle was started. PH was induced by administration of serotonin (5HT (10µg.kg-1 and 1mg.kg-1.hour-1 through a thermodilution catheter positioned in the pulmonary artery. The measurements were performed before administration of 5HT (T0, after 30 minutes (T30, then at 15-minute intervals (T45, T60, T75 and T90. No differences between groups were registered for systolic (sPAP and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, total peripheral resistance index (TPRI and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI. In PG, sPAP and mPAP increased from T30. While in TG, sPAP and mPAP increased from T75. In PG, heart rate (HR increased from T30, in which PG was higher than TG. The TPRI values decreased from T30 in PG, and in TG, at T45, T60 and T90. In PG, at T0, PVRI was lower than at other times. In PG, arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2 decreased from T60 and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (PA-aO2 increased at T60. In TG, at T0 PaO2 was higher than at T30, T45, T60 and T90, while PA-aO2 at T0 was lower than at T90. From T30 to T90, TG showed higher PaO2 means and lower arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 values when compared to PG. In PG, from T30, PaCO2 increased, while in TG this parameter was stable. In conclusion, thiopental anesthesia attenuated the cardiopulmonary changes resulting from serotonin-induced PH, probably by attenuation of vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction.

  14. Esmolol added in repeated, cold, oxygenated blood cardioplegia improves myocardial function after cardiopulmonary bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Dahle, Geir Olav; Salminen, Pirjo-Riitta; Moen, Christian Arvei; Eliassen, Finn; Jonassen, Anne K.; Haaverstad, Rune; Matre, Knut; Grong, Ketil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated if the β-receptor blocking agent esmolol, added to standard oxygenated blood cardioplegia, improved myocardial function after weaning from bypass. Design: A block-randomized, blinded study. Setting: A university laboratory. Participants: Twenty anesthetized pigs, Norwegian Landrace. Interventions: After cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac arrest was induced with cold (12°C), oxygenated blood cardioplegia, enriched with either esmolol or vehi...

  15. Renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation during cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass: a modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Evans, Roger G.; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, Julian A.; Fry, Brendan C.; Layton, Anita T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury, a prevalent complication of cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is thought to be driven partly by hypoxic damage in the renal medulla. To determine the causes of medullary hypoxia during CPB, we modeled its impact on renal hemodynamics and function, and thus oxygen delivery and consumption in the renal medulla. The model incorporates autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the utilization of oxygen for tubular ...

  16. Platelet Function in Stored Heparinised Autologous Blood Is Not Superior to in Patient Platelet Function during Routine Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Gallandat Huet, Rolf C. G.; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Cernak, Vladimir; Lisman, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Background In cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and unfractionated heparin have negative effects on blood platelet function. In acute normovolemic haemodilution autologous unfractionated heparinised blood is stored ex-vivo and retransfused at the end of the procedure to reduce (allogeneic) transfusion requirements. In this observational study we assessed whether platelet function is better preserved in ex vivo stored autologous blood compared to platelet function in the patient du...

  17. Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens: further evidence for involvement in ascites syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Gilanpour, Hassan; Charkhkar, Saied; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the related physiological parameters in these chickens were followed. Lung weight as a percentage of body weight, the relative lung and heart volume, and the volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared with the layer and native chickens. Additionally, most of these parameters (e.g. relative lung weight, lung volume and thorax cavity) were significantly decreased with age in broiler chickens but were increased in layer and native chickens, which was concomitant with the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. Our data indicate that all cardiopulmonary parameters investigated are extremely unfavourable to broiler chickens and suggest a reduction in gas exchange area in broilers, and therefore higher susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension and ascites. PMID:16191701

  18. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; LI, Min-hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were r...

  19. Impact of training at ventilatory threshold on cardiopulmonary and functional capacity in overweight patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Danilo Takashi Aoike

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD and obesity are both associated with reduced physical capacity. The potential benefit of aerobic training on physical capacity has been recognized. The exercise intensity can be established using different methods mostly subjective or indirect. Ventilatory threshold (VT is a direct and objective method that allows prescribing exercise intensity according to individual capacity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of aerobic training at VT intensity on cardiopulmonary and functional capacities in CKD patients with excess of body weight. METHODS: Ten CKD patients (eight men, 49.7 ± 10.1 years; BMI 30.4 ± 3.5 kg/m², creatinine clearance 39.4 ± 9.8 mL/min/1.73 m² underwent training on a treadmill three times per week during 12 weeks. Cardiopulmonary capacity (ergoespirometry, functional capacity and clinical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: At the end of 12 weeks, VO2PEAK increased by 20%, and the speed at VO2PEAK increased by 16%. The training resulted in improvement in functional capacity tests, such as six-minute walk test (9.2%, two-minute step test (20.3%, arm curl test (16.3%, sit and stand test (35.7%, and time up and go test (15.3%. In addition, a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures was observed despite no change in body weight, sodium intake and antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise performed at VT intensity improved cardipulmonary and functional capacities of overweight CKD patients. Additional benefit on blood pressure was observed. These results suggest that VT can be effectively applied for prescribing exercise intensity in this particular group of patients.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of cardiopulmonary functional reserve in treated patients with pulmonary embolism

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    YAN Wen-wen; WANG Le-min; CHE Lin; SONG Hao-ming; JIANG Jin-fa; XU Jia-hong; SHEN Yu-qin; ZHANG Qi-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no research,either at home or abroad,focusing on assessing the cardiopulmonary functional reserve and exercise tolerance in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE),but the benefits of early exercise are well recognized.The goals of this study were to assess cardiopulmonary functional reserve in treated PE patients using the inert gas rebreathing method of the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET),and to compare it with traditional methods.Methods CPET on the bicycle ergometer were performed in 40 patients with age,gender,body mass index,systolic blood pressure,and pulmonary function matched.The first group was the PE group composed of 16 PE patients (5 male,11 female) who were given the standard antithrombotic therapy for two weeks.The second group was composed of 24 normal individuals (10 male,14 female).Both groups were evaluated by cardiac ultrasound examination,6-minute walking test (6MVVT),and CPET.Results (1) Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) in the PE group increased significantly compared to the control group,(34.81±8.15) mmHg to (19.75±3.47) mmHg (P <0.01).But neither right atrial end-systolic diameter (RASD) nor right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVDD) in the PE patients had changed when compared with the controls.The 6-minute walk distance was significantly reduced in the PE patients compared with normal subjects,(447.81±79.20) m vs.(513.75±31.45) m (P <0.01).Both anaerobic threshold oxygen consumption (VO2AT) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were significantly lower in patients with PE,while CO2 equivalent ventilation (VE/VCO2 slope) was higher;VO2AT (9.44±3.82) ml·kg1.min-1 vs.(14.62±2.93) ml.kg-1.min-1 (P <0.01) and VO2peak (12.26±4.06) ml.kg-1.min-1 vs.(23.46±6.15) ml.kg-1.min-1 (P <0.01) and VE/VCO2 slope 35.47±6.66 vs.26.94±3.16 (P <0.01).There was no significant difference in resting cardiac output (CO) between the PE and normal groups,whereas peak cardiac output (peak CO)and the

  1. Use of the cardiopulmonary flow index to evaluate cardiac function in thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume is called the cardiopulmonary flow index (CPFI). The CPFI can be determined indirectly from the simultaneous recording of a radiocardiogram and an electrocardiogram. The CPFI and cardiac output were measured simultaneously in horses that were diagnosed as having cardiac disease. The results obtained from these subjects were compared with those from control animals and significant differences were found between the mean CPFI of the control horses and those with macroscopically visible myocardial fibrosis on post mortem examination. No significant differences were found between the means of the cardiac output measured in either of the groups of horses. The effect of pharmacological acceleration of the heart rate on the CPFI was also studied. Significant differences were found between the mean CPFI and the slopes of the regression lines of CPFI on heart rate of the control and principal groups of horses. These differences were greatest at heart rates near to the resting heart rates of the individuals. The CPFI was found to be a more sensitive measure of cardiac function than cardiac output, in the horses. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Cardiopulmonary function of dogs with plutonium-induced chronic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs had signs of restrictive lung disease 1 to 5 years after exposure by inhalation to 239PuO2 aerosols. The 239PuO2 aerosols were monodisperse with activity median aerodynamic diameters of 0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 microns. The plutonium particles produced protracted alpha irradiation of the lungs. Ten dogs had specific initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) of 330 to 4100 kBq of 239PuO2/kg of body mass. The average onset time of clinical signs of lung injury was 3 years after exposure; the average time from the onset of signs until cardiorespiratory function evaluation was 5.5 years. A second group of 10 dogs had IPB of 110 to 2000 kBq of 239Pu/kg of body mass but no signs of lung injury. A third group of 10 dogs, not exposed to 239Pu, were matched for age and sex. Cardiopulmonary function tests were performed. Only the dogs in group I with signs of lung injury had a mild respiratory function disorder consisting of smaller lung volumes, reduced compliance, increased respiratory frequency and minute volume, and reduced carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Cardiac function of all three groups was similar. These findings indicate that alpha irradiation of the lungs of man could produce restrictive lung disease at long times after initial exposure

  3. Effect of 6 degrees head-down tilt on cardiopulmonary function: comparison with microgravity

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    Prisk, G. Kim; Fine, Janelle M.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Head-down tilt (HDT) of 6 degrees is a commonly used model of weightlessness, but there are few comparisons with actual microgravity. HYPOTHESIS: Our study was designed to prove that the changes in cardiopulmonary function seen in HDT would be similar to those seen in microgravity. METHODS: We compared measurements of cardiovascular and pulmonary function from three separate spaceflights of 14 to 17 d duration, with data collected during a 17-d period of HDT. RESULTS: HDT proved a good model of the cardiovascular response to microgravity, resulting in increases in cardiac output and stroke volume of a similar magnitude to those seen in microgravity, with a concomitant reduction in heart rate. By contrast, HDT was a poor model of the effects of microgravity on pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function in HDT approximated the changes seen in the 1-G supine posture, while in microgravity this was much closer to that seen in the 1-G upright position. The differences probably reflect the fact that changes in cardiovascular function result primarily from fluid shifts within the entire body, whereas changes in pulmonary ventilation are primarily a result of mechanical influences on the lung and chest and abdominal wall.

  4. Changes in cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Do-Youn; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after t...

  5. Impaired Cerebral Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Function in a Rat Model of Ventricular Fibrillation and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

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    Jun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcardiac arrest brain injury significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity in patients suffering from cardiac arrest (CA. Evidence that shows that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a key factor in tissue damage after ischemia/reperfusion is accumulating. However, limited data are available regarding the cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and its relationship to the alterations of high-energy phosphate. Here, we sought to identify alterations of mitochondrial morphology and oxidative phosphorylation function as well as high-energy phosphates during CA and CPR in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF. We found that impairment of mitochondrial respiration and partial depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr developed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following a prolonged cardiac arrest. Optimal CPR might ameliorate the deranged phosphorus metabolism and preserve mitochondrial function. No obvious ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria have been found during CA. We conclude that CA causes cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction along with decay of high-energy phosphates, which would be mitigated with CPR. This study may broaden our understanding of the pathogenic processes underlying global cerebral ischemic injury and provide a potential therapeutic strategy that aimed at preserving cerebral mitochondrial function during CA.

  6. Effect of Low-Dose Dopamine on Renal Function and Electrolyte Extraction During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türker EMRE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Kidney damage after cardiac surgery can cause acute renal failure, increase the morbidity and mortality, and prolong the hospital stay. Various methods have therefore been used to prevent renal failure. One of the most frequently used drugs for this purpose is low-dose dopamine (2-4 mcg/kg/min but it has various disadvantages in addition to advantages. One disadvantage is the increased urinary excretion of electrolytes. We studied the use low-dose dopamine on renal function in patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. MATERIAL and METHODS: We included 40 patients who were planned to undergo open heart surgery, had developed kidney damage for any reason before the surgery, and had normal ejection fraction (EF in the study. The data were recorded before and 1, 24, and 48 hours after the operation. RESULTS: When we compared the postoperative 24th hour data, urinary K and Cl were higher in the control group than the dopamine group (p<0.05. Postoperative 24th hour creatinine clearance was higher in the dopamine group than the control group (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the use of low-dose dopamine in cardiopulmonary bypass patients in the postoperative period does not have a positive effect on the renal function and does not affect urinary electrolyte excretion.

  7. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) What is CPR? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important lifesaving technique that involves chest compressions and giving ...

  9. [Controlled study of the effect of sports training on cardiopulmonary functions in asthmatic children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, T; Köhl, C; Mansfeld, H J

    1990-09-01

    The influence of physical training on the cardiopulmonary system and on lung function of asthmatic children was determined in a controlled study. The children were all indoor patients of the Hochgebirgsklinik Davos, Switzerland. 36 children at the age of 10 to 16 years entered the study. They were placed into either a "free running group", a "swimming group" or a "control group." The children of the training groups underwent a training of at least 10 units of 30 minutes each in 3 weeks. The control group did not participate in any regular physical training. Heart rate was measured before and after a bicycle ergometer exercise of 5 minutes at 2.5 watts/kg body weight. This was repeated at the end of the study. In the "free running group" a significant decrease of the heart rate at rest (p less than 0.05) and at the end of bicycle ergometer exercise (p less than 0.01) could be seen. In the "swimming group" the decrease of the latter was significant (p less than 0.05). In both groups an increase in work tolerance could be demonstrated, but not in the "control group." In all three groups an improvement of lung function (IVC, FEV1) was found, but it was not significant in any of the groups. The small improvement might be due to a reduction in allergen exposure and better medical treatment. The study confirms the possibility of physical training of children with asthma even if exercise-induced asthmatic signs and symptoms are present. PMID:2263585

  10. Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Respiratory Mucociliary Function in an Experimental Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sánchez-Véliz

    Full Text Available The impact of cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB on the respiratory mucociliary function is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of CPB and interruption of mechanical ventilation on the respiratory mucociliary system.Twenty-two pigs were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10 or CPB group (n = 12. After the induction of anesthesia, a tracheostomy was performed, and tracheal tissue samples were excised (T0 from both groups. All animals underwent thoracotomy. In the CPB group, an aorto-bicaval CPB was installed and maintained for 90 minutes. During the CPB, mechanical ventilation was interrupted, and the tracheal tube was disconnected. A second tracheal tissue sample was obtained 180 minutes after the tracheostomy (T180. Mucus samples were collected from the trachea using a bronchoscope at T0, T90 and T180. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF and in situ mucociliary transport (MCT were studied in ex vivo tracheal epithelium. Mucus viscosity (MV was assessed using a cone-plate viscometer. Qualitative tracheal histological analysis was performed at T180 tissue samples.CBF decreased in the CPB group (13.1 ± 1.9 Hz vs. 11.1 ± 2.1 Hz, p < 0.05 but not in the control group (13.1 ± 1 Hz vs. 13 ± 2.9 Hz. At T90, viscosity was increased in the CPB group compared to the control (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in in situ MCT. Tracheal histology in the CPB group showed areas of ciliated epithelium loss, submucosal edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells.CPB acutely contributed to alterations in tracheal mucocilliary function.

  11. Platelet function in stored heparinised autologous blood is not superior to in patient platelet function during routine cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf C G Gallandat Huet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and unfractionated heparin have negative effects on blood platelet function. In acute normovolemic haemodilution autologous unfractionated heparinised blood is stored ex-vivo and retransfused at the end of the procedure to reduce (allogeneic transfusion requirements. In this observational study we assessed whether platelet function is better preserved in ex vivo stored autologous blood compared to platelet function in the patient during CPB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We measured platelet aggregation responses pre-CPB, 5 min after the start of CPB, at the end of CPB, and after unfractionated heparin reversal, using multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate® with adenosine diphosphate (ADP, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP and ristocetin activated test cells. We compared blood samples taken from the patient with samples taken from 100 ml ex-vivo stored blood, which we took to mimick blood storage during normovolemic haemodilution. Platelet function declined both in ex-vivo stored blood as well as in blood taken from the patient. At the end of CPB there were no differences in platelet aggregation responses between samples from the ex vivo stored blood and the patient. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ex vivo preservation of autologous blood in unfractionated heparin does not seem to be profitable to preserve platelet function.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral and muscle tissue parameters during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Reyhaneh; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Woldemichael, Ermias; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Toronov, Vladislav

    2015-03-01

    In this series of animal experiments on resuscitation after cardiac arrest we had a unique opportunity to measure hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) parameters directly on the brain dura, or on the brain through the intact pig skull, and simultaneously the muscle hNIRS parameters. Simultaneously the arterial blood pressure and carotid and femoral blood flow were recorded in real time using invasive sensors. We used a novel hyperspectral signalprocessing algorithm to extract time-dependent concentrations of water, hemoglobin, and redox state of cytochrome c oxidase during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. In addition in order to assess the validity of the non-invasive brain measurements the obtained results from the open brain was compared to the results acquired through the skull. The comparison of hNIRS data acquired on brain surface and through the adult pig skull shows that in both cases the hemoglobin and the redox state cytochrome c oxidase changed in similar ways in similar situations and in agreement with blood pressure and flow changes. The comparison of simultaneously measured brain and muscle changes showed expected differences. Overall the results show feasibility of transcranial hNIRS measurements cerebral parameters including the redox state of cytochrome oxidase in human cardiac arrest patients.

  13. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5–18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = −0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = −0.309). Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD. PMID:26765431

  14. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise.Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5-18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = -0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = -0.309).Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD. PMID:26765431

  15. Platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass using multiple electrode aggregometry: comparison of centrifugal and roller pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehara, Hiromu; Takano, Tamaki; Ohashi, Noburo; Terasaki, Takamitsu; Amano, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood trauma may be lower with centrifugal pumps (CPs) than with roller pumps (RPs) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), because, unlike RPs, CPs do not compress the tubing, and shear stress is considered lower in CPs than in RPs. However, relative platelet function remains unclear. Using multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), we compared platelet function with CP and RP. Ten swine underwent CPB for 3 h, with five weaned off using CP and five using RP. Platelet function was measured using MEA, as were hemoglobin concentration and platelet count, before sternotomy, after heparin infusion, 30 min and 3 h after starting CPB, after protamine infusion, and 60 min after stopping CPB. Platelet activation was initiated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), and thrombin receptor-activating protein 6 (TRAP). Fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF4), and β-thromboglobin (β-TG) concentrations were measured before sternotomy and 60 min after stopping CPB. In the CP group and using ADP, aggregation was significantly reduced 30 min (P = 0.019) and 3 h (P = 0.027) after starting CPB, recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB was stopped. In the RP group, aggregation was significantly decreased 30 min (P = 0.007) and 3 h (P = 0.003) after starting CPB and after protamine administration (P = 0.028). With AA, aggregation significantly decreased 30 min after starting CPB in both the CP (P = 0.012) and RP (P = 0.016) groups, slightly increasing 3 h after starting CPB and after protamine infusion, and recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB cessation. With TRAP, aggregation in the CP and RP groups decreased 30 min after starting the pump, although changes were not significant; aggregation gradually recovered after 3 h and returned to baseline 60 min after the pumps were stopped. There were no significant differences at all sampling points of MEA. In both groups, fibrinogen, PF4, and β-TG concentrations were similar 60 min after pump cessation and before sternotomy

  16. Preparation for high altitude expedition and changes in cardiopulmonary and biochemical laboratory parameters with ascent to high altitude in transplant patients and live donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Taehoon; Yi, Nam-Joon; Hong, Geun

    2015-11-01

    High-altitude climbing has many risks, and transplant recipients should discuss the associated risks and means of preparation with their physicians. This study aimed to help prepare athletic transplant donors and recipients for mountain climbing and was designed to evaluate physical performance and changes in cardiopulmonary and biochemical laboratory parameters of transplant recipients and donors in extreme conditions of high altitude. Ten subjects-six liver transplant recipients, two liver donors, and one kidney transplant recipient and his donor-were selected for this expedition to Island Peak, Himalayas, Nepal. Six healthy subjects joined the group for comparison. Blood samplings, vital signs, and oxygen saturation were evaluated, as was the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness score. All transplant subjects and donors reached the base camp (5150 m), and two liver transplant recipients and a liver donor reached the summit (6189 m). The blood levels of immunosuppressants were well maintained. The serum erythropoietin level was significantly higher in transplant recipients taking tacrolimus. With proper preparation, certain liver transplant patients and donors can tolerate strenuous physical activity and can tolerate high altitude similarly to normal healthy control subjects without significant biochemical laboratory changes in liver and renal function. PMID:26331794

  17. Vasopressin reduces cardiac function and augments cardiopulmonary baroreflex resistance increases in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, T J; Cowley, A W; Skelton, M

    1986-01-01

    We examined the effects of physiologic infusions of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on cardiovascular hemodynamics and on reflex responses initiated by decreasing cardiopulmonary baroreceptor stimulation (with lower body negative pressure) in 10 healthy, captopril-pretreated young men (19-27 yr). Their responses were compared with those of four volunteers given isosmotic infusion. Heart rate, stroke volume, blood pressure, and forearm blood flow were measured by electrocardiography, impedance card...

  18. The Effect of Low Tidal Volume Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Pulmonary Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Safarpour; Mohammad Hosein Bakhshaei; Ahmad Moradi; Afshin Farhanchi; Maryam Davoudi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and it is believed to result from the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this study, we investigated the effect of low tidal volume ventilation during CPB on postoperative gas exchange and lung mechanics. Methods: This prospective randomized study included 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. In 50 patients, low tidal volume ventilation [tidal volum...

  19. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, F; Mercogliano, D; Cavalletti, C; Caruso, A; Pomini, P

    1996-01-01

    The cardiopathic patient can sustain acute heart failure during pregnancy. In such cases, if open heart operation is necessary to save the patient's life, the fetus could be seriously compromised after exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. From 1958 to 1992, 69 reports of cardiac operations during pregnancy with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass have been published. Maternal mortality was 2.9%. Embryofetal mortality was 20.2%. Examining only the last 40 patients, maternal and embryofetal mortality were 0.0% and 12.5%, respectively. Embryofetal mortality was 24.0% when hypothermia was used, compared with 0.0% while operating in normothermia. Maternal mortality did not change. The use of hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass provoked uterine contractions in several patients. Hypothermia decreases O2 exchange through the placenta. Pump flow and mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass seem to be the most important parameters that influence fetal oxygenation. We speculate that cardiac operation is not a contraindication to pregnancy prolongation. PMID:8561577

  20. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  1. Effect of clenbuterol on cardiopulmonary parameters and intramuscular blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized ponies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong H.; Clarke, Kathleen W.; Alibhai, Hatim I. K.

    1994-09-01

    The cardiopulmonary affects and the affects on muscular microperfusion of the beta adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol (0.8 mcg/kg intravenously), were investigated in dorsally recumbent anesthetized ponies. Muscle microcirculation was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, utilizing fine optical fiber probes. Other measurements included heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, and arterial blood gas tensions. Clenbuterol injection caused a regular, but transitory rise in muscle microcirculation, an increase in heart rate, and cardiac output and a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. Clenbuterol did appear to prevent the continuing fall in arterial blood oxygen tensions seen in the treatment groups, but had only minimal affects in reversing the hypoxia already present.

  2. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  3. The Effect of Low Tidal Volume Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Pulmonary Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Safarpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and it is believed to result from the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. In this study, we investigated the effect of low tidal volume ventilation during CPB on postoperative gas exchange and lung mechanics.Methods: This prospective randomized study included 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. In 50 patients, low tidal volume ventilation [tidal volume (TV = 3 ml/kg, respiratory rate (RR = 12/min, fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2= 1.0, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP = 5 cmH2O] was applied during CPB (group I; and in the other 50 patients (group II, the lungs were open to the atmosphere without ventilation. Measurements were taken preoperatively,after CPB, and before discharge.Results: Post-bypass PaO2 (just after CPB 85 versus75 was higher significantly in group I (P value < 0.05. Decrease in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (25% versus 30% and forced vital capacity (32% versus 35% was less significant in group I. Also, time to extubation (5 hrs versus 5.5 hrs was shorter in group I.Conclusion: Continued low tidal volume ventilation during CPB improved post-bypass oxygenation and lung mechanics.

  4. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass in coronary artery bypass surgeries (on-pump versus off-pump) on erectile function and endothelium-derived nitric oxide levels

    OpenAIRE

    Onder Canguven; Selami Albayrak; Ahmet Selimoglu; Muhsin Balaban; Ahmet Sasmazel; Ayse Baysal

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on the erectile function and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (eNO) levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients were randomized into two groups depending on use of cardiopulmonary bypass in CABG surgery. The erectile function was evaluated by using the IIEF-5 questionnaire. The plasma eNO levels were determined at baseline and after reactive hyperemia before and after surger...

  5. Influence of acid functionalization on the cardiopulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and carbon black particles in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered carbon nanotubes are being developed for a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes can impose potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chemical groups on their surface. The present study was designed to evaluate whether acid functionalization (AF) enhanced the cardiopulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as control carbon black particles. Mice were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to 10 or 40 μg of saline-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), acid-functionalized SWCNTs (AF-SWCNTs), ultrafine carbon black (UFCB), AF-UFCB, or 2 μg LPS. 24 hours later, pulmonary inflammatory responses and cardiac effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage and isolated cardiac perfusion respectively, and compared to saline or LPS-instilled animals. Additional mice were assessed for histological changes in lung and heart. Instillation of 40 μg of AF-SWCNTs, UFCB and AF-UFCB increased percentage of pulmonary neutrophils. No significant effects were observed at the lower particle concentration. Sporadic clumps of particles from each treatment group were observed in the small airways and interstitial areas of the lungs according to particle dose. Patches of cellular infiltration and edema in both the small airways and in the interstitium were also observed in the high dose group. Isolated perfused hearts from mice exposed to 40 μg of AF-SWCNTs had significantly lower cardiac functional recovery, greater infarct size, and higher coronary flow rate than other particle-exposed animals and controls, and also exhibited signs of focal cardiac myofiber degeneration. No particles were detected in heart tissue under light microscopy. This study indicates that while acid functionalization increases the pulmonary toxicity of both UFCB and SWCNTs, this treatment caused cardiac effects only with the AF-carbon nanotubes

  6. Effects of inhaled 144Ce on cardiopulmonary function and histopathology of the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve dogs inhaled single doses of relatively insoluble particles containing 144Ce and six dogs inhaled particles containing stable cerium as controls. Pulmonary function, clinical, and radiographic evaluations were performed serially. The dogs developed progressive radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis similar to that previously reported for whole-lung irradiation from internal or external sources. Focal histologic changes in bronchioles and alveoli were detected functionally during treadmill and tube-breathing stresses at a time when the dogs' clinical and radiographic appearances were normal. Moderate functional impairment was associated with more severe inflammatory and proliferative changes in airways and alveoli. Severe impairment resulted from progressive fibrosis and scarring. These were several strong correlations between functional indices and histological scores. There was a nonlinear relationship between cumulative radiation dose and effects, and once the functional alterations became clinically evident, the disease progressed with little further increase in dose

  7. Baseline Cardiopulmonary Function as an Independent Prognostic Factor for Survival of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Single-Center Analysis of 161 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Little is known about the effects of cardiopulmonary function on the prognosis of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of the effects of tumor- and patient-related factors and parameters of cardiopulmonary function and heart morphology on the feasibility, toxicity, and prognosis was performed. Results: Cardiopulmonary function had no effect on the toxicity or feasibility of treatment; effects on survival were observed in the univariate analysis. Median survival varied as follows: cardiac function: 13.0 ± 1.6 months for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 50% vs. 10.0 ± 1.9 months for LVEF ≤ 50% (p = 0.003); pulmonary function: 16.0 ± 0.6 months for no lung function deficits (vital capacity [VC] ≥ 60%, forced expiratory volume in 1 s ≥ 80%, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≥60%) vs. 14.0 ± 1.5 months for one or two function deficits vs. 8.0 ± 1.5 months for three lung function deficits (p = 0.001); T stage: 19.0 ± 3.1 months for rcT0/cT1/cT2 vs. 12.0 ± 0.8 months for cT3/cT4 (p = 0.039); and age: 11.0 ± 1.5 months for <60 years vs. 18.0 ± 2.5 months for 60-69 years vs. 12.0 ± 1.2 months for ≥70 years (p = 0.008). Prognostic factors identified in the multivariate analysis were LVEF ≤50% (p = 0.043; hazard ratio [HR], 1.74), reduced pulmonary function (p = 0.001; HR, 1.71 or 5.05) and T stage (p = 0.026; HR: 1.71). Conclusions: In addition to T-stage, cardiac and pulmonary function variables affected the survival of non-small-cell lung cancer patients after chemoradiotherapy.

  8. Comparison of the effects of extradural clonidine with those of morphine on postoperative pain, stress responses, cardiopulmonary function and motor and sensory block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus; Qvitzau, S; Greulich, A; Hjortsø, N C; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the effects of extradural clonidine 150 micrograms or morphine 4 mg on postoperative pain, stress responses, cardiopulmonary function and motor and sensory block in a double-blind, randomized study in 20 patients undergoing hysterectomy with general anaesthesia. Observations were...... made for 6 h after each patient's first request for analgesia. Clonidine provided greater pain relief than morphine only for the first 2 h of observation (P less than 0.001). Plasma cortisol concentrations decreased to a greater extent (P less than 0.05) with morphine, while plasma glucose...

  9. Hypergeometric Functions with Integral Parameter Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1971-01-01

    For a generalized hypergeometric function pFq(z) with positive integral differences between certain numerator and denominator parameters, a formula expressing the pFq(z) as a finite sum of lower-order functions is proved. From this formula, Minton's two summation theorems for p = q + 1, z = 1 are...

  10. Fault detection using parameter transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce the number of alarms in NPP many techniques have been proposed for process monitoring and diagnosis. The object of our investigation is a dynamic process with digital signals. The general parametric model defines the transfer function form and it covers all dynamics characteristics between two monitoring parameters. To determine the proper model coefficients we are using recoursing least square methods. The transfer function coefficients define the correlation between two variables in desired time period. During process monitoring just the relation is observed because the number of coefficients and the structure is predefined with transfer function form. During plant operation the transfer functions for important parameters must be calculated and estimated. The estimated values are input parameters for an analytical algorithm. It determines which part of system causes the transient and recognizes it. The proposed methodology allows a computer to monitor the system behaviour and to find out the most probable cause for abnormal condition. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipley, Nick

    2014-11-01

    THE ROYAL College of Nursing (RCN), Resuscitation Council (UK) and British Medical Association (BMA) have issued a new edition of their guidance on when to attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). PMID:25369953

  12. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  13. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  14. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass during robotic cardiac surgery on pulmonary function%全机器人心脏手术麻醉中体外循环对肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖赛松; 高长青; 陈婷婷; 周琪; 李佳春; 王加利; 王瑶; 王刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass ( CPB ) on pulmonary function under the environment of one - lung ventilation ( OLV ) and carbon dioxide pneumothorax in robotic cardiac surgery. Methods Ninety - eight patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery using the da Vinci system, including 58 on - pump surgeries ( On - pump group, n = 58 ) and 40 off - pump surgeries ( Off- pump group, n =40 ). Mechanical ventilation parameters, airway peak pressure, and arterial blood gas were assessed at the following time points: 20 min after induction of anesthesia with two - lung ventilation ( Tl ), 25 min after OLV ( T2 ), 25 min after termination of CPB with OLV in on - pump group or 25 min after main surgery intervention in off - pump group ( T3 ), and 20 min before surgery finish ( T4 ). Dynamic lung compliance ( Cdyn ), alveolar - arterial PO2 different ( PA_aDO2 ), artery - alveolar P02 ratio ( a/A ) and oxygenation index ( OI) were then calculated. Results No significant differences were observed in pulmonary function parameters between T3 and T2 after operation in off - pump group. But in on - pump group, compared with those in T2, PETCO2 , Ppeak, PaCO2 and PA-aDO2 in T3 were higher whereas SpO2 , Cdyn, PaO2 , OI and a/A were lower ( P 0.05);两组T3时刻组间比较,On-pump组比Off-pump组Ppeak、PaCO2、PA-aDO2高,SpO2、Cdyn、PaO2、OI、a/A低(P<0.01).结论 在机器人心脏手术麻醉中,体外循环将使肺通气功能和换气功能明显降低,耐受OLV的能力下降.

  15. Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination in healthy cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, W; Allen, D G; Dyson, D H; Pascoe, P J; O'Grady, M R

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination on the cardiopulmonary function of 11 healthy cats was studied. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured by thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and arterial blood gas analysis. Values for systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index and stroke volume were calculated. The cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, arterial blood pressure and arterial blood...

  16. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Monk-Hansen, Tea;

    2014-01-01

    Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome in...

  17. On generalized trigonometric functions with two parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bhayo, Barkat Ali

    2011-01-01

    The generalized $p$-trigonometric and ($p,q$)-trigonometric functions were introduced by P. Lindqvist and S. Takeuchi, respectively. We prove some inequalities and present a few conjectures for the ($p,q$)-functions.

  18. Normoxic and Hyperoxic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Congenital Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cyanotic congenital heart disease comprises a diverse spectrum of anatomical pathologies. Common to all, however, is chronic hypoxia before these lesions are operated upon when cardiopulmonary bypass is initiated. A range of functional and structural adaptations take place in the chronically hypoxic heart, which, whilst protective in the hypoxic state, are deleterious when the availability of oxygen to the myocardium is suddenly improved. Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass delivers hyperoxic...

  19. Cardio-pulmonary function of cyclists competing on an ascending mountain course between altitudes of 1400 m and 2800 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Michiko; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Sakai, Akio; Yanagidaira, Yasunori; Kaneko, Michiyo; Osada, Hiroshi; Kashimura, Osamu; Asano, Koji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Gou

    1995-06-01

    Physiological changes were investigated in the cardio-respiratory function of competitors in a bicycle race which involved not a flat course but ascending a mountain, from 1400m to 2800m. Heart rate throughout the race, arterial oxygen saturation and pulmonary function before and after the race of well trained competitors were measured. The individual's maximal heart rate during the race was designated as HRmax for the calculations. (1) There were significant correlations between the age and the mean %HRmax during the race, between mean %HRmax and time, and between age and time ( n=15); the mean %HRmax had a 3.90 times greater effect on time than did age. (2) The individuals who performed best had lower values of oxygen saturation just after finishing the race ( n=51). (3) At 1 min after reaching the finishing line, oxygen saturation levels had recovered to the value of 20 min after finishing the race, whereas the heart rate was still in the process of recovery ( n=18). (4) Maximum expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity measured 30 min after reaching the finishing line was significantly higher than at the starting point. The intensity of the load on the cardiac system produced by completion of this course was estimated to be almost the same as that of a full marathon on a flat course. The time depended on both the youth of the cyclist and on his ability to maintain a high value of %HRmax during the race.

  20. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, Liver Function Enzymes, Renal Function Parameters and Oxidative Stress Parameters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usunobun Usunomena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review a procarcinogen, the N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, liver and kidney functional enzymes (in assessing action of toxicants such as NDMA as well as oxidative stress parameters (in assessing the extent of free radical damage and scavenging. Catalase and hydro peroxidase enzymes convert hydrogen peroxide and hydro peroxides to non-radical forms and functions as natural antioxidant in human body. Enzymes like Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Catalase (CAT and compounds such as tocopherol and ascorbic acid can protect organisms against free radical damage. Lipid peroxidation is a mechanism generally recognized as being the most important in the pathogenesis of liver injury by a number of toxic compounds including NDMA.

  1. Changes in Cardiopulmonary Reserve and Peripheral Arterial Function Concomitantly with Subclinical Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vitiello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Changes in cardiopulmonary reserve and biomarkers related to wall stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress concomitantly with the evaluation of peripheral arterial blood flow have not been investigated in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF compared with healthy subjects (CTL. Methods and Results. Eighteen HFpEF patients and 14 CTL were recruited. Plasma levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at rest. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP was measured at rest and peak exercise. Cardiopulmonary reserve was assessed using an exercise protocol with gas exchange analyses. Peripheral arterial blood flow was determined by strain gauge plethysmography. Peak VO2 (12.0±0.4 versus 19.1±1.1 mL/min/kg, P<0.001 and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (1.55±0.12 versus 2.06±0.14, P<0.05 were significantly decreased in HFpEF patients compared with CTL. BNP at rest and following stress, C-reactive-protein, interleukin-6, and TBARS were significantly elevated in HFpEF. Both basal and posthyperemic arterial blood flow were not significantly different between the HFpEF patients and CTL. Conclusions. HFpEF exhibits a severe reduction in cardiopulmonary reserve and oxygen uptake efficiency concomitantly with an elevation in a broad spectrum of biomarkers confirming an inflammatory and prooxidative status in patients with HFpEF.

  2. An Empirical Study on the lnfluence of Weight Lifting Training on Children’s Cardio-Pulmonary Function%举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙玉萍

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of weight lifting training on children’s cardio-pulmonary function, this study tests cardio-pulmonary function index of newly-recruited male athletes from 10 to 12 before and after the experiment. The result shows that after a period of weight lifting training, teenagers demonstrate no difference in physical index such as heart rate or blood pressure, which suggests that weight lifting can improve teenagers’ pulmonary function and enhance their vital capacity.%为了解举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响。文章在实验前后对10-12岁新招进的男性运动员进行心肺功能指标测试,结果显示:经过一段时间举重运动训练后,少年身体机能心率、血压等指标未表现出差异,肺活量方面有着显著提高,表明举重运动能有效改善少年肺功能,提高肺活量。

  3. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Chandra Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery carried out on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in a pregnant woman is associated with poor neonatal outcomes although maternal outcomes are similar to cardiac surgery in non-pregnant women. Most adverse maternal and fetal outcomes from cardiac surgery during pregnancy are attributed to effects of CPB. The CPB is associated with utero-placental hypoperfusion due to a number of factors, which may translate into low fetal cardiac output, hypoxia and even death. Better maternal and fetal outcomes may be achieved by early pre-operative optimization of maternal cardiovascular status, use of perioperative fetal monitoring, optimization of CPB, delivery of a viable fetus before the operation and scheduling cardiac surgery on an elective basis during the second trimester.

  4. Examining the Functional Specification of Two-Parameter Model under Location and Scale Parameter Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    The functional specification of mean-standard deviation approach is examined under location and scale parameter condition. Firstly, the full set of restrictions imposed on the mean-standard deviation function under the location and scale parameter condition are made clear. Secondly, the examination based on the restrictions mentioned in the previous sentence derives the new properties of the mean-standard deviation function on the applicability of additive separability and the curvature of ex...

  5. Developing pulmonary vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis, detected with non-invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dumitrescu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc may develop exercise intolerance due to musculoskeletal involvement, restrictive lung disease, left ventricular dysfunction, or pulmonary vasculopathy (PV. The latter is particularly important since it may lead to lethal pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We hypothesized that abnormalities during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in patients with SSc can identify PV leading to overt PAH. METHODS: Thirty SSc patients from the Harbor-UCLA Rheumatology clinic, not clinically suspected of having significant pulmonary vascular disease, were referred for this prospective study. Resting pulmonary function and exercise gas exchange were assessed, including peakVO2, anaerobic threshold (AT, heart rate-VO2 relationship (O2-pulse, exercise breathing reserve and parameters of ventilation-perfusion mismatching, as evidenced by elevated ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2 and reduced end-tidal pCO2 (PETCO2 at the AT. RESULTS: Gas exchange patterns were abnormal in 16 pts with specific cardiopulmonary disease physiology: Eleven patients had findings consistent with PV, while five had findings consistent with left-ventricular dysfunction (LVD. Although both groups had low peak VO2 and AT, a higher VE/VCO2 at AT and decreasing PETCO2 during early exercise distinguished PV from LVD. CONCLUSIONS: Previously undiagnosed exercise impairments due to LVD or PV were common in our SSc patients. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing may help to differentiate and detect these disorders early in patients with SSc.

  6. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Behrend; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni;

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances in the peri- or postoperative period may contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We therefore examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (d......CA) post-CPB and changes in neurocognitive function in patients that had undergone CABG. Materials and Methods We assessed dCA by transfer function analysis of spontaneous oscillations between arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound...

  7. Effects of process parameters on selected functions describing coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Techniki Cieplnej)

    1987-10-01

    Evaluates a mathematical method for optimization of black coal coking. Mathematical models describe effects of groups of parameters: indices that characterize properties of coal mixtures, parameters that describe technology of coal coking, indices that characterize design and operation of a coke oven. Using the mathematical models, effects of groups of parameters on selected functions that describe coal coking are evaluated. Examples of calculations are discussed. An uncomplicated linear algorithm for optimization of coking is characterized. 6 refs.

  8. Associations between isokinetic muscle strength, high-level functional performance, and physiological parameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher SJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Scotty J Butcher,1 Brendan J Pikaluk,2 Robyn L Chura,1 Mark J Walkner,1 Jonathan P Farthing,2 Darcy D Marciniuk31School of Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 3Division of Respiratory, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaAbstract: High-level activities are typically not performed by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, which results in reduced functional performance; however, the physiological parameters that contribute to this reduced performance are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between high-level functional performance, leg muscle strength/power, aerobic power, and anaerobic power. Thirteen patients with COPD underwent an incremental maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, quadriceps isokinetic dynamometry (isometric peak torque and rate of torque development; concentric isokinetic peak torque at 90°/sec, 180°/sec, and 270°/sec; and eccentric peak torque at 90°/sec, a steep ramp anaerobic test (SRAT (increments of 25 watts every 10 seconds, and three functional measures (timed up and go [TUG], timed stair climb power [SCPT], and 30-second sit-to-stand test [STS]. TUG time correlated strongly (P < 0.05 with all muscle strength variables and with the SRAT. Isometric peak torque was the strongest determinant of TUG time (r = –0.92. SCPT and STS each correlated with all muscle strength variables except concentric at 270°/sec and with the SRAT. The SRAT was the strongest determinant of SCPT (r = 0.91, and eccentric peak torque at 90°/sec was most significantly associated with STS (r = 0.81. Performance on the SRAT (anaerobic power; slower-velocity concentric, eccentric, and isometric contractions; and rate of torque development are reflected in all functional tests, whereas cardiopulmonary exercise test performance (aerobic power

  9. Function Vector Synchronization of Uncertain Chaotic Systems with Parameters Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xiang; Heng Liu; Ning Li; Hui Lv

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a state variable Function Vector Synchronization (FVS) of two non-identical chaotic systems with both varying parameters and delay is investigated. Based on feedback principle and Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive fuzzy controller is constructed. The synchronization for the state variable function vector of systems can be reached by using the proposed controller. The control is robust for varying parameters and disturbance of systems. Compared with the traditional synchro...

  10. Effects of different doses of perindopril on cardiopulmonary exercise function in patients with chronic heart failure%不同剂量培哚普利对慢性心力衰竭患者运动心肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振英; 高华; 曹倩; 张建秀; 刘艳玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察不同剂量培哚普利对慢性心力衰竭患者运动心肺功能的影响。方法45例临床症状稳定的慢性心力衰竭患者在接受基础治疗的基础上随机分为两组:培哚普利4 mg组(n=21)和8 mg组(n=24)。分别在培哚普利治疗开始时和治疗3个月后评估其运动心肺功能、血压和血浆肌酐水平。运动心肺功能采用 Yaeger 心肺功能测试系统评定,采用 V-slope 法计算无氧阈值,观察指标有最大心率、最大摄氧量、无氧阈、氧脉搏(摄氧量/心率)、最大运动负荷和运动时间。运动试验采用症状限制性运动,运动方案采用改良的 Bruce 运动方案。结果两种剂量培哚普利治疗后患者运动时间、无氧阈、最大摄氧量、最大运动负荷等指标均较给药前显著改善(P<0.05);与4 mg组比较,8 mg组患者运动时间、最大摄氧量及最大运动负荷分别增加12.0%(P<0.05)、8.3%(P<0.05)、7.8%(P<0.05)。8 mg 培哚普利显著降低患者血压,对血浆肌酐无明显影响。结论8 mg 培哚普利较4 mg 更有效改善慢性心力衰竭患者运动心肺功能,患者耐受性较好。%Objective To investigate the effects of different doses of perindopril on cardiopulmonary exercise function in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods Forty-five patients with stable chronic heart failure who were receiving basic treatment for heart failure were randomly divided into 4 mg perindopril group (n=21) and 8 mg perindopril group (n=24). Cardiopulmonary exercise function, blood pressure and plasma creatinine were assessed respectively before and after 3 months perindopril treatment. Both groups underwent a symptom limited exercise testing using a modified-Bruce protocol. The parameters of cardiopulmonary function, including maximal heart rate (HRmax), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (AT), O2 pulse (oxygen consumption/heart rate

  11. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  12. Anesthetic Effects on Damage of Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Function Caused by Cardiopulmonary Bypass%麻醉药物对体外循环致肠道屏障功能损害作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏日娜(综述); 于建设; 温再和(审校)

    2015-01-01

    肠道是全身应激反应的重要靶器官,又是全身炎症反应综合征、多器官功能障碍综合征的重要诱因。而临床患者当中手术创伤、应激反应、严重感染、休克、心血管外科手术中体外循环等均可导致肠黏膜屏障功能受损,这些过程最终导致肠屏障通透性增加,继而与脓毒症、全身炎症反应综合征、多器官功能障碍综合征发生有密切关系。在临床实践中证实许多常规麻醉药物预处理对体外循环引起的肠道缺血/再灌注损伤有保护作用,继而减轻肠黏膜损伤。%The gut is an important target organ of the systemic stress response ,and an important cause of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome ( SIRS ) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome ( MODS ) . Surgical trauma,stress,shock,infection,cardiopulmonary bypass all can lead to impaired intestinal mucosal barrier function.These processes eventually lead to intestinal mucosal permeability increase,which is closely associated with sepsis,SIRS and MODS.In clinical practice it′s confirmed that many conventional anesthetics preconditioning can protect the intestine from ischemia reperfusion injury due to cardiopulmonary bypass and decrease the damage of intestinal mucosa .

  13. The Continuity of Barrier Function with Respect to the Parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxiang LI; Jun YAN

    2009-01-01

    The authors study the continuity of barrier function Be(x) with respect to the parameter.A sufficient condition which makes Bc(x) be continuous with respect to c is obtained,and an example of discontinuity when the condition is not satisfied is also constructed.

  14. Ginzburg-Landau functional for three order parameter problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinh, Nguyen; Lan, Nguyen Tri

    2016-06-01

    A model is presented utilizing a generic Hamiltonian with equal pairings in channels based on quantum field theory and functional integral formalism, to show the correlation among the order parameters which are described in multi-component Ginzburg-Landau functional. In the vicinity of the phase transition, the further perturbative expansions of the functional around the mean-field theory in the auxiliary fields are carried out with the aim of leading to a possible solution for the coexistence of many phases. The work is motivated by the recent theoretical researches and experimental evidences of the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in U and Ce compounds.

  15. Modeling of state parameter and hardening function for granular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳乐; 李建中

    2004-01-01

    A modified plastic strain energy as hardening state parameter for dense sand was proposed, based on the results from a series of drained plane strain tests on saturated dense Japanese Toyoura sand with precise stress and strain measurements along many stress paths. In addition, a unique hardening function between the plastic strain energy and the instantaneous stress path was also presented, which was independent of stress history. The proposed state parameter and hardening function was directly verified by the simple numerical integration method. It is shown that the proposed hardening function is independent of stress history and stress path and is appropriate to be used as the hardening rule in constitutive modeling for dense sand, and it is also capable of simulating the effects on the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path for dense sand.

  16. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – Its application in cardiology and occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kurpesa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a method used to assess the exercise capacity. It is used in cardiology to define the diagnostic and prognostic information, the treatment and its effectiveness. This method is also useful in sport medicine and in occupational medicine. The cardiopulmonary exercise test involves measuring of gas exchange during exercise testing. The article presents the main parameters assessed during the test and the indications and contraindications for conducting the test. It also reveals the results of recently published clinical trials on the use of cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with cardiovascular disease and in the working population. The study included variability of respiratory parameters during the cardiopulmonary exercise test and after its completion, as well as their impact on the prognostic value. In addition, the results of a study involving an optimal choice of interval training on the basis of oxygen consumption at peak exercise are summarized. Med Pr 2014;65(5:665–674

  17. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – Its application in cardiology and occupational medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Kurpesa; Katarzyna Jerka; Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a method used to assess the exercise capacity. It is used in cardiology to define the diagnostic and prognostic information, the treatment and its effectiveness. This method is also useful in sport medicine and in occupational medicine. The cardiopulmonary exercise test involves measuring of gas exchange during exercise testing. The article presents the main parameters assessed during the test and the indications and contraindications for conducting the tes...

  18. Mini cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsatli, Raed A.

    2012-01-01

    This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anesthetic management and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered...

  19. On Parameter Differentiation for Integral Representations of Associated Legendre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Cohl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For integral representations of associated Legendre functions in terms of modified Bessel functions, we establish justification for differentiation under the integral sign with respect to parameters. With this justification, derivatives for associated Legendre functions of the first and second kind with respect to the degree are evaluated at odd-half-integer degrees, for general complex-orders, and derivatives with respect to the order are evaluated at integer-orders, for general complex-degrees. We also discuss the properties of the complex function f: C{−1,1}→C given by f(z=z/((z+1^{1/2}(z−1^{1/2}.

  20. Connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Khare; Uday Sukhatme

    2004-11-01

    The simplest formulas connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters were first obtained over two hundred years ago by John Landen. His approach was to change integration variables in elliptic integrals. We show that Landen’s formulas and their subsequent generalizations can also be obtained from a different approach, using which we also obtain several new Landen transformations. Our new method is based on recently obtained periodic solutions of physically interesting non-linear differential equations and remarkable new cyclic identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions.

  1. Influência da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Effects of respiratory physiotherapy on the cardiopulmonary function of very low birth weight newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Nicolau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de RNPT com peso de nascimento menor que 1500g, sendo verificados os valores de frequência cardíaca (FC, saturação de oxigênio (SatO2, frequência respiratória (FR e pressão arterial sistêmica (PA antes e após a fisioterapia respiratória e a aspiração endotraqueal. Os RNPT incluídos foram avaliados em sessões sequenciais entre o 3º-7º dias de vida por dois fisioterapeutas da unidade neonatal. Os valores de FC, SatO2 e PA foram coletados por monitorização eletrônica e a FR, por cronômetro. Na análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste de ANOVA para medidas repetidas, sendo significante pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of respiratory physiotherapy on cardiopulmonary function of ventilated preterm newborns infants (PTNB. METHODS: This prospective study included PTNB with birth weight lower than 1500g. Before and after respiratory physiotherapy and endotracheal suction, the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation (O2Sat, respiratory rate (RR and blood pressure (BP. The newborns were evaluated in consecutive sessions between the 3rd-7th day of life by two therapists in the neonatal unit. HR, O2Sat and BP data were collected by electronic monitoring and RR by a stopwatch. Results were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 PTNB, 57% females, with a mean birth weight of 1024g and a mean gestational age of 29.5 weeks. Only three PTNB had a 5th minute Apgar lower than 5. Respiratory Distress Syndrome was the most prevalent disease (88%. In total, 252 physiotherapy sessions were applied to these 42 infants. HR, RR, O2Sat and BP remained within the physiological limits after procedures, including endotracheal suction. CONCLUSIONS: Procedures for physiotherapy

  2. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye;

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...... of the hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...

  3. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  4. Evaluation of coma patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ying-ying; YANG Qing-lin; PANG Ying; LV Xiang-ping

    2005-01-01

    Background Coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commonly seen in daily clinical practice. How to objectively evaluate brain function after CPR is essential to the following treatment. Coma patients after CPR had been studied prospectively at the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital since 2002. In this study, we focused on the topic of how to evaluate the severity of coma after CPR .Methods From April 2002 to November 2004, patients in coma 24 hours after CPR were monitored, the evaluation methods included Glasgow coma score (GCS),brain stem reflection, and spinal reflection. Laboratory evaluation included electroencephalography (EEG),brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), short latency somatosensory evoked potential (SLSEP), and transcranial Doppler (TCD) .Results Twenty-four of 35 patients(68.57%)were in deep coma. The GCS was 3 except for 2 patients;EEG was evaluated not less than grade Ⅳ except for 4 patients, BAEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 3 patients, and SLSEP was evaluated as grade Ⅲ except for 1 patient.Twenty-four patients died within 1 month and 11 of them(45.83%)were determined as brain death. Glasgow outcome score (GOS) was evaluated as grade Ⅰ. Eleven of the 35 patients survived and their consciousness changed from deep coma to coma vigil. EEG was evaluated as gradeⅠin 5 patients, BAEP and SLSEP were evaluated as grade Ⅰ in 3 patients, and GOS was all evaluated as grade Ⅱ among the 11 patients.Two patients(18.18%)regained consciousness in 35 and 90 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and GOS was evaluated as grade Ⅳ and Ⅲ, respectively.Conclusion Combined or continuous evaluation of clinical examinations and laboratory tests can accurately and objectively determine brain function after CPR.

  5. A simultaneous multimodal imaging system for tissue functional parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenqi; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous and quantitative assessment of skin functional characteristics in different modalities will facilitate diagnosis and therapy in many clinical applications such as wound healing. However, many existing clinical practices and multimodal imaging systems are subjective, qualitative, sequential for multimodal data collection, and need co-registration between different modalities. To overcome these limitations, we developed a multimodal imaging system for quantitative, non-invasive, and simultaneous imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion parameters. The imaging system integrated multispectral and laser speckle imaging technologies into one experimental setup. A Labview interface was developed for equipment control, synchronization, and image acquisition. Advanced algorithms based on a wide gap second derivative reflectometry and laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) were developed for accurate reconstruction of tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion respectively. Quantitative calibration experiments and a new style of skinsimulating phantom were designed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the imaging system. The experimental results were compared with a Moor tissue oxygenation and perfusion monitor. For In vivo testing, a post-occlusion reactive hyperemia (PORH) procedure in human subject and an ongoing wound healing monitoring experiment using dorsal skinfold chamber models were conducted to validate the usability of our system for dynamic detection of oxygenation and perfusion parameters. In this study, we have not only setup an advanced multimodal imaging system for cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion parameters but also elucidated its potential for wound healing assessment in clinical practice.

  6. Imaging regional renal function parameters using radionuclide tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yi

    A compartmental model is given for evaluating kidney function accurately and noninvasively. This model is cast into a parallel multi-compartment structure and each pixel region (picture element) of kidneys is considered as a single kidney compartment. The loss of radionuclide tracers from the blood to the kidney and from the kidney to the bladder are modelled in great detail. Both the uptake function and the excretion function of the kidneys can be evaluated pixel by pixel, and regional diagnostic information on renal function is obtained. Gamma Camera image data are required by this model and a screening test based renal function measurement is provided. The regional blood background is subtracted from the kidney region of interest (ROI) and the kidney regional rate constants are estimated analytically using the Kuhn-Pucker multiplier method in convex programming by considering the input/output behavior of the kidney compartments. The detailed physiological model of the peripheral compartments of the system, which is not available for most radionuclide tracers, is not required in the determination of the kidney regional rate constants and the regional blood background factors within the kidney ROI. Moreover, the statistical significance of measurements is considered to assure the improved statistical properties of the estimated kidney rate constants. The relations between various renal function parameters and the kidney rate constants are established. Multiple renal function measurements can be found from the renal compartmental model. The blood radioactivity curve and the regional (or total) radiorenogram determining the regional (or total) summed behavior of the kidneys are obtained analytically with the consideration of the statistical significance of measurements using convex programming methods for a single peripheral compartment system. In addition, a new technique for the determination of 'initial conditions' in both the blood compartment and the kidney

  7. Value of the mean response time in assessment of the cardiopulmonary functions of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%摄氧量平均反应时间在重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者心肺功能评估中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盼盼; 刘锦铭; 杨文兰; 孙兴国

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者在心肺运动试验(cardiopulmonary exercise test,CPET)检测零负荷热身期中的摄氧量动力学改变特点,研究零负荷热身期间摄氧量平均反应时间(mean response time,MRT)与COPD患者心肺功能及常规肺功能的相关性,探讨MRT值评价重度COPD患者心肺功能的应用价值.方法 对41例重度COPD患者和30名正常健康者进行常规肺功能检测及症状限制性功率逐渐递增方案下的CPET.按照逐次呼吸法对呼吸交换参数进行收集.结果 重度COPD组的MRT值明显长于正常对照组(P<0.01).MRT值与峰值摄氧量(peak VO2)、峰值摄氧量占预计值百分比(peak VOz%pred)、公斤摄氧量、最大运动功率、最大运动功率占预计值百分比、分钟通气量、分钟通气量占预计值百分比、peak O2 pulse及peak VO2 pulse%pred均呈负相关(P值均<0.001);MRT值与用力肺活量(FVC)、第1秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)、第1秒用力呼气容积占预计值百分比、FEV1/FVC、最大通气量、最大通气量占预计值百分比、一氧化碳弥散量及一氧化碳弥散量占预计值百分比均呈负相关(P<0.001);与气道阻力、气道阻力占预计值百分比及GOLD分级呈正相关(P<0.001).结论 热身期中的MRT可应用于重度COPD患者的心肺功能评估,并且与GOLD指南中的COPD分级明显相关,为低强度运动水平下评价心肺功能提供了有效的指标.%Objective To better understand the oxygen uptake kinetics during the 3 minutes of unloaded exercise of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), to investigate the relationship between the mean response time (MRT)for oxygen consumption(VO2)and the exercise capacity, and to evaluate the usage of the MRT as one of the parameters to judge the cardiopulmonary functions of the patients with severe COPD. Methods We evaluated 41 severe patients with COPD and

  8. Allowable variance set on left ventricular function parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of allowable Variance settings on left ventricular function parameter of the arrhythmia patients during gated myocardial perfusion imaging. Method: 42 patients with evident arrhythmia underwent myocardial perfusion SPECT, 3 different allowable variance with 20%, 60%, 100% would be set before acquisition for every patients,and they will be acquired simultaneously. After reconstruction by Astonish, end-diastole volume(EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) would be computed with Quantitative Gated SPECT(QGS). Using SPSS software EDV, ESV, EF values of analysis of variance. Result: there is no statistical difference between three groups. Conclusion: arrhythmia patients undergo Gated myocardial perfusion imaging, Allowable Variance settings on EDV, ESV, EF value does not have a statistical meaning. (authors)

  9. Estimation of parameters of K-meson structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the multiparton recombination model with Kuti-Weisskopf parametrization the available experimental data on inclusive spectra of vector and tensor mesons in the reactions K±p→MX (M=ρ, φ, K(890), K(1430) in kaon fragmentation range at high energies (32-110 GeV/c) have been analyzed. The analysis was aimed at obtaining the parameters of the K-meson structure functions. The kaon strange sea suppression factor is found to the λS=0.18±0.01. The fractions of the kaon longitudinal momentum carried away by the strange and nonstrage valence quarks and by sea partons are, respectively, NV>=0.17, SV>=0.30, and S>=0.53

  10. 95Mo nuclear magnetic resonance parameters of molybdenum hexacarbonyl from density functional theory: appraisal of computational and geometrical parameters.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuny, Jérôme; Sykina, Kateryna; Fontaine, Bruno; Le Pollès, Laurent; Pickard, Chris J.; Gautier, Régis

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state (95)Mo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of molybdenum hexacarbonyl have been computed using density functional theory (DFT) based methods. Both quadrupolar coupling and chemical shift parameters were evaluated and compared with parameters of high precision determined using single-crystal (95)Mo NMR experiments. Within a molecular approach, the effects of major computational parameters, i.e. basis set, exchange-correlation functional, treatment of relativity, have been e...

  11. Effect of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Gut Mucosal Barrier Function in Patients Undergoing Cardiac-Valve Replacement%体外循环对瓣膜置换术患者肠黏膜屏障功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 孙莹杰; 张铁铮

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the gut mucosal barrier function during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and the relative mechanisms thereof. Methods: Twenty patients underwent heart valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Blood samples of the jugular vein from 20 CPB patients were drawn following 6 time points, before CPB (T1), 10 min after aortic crossclamp release (T2), immediately at the end of CPB (T3), 2 h after operation(T4), 6 h after operation(T3) and 18 h after operation(T6). The levels of blood intestinal fatty acid binding protein (1-FABP), interleukin(IL)-6, IL-10 and D-lactate were detected. Blood samples were also taken for blood gas analysis and blood glucose detection. Results: Comparing with T, (before CPB), serum concentrations of D-lactate and I-FABP elevated obviously at T2, T3, T4and T5(P < 0.05), and reached its peak value at T5. The serum concentration of I-FABP and D-Lactate were still higher than that at Ti at T6 (P < 0.05). The peak of I-FABP was correlated with peaks of serum glucose and lactate. Conclusion: The gut mucosal barrier function was damaged during CPB, which might be related to the stress response of nervous- endocrine system and immunity system.%目的:探讨围体外循环期瓣膜置换术患者肠黏膜屏障功能的变化及可能机制.方法:选择体外循环(CPB)心脏瓣膜置换术患者20例,按时点采取中心静脉血标本测定血清肠型脂肪酸结合蛋白(I-FABP)、白细胞介素(IL)-6、IL-10及D-乳酸水平,同时行静脉血气分析和血糖监测.结果:与CPB前比较,主动脉开放10 min时,血清D-乳酸和I-FABP值即显著升高;术后2h血浆D-乳酸达峰值,I-FABP维持较高水平;术后6h血浆I-FABP达峰值;术后18h血清D-乳酸和I-FABP值仍高于基础值.术后6h血浆I-FABP峰值与血糖和乳酸峰值呈正相关.结论:围CPB期肠黏膜屏障功能受损.神经-内分泌-免疫系统共同参与的应激反应与肠黏膜屏障功能损伤有关.

  12. Ocular, bulbar, limb, and cardiopulmonary involvement in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, N; Mensah, A; Køber, L;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess skeletal muscle weakness and progression as well as the cardiopulmonary involvement in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study including symptomatic patients with genetically confirmed OPMD. Patients were assessed by medical...... history, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, facial and limb strength, and swallowing capability. Cardiopulmonary function was evaluated using forced expiratory capacity in 1 s (FEV1), electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter monitoring, and echocardiography. RESULTS: We included 13 symptomatic patients (six males, mean age......; 64 years (41-80) from 8 families. Ptosis was the first symptom in 8/13 patients followed by limb weakness in the remaining 5 patients Dysphagia was never the presenting symptom. At the time of examination, all affected patients had ptosis or had previously been operated for ptosis, while...

  13. Coastline complexity: A parameter for functional classification of coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, J.D.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Bennett, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    To understand the role of the world's coastal zone (CZ) in global biogeochemical fluxes (particularly those of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediments) we must generalise from a limited number of observations associated with a few well-studied coastal systems to the global scale. Global generalisation must be based on globally available data and on robust techniques for classification and upscaling. These requirements impose severe constraints on the set of variables that can be used to extract information about local CZ functions such as advective and metabolic fluxes, and differences resulting from changes in biotic communities. Coastal complexity (plan-view tortuosity of the coastline) is a potentially useful parameter, since it interacts strongly with both marine and terrestrial forcing functions to determine coastal energy regimes and water residence times, and since 'open' vs. 'sheltered' categories are important components of most coastal habitat classification schemes. This study employs the World Vector Shoreline (WVS) dataset, originally developed at a scale of 1:250 000. Coastline complexity measures are generated using a modification of the Angle Measurement Technique (AMT), in which the basic measurement is the angle between two lines of specified length drawn from a selected point to the closest points of intersection with the coastline. Repetition of these measurements for different lengths at the same point yields a distribution of angles descriptive of the extent and scale of complexity in the vicinity of that point; repetition of the process at different points on the coast provides a basis for comparing both the extent and the characteristic scale of coastline variation along different reaches of the coast. The coast of northwestern Mexico (Baja California and the Gulf of California) was used as a case study for initial development and testing of the method. The characteristic angle distribution plots generated by the AMT analysis were

  14. Stability of klystron operation as a function of input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instabilities in the operation of a high-power multicavity klystron have been studied as a function of various input parameters. Among these, the focusing magnetic field, rf input power and tuning of the second harmonic cavity were observed to have a striking effect in deciding the regions of unstable operation. One region of instability could be identified with a value of magnetic field corresponding to cyclotron resonance, at the operating frequency. The magnetic field value in the region of the input end, and the second harmonic cavity, was found to have a more decisive influence on stability, than the magnetic field at the output end. A hysteresis effect has been associated with the instabilities. This could be explained in terms of multipactor phenomena. These observations indicate, among other things, that in designing new tubes, it might be desirable that the operating magnetic field stay well away from cyclotron resonance conditions, especially in the gun region, and the cavities at the input end. The experimental techniques can be used for optimizing the operating conditions of existing tubes

  15. Estimation of parameters of K-meson structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of multiparton recombination model with the use of the Kuti-Weisskopf parametrization there have been analyzed the available experimental data on inclusive spectra of the vector and tensor mesons in the reactions K±p → MX (M=ρ, φ, K(890), K(1430) in the kaon fragmentation region at high energies (32-110 GeV/c) with the aim to extract the parameters of the K-meson structure functions. For the suppression factor of the kaon strange sea the value λs=0.18±0.01 is obtained. The kaon longitudinal momentum fraction carried away by nonstrange valence quarks and sea partons respectively are NV>=0.17, SV>=0.30 and S>=0.53. Estimates are obtained for the summary longitudinal momentum fractions carried away by nonstrange sea quark-antiquark pairs NS>=0.23±0.06, strange sea quark-antiquark pairs SS>=0.02±0.01 and gluons G>=0.28±0.09. 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  16. LUCAS - Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assist System

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Qiuming

    2011-01-01

    Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assist System (LUCAS) is a mechanical device providing automatic 5 cm deep chest compressions and active decompressions back to normal anatomical position with a frequency of 100 per minute, and a duty cycle of 50%, i.e., LUCAS is constructed to give chest compressions according to the latest international guidelines in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of the thesis was to study cardiac arrest using different porcine models of ventricular fi...

  17. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre C. Zago; Cristine E. Nunes; Viviane R. da Cunha; Euler Manenti; Luís Carlos Bodanese

    1999-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of...

  18. Vasopressin decreases neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chi; Zhu, Zhe; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council recently recommended that vasopressin can be used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, instead of epinephrine. However, the guidelines do not discuss the effects of vasopressin during cerebral resuscitation. In this study, we intraperitoneally injected epinephrine and/or vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. The results demonstrated that, compared with epinephrine alone, ...

  19. A Study of Body Compositions and Cardiopulmonary Function of University Students%大学生身体成分和心肺功能的测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佩娜; 吴炜

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a research on the comparison of body composition and cardiopulmonary function between male and female university students.The research involves 582 students aging from 18 to 23 from a university in Zhejiang province. It indicates that male students are distinctively higher than female students in body weight,body mass index,fat free mass,muscle mass,muscle mass ratio,body moisturemass, protein mass,intracellular fluid,extracellular fluid,basic metabolic rate,waist⁃hip ratio,trunk muscle mass, limbs muscle mass ( upper left,upper right,lower left and lower right respectively) and presumption of bone mass,while female students are distinctively higher than male students in fat mass, body fat percentage, edema index,trunk fat mass,limbs fat mass( lower left and lower right respectively) and scores of health as⁃sessment.The index of fat control and muscle control differs distinctively between male and female students. The difference also suggests that male students need, more than female students, to lose fat and build muscles.Last but not least,female students are distinctively lower than male students in functional capacity and maximum oxygen uptake.%文章以浙江省某本科院校582名18~23岁大学生为研究对象,测定了他们的身体成分和心肺功能状况。研究结果显示:男生在体重、身体质量指数、去脂体重、肌肉重量等17项指标上得分高于女生,且男女生存在显著差异。而女生则在脂肪量、体脂率、水肿指数、躯干脂肪量等7项指标上得分高于男生,且男女生存在显著差异。在脂肪控制和肌肉控制方面,男生比女生更需要减脂、增肌,两项指标均存在显著的性别差异。女生功能能力和最大摄氧量均低于男生,且统计检验表明男女生存在显著差异。

  20. Cardiopulmonary effects of intermittent mandatory ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M E; Downs, J B

    1980-01-01

    IMV is a combination of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation. For numerous reasons, IMV is potentially more advantageous than conventional techniques. By maintaining spontaneous breathing, mechanical augmentation can be titrated to adjust alveolar minute ventilation levels to normal, thereby decreasing the incidence of respiratory alkalemia. There are major differences between the cardiopulmonary effects of IMV and conventional mechanical ventilation. Spontaneous inspiration decreases Ppl and results in better distribution of inspired gas, a better V/Q, and less physiological dead space. In addition, transmural filling pressures, venous return, and cardiac output are more normal than during conventional mechanical ventilation. Maintenance of spontaneous ventilation lowers mean Paw and pulmonary vascular resistance. If venous admixture occurs, it can be minimized by titrating PEEP. Thus, more effective therapy for hypoxemia is possible. If spontaneous breathing is to persist and be efective, work-of-breathing must be minimized. This can be accomplished best when a continuous flow of gas provides optimal CPAP to maintain FRC and to minimize the effects of decreased compliance without depressing cardiac function. PMID:7007253

  1. Pulmonary Function Parameters Changes at Different Altitudes in Healthy Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ziaee

    2008-06-01

    It could be concluded that changes in some pulmonary ventilatory parameters were proportional to the magnitude of change in altitude during a high-altitude trek. These changes are significant at the beginning of ascending.

  2. Changes in Cardiopulmonary Function Induced by Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Erin. E.; Thompson, Leslie C.; Shannahan, Jonathan H; Wingard, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are highly applicable in a variety of technological and biomedical fields due to their unique physicochemical properties. The increased development and utilization of NP has amplified human exposure and raised concerns regarding their potential to generate toxicity. The biological impacts of NP exposures have been shown to be dependent on aerodynamic size, chemical composition, and the route of exposure (oral, dermal, intravenous, and inhalation), while recent research has ...

  3. Successful application of acute cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derya ztrk; Erturul Altinbilek; Murat Koyuncu; Bedriye Mge Snmez; ilem altili; Ibrahim Ikzcel; Cemil Kavalci; Glsm Kavalci

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the quality and correct the deficiencies of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedures performed in patients who developed cardiopulmonary cardiopulmonary arrest before or after Emergency Department admission. Methods: This study was conducted on patients who were applied CPR atŞŞişli Etfal Training and Research and Research Hospital, Emergency Department between 01 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the patients' data. The study data were analyzed in SPSS 18.0 software package. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 155 patients who were applied CPR were included in the analysis. Among the study patients, seventy eight (50.3%) were brought to Emergency Department after developing cardiopulmonary arrest while 77 (49.7%) developed cardiopulmonary arrest at Emergency Department. The mean age of the study population was (66 ± 16) years and 64%of the patients were male. The initial rhythms of the CPR-applied patients were different (P 0.05). The CPR response time was longer in ED (P Conclusions: The scientific data obtained in this study suggest that an early response and therapy improves outcomes in CPR procedure.

  4. Functional training – effects on blood parameters in hemodialyzed patients

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, André; Vaz, Josiana A.; Preto, Leonel; Mendes, Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function and that affects all other organs and systems. Patients with CKD on hemodialysis have reduced functional capacity and sedentary behavior, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Over the past few years programs have been developed and implemented to maximize functionality with demonstrated beneficial effects in this specific population. Changes in the blood profile, resulting...

  5. Identifiability of altimetry-based rating curve parameters in function of river morphological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; André Garambois, Pierre; Calmant, Stéphane; Paiva, Rodrigo; Walter, Collischonn; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frédérique; Monnier, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Estimating river discharge for ungauged river reaches from satellite measurements is not straightforward given the nonlinearity of flow behavior with respect to measurable and non measurable hydraulic parameters. As a matter of facts, current satellite datasets do not give access to key parameters such as river bed topography and roughness. A unique set of almost one thousand altimetry-based rating curves was built by fit of ENVISAT and Jason-2 water stages with discharges obtained from the MGB-IPH rainfall-runoff model in the Amazon basin. These rated discharges were successfully validated towards simulated discharges (Ens = 0.70) and in-situ discharges (Ens = 0.71) and are not mission-dependent. The rating curve writes Q = a(Z-Z0)b*sqrt(S), with Z the water surface elevation and S its slope gained from satellite altimetry, a and b power law coefficient and exponent and Z0 the river bed elevation such as Q(Z0) = 0. For several river reaches in the Amazon basin where ADCP measurements are available, the Z0 values are fairly well validated with a relative error lower than 10%. The present contribution aims at relating the identifiability and the physical meaning of a, b and Z0given various hydraulic and geomorphologic conditions. Synthetic river bathymetries sampling a wide range of rivers and inflow discharges are used to perform twin experiments. A shallow water model is run for generating synthetic satellite observations, and then rating curve parameters are determined for each river section thanks to a MCMC algorithm. Thanks to twin experiments, it is shown that rating curve formulation with water surface slope, i.e. closer from Manning equation form, improves parameter identifiability. The compensation between parameters is limited, especially for reaches with little water surface variability. Rating curve parameters are analyzed for riffle and pools for small to large rivers, different river slopes and cross section shapes. It is shown that the river bed

  6. Internal pressure and solubility parameter as a function of pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    maximum contrary to solubility parameter. An indirect method was chosen to estimate internal pressure, using thermal expansivities (determined by microcalorimetry) and isothermal compressibilities (determined by density measurements). The uncertainty is within 2% for the expansivity and 0.1% for the...

  7. NLC Luminosity as a Function of Beam Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Nosochkov, Yu M; Raubenheimer, T O; Seryi, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Realistic calculation of NLC luminosity has been performed using particle tracking in DIMAD and beam-beam simulations in GUINEA-PIG code for various values of beam emittance, energy and beta functions at the Interaction Point (IP). Results of the simulations are compared with analytic luminosity calculations. The optimum range of IP beta functions for high luminosity was identified.

  8. "Orpheus" cardiopulmonary bypass simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard W; Pybus, David A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques. PMID:18293807

  9. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  10. Town planning parameters in the function of building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Protić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building is that consuming the least energy while providing comfort. The energy consumption of buildings, in general, as well as in Serbia, is among other things conditioned by the heating, cooling and lighting requirements with a goal of achieving of thermal and light comfort. Heating energy consumption is the result of heat loss and gain, and their values, in addition to other parameters, depend on town planning parameters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of impact of building different exposures to wind as well as on impact of the different prevailing orientations on energy efficiency of buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 36042: Optimizacija arhitektonskog i urbanističkog planiranja i projektovanja u funkciji održivog razvoja Srbije

  11. Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals: adjusting parameters to binding energies

    CERN Document Server

    Niksic, T; Ring, P

    2008-01-01

    We study a particular class of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals in which only nucleon degrees of freedom are explicitly used in the construction of effective interaction terms. Short-distance (high-momentum) correlations, as well as intermediate and long-range dynamics, are encoded in the medium (nucleon density) dependence of the strength functionals of an effective interaction Lagrangian. Guided by the density dependence of microscopic nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter, a phenomenological ansatz for the density-dependent coupling functionals is accurately determined in self-consistent mean-field calculations of binding energies of a large set of axially deformed nuclei. The relationship between the nuclear matter volume, surface and symmetry energies, and the corresponding predictions for nuclear masses is analyzed in detail. The resulting best-fit parametrization of the nuclear energy density functional is further tested in calculations of properties of spherical and deformed medium-he...

  12. Evaluating functions using tail recursion and parameter substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges E. Alfaro Salazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a general way to implement recursive functions calculation by linear tail recursion. It emphasizes the use of tail recursion to perform computations efficiently.

  13. A new four-parameter empirical potential energy function for diatomic molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Rafi; Reem Al-Tuwirqi; Hanaa Farhan; I A Khan

    2007-06-01

    A new empirical four-parameter function is proposed for the construction of potential curves of 15 stable states of diatomic molecules. The parameters are evaluated in terms of experimentally known spectroscopic constants. On comparing its performance with other functions, the proposed function is found to be simple and reliable for a wide range of molecules.

  14. Clinical value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing derived oxygen uptake efficiency parameters in patients with end-stage chronic heart failure%终末期慢性心力衰竭患者运动中摄氧通气效率指标的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志南; 黄洁; 孙兴国; 谭晓越; 李子煦; 胡盛寿

    2015-01-01

    cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) derived performance of oxygen uptake and ventilation efficiency parameters,including oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP),oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES),(V)E/(V)CO2 slope and lowest (V)E/(V)CO2,in patients with end-stage chronic heart failure(CHF) and evaluate their clinical value on monitoring cardiac function and hemodynamic status.Methods A total of 26 end-stage CHF patients considered for heart transplantation were enrolled in this study.CPET,echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic examinations with Swan-Ganz flowing balloon catheter were performed.Correlation analysis was made between oxygen uptake and ventilation efficiency parameters from CPET and echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters.Results OUEP and OUES showed good correlation with peak oxygen consumption (peak (V)O2) (r =0.535,P < 0.01 ; r =0.840,P < 0.001).In end-stage CHF patients,the slope of OUEP with respect to peak (V)O2 is about 32,but the slope of OUES with respect to peak (V)O2 is only about 2.The difference was 16 times.The change of OUEP was more sensitive and significant than those of OUES and peak (V)O2 (P < 0.05).OUEP,peak (V)O2 (% pred),(V)E/(V)CO2 slope and lowest (V)E/(V)CO2 were all correlated well with non-invasive hemodynamic parameters peak cardiac output (r=0.535,P<0.01; r=0.652,P<0.001; r=-0.640,P<0.001 ; r=-0.606,P=0.001 respectively) and peak cardiac index (r =0.556,P<0.01;r =0.772,P <0.001; r =-0.641,P < 0.001 ; r =-0.620,P < 0.001 respectively) derived from CPET,but not correlated with invasive hemodynamic parameters cardiac output and cardiac index at rest (P >0.05).Both peak (V)O2 (% pred) and (V)E/(V)CO2 slope were significantly correlated with invasive hemodynamic parameters systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (r =-0.424,P < 0.05 ; r =0.509,P < 0.01) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r=-0.479,P<0.05; r=0.405,P<0.05).Peak (V)O2(%pred)was also significantly correlated with pulmonary capillary

  15. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Junyu; Luo Manlin; Pan Wanli; Li Na; Peng Wei

    2016-01-01

    The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explic...

  16. Is a fully heparin-bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Sarah; Bilal, Haris; Zaman, Mahvash; Tang, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    A best-evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Is a fully heparin bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?’ Altogether more than 792 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of...

  17. Graft function and nutritional parameters in stable postrenal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a method for the assessment of nutritional status. We studied the effect of graft function on nutritional status in postrenal 45 transplant patients with borderline to good allograft function using BIA. The patients had a mean serum creatinine of 1.42 ± 0.42 mg% and mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR of 45.1 ± 14.1 mL/min. Based on BIA-derived GFR, the patients were divided into two groups; group 1: borderline graft function GFR 4.0 in extracellular water (P <0.015, intracellular water (P <0.002, plasma fluid (P <0.016, interstitial fluid (P <0.016, and body cell mass (P <0.024. Subjective global assessment (SGA scores showed that transplant patients had normal nutritional status, but when compared with healthy individuals as assessed by BIA, there were significant differences in FM, FFM, and body cell mass. In conclusion, BIA was more sensitive to evaluate nutritional depletion than SGA in transplant patients with borderline.

  18. Gravity and Development of Cardiopulmonary Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shunji; Eno, Yuko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    Cardio-pulmonary reflex, which our cardiac activity is synchronized to the respiration by autonomic nervous system regulation, is called as "respiratory sinus arrhythmia" and commonly found in adult. The physiological function of the espiratory sinus arrhythmia is considered to maximize the gas exchange during respiration cycle. This respiration induced heart rate variability (RHRV) is only found in mammals and avian showing a remarkable postnatal development, whereas no RHRV in aquatic species such as fish or amphibian. To elucidate our hypothesis that gravity exposure may plays a key role in the postnatal development of RHRV as well as its evolutional origin in these ground animals, we have studied effects of hypergravity (2G) on the postnatal development of RHRV using rat. Pregnant Wister rats were kept in centrifugal cages system for 38 days from 6th days of pregnant mother to have neonates until 23 days old. Electrocardiograph was recorded from the neonates in 2 to 23 days old in 2G group with simultaneous control (1G) group. The RHRV analysis was performed by calculating a component of Fourier power spectral coincide with the respiration frequency. In both groups, averaged resting heart rate gradually increase from 2 to 23 days old. When comparing the heart rate between the two groups, the 2G group indicated significantly lower (240± 8 bpm) than 1G control (326±21 bpm, p¡0.001) in 2 days old, where as no significance in 23 days old. The RHRV of 2 days old neonates in both groups indicated very small magnitude but significantly lower in 2G group than 1G control (p¡0.01). The RHRV gradually increase during the first 2 weeks and then rapid increased to reached 45 fold of magnitude in 1G control, whereas 69 fold in 2G group. The results strongly suggested that the postnatal innervation from respiration to cardiovascular centers was gravity dependent.

  19. The Sunflower Cardiopulmonary Research Project of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Leon

    A three year project designed to determine the value of a health program incorporating a cardiopulmonary fitness program is described. The instructional programs were in heart health, pulmonary health, nutrition, and physical fitness. A noncompetitive exercise and fitness period was employed in addition to the normal physical education time.…

  20. Physiological consequences : Cardiopulmonary, vestibular, and sensory aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsch, H.; Albery, W.; Banks, R.D.; Bles, W.

    2000-01-01

    Discussing the physiological consequences of enhanced fighter manoeuvrability (EFM), aspects of cardiopulmonary reactions will be seen during high G manoeuvres, especially the combination of negative G-load followed by high G-onset manoeuvres ("push-pull"). The aircraft's capability to reach high al

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago Alexandre C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of life chain, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation courses for professionals who work in emergency medical services, the automated external defibrillator, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and mobile intensive care units, among others. New concepts, strategies and structures motivated by new advances have also modified the treatment and improved the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital setting. Among them, we can cite the concept of cerebral resuscitation, the application of the life chain, the creation of the universal life support algorithm, the adjustment of drug doses, new techniques - measure of the end-tidal carbon dioxide levels and of the coronary perfusion pressure - and new drugs under research.

  2. Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in polytraumatized patients. a longitudinal, prospective and observational study of the procedure-related impact on cardiopulmonary- and inflammatory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husebye Elisabeth E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early intramedullary nailing (IMN of long bone fractures in severely injured patients has been evaluated as beneficial, but has also been associated with increased inflammation, multi organ failure (MOF and morbidity. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact of primary femoral IMN on coagulation-, fibrinolysis-, inflammatory- and cardiopulmonary responses in polytraumatized patients. Methods Twelve adult polytraumatized patients with femoral shaft fractures were included. Serial blood samples were collected to evaluate coagulation-, fibrinolytic-, and cytokine activation in arterial blood. A flow-directed pulmonary artery (PA catheter was inserted prior to IMN. Cardiopulmonary function parameters were recorded peri- and postoperatively. The clinical course of the patients and complications were monitored and recorded daily. Results Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS was 31 ± 2.6. No procedure-related effect of the primary IMN on coagulation- and fibrinolysis activation was evident. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α increased significantly from 6 hours post procedure to peak levels on the third postoperative day. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 increased from the first to the third postoperative day. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 peaked on the first postoperative day. A procedure-related transient hemodynamic response was observed on indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRI two hours post procedure. 11/12 patients developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, 7/12 pneumonia, 3/12 acute lung injury (ALI, 3/12 adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 3/12 sepsis, 0/12 wound infection. Conclusion In the polytraumatized patients with femoral shaft fractures operated with primary IMN we observed a substantial response related to the initial trauma. We could not demonstrate any major additional IMN-related impact on the inflammatory responses or on the cardiopulmonary function parameters. These results have to be interpreted

  3. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1, both RR and SBP trended towards preflight

  4. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J S M; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Santos-Júnior, F F U; Carlos, P S; Silva, R C; Lucci, C M; Báo, S N; Ceccatto, V M; Barbosa, R

    2013-08-01

    Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP) and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34), animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13 ± 0.05 V and 52.31 ± 1.95 µs (control group, n=13) to 2.84 ± 0.06 V and 59.71 ± 2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15), respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63 ± 7.49 to 79.14 ± 5.59 m/s) but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function. PMID:23969978

  5. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.M. Alves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34, animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13±0.05 V and 52.31±1.95 µs (control group, n=13 to 2.84±0.06 V and 59.71±2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15, respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63±7.49 to 79.14±5.59 m/s but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function.

  6. A Note on the Item Information Function of the Four-Parameter Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on four-parameter logistic (4PL) model as an extension of the usual three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with an upper asymptote possibly different from 1. For a given item with fixed item parameters, Lord derived the value of the latent ability level that maximizes the item information function under the 3PL model. The…

  7. A One-parameter Filled Function Method for Nonlinear Integer Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a new definition of the filled function for nonlinear integer programming problem. A filled function satisfying our definition is presented. This function contains only one parameter. The properties of the proposed filled function and the method using this filled function to solve nonlinear integer programming problem are also discussed. Numerical results indicate the efficiency and reliability of the proposed filled function algorithm.

  8. History of the evolution of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karlis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references on CPR go back to the era of Ancient Egypt (3100 B.C.. Although the technique for mouth to mouth ventilation was known in ancient times, its efficacy was demonstrated just in 1958. The ease and efficacy of chest compressions were demonstrated in 1960. Electrical defibrillation may have begun in 1775, but it was applied to a victim of cardiac arrest in the 1950s. Conclusion: CPR is currently a rapidly evolving field of medical science. According to latest data, there is evidence that high quality chest compressions, prompt defibrillation if applicable and treatment of reversible causes improve Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, history, evolution and combinations of them. Complementary bibliography was found through the library of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Results: The first historical references

  9. Analysis and prediction of the alpha-function parameters used in cubic equations of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Privata, Romain; Viscontea, Maxime; Zazoua-Khames, Anis; Jauberta, Jean-Noël; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    evidenced and fixed. A new class of purely predictive alpha functions was derived by applying group-contribution (GC) methods to the prediction of alpha function parameters. The interest of such an approach is discussed and compared to another predictive approach (use of generalized alpha functions coupled......The performance of two generalized alpha functions (Soave and generalized Twu functions requiring the acentric factor as input parameter) and two parameterizable alpha functions (Mathias-Copeman and Twu) incorporated in cubic equations of state (Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson) are evaluated and...... compared regarding their ability to reproduce vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, liquid heat capacity, liquid density and second virial coefficient data. To reach this objective, extensive databanks of alpha function parameters were created. In particular, pitfalls of Twu-type alpha functions were...

  10. CLINICAL ADVANTAGES OF TOTAL CAVOPULMONARY ANASTOMOSIS WITHOUT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-min Chu; Qing-yu Wu; Jian-ping Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate surgical methods and results of extracardiac conduit total cavopulmonary anastomosis (ECTCPA) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods From May 2000 to April 2003, 11 patients with functional univentricle underwent off-pump EC-TCPA (noCPB group). Their postoperative outcome was retrospectively compared with a 17-patient group who underwent EC-TCPA with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB group) over a concurrent time period.Results There was 1 operative death in no-CPB group and 2 in CPB group; early postoperative hemodynamics appeared to significantly improve in no-CPB group. Blood and platelet transfusions decreased and blood plasma transfusion significantly lowered in no-CPB group compared with CPB group (P = 0.036). Postoperative courses of patients in no-CPB group were smooth and event free, and extubation time was substantially short. Intensive cares unit stay (P=0.04) and hospital stay (P= 0.02) postoperation were significantly shorter, hospital costs were significantly reduced (P= 0.004) in no-CPB group compared with CPB group.Conclusions EC-TCPA without use of CPB is not a difficult procedure; the procedure results in improvement in postoperative hemodynamics, and decreased use of blood and blood products. It is a more efficient operation with more short recovery time and reduced hospital stay.

  11. Cardiopulmonary Circuit Models for Predicting Injury to the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Wing, Sarah; Bassingthwaighte, James; Neal, Maxwell

    2004-11-01

    Circuit models have been used extensively in physiology to describe cardiopulmonary function. Such models are being used in the DARPA Virtual Soldier (VS) Project* to predict the response to injury or physiological stress. The most complex model consists of systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a four-chamber heart sub-model. This model also includes baroreceptor feedback, airway mechanics, gas exchange, and pleural pressure influence on the circulation. As part of the VS Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been evaluating various cardiopulmonary circuit models for predicting the effects of injury to the heart. We describe, from a physicist's perspective, the concept of building circuit models, discuss both unstressed and stressed models, and show how the stressed models are used to predict effects of specific wounds. *This work was supported by a grant from the DARPA, executed by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command/TATRC Cooperative Agreement, Contract # W81XWH-04-2-0012. The submitted manuscript has been authored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed for the U.S. DOE by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purpose.

  12. Emergent cardiopulmonary bypass during pectus excavatum repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Craner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum is a chest wall deformity that produces significant cardiopulmonary disability and is typically seen in younger patients. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum or Nuss procedure has become a widely accepted technique for adult and pediatric patients. Although it is carried out through a thoracoscopic approach, the procedure is associated with a number of potential intraoperative and post-operative complications. We present a case of cardiac perforation requiring emergent cardiopulmonary bypass in a 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome and previous mitral valve repair undergoing a Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. This case illustrates the importance of vigilance and preparation by the surgeons, anesthesia providers as well as the institution to be prepared with resources to handle the possible complications. This includes available cardiac surgical backup, perfusionist support and adequate blood product availability.

  13. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    M Adib Hajbaghery; H. Akbari; GA. Mousavi

    2005-01-01

    Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and unt...

  14. Morphologic,mechanical and functional sonographic parameters of arteries in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎殳

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the risk factors of cardiovascular disease exist in early stage of ADPKD patients with normal renal function. Methods Morphologic , mechanical and functional sonographic parameters of arteries were examined by high-frequency ultrasonography in 32 hypertensive and 28 normotensive ADPKD patients with preserved renal function, 25 patients with es-

  15. Diagnosis function of safety status in the safety parameter display system (SPDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic diagnosis function of safety status for nuclear power plant adopted in the SPDS is introduced. To guarantee diagnosis diversification, two diagnosis criteria of a design basis accident monitoring and a critical safety function monitoring used in plant emergency operation are provided. As an extensive function, a parameter deviation monitoring used in plant normal operation is also provided

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging derived left ventricular global and region function parameters in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆莉莎

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish cardiac magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)derived left ventricular(LV)global and region function parameters in normal adults.Methods Twenty normal adults were examined with fast imaging employing steady-state(Fiesta)acquisition sequence of cardiac MRI,LV global function and LV region function were measured at basal,middle,apical level and at 16

  17. Simulation of γ spectrum-shifting based on the parameter adjustment of Gaussian function space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the statistical characteristics of energy spectrum and the features of spectrum-shifting in spectrometry, the parameter adjustment method of Gaussian function space was applied in the simulation of spectrum-shifting. The transient characteristics of energy spectrum were described by the Gaussian function space, and then the Gaussian function space was transferred by parameter adjustment method. Furthermore, the spectrum-shifting in measurement of energy spectrum was simulated. The applied example shows that the parameters can be adjusted flexibly by this method to meet the various requirements in simulation of energy spectrum-shifting. This method was one parameterized simulation method with good performance for the practical application. (authors)

  18. Physiological basis of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in patients with lung or heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafeiris Louvaris

    2015-06-01

    Shortness of breath associated with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and peripheral muscle discomfort are the major factors that limit exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and those with congestive heart failure (CHF. Both of these symptoms negatively impact on patients’ daily physical activity levels. In turn, poor daily physical activity is commonly associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes partially reverse muscle weakness and dysfunction and increase functional capacity in both COPD and CHF. However, benefits gained from participation in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes are regressing soon after the completion of these programmes. Moreover, several barriers limit access and uptake of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes by eligible patients. A potential solution to the underutilisation of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation is the implementation of tele-rehabilitation interventions at home using information and communications technologies. Thus, tele-rehabilitation may be useful to encourage and educate patients with COPD or CHF on how best to maintain and/or further enhance daily physical activity levels.

  19. Functional EWA: A One-parameter Theory of Learning in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teck H. Ho; Colin Camerer; Juin-Kuan Chong

    2002-01-01

    Functional experience weighted attraction (fEWA) is a one-parameter theory of learning in games. It approximates the free parameters in an earlier model (EWA) with functions of experience. The theory was originally tested on seven different games and compared to four other learning and equilibrium theories, then three more games were added. Generally fEWA or parameterized EWA predict best out-of-sample, but one kind of reinforcement learning predicts well in games with mixed-st...

  20. Quasi-Newton methods for parameter estimation in functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dennis W.

    1988-01-01

    A state-space approach to parameter estimation in linear functional differential equations is developed using the theory of linear evolution equations. A locally convergent quasi-Newton type algorithm is applied to distributed systems with particular emphasis on parameters that induce unbounded perturbations of the state. The algorithm is computationally implemented on several functional differential equations, including coefficient and delay estimation in linear delay-differential equations.

  1. An accurate few-parameter ground state wave function for the Lithium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Guevara, Nicolais L; Turbiner, Alexander V

    2009-01-01

    A simple, seven-parameter trial function is proposed for a description of the ground state of the Lithium atom. It includes both spin functions. Inter-electronic distances appear in exponential form as well as in a pre-exponential factor, and the necessary energy matrix elements are evaluated by numerical integration in the space of the relative coordinates. Encouragingly accurate values of the energy and the cusp parameters are obtained.

  2. Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/acepromazine combination in hypovolemic cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, W; Allen, D G; Dyson, D H; Black, W D; Goldberg, M T; Valliant, A E

    1988-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/ acepromazine combination was studied in ten cats subjected to a 25% whole blood volume loss. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured via thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated from these data. Posthemorrhage, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, heart rate and...

  3. Reference Values and Gender Differences of the Functional Parameters in Romanian Elite Junior Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian NAGEL; Claudiu AVRAM

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the reference values and gender differences regarding fitness, strength, and time reaction of the Romanian elite junior tennis players. Material and Methods: Thirty four junior tennis players (19 male, 15 female) with a mean age of 15 years were selected from the database of the Cardiopulmonary Effort Testing and Physical Performance Laboratory from Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, West University of Timisoara. To be included in the study, a tennis player had to ...

  4. Conventional hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass increases the serum lactate level in adult cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass on lactate level in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Design: An observational study. Setting: Prince Sultan cardiac center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: The study included 283 patients classified into two groups: Hemofiltration group (n=138, hemofiltration was done during CPB. Control group (n = 145, patients without hemofiltration. Interventions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements and Main Results: Monitors included hematocrit, lactate levels, mixed venous oxygen saturation, amount of fluid removal during hemofiltration and urine output. The lactate elevated in group H than group C (P < 0.05, and the PH showed metabolic acidosis in group H (P < 0.05. The mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The hematocrit was higher in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The urine output was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to hemoconcentration, elevated lactate level and increased inotropic support. There are some recommendations for hemofiltration: First; Hemofiltration should be limited for patients with impaired renal function, positive fluid balance, reduced response to diuretics or prolonged bypass time more than 2 hours. Second; Minimal amount of fluids should be administered to maintain adequate cardiac output and reduction of priming volumes is preferable to maintain controlled hemodilution. Third; it should be done before weaning of or after cardiopulmonary bypass and not during the whole time of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  5. Design of Safety Parameter Monitoring Function in a Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaekwan; Suh, Yongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The primary purpose of the safety parameter monitoring system (SPDS) is to help operating personnel in the control room make quick assessments of the plant safety status. Thus, the basic function of the SPDS is a provision of a continuous indication of plant parameters or derived variables representative of the safety status of the plant. NUREG-0737 Supplement 1 provides details of the functional criteria for the SPDS, as one of the action plan requirements from TMI accident. The system provides various functions as follows: · Alerting based on safety function decision logics, · Success path analysis to achieve the integrity of the safety functions, · 3 layer display architecture - safety function, success path display for each safety function, system summary and equipment details for each safety function, · Integration with computer-based procedure. According to a Notice of the NSSC No. 2012-31, a research reactor facility generating more than 2 MW of power should also be furnished with the SPDS for emergency preparedness. Generally, a research reactor is a small size facility, and its number of instrumentations is fewer than that of NPPs. In particular, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions from an economic perspective. Therefore, a safety parameter display system optimized for a research reactor facility must be proposed. This paper provides the requirement analysis results and proposes the design of safety parameter monitoring function for a research reactor. The safety parameter monitoring function supporting control room personnel during emergency conditions should be designed in a research reactor facility. The facility size and number of signals are smaller than that of the power plants. Also, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions of nuclear power plants from an economic perspective. Thus, a safety parameter display system optimized to a research reactor must be proposed. First, we found important design items

  6. Design of Safety Parameter Monitoring Function in a Research Reactor Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of the safety parameter monitoring system (SPDS) is to help operating personnel in the control room make quick assessments of the plant safety status. Thus, the basic function of the SPDS is a provision of a continuous indication of plant parameters or derived variables representative of the safety status of the plant. NUREG-0737 Supplement 1 provides details of the functional criteria for the SPDS, as one of the action plan requirements from TMI accident. The system provides various functions as follows: · Alerting based on safety function decision logics, · Success path analysis to achieve the integrity of the safety functions, · 3 layer display architecture - safety function, success path display for each safety function, system summary and equipment details for each safety function, · Integration with computer-based procedure. According to a Notice of the NSSC No. 2012-31, a research reactor facility generating more than 2 MW of power should also be furnished with the SPDS for emergency preparedness. Generally, a research reactor is a small size facility, and its number of instrumentations is fewer than that of NPPs. In particular, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions from an economic perspective. Therefore, a safety parameter display system optimized for a research reactor facility must be proposed. This paper provides the requirement analysis results and proposes the design of safety parameter monitoring function for a research reactor. The safety parameter monitoring function supporting control room personnel during emergency conditions should be designed in a research reactor facility. The facility size and number of signals are smaller than that of the power plants. Also, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions of nuclear power plants from an economic perspective. Thus, a safety parameter display system optimized to a research reactor must be proposed. First, we found important design items

  7. Obtaining the Varshni potential function using the 2-body Kaxiras–Pandey parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIK-CHENG LIM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A generalized version of the Varshni potential function was adopted by Kaxiras and Pandey for describing the 2-body energy portion of multi-body condensed matter. The former’s simplicity and resemblance to a Morse potential allows faster computation while the latter’s greater number of parameters allows better curve-fitting of spectroscopic data. This paper shows one set of parameter conversion from the Varshni function to the 2-body portion of the Kaxiras–Pandey function, and vice versa two sets of parameter conversion. The latter two sets reveal good correlation between plotted curves, and were verified by the imposition of equal energy curvatures at equilibrium and equal energy integral from equilibrium to dissociation. These parameter conversions can also be attained more easily by equating the product of indices (for short range and the summation of index reciprocals (for long range.

  8. Adaptive modified function projective synchronization between hyperchaotic Lorenz system and hyperchaotic Lu system with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter investigates modified function projective synchronization between hyperchaotic Lorenz system and hyperchaotic Lu system using adaptive method. By Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two hyperchaotic systems modified function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.

  9. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4420 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which is used in the blood pump head and which is cyclically compressed by the pump to cause the blood to...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  12. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  13. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explicit formulation of the model can be deduced. The proposed technique takes suitable method of selecting sample points, which are used to calculate the values of the model parameters. By comparing with the Quasi-Newton method, the results verify accuracy and reliability of this method.

  14. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: how far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John J; Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2007-01-01

    In the 43 years since it was first described, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has grown from an obscure medical theory to a basic first aid skill taught to adults and is now the near-universal technique used in CPR instruction. This article provides insight into the history of CPR. We explore the phenomenon of sudden cardiac arrest, the historical roots of CPR, current practice data and recommendations, and the society's role in the development of this life-saving technique. We conclude with a review of CPR's economic impact on the healthcare system and the ethical and policy issues surrounding CPR. PMID:17179837

  15. Cardiopulmonary changes during clarinet playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnengress, Maria L; Böning, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    Since playing wind instrument impedes normal respiratory functions, its effect on expiratory and blood gases as well as on cardiac function was investigated. In 15 skilled clarinettists expiratory PO(2) and PCO(2) were measured in gas drawn from a modified clarinet barrel when playing a composition (Robert Schumann's "Phantasiestücke" Op. 73 for clarinet and piano) with increasing difficulty from movement 1 to movement 3. Blood gases were measured in arterialized ear lobe blood at the end of each movement and the electrocardiogram was recorded continuously. From the expiratory gas pressures one may conclude that the most advanced players adapt their ventilation to the requirements of the composition and sustain expiration during difficult parts of the composition until hypoxic alveolar PO(2) values are reached (minimum 77 mmHg). Less trained clarinettists tend to hyperventilation or shallow breathing. Oxygen saturation in arterialized blood showed a slight step-wise decrease from movement to movement [control 96.6 ± 0.5 (SD)%, end of concert 95.6 ± 1.0%]. SO(2) was significantly higher because of possibly more effective ventilation in instrumentalists with practise time exceeding 2 h daily. Mean heart rate increased to values like during moderate to heavy physical exercise depending on artistic fitness and the difficulty of the movement (maximal individual value 173 beats/min). Additionally, a large variation might be caused through intrathoracic pressure changes, changing exertion, respiratory influences and emotion. The electrocardiogram showed no pathological events. In general, clarinet playing at a professional level imposes strain on ventilation and circulation but usually not on a pathophysiological level. PMID:20734060

  16. SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid density functionals from parameter-free models

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, Kerwin

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the nonempirical SCAN semilocal density functional [Sun, Ruzsinszky, and Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] in the underlying expression, we propose one hybrid (SCAN0) and three double-hybrid (SCAN0-DH, SCAN-QIDH, and SCAN0-2) density functionals, which are free of any empirical parameter. The SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid functionals consistently outperform their parent SCAN semilocal functional for a wide range of applications. The SCAN-based semilocal, hybrid, and double-hybrid functionals generally perform better than the corresponding PBE-based functionals. In addition, the SCAN0-2 and SCAN-QIDH double-hybrid functionals significantly reduce the qualitative failures of the SCAN semilocal functional, such as the self-interaction error and noncovalent interaction error, extending the applicability of the SCAN-based functionals to a very diverse range of systems.

  17. Estimation of the reliability function for two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh or Burr type X distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Pathak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Problem Statement: The two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution has been widely used especially in the modelling of life time event data. It provides a statistical model which has a wide variety of application in many areas and the main advantage is its ability in the context of life time event among other distributions. The uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimation methods are the way to estimate the parameters of the distribution. In this study we explore and compare the performance of the uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators of the reliability function R(t=P(X>t and P=P(X>Y for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution. Approach: A new technique of obtaining these parametric functions is introduced in which major role is played by the powers of the parameter(s and the functional forms of the parametric functions to be estimated are not needed.  We explore the performance of these estimators numerically under varying conditions. Through the simulation study a comparison are made on the performance of these estimators with respect to the Biasness, Mean Square Error (MSE, 95% confidence length and corresponding coverage percentage. Conclusion: Based on the results of simulation study the UMVUES of R(t and ‘P’ for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution found to be superior than MLES of R(t and ‘P’.

  18. Cardiopulmonary stress testing in children and adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliaresis, Christa; Beker, Susan; Gewitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing (CPET) is a vital tool used to assess patients with a history of congenital heart disease. There are several tests in the cardiologist's armamentarium that allow for assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. The majority of these tests are only performed with the body at rest and some even require sedation. Exercise stress testing is unique in allowing assessment of the hemodynamic status of a patient in motion. In addition to providing all the information obtained during an exercise stress test, such as heart rate, rhythm, ST-segment analysis, and blood pressure, the CPET provides critical metabolic information. Parameters such as VO2, oxygen pulse, and VE/VCO2 slope help to detail the patient's physiology in a dynamic state. Decisions can then be better made regarding follow-up plans, acceptable exercise recommendations, and future interventions, if necessary. It allows insight into the patient's exercise capacity and quality of life. Norms for both children and adults with many forms of congenital heart disease are now available allowing appropriate comparisons to be made. This review will discuss in detail the CPET and its application in congenital heart disease. PMID:25162333

  19. Red Kidney: Kidney Transplant From a Deceased Donor Who Received Massive Blood Transfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard; Hanif, Faisal; Prasad, Padmini; Ahmad, Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Here, we present a case of a deceased-donor kidney transplant. The brain-dead donor had received a massive blood transfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, which lead to hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, acute kidney injury, and renal replacement therapy. The kidney appeared red after in situ flush. Postoperatively, the recipient developed delayed graft function. Protocol biopsy during the postoperative period revealed the widespread deposition of heme pigment in the renal tubules. Massive blood transfusion and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery are associated with hemolysis and heme pigment deposition in the renal tubules, which subsequently lead to acute kidney injury. Kidneys from such donors appear red and, while this does not preclude transplant, are likely to develop delayed graft function. PMID:26030717

  20. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter (152Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis

  1. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Manjón, G., E-mail: manjon@us.es [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ({sup 152}Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis.

  2. Intelligent, Robust Control of Deteriorated Turbofan Engines via Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.

  3. Evaluation of optimal goal of glucose control and the effect on ventricular function in patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass%体外循环心脏手术围手术期血糖控制目标及其对心功能影响的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 穆心苇; 章淬; 施乾坤

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究不同血糖控制目标对体外循环心脏手术患者围手术期心功能的影响,探讨心脏手术围手术期合理的血糖目标.方法 选择体外循环心脏手术患者584例,随机分为三组:从手术开始直至术后24 h目标血糖控制于4.4~6.1 mmol/L(即80~110 mg/dl,A组)、7.2~8.3 mmol/L(即130~150 mg/dl,B组)和血糖控制于10.0~11.1 mmol/L的对照组(即180~200 mg/dl,RT组),记录各组患者血糖控制情况,观察对比各组血流动力学指标以及围手术期左心室收缩功能、新发心律失常以及低血糖发生情况.结果 围手术期A组、B组相对于RT组血流动力学更加平稳(P<0.001),左心室收缩功能优于RT组(P<0.001),A组低血糖发生明显高于B组及RT组(P<0.05).结论 心脏手术围手术期强化胰岛素治疗将血糖控制在4.4~6.1 mmol/L、7.2~8.3 mmol/L均有利于术后心脏收缩功能的恢复,但将血控制于≤8.3 mmol/L较≤6.1 mmol/L更加安全.%Objective To investigate the influence on ventricular function of different levels of glucose control in patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, therefore to assess the optimal glucose control goal. Methods A total of 584 patients undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly divided into three groups according to the target glucose control levels from surgery beginning to postoperative 24 hours:Group A,blood glucose maintained between 4. 4-6. 1 mmol/L( 80-110 mg/dl ), Group B,7. 2-8. 3 mmol/L (130-150 mg/dl ) and routine treatment group, 10.0-11.1 mmol/L ( 180-200 mg/dl). The blood glucose, haemodynamics indexes, perioperative left ventricle systolic function, new arrhythmia and hypoglycemia were observed. Results Group A and Group B hold a more stable haemodynamics compared with routine treatment group ( P<0.001 ),and perioperative left ventricle systolic function of Group A and Group B were better than that of routine treatment group( P <0. 001 ),no

  4. Design Considerations of Structural Parameters in Resonant Tunneling Diode by None-Equilibrium Green Function Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. Charmi; M.H. Yousefi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of structural parameters like Quantum well width, barrier width, spacer width, contact width and contact doping, on performance of Resonant Tunneling Diode using full quantum simulation. The simulation is based on a self-consistent solution of the Poisson equation and Schrodinger equation with open boundary conditions, within the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. The effects of varying the structural parameters is investigated in terms of the output c...

  5. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran; Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to ...

  6. Conflicting Physiological and Genomic Cardiopulmonary Effects of Recruitment Maneuvers in Murine Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Voiriot, Guillaume; Zhou, Tong; Marcos, Elisabeth; Dudek, Steven M.; Jacobson, Jeff R.; Machado, Roberto,; Adnot, Serge; Brochard, Laurent; Maitre, Bernard; Joe G N Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Low tidal volume ventilation, although promoting atelectasis, is a protective strategy against ventilator-induced lung injury. Deep inflation (DI) recruitment maneuvers restore lung volumes, but potentially compromise lung parenchymal and vascular function via repetitive overdistention. Our objective was to examine cardiopulmonary physiological and transcriptional consequences of recruitment maneuvers. C57/BL6 mice challenged with either PBS or LPS via aspiration were placed on mechanical ven...

  7. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Mitsutomo; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our technique of using median sternotomy to perform double lung transplantations with cardiopulmonary bypass. By sparing the respiratory muscles, median sternotomy is probably less invasive and preserves lung function. Furthermore, it causes less long-term discomfort than intercostal...... thoracotomy. Although exposure of the pleural space is less optimal, abundant pleural adhesions can be dissected, particularly in the left posterior pleural cavity, using pericardial traction stitches, exposing the retrocardiac pleura with minimal manipulation of the heart....

  8. Circadian affective, cardiopulmonary, and cortisol variability in depressed and nondepressed individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Spiegel, David; Taylor, C. Barr

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or vagal dysregulation. We investigated circadian mood variation and HPA-axis and autonomic function in older (≥55 years) depressed and nondepressed volunteers at risk for CVD by assessing diurnal positive and negative affect (PA, NA), cortisol, and cardiopulmonary variables in 46 moderately depressed and 19 nondepressed volunteers with elevated CVD risk. Participants sat...

  9. Mathematical model for studying the variation of the electrical parameters in functioning of nonlinear loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Raluca; Rat, Cezara

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a study concerning the variation of the most important electrical parameters, measured during the functioning of an electrothermal installation with electromagnetic induction. Two measuring methods are described: the first method consists in using a power and energy quality analyzer and the second uses a data acquisition system that contains an adapting interface and a data acquisition board connected to a computer. In order to compute the electrical parameters, a LabVIEW application was designed. The data acquisition system is able to measure in real time the variation of the parameters and also to save the obtained information.

  10. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 ≤ z ≤ 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat ΛCDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of ∼ 20% and the cold dark matter with ∼ 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on Ωbaryon, Ω cdm, ns, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with ∼ 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

  11. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Fisica Teorica; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L.A.N. da; Gaia, M.A.G.; Ramos, B.; Ogando, R.; Makler, M. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 {<=} z {<=} 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat {Lambda}CDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of {approx} 20% and the cold dark matter with {approx} 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on {Omega}{sub baryon}, {Omega} c{sub dm}, n{sub s}, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with {approx} 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

  12. Effect of intercostal stretch on pulmonary function parameters among healthy males

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Ku Badlisyah Ku; Das, Srijit; Jagannathan, Madhana Gopal; Kamaruddin, Kamaria; Leonard, Joseph H; Mohan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    The use of manual stretching procedures has become more prevalent in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy to improve pulmonary functions. However, limited evidence exists regarding evaluation of their effectiveness. The study aimed to determine the impact of Intercostal (IC) stretch in improving the dynamic pulmonary function parameters (Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC % and respiratory rate among healthy adults. Thirty healthy male sub...

  13. Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Ommerborn, Michelle; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Michael Fuck, Lars; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Hans-Michael Raab, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the results of a preceding retrospective pilot study by means of a prospective controlled investigation including a larger sample size. Therefore, the aim of this clinical investigation was to analyze the relationship between sleep bruxism and several functional and occlusal parameters. The null hypothesis of this study was that there would be no differences among sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism controls regarding several functional and occlusal...

  14. Optical integration of a real-valued function by measurement of a Stokes Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Walborn, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally implement an optical algorithm for integration of a real-valued bivariate func- tion. A user-defined function is encoded in the position-dependent phase of one of the polarization components of an optical beam. The integral of this function is retrieved by measuring a Stokes parameter of the polarization. We analyze the performance of the system as an integration device.

  15. A Three-Parameter S-Shaped Function of Flood Return Period and Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Chaochao Li; Xiaotao Cheng; Na Li; Zhongmin Liang; Yanyan Wang; Song Han

    2016-01-01

    With growing flood risk due to increased urbanization, flood damage assessment and flood risk management must be reconsidered. To demonstrate and assess the new features and trends of flood risk in urbanized areas, a novel S-shaped function of return period and damage (R-D) is proposed. The function contains three parameters, which are defined as the maximum flood damage A, critical return period Rc, and integrated loss coefficient k. A basic framework for flood damage assessment was establis...

  16. Adaptive function projective synchronization of two-cell Quantum-CNN chaotic oscillators with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates function projective synchronization of two-cell Quantum-CNN chaotic oscillators using adaptive method. Quantum-CNN oscillators produce nano scale chaotic oscillations under certain conditions. By Lyapunove stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.

  17. One-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithm for one-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter is proposed in this paper. A piecewise linear chaotic map with changeable-parameter P is chosen, and cipher block chaining mode (CBC) is introduced to ensure that the parameter P in each iteration is dynamically decided by the last-time iteration value and the corresponding message bit in different positions. The final Hash value is obtained by means of the linear transform on the iteration sequence. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that our algorithm can satisfy all the performance requirements of Hash function in an efficient and flexible manner. It is practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for E-commerce

  18. One-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Di [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China) and College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)]. E-mail: xiaodi_cqu@hotmail.com; Liao Xiaofeng [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)]. E-mail: xfliao@cqu.edu.cn; Deng Shaojiang [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2005-04-01

    An algorithm for one-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter is proposed in this paper. A piecewise linear chaotic map with changeable-parameter P is chosen, and cipher block chaining mode (CBC) is introduced to ensure that the parameter P in each iteration is dynamically decided by the last-time iteration value and the corresponding message bit in different positions. The final Hash value is obtained by means of the linear transform on the iteration sequence. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that our algorithm can satisfy all the performance requirements of Hash function in an efficient and flexible manner. It is practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for E-commerce.

  19. Relationship Between Reverse Remodeling and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Sant, Jetske Van't; Versteeg, Henneke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between left ventricular reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce and inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with a 1st-time CRT......-defibrillator (mean age 65 ± 11; 73% male) underwent echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) before implantation (baseline) and 6 months after implantation. At baseline, patients also completed a set of questionnaires measuring mental and physical health. The association between echocardiographic...... echocardiographic responders showed improvements in ventilatory efficiency during follow-up. Multivariable repeated measures analyses revealed that, besides reverse remodeling, New York Heart Association functional class II and good patient-reported health status before implantation were the most important...

  20. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  1. Modification of Vapor-Pressure Reference Functions to Include Parameter Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell-Smith, J.

    2012-09-01

    The reference functions for the saturation water vapor pressure and the water vapor-pressure enhancement factor for moist air used by the humidity community are approximate, and the uncertainty contributions from their use are characterized by simple functions or tables. Many humidity calculations, such as for the determination of the dew point of moist air following a change in pressure, require two evaluations each of these functions and errors in the functions will tend to cancel. It has been shown that if the reference function uncertainty is represented using parameter covariance, the expected reduction in error is reflected in a corresponding reduction in the uncertainty of the calculation result. Here, two major vapor-pressure reference functions are modified to encapsulate the published uncertainty as parameter covariance, by refitting the equations or modified forms to "input data" generated by the original equations. It is shown that the form of the uncertainty function is influenced by the degree of correlation in the input data and that there is greater uncertainty reduction with greater input data correlation. In all cases the reduction in uncertainty is significant and indicates that conventional uncertainty analysis for many humidity calculations overestimates the uncertainty deriving from the reference functions.

  2. Roughness parameter for rectangular roughnesses as a function of geometrical shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relation for the roughness parameter R of the velocity profile in a fully rough flow is established as a function of the geometrical parameters of the roughness elements. The evaluation is based on a detailed analysis of experimental results described in the literature. Numerous data of friction factors and velocity profiles in channels with artificial rectangular wall roughnesses were taken into account. The geometrical parameters are the ratio of distance to height, the ratio of height to width of the roughness, and the ratio of the height of the roughness to the length of the velocity profile from the rough wall to the position of zero shear stress. Application of the relation determined in this way, which holds over a very broad range of geometrical parameters, allows the pressure drop to be calculated with a rather good accuracy in channels with rectangular wall roughnesses. (orig.)

  3. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats. PMID:27423150

  4. Educational aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, S J

    1990-03-01

    The knowledge and skills surrounding the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have become essential to intensive care nurses and to nurses in general. With formalized training and refresher courses becoming more common in this country, it is evident that after relatively short periods of time the knowledge and skills acquired at such courses may be lost. While much consideration has been given to the content of both Basic and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (BCLS and ACLS) courses, relatively little attention has been paid to the educational issues surrounding CPR training. This paper explores some of these issues from the perspective of adult learning (andragogy). Research is cited from a wide range of sources to illustrate that CPR skill and knowledge deterioration is not unique to nursing, and that educational techniques exist which may improve current educational practices. PMID:2329270

  5. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices. PMID:24494769

  6. Analysis of Left Ventricular Functional Parameters in Normal Korean Subjects by ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for refinement in noninvasive and quantitative assessment of left ventricular (LU) function is increasing. To assess normal values of left ventricular functional parameters during both systole and diastole by scintigraphic method using computerized triple-head gamma camera and to evaluate correlations between these parameters. ECG gated blood pool scan with 99mTc-Human serum albumin was performed in 94 normal Korean subjects. Ejection fraction (EF), systolic parameters [peak emptying rate (PER), average emptying rate (AER), time to peak emptying rate (TPER)], and diastolic parameters [peak filling rate (PFR), average filling rate (AFR), time to peak filling rate (TPFR)] were obtained by analysis of LV time-activity curve, the correlation of these parameters to the age and sex, and the correlation between these parameters were evaluated. 1) Mean value of ejection fraction in study subjects was 59.6 ± 5.25% and showed no significant correlation to age (r=0.08) and sex but showed most pronounced correlation to PFR (r=0.46, p<0.001), PER (r=0.41, p<0.001), AFR (r=0.34, p<0.001) and AER (r=0.28, p<0.01). 2) Mean values of systolic parameters were as follows: PER=3.22 + 0.50 end-diastolic volume/sec, AER =2.22 + 0.45 end-diastolic volume/sec, TPER=103.5 + 29.30 msec. They showed no significant correlation to age and sex. 3) Mean values of diastolic parameters were as follows: PFR=2.71+0.51 end-diastolic volume/sec, AFR=1.830.44 end-diastolic volume/sec, TPFR=132.1 + 33.45 msec. They showed strong correlation to age (r=-0/70, -0.64, 0.37, p<0.001). Left ventricular functional parameters in normal Korean subjects were obtained reliably by computerized scintigraphic method and may be applied to the evaluation of cardiac function in diseased patients.

  7. Extended SOA to Enable Web Service Discovery on Non Functional Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandan Tiwari Dr. Nirmal Dagdee Dr. Aruna Tiwari Divesh Dixit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current Service Oriented Architecture (SOA standards, namely the concept of Web services and service registry lacks mechanism for managing the services’ nonfunctional properties of Web Services. Currently there is no standard that is capable of accurately representing quality of service parameters of web services. Such non functional properties are expressed by the term “Quality of Service (QoS”. QoS for Web services is an important decisive factor for service selection. Therefore it is important to extend the SOA so that non-functional characteristics of a web service can be determined at run-time and consumers are bound to a service that best meet their functional as well as non-functional requirements. Major research challenges in discovering Web services include, differentiating between services that share similar functionalities, improving Quality of Service (QoS, and enabling clients to customize the discovery process. To enable QoS enabled web services discovery, it is needed that a third party (other than service provider and service broker monitors quality of web service. In this paper, an extended web services framework based on SOA for enabling Web Service discovery based on QoS parameters such as availability and response time is proposed thereby maintaining the appropriate dynamic values of these QoS parameters.

  8. Parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional for systems with multiple time delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Yong HE

    2004-01-01

    The separation of the Lyapunov matrices and system matrices plays an important role when one uses parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional handling systems with polytopic type uncertainties.The delay-dependent robust stability problem for systems with polytopic type uncertainties is discussed by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional.The derivative term in the derivative of Lyapunov functional is reserved and the free weighting matrices are employed to express the relationship between the terms in the system equation such that the Lyapunov matrices are not involved in any product terms with the system matrices.In addition,the relationships between the terms in the Leibniz Newton formula are also described by some free weighting matrices and some delay-dependent stability conditions are derived.Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed criteria are more effective than the previous results.

  9. Quadrupolar glass freezing in solid hydrogen: Distribution functions for the orientational axial and eccentric order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic model for two-dimensional distribution function P(σ,η) for quadrupolar glass freezing of axial (σ) and eccentric (η) order parameters in solid hydrogen is considered within the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick mean-field approach. Assuming the exchange interactions between axial and eccentric quadrupoles to be independent Gaussian random variables with variance J2/N and K2/N, respectively (with N being the number of lattice sites), we derived a set of self-consistent equations for quadrupolar order parameters and the corresponding local susceptibilities. While for J≠K the axial quadrupolar order parameter is nonvanishing in the high-temperature phase due to broken local symmetry and the corresponding quadrupolar susceptibility exhibits smeared-out behavior, the eccentric order parameter becomes zero at well-defined critical temperature depending on the ratio K/J. Furthermore, the properties of the P(σ,η) distribution function are investigated by introducing a single effective order parameter σeff (1eff<0) directly related to the second frequency moment of the nuclear magnetic resonance line shapes. Comparison of the present microscopic theory with earlier phenomenological approaches to the problem is also made

  10. Gauge-fixing parameter dependence of two-point gauge-variant correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gauge-fixing parameter ξ dependence of two-point gauge-variant correlation functions is studied for QED and QCD. We show that, in three Euclidean dimensions, or for four-dimensional thermal gauge theories, the usual procedure of getting a general covariant gauge-fixing term by averaging over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions leads to a nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence in gauge-variant two-point correlation functions (e.g., fermion propagators). This nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence modifies the large-distance behavior of the two-point correlation functions by introducing additional exponentially decaying factors. These factors are the origin of the gauge dependence encountered in some perturbative evaluations of the damping rates and the static chromoelectric screening length in a general covariant gauge. To avoid this modification of the long-distance behavior introduced by performing the average over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions, one can either choose a vanishing gauge-fixing parameter or apply an unphysical infrared cutoff. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  12. A Formulation of the Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Parameter with Practical Implications. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Louis A.; Schnipke, Deborah L.; Pashley, Peter J.

    The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) differential item functioning (DIF) parameter for uniform DIF is well defined when item responses follow the two-parameter-logistic (2PPL) item response function (IRF), but not when they follow the three-parameter-logistic (3PL) IRF, the model typically used with multiple choice items. This research report presents a…

  13. Forecasting of electronic devices lifetime on the basis of activation models of functional parameters drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, I. N.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a model of functional parameters drift for electronic devices, allowing predicting their lifetime. The method of model parameters estimation is developed. The developed model allows optimizing the accelerated tests modes, taking into account the complex impact of stress factors. The results are applicable for modern electronic devices with a failure rate less than 1 FIT. The results are applicable if the physical and chemical processes leading to electronic devices degradation have an activation mechanism; the activation process is due to the temperature.

  14. Generalized weighted functional proportional mean combining forecasting model and its method of parameter estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玉成; 盛昭瀚

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of combining forecasting model based on the generalized weighted functional proportional mean is proposed and the parameter estimation method of its weighting coefficients by means of the algorithm of quadratic programming is given. This model has extensive representation. It is a new kind of aggregative method of group forecasting.By taking the suitable combining form of the forecasting models and seeking the optimal parameter, the optimal combining form can be obtained and the forecasting accuracy can be improved. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by an example.

  15. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bypass oxygenator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator is a device used to exchange gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during...

  16. Alveolar proteinosis lung lavage using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, A P; Pelias, A; Johnston, R F; Goel, I P; Hakki, H I; Oslick, T; Shinnick, J P

    1981-01-01

    An adult case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis presented with an arterial oxygen tension of 27 mmHg (3.6 kPa) while breathing air. Dangerous hypoxaemia during lung lavage was avoided by using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

  17. Cosmological Parameter Estimation and Window Function in Counts-in-Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Y.; Matsubara, T.

    2006-11-01

    We estimate the cosmological parameter bounds expected from the counts-in-cells analysis of the galaxy distributions of SDSS samples, which are the Main Galaxies (MGs) and the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We use the m-weight Epanechnikov kernel as window function with expectation of improving the bounds of parameters. We apply the Fisher Information Matrix Analysis, which can estimate the minimum expected parameter bounds without any data. In this analysis, we derive the covariance matrix that includes the consideration of overlapping of cells. As a result, we found that the signal to noise of the LRG sample is bigger than that of the MG sample because the range of data using is only linear scale. Therefore, the LRG sample is more suitable for parameter estimation. For the LRG sample, about six hundred data points are sufficient to get maximum effect on parameter bounds. Large parameter set results in poor bounds because of degeneracy, the matter density, the baryon fraction, the neutrino density and σ2 8 including the amplitude of the power spectrum, the linear bias and the Kaiser effect seems to be an appropriate set.

  18. Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle Alicia; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Hans-Michael Raab, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to verify the results of a preceding retrospective pilot study by means of a prospective controlled investigation including a larger sample size. Therefore, the aim of this clinical investigation was to analyze the relationship between sleep bruxism and several functional and occlusal parameters. The null hypothesis of this study was that there would be no differences among sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism controls regarding several functional and occlusal parameters. Fifty-eight sleep bruxism subjects and 31 controls participated in this study. The diagnosis sleep bruxism was based on clinical criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sixteen functional and occlusal parameters were recorded clinically or from dental study casts. Similar to the recently published retrospective pilot study, with a mean slide of 0.77 mm (s.d., 0.69 mm) in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.4 mm (s.d., 0.57 mm) in the control group, the evaluation of the mean comparison between the two groups demonstrated a larger slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation in sleep bruxism subjects (Mann-Whitney U-test; P=0.008). However, following Bonferroni adjustment, none of the 16 occlusal and functional variables differed significantly between the sleep bruxism subjects and the non-sleep bruxism controls. The present study shows that the occlusal and functional parameters evaluated do not differ between sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism subjects. However, as the literature reveals a possible association between bruxism and certain subgroups of temporomandibular disorders, it appears advisable to incorporate the individual adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system into future investigations. PMID:22935746

  19. Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cardiopulmonary disease increases with age. Degenerative valvular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arrhythmias are common in the geriatric dog. Chronic bronchial disease, pulmonary neoplasia, and arrhythmias occur in the geriatric cat. Systemic diseases in both species often show cardiopulmonary manifestations. Medical management to treat the underlying disease and to control clinical signs is complicated by altered absorption, metabolism, and elimination of drugs

  20. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-06-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  1. Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy with schizophrenia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Takako; Kaga, Akimune; Akagi, Kozo; Iwahashi, Hideki; Makino, Hiromitsu; WATANABE, YOKO; Kawamura, Takae; Sato, Taiju; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Miwa, Shinya; Okazaki, Nobuo; Kure, Shigeo; Nakae, Shingi

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy has a very high maternal and fetal mortality rate. We report a case of successful maternal and neonatal survival in association with emergency cesarean section of a schizophrenic pregnant patient. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cardiopulmonary arrest in a pregnant woman with schizophrenia. Case presentation The parents were Japanese. The mother was 39 years old and had no history of prior pregnancy. Her admission to our hosp...

  2. Sensitivity functions for uncertainty analysis: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactor performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents the mathematical basis for sensitivity functions, discusses their physical meaning and information they contain, and clarifies a number of issues concerning their application, including the definition of group sensitivities, the selection of sensitivity functions to be included in the analysis, and limitations of sensitivity theory. Examines the theoretical foundation; criticality reset sensitivities; group sensitivities and uncertainties; selection of sensitivities included in the analysis; and other uses and limitations of sensitivity functions. Gives the theoretical formulation of sensitivity functions pertaining to ''as-built'' designs for performance parameters of the form of ratios of linear flux functionals (such as reaction-rate ratios), linear adjoint functionals, bilinear functions (such as reactivity worth ratios), and for reactor reactivity. Offers a consistent procedure for reducing energy-dependent or fine-group sensitivities and uncertainties to broad group sensitivities and uncertainties. Provides illustrations of sensitivity functions as well as references to available compilations of such functions and of total sensitivities. Indicates limitations of sensitivity theory originating from the fact that this theory is based on a first-order perturbation theory

  3. Effect of Inhalation of Tiotropium Bromide Combined with Bisoprolol on Cardiopulmonary Function of Patients with COPD%吸入噻托溴铵联合比索洛尔对 COPD 患者心肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新春; 邓超英; 杨劼; 朱艳; 孙杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨吸入噻托溴铵联合比索洛尔对慢性阻塞性肺疾病( COPD)稳定期患者呼吸肌功能相关指标、运动耐力及心肺功能的影响。方法回顾性分析我院89例 COPD 稳定期患者的临床资料,根据治疗方案分为对照组和观察组,对照组40例在基础治疗上吸入噻托溴铵治疗,观察组49例在对照组基础上给予比索洛尔口服治疗,检测两组治疗前后心肺功能、呼吸肌相关指标、运动耐力及用药安全性;随访12个月,记录急性发作次数、心力衰竭发生率及死亡率。结果两组患者治疗后心肺功能、运动耐力和呼吸肌功能相关指标均较治疗前明显改善( P ﹤0.05)。观察组治疗后左心室舒张末期内径、脑钠肽、吸气时间比例和急性期发作次数显著低于对照组( P ﹤0.05);而左心室射血分数、最大吸气压力、最大呼气压力、呼吸浅快指数和6 min 步行距离显著高于对照组(P ﹤0.05)。两组不良反应发生率、随访心力衰竭发生率和死亡率比较差异无统计学意义( P ﹥0.05)。结论吸入噻托溴铵联合比索洛尔用于COPD 稳定期治疗能够改善心肺功能,提高呼吸肌耐力和运动耐力。%Objective To investigate effects of inhalation of Tiotropium Bromide combined with Bisoprolol on re-lated indexes of respiratory muscle,exercise tolerance and cardiopulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)in stable phase. Methods Clinical data of 89 COPD patients in stable phase admitted was retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into control group(n = 40)and observation group(n = 49)according to therapeutic methods. Control group was treated with inhalation of Tiotropium Bromide based on basic therapy,while observation group was added with Bisoprolol orally based on the treatment of control group. The cardiopulmonary func-tion,related indexes of respiratory muscle

  4. Function Optimization and Parameter Performance Analysis Based on Gravitation Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational search algorithm (GSA is a kind of swarm intelligence optimization algorithm based on the law of gravitation. The parameter initialization of all swarm intelligence optimization algorithms has an important influence on the global optimization ability. Seen from the basic principle of GSA, the convergence rate of GSA is determined by the gravitational constant and the acceleration of the particles. The optimization performances on six typical test functions are verified by the simulation experiments. The simulation results show that the convergence speed of the GSA algorithm is relatively sensitive to the setting of the algorithm parameters, and the GSA parameter can be used flexibly to improve the algorithm’s convergence velocity and improve the accuracy of the solutions.

  5. Seasonal changes in functional parameters of the hemolymph of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ciacci

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available n bivalves, many functional parameters show seasonal changes in relation to both abiotic (such as temperature and salinity and biotic factors (such as gonad maturation, food availability. Available data indicate that also immune parameters can show seasonal fluctuations in the marine mussel Mytilus spp.. In this work we report data on hemocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS and phagocytic activity, as well as on soluble lysozyme activity, in the hemolymph of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis collected over a 24 month period in the Adriatic Sea (2006-2007. The results indicate that all the parameters measured show seasonal fluctuations over the year, with lysozyme activity showing the largest changes. Lowest LMS values were observed in early winter and early autumn, whereas maximal values of phagocytic activity were observed in winter and increasing serum lysozyme activities were recorded in autumn. The observed seasonal fluctuations are discussed in relation to both abiotic (temperature and biotic (changes in endogenous modulators factors.

  6. Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

  7. Design Considerations of Structural Parameters in Resonant Tunneling Diode by None-Equilibrium Green Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of structural parameters like Quantum well width, barrier width, spacer width, contact width and contact doping, on performance of Resonant Tunneling Diode using full quantum simulation. The simulation is based on a self-consistent solution of the Poisson equation and Schrodinger equation with open boundary conditions, within the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. The effects of varying the structural parameters is investigated in terms of the output current, peak current, valley current, peak to valley current ratio and the voltage associated with the peak current. Simulation results illustrate that the device performance can be improved by proper selection of the structural parameters.

  8. Associations of Perfusate Biomarkers and Pump Parameters With Delayed Graft Function and Deceased Donor Kidney Allograft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, C R; Hall, I E; Bhangoo, R S; Ficek, J; Abt, P L; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Lin, H; Bimali, M; Murray, P T; Rao, V; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Reese, P P

    2016-05-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is increasingly used in deceased donor kidney transplantation, but controversy exists regarding the value of perfusion biomarkers and pump parameters for assessing organ quality. We prospectively determined associations between perfusate biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], kidney injury molecule 1, IL-18 and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP]) and pump parameters (resistance and flow) with outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-mo estimated GFR (eGFR). DGF occurred in 230 of 671 (34%) recipients. Only 1-h flow was inversely associated with DGF. Higher NGAL or L-FABP concentrations and increased resistance were inversely associated with 6-mo eGFR, whereas higher flow was associated with higher adjusted 6-mo eGFR. Discarded kidneys had consistently higher median resistance and lower median flow than transplanted kidneys, but median perfusate biomarker concentrations were either lower or not significantly different in discarded compared with transplanted kidneys. Notably, most recipients of transplanted kidneys with isolated "undesirable" biomarker levels or HMP parameters experienced acceptable 6-mo allograft function, suggesting these characteristics should not be used in isolation for discard decisions. Additional studies must confirm the utility of combining HMP measurements with other characteristics to assess kidney quality. PMID:26695524

  9. Functional relationships for the estimation of van Genuchten parameter values in landfill processes models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jim; Zardava, Kiriaki; Nayagum, Dharumarajen; Powrie, William

    2015-04-01

    Numerical models of landfill processes need to be able to estimate the capillary pressure and relative permeability of waste as a function of moisture content using analytical equations such as the van Genuchten equations. The paper identifies the range of van Genuchten parameter values for use in models and proposes a formulaic relationship between these parameter values and saturated moisture content. The concept of porous material, its behaviour under unsaturated conditions and Mualem's integral transform equation that estimates relative permeability from capillary pressure are reviewed. The application of the algebraic form of the capillary pressure function proposed by van Genuchten and its application using Mualem's transform to obtain the van Genuchten algebraic functions for relative permeability are discussed. Functional relationships are identified between saturated moisture content and the van Genuchten parameters using a database of results from other sources. These relationships may be used in numerical modelling of unsaturated flow in landfilled waste where the saturated moisture content varies significantly as the result of compression, settlement and degradation. A 2D numerical model simulation of leachate recirculation is used to investigate the sensitivity of the simulation to the introduction of these functional relationships. It is found that the transient liquid and gas flows across the model boundaries appear to be insensitive to whether or not the functions are incorporated into the model algorithm. However it is observed that using the relationships does have some impact on the distribution of the degree of saturation throughout the model and on the transient behaviour of the way in which the recirculation recharges the waste. However it is not thought that this impact would be sufficient to influence the design of a leachate recirculation system. PMID:25573738

  10. The Translation between Functional Requirements and Design Parameters for Robust Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Husung, Stephan; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    complex products with multi-disciplinary development teams. In those cases, tolerance synthesis and analysis get complicated which introduces ambiguities and difficulties for system-integrators and lead engineers for the objective decision making in terms of trade-offs but also in terms of an efficient......The specification of and justification for design parameter (DP) tolerances are primarily based on the acceptable variation of the functions’ performance and the functions’ sensitivity to the design parameters. However, why certain tolerances are needed is often not transparent, especially in...... computer aided functional tolerancing. Non-optimal tolerances yield potentials for cost improvements in manufacturing and more consistency of the functional performance of the product. In this contribution a framework is proposed to overcome the observed problems and increase the clarity, transparency and...

  11. Recursive Parameter Method for Computing the Predicting Function of the Multivariable ARMAX Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    New method for computing the predicting function of the ARMAX model is proposed. The proposed method constructs a set of schemes for recursively computing the parameters in predicting function of the ARMAX model. In contrast to the existing method, that only gives results for the special case of the ARX model, the method presented is suitable not only for an SISO system, but also for an MIMO system. For the SISO system, the method presented here is even more convenient than the exisiting ones.

  12. Methane dissociation on Pt(111): Searching for a specific reaction parameter density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattino, Francesco; Migliorini, Davide; Bonfanti, Matteo; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical description of methane dissociating on metal surfaces is a current frontier in the field of gas-surface dynamics. Dynamical models that aim at achieving a highly accurate description of this reaction rely on potential energy surfaces based on density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation. We focus here on the effect that the exchange-correlation functional has on the reactivity of methane on a metal surface, using CHD3 + Pt(111) as a test case. We present new ab initio molecular dynamics calculations performed with various density functionals, looking also at functionals that account for the van der Waals (vdW) interaction. While searching for a semi-empirical specific reaction parameter density functional for this system, we find that the use of a weighted average of the PBE and the RPBE exchange functionals together with a vdW-corrected correlation functional leads to an improved agreement with quantum state-resolved experimental data for the sticking probability, compared to previous PBE calculations. With this semi-empirical density functional, we have also investigated the surface temperature dependence of the methane dissociation reaction and the influence of the rotational alignment on the reactivity, and compared our results with experiments.

  13. Comparison of open cholecystectomy with laparoscopic cholecystectomy using latest variables of pulmonary functions as parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of open cholecystectomy with laparoscopic cholecystectomy using latest variables of pulmonary functions as parameters To compare open holecystectomy with laparoscopic cholecystectomy using latest variables of pulmonary functions as parameters. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, CMH Rawalpindi from May 2010 to Nov 2010. Patients and Methods: Patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis subjected to elective cholecystectomy were studied. The patients were divided into two groups. Open Cholecystectomy was performed on patients in group I, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in patients in group II. Respiratory function tests were performed preoperatively and on the morning of the 1st post-operative day. Results: Preoperative pulmonary function tests were normal and did not differ significantly between the two groups. After operation a significant reduction in the FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in first second), FEV6 (Forced expiratory volume in first six seconds) and their ratio FEV1/FEV6 occurred after both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, mean reductions in FEV1, FEV6 and FEV1/FEV6 in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group were significantly (p<0.05) less as compared with those after open holecystectomy. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy causes less impairment of lung function than cholecystectomy performed through a subcostal incision. (author)

  14. Band parameters of (Al,Ga,In)N polytypes from different XC functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually a detailed knowledge of the band parameters of the group-III nitrides is necessary to interpret experimental data and understand theoretical results. The most successful theoretical approach is the Density Functional Theory (DFT), but its accuracy depends on the exchange-correlation (XC) functional. Different XC functionals yield slightly varying results for the structural and electronic properties. However, this effect is less important in comparison to the drastic changes of the electronic band structures by solving the quasiparticle (QP) equation. In this work we present and discuss the qualitative and quantitative influence of the XC functionals LDA, GGA, and AM05 induced by structural changes on the band parameters of the AlN, GaN and InN mononitrides. DFT as implemented in VASP code is used to calculate the structural and elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite polytypes. The QP band structures including the XC self-energy within Hedin's GW approximation are obtained taking almost self-consistency into account using HSE03 hybrid XC functional as a starting point. The gap energies, crystal-fields splittings, momentum matrix elements, effective masses and spin-orbit coupling are computed from the QP band structures. We compare our results with experimental values reported in the literature.

  15. Correlations for wiebe function parameters for combustion simulation in two-stroke small engines

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Lucas, José; Climent Puchades, Héctor; Pla Moreno, Benjamín; JIMENEZ MACEDO, VICTOR DANIEL

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Combustion simulation in two-stroke engines becomes necessary not only for engine performance prediction but also for scavenge evaluation, since in-cylinder pressure and temperature are highly influenced by combustion process evolution. Combustion simulation by using a Wiebe function is appropriate to be included in a 1D engine code for providing design criteria with fast and accurate calculations; the main drawback is the determination of the four Wiebe parameters needed ...

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters for novel functional traits in Brown Swiss cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, M.; Erbe, M.; Bapst, B.; Bieber, A.; Simianer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and accuracies of breeding values for a set of functional, behavior, and conformation traits in Brown Swiss cattle. These traits were milking speed, udder depth, position of labia, rank order in herd, general temperament, aggressiveness, milking temperament, and days to first heat. Data of 1,799 phenotyped Brown Swiss cows from 40 Swiss dairy herds were analyzed taking the complete pedigree into account. Estimated heritabilities were wi...

  17. Optimizing parameters of a technical system using quality function deployment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkowicz, M.; Gwiazda, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the practical use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) on the example of a mechanized mining support. Firstly it gives a short description of this method and shows how the designing process, from the constructor point of view, looks like. The proposed method allows optimizing construction parameters and comparing them as well as adapting to customer requirements. QFD helps to determine the full set of crucial construction parameters and then their importance and difficulty of their execution. Secondly it shows chosen technical system and presents its construction with figures of the existing and future optimized model. The construction parameters were selected from the designer point of view. The method helps to specify a complete set of construction parameters, from the point of view, of the designed technical system and customer requirements. The QFD matrix can be adjusted depending on designing needs and not every part of it has to be considered. Designers can choose which parts are the most important. Due to this QFD can be a very flexible tool. The most important is to define relationships occurring between parameters and that part cannot be eliminated from the analysis.

  18. PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF VSI FED PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR BY USING HARTLEY MODULATING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses modeling and parameter estimation of PMSM. The design of a control system for a high performance drive requires a mathematical model of the motor. This is usually derived fromphysical principles, then the parameters of the motor are determined through off-line testing or estimated on-line from input/output operating records data. The dynamics of synchronous motor can be described by a set of differential equations relating voltages, currents, speed and torque. The equations represented in d-q axes variables in the rotor reference frame using park’s transformation are presented. A parameter estimation technique employing the Hartley modulating function (HMF is detailed. Using the data obtained from open loop simulation physical parameters such as stator resistance andinductances as well as mechanical parameters such as moment of inertia and viscous friction coefficient have been estimated with a fair amount of accuracy. This estimate has been found to be quite sensitive to the choice of sampling period.

  19. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  20. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P Perfusion temperature did not influence cytokine release, organ injury, or coagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care. PMID:26581834

  1. Comparative study of the protective effect using hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Pei-li; FU Qing-lin; ZHANG Xin-zhong; ZHANG-Jie; QIN Yuan-xu; CUI Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the detrimental influence of normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary by-pass during open - heart surgery on immunity function,cytokines and complements. Methods Forty patients with con-genital or rheumatic heart disease were randomized to receive the two strategies: normothermie CPB (study group) andhypothermic CPB (control group) ,20 cases in each group. Venous blood samples were collected at each time points ofpreoperation, end of CPB, day 1,4,7,14 postoperatively to examine the plasma level of IL - 2, TNF - α, C3, C4, IgG,IgM, IgA, CD3, CD4, CD8. Results IL -2 in both groups decreased significantly at day 1,4, and returned to normal atday 7 postoperatively. IL - 2 in control group was significantly lower than that in study group postoperatively. TNF - α intwo groups was all higher at time points of end of CPB,day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group,it returned to normallevel at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in control group, it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before oper-ation ,and returned to normal at day 14 postoperatively. C3 in study group was significantly lower at time points of endof CPB,day 1,7 postoperatively than that in control group;C3 in both groups was all higher at time points of end ofCPB, day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group, it returned to normal level at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in controlgroup,it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before operation and returned to normal at day 14 postopera-tively. CA in study group at time points of end of CPB, day 1 postoperatively was significantly lower than that in controlgroup;C4 in both groups was all lower at time points of end of CPB, day 1,4 postoperatively than that before operation.The results showed that IgA after operation in both groups was significantly lower than that before operation, and re-turned to normal at day 7 postoperatively;IgA in study group at day 1 postoperatively was higher than that in controlgroup. IgG in

  2. Outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - predictors of survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the outcomes of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Data were collected retrospectively of all adult patients who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Of the 159 patients included, 55 (35%) were alive at the end of CPR and 17 (11%) were discharged alive from the hospital. At the end of CPR, univariate logistic regression analysis found the following factors associated with survival: cardiac arrest within hospital as compared to outside the hospital (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.27-6.20, p-value = 0.01), both cardiac and pulmonary arrest as compared to either cardiac or pulmonary arrest (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.19- 0.73, p-value = 0.004), asystole as cardiac rhythm at presentation (odds ratio = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.24-0.93, p-value = 0.03), and total atropine dose given during CPR (odds ratio = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.97, p-value = 0.02). In multivariate logistic regression, cardiac arrest within hospital (odds ratio = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06-5.99, p-value = 0.04) and both cardiac and pulmonary arrest as compared to cardiac or pulmonary arrest (odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.21-0.91, p-value = 0.03) were associated with survival at the end of CPR. At the time of discharge from hospital, univariate logistic regression analysis found following factors that were associated with survival: cardiac arrest within hospital (odds ratio = 8.4, 95% CI = 1.09-65.64, p-value = 0.04), duration of CPR (odds ratio = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.96, p-value = 0.001), and total atropine dose given during CPR (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.47-0.99, p-value = 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis cardiac arrest within hospital (odds ratio 8.69, 95% CI = 1.01-74.6, p-value = 0.05) and duration of CPR (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98, p-value = 0.01) were associated with survival at

  3. Hybrid cardiac SPECT/64-slice CTA-derived LV function parameters: Correlation and reproducibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to define the relationship between SPECT and CTA measured parameters of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes obtained in a single session using SPECT/64-slice CT hybrid imaging device, and in addition, to assess the reproducibility of LV parameters measured using 64-slice CTA. Materials and methods: Seventy-six patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent cardiac CTA and GSPECT in one session using a hybrid SPECT/CT device. LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured on each component of the hybrid device. For the CTA component, these parameters were re-measured by the same investigator and by a second investigator with an interval of 3-54 weeks. Corresponding GSPECT and CTA measured parameters were compared. For CTA, intra-observer and inter-observer variability of LV function and volume measurements were calculated. Results: A very good correlation was found between the GSPECT and CTA measured LVEF (r = 0.81), ESV (r = 0.90) and EDV (r = 0.82). There was a small positive difference by CTA measured LVEF (3.9 ± 14.2%), and more prominent positive differences by CTA measured ESV and EDV (9.8 ± 14.8 and 44.9 ± 23.1 cm3, respectively). There was excellent reproducibility in the measurements of all parameters with very low intra- and inter-observer variability (r = 0.93 for EF and 0.98 for EDV and ESV). Conclusions: Although a good correlation was found between the EF measurements obtained from CTA and SPECT, interchangeable use of EF measurements between the two modalities should be done cautiously and interchangeable use of LV EDV and ESV should be avoided.

  4. Benchmarking Density Functionals on Structural Parameters of Small-/Medium-Sized Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Éric; Savarese, Marika; Su, Neil Qiang; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel José; Xu, Xin; Sancho-García, Juan Carlos; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter we report the error analysis of 59 exchange-correlation functionals in evaluating the structural parameters of small- and medium-sized organic molecules. From this analysis, recently developed double hybrids, such as xDH-PBE0, emerge as the most reliable methods, while global hybrids confirm their robustness in reproducing molecular structures. Notably the M06-L density functional is the only semilocal method reaching an accuracy comparable to hybrids'. A comparison with errors obtained on energetic databases (including thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and interaction energies) indicate that most of the functionals have a coherent behavior, showing low (or high) deviations on both energy and structure data sets. Only a few of them are more prone toward one of these two properties. PMID:26730741

  5. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Bakken, Kristian; D'Elia, Emilia; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-08-01

    Exercise intolerance, indicated by dyspnea and fatigue during exertion, is a cardinal manifestation of heart failure (HF). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) precisely defines maximum exercise capacity through measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO2). Peak VO2 values have a critical role in informing patient selection for advanced HF interventions such as heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices. Oxygen uptake and ventilatory patterns obtained during the submaximal portion of CPET are also valuable to recognize because of their ease of ascertainment during low-level exercise, relevance to ability to perform activities of daily living, independence from volitional effort, and strong relationship to prognosis in HF. The ability of peak VO2 and other CPET variables to be measured reproducibly and to accurately reflect HF severity is increasingly recognized and endorsed by scientific statements. Integration of CPET with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and cardiac imaging during exercise provides comprehensive characterization of multisystem reserve capacity that can inform prognosis and the need for cardiac interventions. Here, we review both practical aspects of conducting CPETs in patients with HF for clinical and research purposes as well as interpretation of gas exchange patterns across the spectrum of preclinical HF to advanced HF. PMID:27289406

  6. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  7. Comparison of Pulmonary function parameters changes at different altitudes (1150m and 4150min healthy athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both hypoxia and hypocapnia can cause broncho-constriction in humans, and this could have a bearing on performance at high altitude. The objective of this study was to examine how pulmonary ventilatory function during high-altitude trekking. Methods: This study was a before and after study on spirometric parameters at Base line (1150 m above sea level, and after ascending at 4150 m above sea level. This study was performed in summer 2004 at Cialan Mountain in Iran. Fifty six healthy male University student volunteers were enrolled in the study. Respiratory function was assessed in participants before ascending at baseline (1150 meter and after ascending at 4150 meter in Cialan Mount with a Spirolab II. Spirometric parameters changes were compared using paired t-test statistical analysis computations were performed by spss 11.5 and p≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age and body mass lindex of our subjects were 22.9±5.3 years and 21.5±2.5, respectively. Forced vital capacity (FVC was significantly decreased with increasing altitude from baseline level (P0.05. FVC fell by the average of 7.1% at 4150m (2.4% per 1000m increased altitude in comparison to 1150m. Conclusion: The changes in some pulmonary ventilatory parameters were proportional to the magnitude of change in altitude during a high-altitude trek.

  8. STUDY OF ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS OF SWIMMERS OF INDORE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is well known that exercise has a significant ef fect on respiratory functions. Swimming is considered to be a very good exercise for maintaining proper health and also has a profound effect on the lu ng functions of an individual; the present study was carried out in 60 young male adults of Ei ghteen to Thirty years of age group to assess their Anthropometric parameters and Pulmonary Functi ons METHODS: Thirty male swimmers who used to swim for at least two years regularly w ere compared with age and sex matched thirty controls who were not involved in any routin e exercise. Lung volumes were recorded by Pulmonary Function test machine and analyzed statis tically. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It was found that Lung volumes were higher in swimmers . Swimming exercise affects lung volume measurements as respiratory muscles including the di aphragm of swimmers are required to develop greater pressure as a consequence of immersi on in water during respiratory cycle. This may lead to functional improvement in these muscles and also alterations in elasticity of lung and chest wall or of ventilatory muscles, leading t o an improvement in forced vital capacity and other lung functions of swimmers. KEY WORDS: Swimmers, Pulmonary Functions

  9. PMEA coating of pump circuit and oxygenator may attenuate the early systemic inflammatory response in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, K; Nishimura, K; Nishina, T; Nakamura, T; Ikeda, T; Komeda, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of coating a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit and oxygenator with poly-2-methoxy-ethyl acrylate (PMEA) on the systemic inflammatory response during and after CPB. Thirty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were randomized into three groups (each group n = 10): noncoated (group N), heparin coated (group H), and PMEA coated circuit and oxygenator (group X). Bradykinin (BK), complement 3 activation (C3a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured as early phase indicators of inflammatory response, as were maximum C reactive proteins (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels. The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2) was measured as a parameter of respiratory function. IL-6 levels after CPB were significantly higher in group N than in groups H and X (p < 0.05). Serum BK and C3a levels showed similar patterns in all groups. A-a DO2 was lower at the end of and 3 hours after CPB in groups H and X than in group N (p < 0.05). Maximum CRP levels were lower in group X than in groups N (p < 0.05). This prospective study suggests that PMEA coated CPB may improve respiratory function and decrease systemic inflammatory response after cardiac surgery, possibly because this circuit is as biocompatible as heparin coated CPB circuit. PMID:15307550

  10. A STUDY ON CARDIOPULMONARY CHANGES WITH EXERCISE IN ADOLESCENT BOYS AND GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important part of keeping adolescents healthy . The prevalence of obesity - related hypertension , in children and adolescents is on the rise . Exercise regimen can reverse or retard the rate of progression from prehypertension to hypertension in adolescents . The incidence of lung diseases including bronchial asthma is high in adolescent age group . There are gender differences in cardiopulmonary changes with exercise . The pulmonary function testing during exercise is often used for further assessme nt and determ in ing the degree of airway impairment and response to treatment . The present study was performed t o study the effect of various intensity of exercise on cardiopulmonary variables and to evaluate quantitative relationship between the variables . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is carried out in a group of 100 healthy First year medical students of both sexes , who were not regular athletes . The subjects being medical students presented an added advantage of belonging to matching age groups of between 18 - 21 years of comparable physical standards and also medically screened at the time of admission . Before undertaking the exercise regimen blood hemoglobin concentration , RMV , MVV , FVC , FEV1 , PEFR , RR , HR and Blood Pressure ( BP were determined in all the subjects . Then the subject exercised on a bicycle ergometer with incremental loads . The Pulse Rate of the subject is noted and mentioned as the heart rate per minute . During the exercise the pulse was monitored by a pulse Oximeter . Blood Pressure was manually measured using standard mercury sphygmomanometer . The recordings before exercise , during exercise and 30 minutes after end of exercise of FVC , FEV - 1 and PEFR were measured using a digital spirometer . RESULTS: All the observations recorded in Group - A ( Boys subjects and of Group - B ( Girls subjects were noted . The arithmetical mean , standard deviation and standard

  11. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF DOUBLE VIBE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN DIESEL ENGINES WITH BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A zero-dimensional, one zone model of engine cycle for steady-state regimes of engines and a simplified procedure for indicator diagrams analysis have been developed at the Laboratory for internal combustion engines, fuels and lubricants of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Kragujevac. In addition to experimental research, thermodynamic modeling of working process of diesel engine with direct injection has been presented in this paper. The simplified procedure for indicator diagrams analysis has been applied, also. The basic problem, a selection of shape parameters of double Vibe function used for modeling the engine operation process, has been solved. The influence of biodiesel fuel and engine working regimes on the start of combustion, combustion duration and shape parameter of double Vibe was determined by a least square fit of experimental heat release curve.

  12. Can the Cardiopulmonary 6-Minute Walk Test Reproduce the Usual Activities of Patients with Heart Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Veiga Guimarães

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The 6-minute walk test is an way of assessing exercise capacity and predicting survival in heart failure. The 6-minute walk test was suggested to be similar to that of daily activities. We investigated the effect of motivation during the 6-minute walk test in heart failure. METHODS: We studied 12 males, age 45±12 years, ejection fraction 23±7%, and functional class III. Patients underwent the following tests: maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on the treadmill (max, cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test with the walking rhythm maintained between relatively easy and slightly tiring (levels 11 and 13 on the Borg scale (6EB, and cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test using the usual recommendations (6RU. The 6EB and 6RU tests were performed on a treadmill with zero inclination and control of the velocity by the patient. RESULTS: The values obtained in the max, 6EB, and 6RU tests were, respectively, as follows: O2 consumption (ml.kg-1.min-1 15.4±1.8, 9.8±1.9 (60±10%, and 13.3±2.2 (90±10%; heart rate (bpm 142±12, 110±13 (77±9%, and 126±11 (89±7%; distance walked (m 733±147, 332±66, and 470±48; and respiratory exchange ratio (R 1.13±0.06, 0.9±0.06, and 1.06±0.12. Significant differences were observed in the values of the variables cited between the max and 6EB tests, the max and 6RU tests, and the 6EB and 6RU tests (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Patients, who undergo the cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test and are motivated to walk as much as they possibly can, usually walk almost to their maximum capacity, which may not correspond to that of their daily activities. The use of the Borg scale during the cardiopulmonary 6-minute walk test seems to better correspond to the metabolic demand of the usual activities in this group of patients.

  13. Generalised analysis of the potential of an enterprise as a function of environmental parameters (theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapeychik Igor M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the frameworks of the author’s concept of the potential of an enterprise as the ability to conduct its immanently appropriate activity and also the idea of presentation of the size of the potential in the form of potential function from parameters of the state of an enterprise and foreign economic environment the article develops a scientific and methodical approach to construction and analysis of the potential function of an enterprise. The offered approach envisages building an economic and mathematical model of an enterprise of the optimisation type with consideration of environmental factors, determination of the size of economic potential as a maximum possible (optimal with the set condition of an enterprise and external environment of net income, statistical test of the model with possible values of external parameters (formation of statistical sampling of the graph of the potential function of an enterprise and application of statistical methods including methods of correlation, factor and regression analysis, for the study of its properties. Operability of this approach is shown on the example of the study of properties of the potential function of a model enterprise. In the course of approbation the article demonstrates its ability to reveal specific features of impact of external factors on economic potential of an enterprise; establishes, as a common regularity, differential influence of various environmental factors, caused not only by the nature of these factors, but also production and economic specific features and specific state of an enterprise. The article shows that the quantitative values of the force of influence of the said factors upon the value of economic potential, obtained during statistical analysis of the potential function of an enterprise, could serve as an instrument of ranking these factors by the priority level in the goal setting tasks at the stage of formation of the strategy of enterprise development

  14. Impact parameter and source selected correlation functions with a 4π multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in the domain of (light charged) particle interferometry in nuclear physics, a complete study of proton an deuteron correlation functions is presented with both impact parameter and emission source selections. The correlations were determined for the system 129Xe + natSn at 45 and 50 AMeV using the 4π multidetector INDRA at GANIL as an event selector as well as a particle correlator. Very short emission times are found for all the selections indicating possible contributions from a fast and preequilibrium process. (author)

  15. Sensitivity of the photon structure function F2 to the QCD scale parameter Λ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial optimism that the photon structure function F2 would provide a sensitive measure of the QCD scale parameter Λ gave way to pessimism as the nature of the separation of point-like and hadronic parts of F2 was understood. Building on previous work, this paper presents a quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of F2 to Λ, and finds that at large Q2 and χ much of the sensitivity to Λ which gave rise to the initial optimism in fact survives the more sophisticated analysis. (orig.)

  16. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros; Quirijn de Jong van Lier; Aline de Holanda Nunes Maia; Fábio Vale Scarpare

    2013-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTF) were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs) of the van Genuchten model (1980) to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf), totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets:...

  17. Computerized System for Evaluating Small Arm Projectile Trajectory Parameters Involving Space Time Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jauhari

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of certain parameters of the trajectory of a small arm projectile on the basis of Siacci approximation requires the values of space (S and Time (T functions as tabulated in the Ingalls and Hodsock ballistic tables. The development is reported of a computerized system, whereby the necessity of referring to these tables has been completely obviated. Programme flow-char has been presented and the logic behind the flow of programme has been made explicit. The programme has been executed successfully on the DCM Microsystem 1121.

  18. Managing the Inflammatory Response after Cardiopulmonary Bypass : Review of the Studies in Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liguori, Gabriel Romero; Kanas, Alexandre Fligelman; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies performed in animal models that evaluated therapeutic interventions to inflammatory response and microcirculatory changes after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: It was used the search strategy ("Cardiopulmonary Bypass" (MeSH)) and ("Microcirculation" (MeSH) or "Inflammat

  19. Effect of acute exercise on some haematological parameters and neutrophil functions in active and inactive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoni, G; Bellavite, P; Adami, A; Chirumbolo, S; Lippi, G; Brocco, G; Cuzzolin, L

    1995-01-01

    In this work we studied the possible effects of acute exercise on some haematological parameters and on some functions of neutrophils in seven active and six inactive subjects. Physical exercise (10 min on a cycle ergometer at a heart rate of 150 beats.min-1) induced a significant increase in total leucocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil concentrations in active subjects; serum iron and ferritin concentrations were lower in active compared to inactive subjects. Cellular adhesion, bactericidal activity and superoxide anion production did not change after exercise, while we also observed some differences between active and inactive subjects before exercise. In particular, the neutrophils from active subjects showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion, higher bactericidal activity and lower superoxide anion production. In conclusion, the training induced changes in some neutrophil functions, while acute exercise influenced, overall, leucocyte concentrations. PMID:7768243

  20. Switched generalized function projective synchronization of two identical/different hyperchaotic systems with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate two switched synchronization schemes, namely partial and complete switched generalized function projective synchronization, by using the adaptive control method. Partial switched synchronization of chaotic systems means that the state variables of the drive system synchronize with partial different state variables of the response system, whereas complete switched synchronization of chaotic systems means that all the state variables of the drive system synchronize with complete different state variables of the response system. Because the switched synchronization scheme exists in many combinations, it is a promising type of synchronization as it provides greater security in secure communications. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control laws and the parameter update laws are derived to make the states of two identical/different hyperchaotic systems asymptotically synchronized up to a desired scaling function. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to verify and illustrate the analytical results.

  1. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Predictors of Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has shown improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR. The aim of this study was to determine factors predictive of survival in extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR). Methods Consecutive 85 adult patients (median age, 59 years; range, 18 to 85 years; 56 males) who underwent E-CPR from May 2005 to December 2012 were evaluated. Results Causes of arrest were cardiogenic in 62 patients (72.9%), septic in 18 patients (21.2%), and hypovolemic in 3 patients (3.5%), while the etiology was not specified in 2 patients (2.4%). The survival rate in patients with septic etiology was significantly poorer compared with those with another etiology (0% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008). Septic etiology (hazard ratio [HR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 5.44; p=0.002) and the interval between arrest and ECLS initiation (HR, 1.05 by 10 minutes increment; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for mortality. When the predictive value of the E-CPR timing for in-hospital mortality was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method, the greatest accuracy was obtained at a cutoff of 60.5 minutes (area under the curve, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80; p=0.032) with 47.8% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The survival rate was significantly different according to the cutoff of 60.5 minutes (p=0.001). Conclusion These results indicate that efforts should be made to minimize the time between arrest and ECLS application, optimally within 60 minutes. In addition, E-CPR in patients with septic etiology showed grave outcomes, suggesting it to be of questionable benefit in these patients. PMID:27525236

  2. Acute posthypoxic myoclonus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwes Aline

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute posthypoxic myoclonus (PHM can occur in patients admitted after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and is considered to have a poor prognosis. The origin can be cortical and/or subcortical and this might be an important determinant for treatment options and prognosis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether acute PHM originates from cortical or subcortical structures, using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP and electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods Patients with acute PHM (focal myoclonus or status myoclonus within 72 hours after CPR were retrospectively selected from a multicenter cohort study. All patients were treated with hypothermia. Criteria for cortical origin of the myoclonus were: giant SEP potentials; or epileptic activity, status epilepticus, or generalized periodic discharges on the EEG (no back-averaging was used. Good outcome was defined as good recovery or moderate disability after 6 months. Results Acute PHM was reported in 79/391 patients (20%. SEPs were available in 51/79 patients and in 27 of them (53% N20 potentials were present. Giant potentials were seen in 3 patients. EEGs were available in 36/79 patients with 23/36 (64% patients fulfilling criteria for a cortical origin. Nine patients (12% had a good outcome. A broad variety of drugs was used for treatment. Conclusions The results of this study show that acute PHM originates from subcortical, as well as cortical structures. Outcome of patients admitted after CPR who develop acute PHM in this cohort was better than previously reported in literature. The broad variety of drugs used for treatment shows the existing uncertainty about optimal treatment.

  3. The effect of cytoflavin on functional and metabolic parameters rat liver in pancreatonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sukach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of diagnosis and treatment of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis is an urgent. So it is interesting to study the effectiveness of a multicomponent antihypoxant and antioxidant cytoflavin to reduce violations of the detoxifying properties of the liver in experimental pancreatitis and reduce the severity of pancreatic endotoxemia. Pancreatic modeled by introducing into the pancreas of autobile in a dose of 0,15 ml/kg. Cytoflavin was injected into animals of a comparison group in a dose 0,21 ml/kg in 5 minutes after the model of pancreatic necrosis. We determined the activity of enzymes: alanine transaminase, amylase, and gamma glutamyltransferase, the content of direct bilirubin, glucose, and urea. After modeling of pancreatic necrosis in two days, there are signs of acute liver failure, as evidenced by the differences in the studied parameters of blood and hepatic portal vein: increased alanine transaminase and gamma glutamyltransferase, the change in concentration of metabolic products, such as direct bilirubin and urea. In addition, decreased glucose levels. Introduction of cytoflavin approached the control values the basic biochemical parameters of liver function: decreased hyperenzymemia, exchange function of the liver was restored, which is probably due to antihypoxic, membrane and antioxidant effects of the drug.

  4. Clinical significance of sleep bruxism on several occlusal and functional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Zimmer, Stefan; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang Hans-michael; Schaefer, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between various functional and occlusal parameters and sleep bruxism. Thirty-nine (39) sleep bruxism patients and 30 controls participated in this investigation. The assessment of sleep bruxism was performed using the Bruxcore Bruxism-Monitoring Device (BBMD) combined with a new computer-based analyzing method. Sixteen functional and/or occlusal parameters were recorded. With a mean slide of 0.95 mm in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.42 mm in the control group (Mann Whitney U test; p<0.003), results solely demonstrated a significant group difference regarding the length of a slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation. The results suggest that the slightly pronounced slide could be of clinical importance in the development of increased wear facets in patients with current sleep bruxism activity. Following further evaluation including polysomnographic recordings, the BBMD combined with this new analyzing technique seems to be a clinically feasible instrument that allows the practitioner to quantify abrasion over a short period. PMID:21032978

  5. Kinetic parameter calculation as function of burn-up of candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameter calculation as function of burn-up of candu reactor. Kinetic marameter calculation as function of burp-up of CANDU reactor with Canflex fuel type-CANDU has been done. This type of fuel is currently being develop, so kinetic parameter such as effective delay neutron fraction (.......), delay neutron decay constant ( .... ) and prompt neutron generation time ( ...... ) are very important for analysis of reactor operation safety. WIMS-CRNL code was used to generate macroscopic cross section and reaction rate based on transport theory. Fast and thermal neutron velocity and macroscopic cross section fission product of the unit cell were determined by KINETIC Code. The result of calculation showed that the value of effective delay neutron fraction was 7,785616 x 10-3 at the beginning of operation at burn-up of 0 MWD/T and after the reactor operated at burn-up of 7,2231 x 10-3 MWD/T was 4,962766 x 10-3, or reduced by 36%. The value of prompt generation time was 9,982703 x 10-4 s at the beginning of operation at burn-up of 0 MWD/T and 8,965416 x 10-4 s after the reactor operated at burn-up of 7,2231 x 103 MWD/T, or reduced by 10%. The result of calculation showed that the values of effective delay neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time are still great enough

  6. Computation of the halo mass function using physical collapse parameters: application to non-standard cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achitouv, I.; Weller, J. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München (Germany); Wagner, C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 5748 Garching bei München (Germany); Rasera, Y., E-mail: Ixandra.Achitouv@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: cwagner@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: jochen.weller@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: yann.rasera@obspm.fr [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    In this article we compare the halo mass function predicted by the excursion set theory with a drifting diffusive barrier against the results of N-body simulations for several cosmological models. This includes the standard ΛCDM case for a large range of halo masses, models with different types of primordial non-Gaussianity, and the Ratra-Peebles quintessence model of Dark Energy. We show that in all those cosmological scenarios, the abundance of dark matter halos can be described by a drifting diffusive barrier, where the two parameters describing the barrier have physical content. In the case of the Gaussian ΛCDM, the statistics are precise enough to actually predict those parameters at different redshifts from the initial conditions. Furthermore, we found that the stochasticity in the barrier is non-negligible making the simple deterministic spherical collapse model a bad approximation even at very high halo masses. We also show that using the standard excursion set approach with a barrier inspired by peak patches leads to inconsistent predictions of the halo mass function.

  7. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture parameters of concrete CT specimen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents numerical study on the fracture parameters of concrete compact tension test specimens of different sizes using cohesive crack model. As softening function is the main ingredient of the cohesive crack model, seven numbers of widely used softening functions are incorporated in the model based on enhanced algorithm. It is found that the difference between the highest and the lowest peak loads obtained using various softening functions (except linear) is less than about 9%. The peak load predicted by the linear softening curve is about 16% larger than that of mean peak load predicted by other softening functions. The cohesive crack model with linear softening yields the fracture process zones lower by approximately 30–50% than those obtained by using the other softening relations for specimen size range 200–600 mm. The numerical results are further compared with a reference test result available in the literature. It is observed that some of softening relations (except linear) predict the experimentally obtained peak load up to 6% of accuracy whereas the linear softening curve overestimates it by about 30%. The numerically gained softening branch of load-displacement curves compare well with the experimental observation.

  8. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  9. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  13. Uncertainties in acoustical transfer functions : modeling, measurement and derivation of parameters for airborne and structure-borne sound

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Measured transfer functions of acoustic systems are often used to derive single-number parameters. The uncertainty analysis is commonly focused on the derived parameters but not on the transfer function as the primary quantity. This thesis presents an approach to assess the uncertainty contri- butions in these transfer functions by using analytic models. Uncertainties caused by the measurement method are analyzed with a focus on the un- derlying signal processing. In particular, the influence...

  14. Introducing parameters of linear function at undergraduate level: use of geogebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin İlhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The newly founded universities increase the number of high school graduates taking a seat in a university class. Among them the ones who are not well prepared in mathematics, mostly in the social sciences students, face learning difficulties in the first year mathematics course at undergraduate level. The notion of the function which is the foundation of the first year undergraduate mathematics course is a difficult part of mathematics curriculum especially for the under risk new students of social sciences. To overcome the problem, an intervention is applied in the course as Geogebra creating visual learning environment. Teaching of function is organized with the method of contextual teaching and learning (CTL by using the REACT strategy. The instruction is started with the Relating, the first step of strategy, to reach each student’s background to relate it with their daily life. Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQis used to get students’ reflection about the lecture and has used the reflections, especially the ones who see the point of relating, to form the sample group of the study. The activity including geogebra is developed to apply second step of strategy as Experiencing. The task is organized as to investigate the effects of change in the parameters of a linear function. After analysing research documents, findings reveal that students have benefits from two important words as visual and concrete in dealing with Geogebra as a member of Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments (DIMLE.

  15. SOMETIMES POOL TESTIMATION OF SCALE PARAMETER FOR NEGATIVE EXPONENTIAL MODEL UNDER GENERAL ENTROPY LOSS FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Srivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a sometimes pool testimator of scale parameter (mean life of negative exponential distribution under general entropy loss function, when it is assume that both the guarantees are known If a real life situation is modeled by this distribution having mean life time of certain items as θ1 and now it is suspected that the mean life may change due to some technological advances and assumes the value θ2 then we may have conditional information on θ1 as θ1≥θ2 (however θ1 may be less than or equal to θ2 .This uncertainty can be resolved by using preliminary testing and then a sometimes pool testimator is proposed for θ1The risk properties of this estimator have been studied under General entropy loss function and it is claimed that the estimator dominates the never pool estimator (in terms of having smaller risk in certain range of life ratio. Use of a general entropy loss function facilitates to control the risk of proposed estimators for various directions and degrees of asymmetry.

  16. Image quality parameters of screen-film combinations: modulation transfer function and Wiener spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image quality in medical X-ray diagnosis is strongly influenced by two parameters of the screen-film combinations: the ability to image small details with high contrast described by the modulation transfer function T(R), and the noise described by the Wiener spectrum W. The MTF is usually measured by exposing the screen-film combination behind a lead bar pattern and by evaluating the resulting image. It is shown that Fourier analysis of this image extends the usable range of spatial frequencies by also using third harmonics. Resulting MTF curves, allowing intercomparison between CaWO4 and rare-earth screens, are given, which show the superiority of the rare-earth systems as far as the modulation transfer function is concerned. An attempt is made to correlate scarcely visible differences in sharpness of the imaged bar pattern with differences in the appropriate modulation transfer functions. The measurement of Wiener spectra is briefly described. Wiener spectra for various systems with different speeds are presented. The importance of Wiener spectra both for understanding the basic properties of screen-film systems and for describing the visual impression of graininess is shown. (author)

  17. Technical parameters affecting differential renal function estimation using Tc 99m MAG3 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Differential renal function (DRF) is an important parameter that is assessed from virtually every dynamic renal scintigraphy. Standardization of DRF estimation is very important, as this is a measurement of individual kidney function used in gamma camera based techniques for estimating Tc99m MAG3 clearance. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different acquisition and processing parameters on the estimation of DRF. Material and methods: Retrospective study of 24 patients (2.5-73 yrs). The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1)Normal renogram pattern (DRF within 45/55). 2) Abnormal renogram patterns (DRF>20%). 3) One kidney with DRF<20% (poor functioning). In each group we investigated the effect on DRF of the following parameters in all patients: renal ROIs (rectangular or fitting), background ROIs (manual subrenal, perirenal, lateral and automated elliptical), with and without correction for kidneys depth attenuation, time interval (1-2, 2-3 min) for calculation of renal counts, and matrix size (128 x 128, 64 x 64). Results: Two experienced readers evaluated the results: 1. DRF did not differ among the two time intervals. 2. DRF calculated in group 1 using subrenal background ROI was significantly different from that of perirenal and flanking background ROI's on 64x64 matrix (p= 0.0095, 0.055 respectively), whereas no difference was found in 128x128 where all types of background ROI's gave almost the same results. 3. Mean left kidney depth from height and weight formula (7.6+ 2.57 cm)was significantly different (p= 0.000237,t test) from formula of age, height and weight ( 8.7±3.18 cm), yet DRF did not change significantly, when attenuation correction was applied using these formulas. 4. Good correlation (r = 0.98) was observed between the two readers. Conclusion: Matrix size of 128x128 increased the reliability and accuracy for drawing ROIs. It eliminated the differences found within different locations and size of background (ROI

  18. Optimal rate of direct estimators in systems of ordinary differential equations linear in functions of the parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dattner, IM Itai; Klaassen, CAJ

    2015-01-01

    Many processes in biology, chemistry, physics, medicine, and engineering are modeled by a system of differential equations. Such a system is usually characterized via unknown parameters and estimating their ‘true’ value is thus required. In this paper we focus on the quite common systems for which the derivatives of the states may be written as sums of products of a function of the states and a function of the parameters. ¶ For such a system linear in functions of the unknown parameters...

  19. Excitation functions of parameters in Erlang distribution, Schwinger mechanism, and Tsallis statistics in RHIC BES program

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Li-Na; Lacey, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results of the transverse momentum distributions of phi mesons and $\\Omega$ hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Meanwhile, the STAR experimental transverse momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in $\\Omega$ hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV.

  20. Ratiometric fluorescence polarization as a cytometric functional parameter: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yishai, Yitzhak; Fixler, Dror; Cohen-Kashi, Meir; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai [The Biophysical Interdisciplinary Jerome Schottenstein Center for the Research and the Technology of the Cellome, Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2003-08-07

    The use of ratiometric fluorescence polarization (RFP) as a functional parameter in monitoring cellular activation is suggested, based on the physical phenomenon of fluorescence polarization dependency on emission wavelengths in multiple (at least binary) solutions. The theoretical basis of this dependency is thoroughly discussed and examined via simulation. For simulation, aimed to imitate a fluorophore-stained cell, real values of the fluorescence spectrum and polarization of different single fluorophore solutions were used. The simulation as well as the experimentally obtained values of RFP indicated the high sensitivity of this measure. Finally, the RFP parameter was utilized as a cytometric measure in three exemplary cellular bioassays. In the first, the apoptotic effect of oxLDL in a human Jurkat FDA-stained T cell line was monitored by RFP. In the second, the interaction between cell surface membrane receptors of human T lymphocyte cells was monitored by RFP measurements as a complementary means to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. In the third bioassay, cellular thiol level of FDA- and CMFDA-labelled Jurkat T cells was monitored via RFP.

  1. Defective BN nanotubes: a density functional theory study of B-11 and N-14 NQR parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A density functional theory (DFT) study is performed to investigate the influence of structural defects on the electronic structure properties of perfect boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). To this aim, as representative models, the single-walled (6,0) BNNT consisting of 36 boron, 36 nitrogen, and 12 hydrogen atoms and the single-walled (4,4) BNNT consisting of 36 boron, 36 nitrogen, and 16 hydrogen atoms are considered. The nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) parameters are calculated and compared in two perfect and defective models of the considered BNNTs. The results indicate that due to formation of non-hexagonal rings in the defective model because of removing a B-N bond, the NQR parameters at the sites of first neighbouring nuclei are significantly influenced by imposed perturbation, however, the sites of other nuclei, farther from perturbation, remain almost unchanged. The calculations are performed at the level of the BLYP method and 6-31G* standard basis set using the GAUSSIAN 98 package. (orig.)

  2. A two-parameter Budyko function to represent conditions under which evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Orlowsky, Boris; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (Q) is of major importance for a wide range of socio-economic sectors. For climatological averages, the Budyko framework provides a simple first-order relationship to estimate water availability represented by the ratio E / P as a function of the aridity index (Ep/P, with Ep denoting potential evaporation). However, the Budyko framework is limited to steady-state conditions, being a result of assuming negligible storage change in the land-water balance. Processes leading to changes in the terrestrial water storage at any spatial and/or temporal scale are hence not represented. Here we propose an analytically derived modification of the Budyko framework including a new parameter explicitly representing additional water available to evapotranspiration besides instantaneous precipitation. The modified framework is comprehensively analyzed, showing that the additional parameter leads to a rotation of the original water supply limit. We further evaluate the new formulation in an example application at mean seasonal timescales, showing that the extended framework is able to represent conditions in which monthly to annual evapotranspiration exceeds monthly to annual precipitation.

  3. The effects of physical training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid disorders and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Regular physical activity is widely accepted as factor that reduces all-cause mortality and improves a number of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid profile and endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The study included seventy patients with stable CAD. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I - 33 patients with CAD and with regular aerobic physical training during cardiovascular rehabilitation program phase II for 3 weeks in our rehabilitation center and 3 weeks after that in their home setting, and the group II (control - 37 patients with CAD and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise training consisted of continual aerobic exercise for 45 minutes on a treadmill, room bicycle or walking, three times a week. We determined lipid and cardiovascular parameters and nitric oxide (NO concentration at the beginning and after a six-week of training. Results. There were no significant differences in body weight, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the start and at the end of physical training program. Physical training significantly reduced body mass index after six weeks compared to the initial and control values. Physical training significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after a six-week training period (p < 0.05. Heart rate was significantly lower after a training period as compared to the control (p < 0.05. A significant reduction of triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration after cardiovascular rehabilitation were registered (p < 0.05. The concentration of triglycerides was significantly lower while NO and HDL-C were higher after six weeks in the exercise training group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Dynamic training can improve blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and reduce the

  4. Cardiopulmonary Responses to Supine Cycling during Short-Arm Centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vener, J. M.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J.; Evettes, S.; Bailey, K.; Biagini, H.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiopulmonary responses to supine cycling with concomitant +G(sub z) acceleration using the NASA/Ames Human Powered Short-Arm Centrifuge (HPC). Subjects were eight consenting males (32+/-5 yrs, 178+/-5 cm, 86.1+/- 6.2 kg). All subjects completed two maximal exercise tests on the HPC (with and without acceleration) within a three-day period. A two tailed t-test with statistical significance set at p less than or equal to 0.05 was used to compare treatments. Peak acceleration was 3.4+/-0.1 G(sub z), (head to foot acceleration). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2(sub peak) was not different between treatment groups (3.1+/-0.1 Lmin(exp -1) vs. 3.2+/-0.1 Lmin(exp -1) for stationary and acceleration trials, respectively). Peak HR and pulmonary minute ventilation (V(sub E(sub BTPS))) were significantly elevated (p less than or equal to 0.05) for the acceleration trial (182+/-3 BPM (Beats per Minute); 132.0+/-9.0 Lmin(exp -1)) when compared to the stationary trial (175+/-3 BPM; 115.5+/-8.5 Lmin(exp -1)). Ventilatory threshold expressed as a percent of VO2(sub peak) was not different for acceleration and stationary trials (72+/-2% vs. 68+/-2% respectively). Results suggest that 3.4 G(sub z) acceleration does not alter VO2(sub peak) response to supine cycling. However, peak HR and V(sub E(sub BTPS)) response may be increased while ventilatory threshold response expressed as a function of percent VO2(sub peak) is relatively unaffected. Thus, traditional exercise prescription based on VO2 response would be appropriate for this mode of exercise. Prescriptions based on HR response may require modification.

  5. Heart and Lungs Protection Technique for Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pichugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardioplegic cardiac arrest with subsequent ischemic-reperfusion injuries can lead to the development of inflammation of the myocardium, leucocyte activation, and release of cardiac enzymes. Flow reduction to the bronchial arteries, causing low-flow lung ischemia, leads to the development of a pulmonary regional inflammatory response. Hypoventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is responsible for development of microatelectasis, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, poor compliance, and a higher incidence of infection. Based on these facts, prevention methods of these complications were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate constant coronary perfusion (CCP and the “beating heart” in combination with pulmonary artery perfusion (PAP and “ventilated lungs” technique for heart and lung protection in cardiac surgery with CPB.Methods. After ethical approval and written informed consent, 80 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with normothermic CPB were randomized in three groups. In the first group (22 patients, the crystalloid cardioplegia without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the second group (30 patients, the CCP and “beating heart” without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the third group (28 patients, the CCP with PAP and lung ventilation techniques were used. Clinical, functional parameters, myocardial damage markers (CK MB level, oxygenation index, and lung compliance were investigated.Results. There were higher rates of spontaneous cardiac recovery and lower doses of inotrops in the second and third groups. Myocardial contractility function was better preserved in the second and third groups. The post-operative levels of CK-MB were lower than in control group.  Three hours after surgery CK-MB levels in the second and third  groups were lower by 38.1% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight hours after surgery, CK-MB levels were lower in the second and third groups by 45.9% and

  6. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  7. QUALITY-OF-LIFE AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY-RESUSCITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MIRANDA, DR

    1994-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the influence of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on the components of quality of life (QOL) of patients after discharge from the hospital. Design: Extracted from a prospective national survey on Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). Setting: Thirty-six ICUs of both

  8. Predicting postoperative cardiopulmonary complications by a test of stair climbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess whether a test of stair climbing ability could be used to predict the risk of developing postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in patients undergoing general anesthesia. Design: Cohort study Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. The duration of the study was from December 2003 to December 2004. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out on consecutive, adult patients presenting for elective thoracic or abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Pre-operatively, patients were asked to climb a standard staircase. Number of steps climbed was recorded. Those unable to climb stairs due to debilitation cardiac, pulmonary or rheumatologic disease were categorized as 0 stairs climbed. Outcome variables were postoperative cardiopulmonary complications for mortality. Period of follow-up was until hospital discharge. Results: Seventy-eight patients were enrolled; 59 (75.6%) climbed > 1 flight of stairs, 19 (24.3%) climbed 1 flight and 40% in those patients who climbed < 1 flight. The group that climbed < 1 flight tended to have complications associated with poor reserves of the cardiopulmonary systems; i.e. pulmonary edema, exacerbation of underlying lung disease. The relative risk of developing complications, if unable to climb at least 1 flight of stairs, was calculated to be 1.8 (95% CI 0.7 - 4.6). Conclusion: Stair climbing can be a useful pre-operative tool to predict the risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. (author)

  9. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Simon; Devereaux, P J;

    2008-01-01

    We sought to establish the efficacy and safety of prophylactic steroids in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials reporting the effects of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes after CPB. Outcomes examined were mortality, myo...

  10. Release of endogenous vasopressors during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, K. H.; Haak, T; Keller, A; Bothner, U.; Lurie, K. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether plasma endothelin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol concentrations were higher during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients in whom resuscitation was successful than in those in whom it failed, and to measure the concentrations of these hormones in the immediate post-resuscitation phase. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Emergency medical service at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients wi...

  11. Estimation of CN Parameter for Small Agricultural Watersheds Using Asymptotic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kowalik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a possibility of using asymptotic functions to determine the value of curve number (CN parameter as a function of rainfall in small agricultural watersheds. It also compares the actually calculated CN with its values provided in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS National Engineering Handbook Section 4: Hydrology (NEH-4 and Technical Release 20 (TR-20. The analysis showed that empirical CN values presented in the National Engineering Handbook tables differed from the actually observed values. Calculations revealed a strong correlation between the observed CN and precipitation (P. In three of the analyzed watersheds, a typical pattern of the observed CN stabilization during abundant precipitation was perceived. It was found that Model 2, based on a kinetics equation, most effectively described the P-CN relationship. In most cases, the observed CN in the investigated watersheds was similar to the empirical CN, corresponding to average moisture conditions set out by NEH-4. Model 2 also provided the greatest stability of CN at 90% sampled event rainfall.

  12. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Capone, Domenico; Mogami, Roberto; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences].E mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Cunha, Daniel Leme da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2007-11-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  13. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  14. THE INULIN AND OLIGOFRUCTOSE EFFECT ON QUAL­ITY PARAMETERS OF BIG DARK AND WHEAT BREAD FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Koryachkina, S.; Matveeva, T.; Akhmedova, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the expediency of inulin and oligofructose use as an additive giving the bread functional properties, the effect of inulin and oligofructose on quality parameters of big dark and wheat bread.

  15. Left ventricular functional parameters: comparison of 16-slice spiral CT with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: the quantitative measurement of left ventricular functional parameters using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) with retrospective ECG-gating and comparison of the results with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: thirty-one patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent MSCT angiography with retrospective ECG-gating (Sensation 16, Siemens). Based on the CT data set, short axis reformations of the left ventricle were performed for functional analysis. On a commercially available workstation, end-diastolic-(EDV), end-systolic- (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and myocardial mass (MM) were calculated from MSCT (temporal resolution 105-210 ms) data according to the modified Simpson's rule and compared to MRI (1.5 T scanner, temporal resolution 48 ms) using a 2D TrueFISP cine sequence with respiration hold. Results: in all cases, the quality was adequate for both MSCT and MRI. MSCT and MRI had an excellent correlation for EDV (r = 0.86), ESV (r = 0.91), EF (r = 0.87) and MM (r = 0.88), and a good correlation for SV (r = 0.70). The mean difference was 13.2±21.9 ml for EDV, 8.7±15.9 ml for ESV, 4.6±12.3 ml for SV, 1.4±5.2% for EF, and 11.9±13.8 g for MM. However, EDV (p = 0.002), ESV (p = 0.005), SV (p = 0.048), and MM (p < 0.0001) were significantly overestimated with MSCT compared to MRI. For EF, no significant difference between MSCT and MRI was found (p = 0.15). Conclusion: for left ventricular functional parameters, MSCT of the heart with retrospective ECG-gating showed a high correlation with MRI, which has an important implication when using MSCT for non-invasive cardiac imaging. Despite the high correlation, overestimation of EDV, EVS, SV, and MM with MSCT has to be taken into account when applying this technology in clinical practice. EF was not significantly different between both modalities. (orig.)

  16. Functional effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase genetic polymorphisms on haemorheological parameters in healthy human individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaoglu, Melih O; Dikmenoglu, Neslihan; Ileri-Gurel, Esin; Seringec, Nurten; Zoto, Teuta; Yasar, Umit; Kayaalp, S Oguz; Bozkurt, Atilla

    2011-03-01

    The constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a major role in circulatory homoeostasis and shows genetic polymorphism. eNOS is expressed and functional in blood cells, including erythrocytes. There is limited knowledge about the consequences of eNOS genetic variability in haemorheological parameters and erythrocyte functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three eNOS genetic polymorphisms, namely exonic G894T (Glu298Asp), intronic VNTR (27-bp repeat) and 5'-flanking T(-786)C polymorphisms on haemorheological variables, such as erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation (rouleaux formation) in healthy non-smoking volunteers. Sixty subjects (19 women, 41 men) were examined for genotypes and haemorheological variables. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. Haemorheological variables were measured by means of a laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LORCA). Erythrocyte aggregation was significantly decreased in individuals with 894TT genotype when compared to subjects with the (G) allele. Aggregation indices (AI) were 54.7±3.2% versus 61.0±0.9% (p=0.026), and the half-lives (t(1/2) ) for aggregation formation were 3.43±0.43 versus 2.55±0.12 sec. (p=0.024), respectively. Similarly, VNTR-bb genotype significantly altered erythrocyte aggregability. AI values were 58.7±1.1% in subjects with VNTR-a allele versus 63.7±1.2% in subjects with bb genotype (p=0.011); t(1/2) values were 2.86±0.16 versus 2.20±0.13 sec., respectively (p=0.016). T(-786)C polymorphism did not change any haemorheological parameters. These findings suggest that eNOS 894TT genotype is associated with decreased erythrocyte aggregation, while VNTR-bb genotype increases aggregability in healthy human individuals. eNOS genetic variants may contribute in the pathogenesis of microvascular disorders by altering erythrocyte functions in human beings. PMID:20977680

  17. Relative importance of energy dependent diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the analysis of fusion excitation function data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the relative importance of the energy dependence of diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the description of the fusion excitation function data of some heavy ion systems in near barrier energy region. The effects of the energy dependent diffuseness parameter are found to be much more prominent in comparison to those of barrier position. (authors)

  18. Assessing parameter variability in a photosynthesis model within and between plant functional types using global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A.J.; Molen, van der M.K.; Leuning, R.; Arneth, A.; Delpierre, N.; Gash, J.H.C.; Lindroth, A.; Richardson, A.D.; Verbeeck, H.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vegetation component in climate models has advanced since the late 1960s from a uniform prescription of surface parameters to plant functional types (PFTs). PFTs are used in global land-surface models to provide parameter values for every model grid cell. With a simple photosynthesis model we de

  19. Relative importance of energy dependent diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the analysis of fusion excitation function data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharab Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the relative importance of the energy dependence of diffuseness parameter and barrier position in the description of the fusion excitation function data of some heavy ion systems in near barrier energy region. The effects of the energy dependent diffuseness parameter are found to be much more prominent in comparison to those of barrier position.

  20. [The functional sport shoe parameter "torsion" within running shoe research--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F I; Kälin, X; Metzger, A; Westphal, K; Schweizer, F; Campe, S; Segesser, B

    2009-12-01

    Within the sport shoe area torsion is described as the twisting and decoupling of the rear-, mid- and forefoot along the longitudinal axis of the foot. Studies have shown that running shoes restrict the torsion of the foot and thus they increase the pronation of the foot. Based on the findings, it is recommended to design running shoes, which allow the natural freedom of movement of the foot. The market introduction of the first torsion concept through adidas(R) took place in 1989. Independently of the first market introduction, only one epidemiological study was conducted in the running shoe area. The study should investigate the occurrence of Achilles tendon problems of the athletes running in the new "adidas Torsion(R) shoes". However, further studies quantifying the optimal region of torsionability concerning the reduction of injury incidence are still missing. Newer studies reveal that the criterion torsion only plays a secondary roll regarding the buying decision. Moreover, athletes are not able to perceive torsionability as a discrete functional parameter. It is to register, that several workgroups are dealing intensively with the detailed analysis of the foot movement based on kinematic multi-segment-models. However, scientific as well as popular scientific contributions display that the original idea of the torsion concept is still not completely understood. Hence, the "inverse" characteristic is postulated. The present literature review leads to the deduction that the functional characteristics of the torsion concept are not fully implemented within the running shoe area. This implies the necessity of scientific studies, which investigate the relevance of a functional torsion concept regarding injury prevention based on basic and applied research. Besides, biomechanical studies should analyse systematically the mechanism and the effects of torsion relevant technologies and systems. PMID:20108183

  1. Towards all-order Laurent expansion of generalized hypergeometric functions around rational values of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in ε of the Gauss hypergeometric functions 2F1(I1+aε,I2+bε;I3+(p)/(q)+cε;z), 2F1(I1+(p)/(q)+aε,I2+(p/q)+bε;I3+(p)/(q)+cε;z) and 2F1(I1+(p)/(q)+ aε,I2+bε;I3+(p)/(q)+cε;z), where I1,I2,I3,p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and ε is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function 2F1(I1+(p)/(q)+aε,I2+bε;I3+cε;z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums Σ∞j=1(Γ(j))/(Γ(1+j-(p)/(q))) (zj)/(jc) Sa1(j-1).. Sap(j-1) and the multiple rational sums Σ∞j=1 (Γ(j+(p)/(q)))/(Γ(1+j)) (zj)/(jc) Sa1(j-1).. Sap(j-1), where Sa(j)=Σjk=1(1)/(ka) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions pFp.1(vectorA+vectoraε;vectorB+vectorbε,(p)/(q)+Bp-1;z) and pFp-1(vectorA+vectoraε,(p)/(q)+Ap;vectorB+vectorbε; z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)

  2. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  3. Generalized function of the parameters in the storage-discharge relation for low flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Kazumasa; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    The accurate estimation of low flows can contribute to better water resource management and more reliable evaluation of the impact of climate change on water resources. For the case of low flows, the nonlinearity of the discharge Q associated with the storage S was originally proposed by Horton (1936) as the power function Q=KSN, where K is a constant and N is the exponent. Although the Q(S) relations for groundwater runoff from unconfined aquifers have been treated as second-order polynomial functions on the basis of the hydraulic investigation by Ding (1966), the general power function Q = KNSN was introduced into the unit hydrograph model for overland flow and the parameters K and N were calibrated by Ding (2011). According to recent studies, the value of the exponent N is varied between 1 and 3 or higher by calibration (e.g., Wittenberg, 1994 and Ding, 2011); however, it is currently unclear whether the optimum value of N has the rule. Fujimura et al. (2014) applied the general power function Q = KNSN for low flows in mountainous basins over a period spanning more than 10 years using hourly data, and carried out sensitivity analysis using a hydrological model for 19 900 sets of the two parameters K and N, in which the exponent N was varied between 1 and 100 in steps of 0.5. The results showed that the optimum relation between N and K could be characterized by the exponential function K=1/(α Nβ), where α and β are constants. Moreover, the lowest error in the sensitivity analysis was obtained by using an exponent N of 100. The aim of this study is to extend the previous study of Fujimura et al. to clarify the properties of the K(N) relations. A sensitivity analysis is performed efficiently using a hydrological model, in which the exponent N is varied between 1 and 100 000 along the neighborhood of the exponential function K=1/(α Nβ). The hourly hydrological model used in this study comprises the Diskin-Nazimov infiltration model, groundwater recharge and

  4. Misonidazole neurotoxicity in the mouse: evaluation of functional, pharmacokinetic, electrophysiologic and morphologic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neurotoxic effects of chronic administration of misonidazole (0.3 mg/g/day, 5 times weekly) were investigated in Balb/cKa mice over 12 weeks; a variety of measurements were used, including functional and clinical performance, morphologic, electrophysiologic and pharmacokinetic parameters. The half life of drug for a single dose was greater in brain (3 hrs) compared to serum (1.2 hrs); these values decreased to 1.9 hrs and 1.0 hrs respectively after 3 weeks. Misonidazole induced a peripheral lesion after three weeks with a total administered dose of 13.5 g/m2 or exposure dose of 57 to 75 mM X hrs, which is similar to the doses that cause neuropathy in humans. There was some suggestion of a central neurological deficit related to locomotor control and balance; however, no gross morphological damage was found in the brain. The sequence of effects demonstrated began at 3 to 4 weeks and included: 1) morphologic damage to peripheral nerves; 2) hyperactivity and listlessness; 3) a decrease in rotarod retention time which reached a value 50% of that of saline injected control mice at 8 to 10 weeks; 4) walking on tip-toes with a slightly hunched back (4 to 6 weeks); and 5) an increase in hind foot splay (6 to 7 weeks). The morphologic damage primarily involved the more distal portions of the nerves supplying the interosseous muscles and footpads of the hind limbs. The damage was more severe and progressed more rapidly with time in these distal areas compared to the more proximal regions of the nerves. No marked changes were found in nerve conduction velocity although neuropathy produced by acrylamide produced significant decreases. The changes in neurological parameters reported here may be useful in the further evaluation of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers

  5. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter

  6. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients’ PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (p<0.001). In distinguishing ROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived. PMID:24639823

  7. Comparative evaluation of several parameters of glycemic homeostasis in patients with functional pituitary adenomas

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    Miroslava Rostislavovna Mikityuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate glycemic homeostasis in patients with acromegaly and hyperprolactinaemia due to functional pituitary adenoma.Materials and Methods. We enrolled 48 patients with somatotropinoma (Group 1, 19 patients with somatomammotropinoma (Group 2 and 24 patients with prolactinoma (Group 3 with no history of glycemic disorders. Median age was 48.63±9.98 years; median disease duration was 13.1±6.9 years. The comparison group was composed of overweight or obese patients (n=75. We conducted a comparative analysis of glycemic parameters (Glc0, immunoreactive insulin, HOMA2_S%, HOMA2_B% и HOMA2_IR, Ssum and S under isolated segments of the glycemic curve. We also tested their correlation with plasma levels of growth hormone, prolactin and IGF-1.Results. We detected hyperinsulinemia (>20 μU/mL in 35.1% of participants from Group 1, 33.3% and 25% from groups 2 and 3, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between glycemic parameters of the study groups, though patients were mildly insulin resistant (HOMA2_IR 1.88 to 2.38 units independantly from tumour secretory activity. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized by significantly higher fasting blood glucose levels vs. comparison group (though still within the reference values, and glucose homeostasis was maintained with lower activity of pancreatic β-cells. Average Ssumanalysis showed lower glucose tolerance in groups 1 and 2 vs. Group 3. Median S values under isolated glycemic curve segments were significantly higher than in comparison group. Plasma levels of growth hormone did not correlate with Ssum and S parameters in groups 1 and 2. There was a linear correlation between Ssum and plasma IGF-1 levels in patients from Group 1 (r=0.45; p=0.006. We also noted that Ssum had a non-linear correlation with plasma prolactin levels in patients from Group 3 (r=0.41; p<0.05.Conclusion. Postprandial area under the glycemic curve has positive linear association with

  8. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V.; Rooney, William D.; Garzotto, Mark G.; Springer, Charles S.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (Ktrans) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  9. Quantitative Functional Imaging Using Dynamic Positron Computed Tomography and Rapid Parameter Estimation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppe, Robert Allen

    Positron computed tomography (PCT) is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides both three dimensional imaging capability and quantitative measurements of local tissue radioactivity concentrations in vivo. This allows the development of non-invasive methods that employ the principles of tracer kinetics for determining physiological properties such as mass specific blood flow, tissue pH, and rates of substrate transport or utilization. A physiologically based, two-compartment tracer kinetic model was derived to mathematically describe the exchange of a radioindicator between blood and tissue. The model was adapted for use with dynamic sequences of data acquired with a positron tomograph. Rapid estimation techniques were implemented to produce functional images of the model parameters by analyzing each individual pixel sequence of the image data. A detailed analysis of the performance characteristics of three different parameter estimation schemes was performed. The analysis included examination of errors caused by statistical uncertainties in the measured data, errors in the timing of the data, and errors caused by violation of various assumptions of the tracer kinetic model. Two specific radioindicators were investigated. ('18)F -fluoromethane, an inert freely diffusible gas, was used for local quantitative determinations of both cerebral blood flow and tissue:blood partition coefficient. A method was developed that did not require direct sampling of arterial blood for the absolute scaling of flow values. The arterial input concentration time course was obtained by assuming that the alveolar or end-tidal expired breath radioactivity concentration is proportional to the arterial blood concentration. The scale of the input function was obtained from a series of venous blood concentration measurements. The method of absolute scaling using venous samples was validated in four studies, performed on normal volunteers, in which directly measured arterial concentrations

  10. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Cardiopulmonary Injury Caused by Mine Blasts in Shoals: A Randomized Controlled Study in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gengfen; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Weixiao; Chen, Jing; Kang, Jianyi; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Aimin; Lai, Xinan

    2013-01-01

    Background Because the characteristics of blast waves in water are different from those in air and because kinetic energy is liberated by a pressure wave at the water-air interface, thoracic injuries from mine blasts in shoals may be serious. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals. Methods To study the characteristics of cardiopulmonary injury, 56 animals were divided randomly into three experimental groups (12 animals in the sham group, 22 animals in the land group and 22 animals in the shoal group). To examine the biomechanics of injury, 20 animals were divided randomly into the land group and the shoal group. In the experimental model, the water surface was at the level of the rabbit's xiphoid process, and paper electric detonators (600 mg RDX) were used to simulate mines. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted, and arterial blood gases, serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB and other physiologic parameters were measured over a 12-hour period after detonation. Pressures in the thorax and abdomen and the acceleration of the thorax were measured. Conclusion The results indicate that severe cardiopulmonary injury and dysfunction occur following exposure to mine blasts in shoals. Therefore, the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury may result from shear waves that produce strain at the water-air interface. Another mechanism of injury includes the propagation of the shock wave from the planta to the thorax, which causes a much higher peak overpressure in the abdomen than in the thorax; as a result, the abdominal organs and diaphragm are thrust into the thorax, damaging the lungs and heart. PMID:24358110

  11. Radionuclide ventriculography: evaluation of parameters of right ventricular function in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of study was to establish own method of assessment of right ventricular (RV) function and to calculate the normal values of ejection fraction and other parameters of emptying and filling of the RV from gated radionuclide ventriculography. Twenty-three patients (14 men, 9 women; mean age 31 y; range 21-69 y) were selected from the patients with excluded valve diseases and with low-to-medium probability of coronary artery disease, directed to a myocardial perfusion SPECT study. Criteria of inclusion to normalgroup: 1) lack of perfusion defects in SPECT study, and 2) normalright ventricular function in gated radionuclide ventriculography (significant increase of the RV ejection fraction in stress in comparison to rest). Gated radionuclide ventriculography was performed after in vivo labelling of the red blood cells with 99mTc, in modified LAO-45 projection (24 frames during heart cycle, 6-mln-counts acquisition in rest and then 3-min-long acquisitions on each level of exercise). 1) Analysis of RV function turned out difficult because of irregular shape of the ventricle and superposition of extra-ventricular structures (right atrium, pulmonary artery, left ventricle). 2) During RV contour drawing: a) the application of the amplitude and phase Fourier analysis helped to separate the activity corresponding to right atrium and left ventricle, b) the display of the heart in many different colour scales helped to establish the best separation between RV and pulmonary artery. 3) Normal values of the RV function achieved in rest: EF- RV=41±4%, PER - V=1.56±0.25[EDV/s], AER - RV=1.3±0.18[EDV/s], tPER - RV=102±29[ms], PFR - RV=1.24±0.27[EdV/s], AFR - RV=0.96±1.19[EDV/s, tPFR - RV=135±61[ms]. 4) Normal values achieved during maximal ±exercise: EF - RV=49±4%, PER - RV=3.17±0.73[[EDV/s, AER - RV=2.42±0.45[EDV/s, tPER -RV=82±23[ms], PFR - RV=3.47±0.73[EDV/s], AER - RV=2.24±0.64[EDV/s], tPFR - RV=124±28[ms]. In gated radionuclide ventriculography: 1) Normal

  12. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast. PMID:27220252

  13. Rigorous derivation of two-parameter double-hybrid density-functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Fromager, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous derivation of two-parameter double-hybrid (DH) density-functionals is presented. Starting from the linear adiabatic connection-based approach of Sharkas et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064113 (2011)], a fraction of exact multideterminantal exchange is now treated explicitly in order to obtain a fraction ac of second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) correlation energy which is not necessarily equal to the square of the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange ax2. It is shown analytically that the former must be smaller or equal to the latter, which is fulfilled for standard empirical DHs. While the expression for the DHs is justified, the calculation of the orbitals, as performed routinely, is questionable. The main criticism concerns the use of ax as fraction of non-local HF exchange potential. In principle, the orbitals should be obtained from an optimized effective potential (OEP) calculation based on a fictitious partially interacting system. As an alternative, which remains computationally cheap and is still ...

  14. Cardiac MRI in pulmonary artery hypertension: correlations between morphological and functional parameters and invasive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare cardiac MRI with right heart catheterisation in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to evaluate its ability to assess PH severity. Forty patients were included. MRI included cine and phase-contrast sequences, study of ventricular function, cardiac cavity areas and ratios, position of the interventricular septum (IVS) in systole and diastole, and flow measurements. We defined four groups according to the severity of PH and three groups according to IVS position: A, normal position; B, abnormal in diastole; C, abnormal in diastole and systole. IVS position was correlated with pulmonary artery pressures and PVR (pulmonary vascular resistance). Median pulmonary artery pressures and resistance were significantly higher in patients with an abnormal septal position compared with those with a normal position. Correlations were good between the right ventricular ejection fraction and PVR, right ventricular end-systolic volume and PAP, percentage of right ventricular area change and PVR, and diastolic and systolic ventricular area ratio and PVR. These parameters were significantly associated with PH severity. Cardiac MRI can help to assess the severity of PH. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  16. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermid, Richard M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Alatalo, Katherine [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp- CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocker, Alison F. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krajnović, Davor [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: richard.mcdermid@mq.edu.au [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  17. Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Thyroid Function Parameters in Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A considerable portion of patients with depressive disorders do not respond properly to medical treatment and need Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. On the other hand, as some beneficial effects of ECT are attributed to increase in thyroid hormones, levothyronin is used as an adjuvant prior to ECT. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function changes after ECT. Methods: This was an out come study done on depressed patients attending the psychiatric clinic who were resistant to medical therapy and therefore candidates for ECT. Blood samples were drawn before the first and the last ECT and serum levels of T3, T4, T3RU and TSH were measured. Results: Thirty-one patients (19 males and 12 females were enrolled the study. Serum levels of T3 and T3RU significantly increased by ECT (p-values of 0.0001 and 0.029, respectively. T3 increased in all 31 patients and this was true for both genders and all age groups and also for various durations of depression, but T4 and TSH levels decreased significantly (p-values of 0.025 and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that some effects of ECT may be primarily due to increased T3 levels and other parameters change accordingly. These findings need to be confirmed by further studies

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, M.; Cervantes, I.; Gutierrez, J. P.; Gomez, M. D.; Valera, M.

    2014-06-01

    Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called Jaleo Menorquin. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called el bot. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females), with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76), those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36) as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21). The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses. (Author)

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Solé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called “Jaleo Menorquín”. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called “el bot”. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females, with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76, those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36 as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21. The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses.

  20. Estudo da função pulmonar em pacientes submetidos a revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea com derivação intraluminal Pulmonary function study in patients who underwent myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass with an intraluminal shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rocha Pinto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available As alterações da função pulmonar nos pacientes submetidos a cirurgias com auxílio da Circulação Extracorpórea (CEC têm sido relatadas na literatura. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a função pulmonar de um grupo de pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem o uso da CEC. Foram estudados de maneira prospectiva 23 pacientes portadores de insuficiência coronariana e submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem CEC. A idade variou de 36 a 69 anos, sendo 16 pacientes do sexo masculino e sete do sexo feminino. A avaliação da função pulmonar foi feita através de espirometria e prova alvéolo-respiratória, realizadas no período pré-operatório, no quarto dia (PO4 e no décimo dia (PO10> pós-operatório. A análise dos dados revelou redução da Capacidade Vital (CV em 37,84% (pPulmonary complications are a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality in those patients undergoing operations utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary function after myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass using a intraluminal shunt. Twenty-three patients with coronary disease were submitted to surgery by this technique and pulmonary function testing was conducted consecutively. The surgeries were performed via a median sternotomy with a reversed saphenous vein and/or an internal mammary artery graft. The age ranged from 36 to 69 years (mean 56,3 years. The group was comprised by 16 men and seven women. The pulmonary function tests consisted of spirometric investigations and blood gases measurements with evaluation of intrapulmonary shunt degree, both analyzed during the preoperative period, at the 4th (PO4 and at the 10th (PO10 postoperative day. In spirometry were determinated the vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV, forced expiratory flow over middle half of FVC (FEF

  1. The mass movement routing tool r.randomwalk and its functionalities for parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Julia; Mergili, Martin

    2016-04-01

    r.randomwalk is a GIS-based, multi-functional conceptual tool for mass movement routing. Starting from one to many release points or release areas, mass points are routed down through the digital elevation model until a defined break criterion is reached. Break criteria are defined by the user and may consist in an angle of reach or a related parameter (empirical-statistical relationships), in the drop of the flow velocity to zero (two-parameter friction model), or in the exceedance of a maximum runup height. Multiple break criteria may be combined. A constrained random walk approach is applied for the routing procedure, where the slope and the perpetuation of the flow direction determine the probability of the flow to move in a certain direction. r.randomwalk is implemented as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software and, as such, is open source. It can be obtained from http://www.mergili.at/randomwalk.html. Besides other innovative functionalities, r.randomwalk serves with built-in functionalities for the derivation of an impact indicator index (III) map with values in the range 0-1. III is derived from multiple model runs with different combinations of input parameters varied in a random or controlled way. It represents the fraction of model runs predicting an impact at a given pixel and is evaluated against the observed impact area through an ROC Plot. The related tool r.ranger facilitates the automated generation and evaluation of many III maps from a variety of sets of parameter combinations. We employ r.randomwalk and r.ranger for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Thereby we do not focus on parameter values, but - accounting for the uncertainty inherent in all parameters - on parameter ranges. In this sense, we demonstrate two strategies for parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization. We avoid to (i) use one-at-a-time parameter testing which would fail to account for interdependencies of the parameters, and (ii) to explore all possible

  2. Left ventricular functional parameters using ECG-gated multidetector spiral CT in comparison with invasive ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of left ventricular function using a multidetector CT (MDCT) with retrospective ECG-gating and to compare the results with conventional ventriculography. Materials and methods: In 26 patients, retrospectively ECG-gated MDCT of the heart (Volume Zoom, Siemens, Germany) as well as conventional coronary angiography including ventriculography was performed to exclude or follow coronary artery disease. CT examination (120 KV, 400 mAs) was carried out with 4 x 1 mm collimation (500 ms gantry rotation time). For CT angiography, 150 ml of contrast media was injected intravenously at a flow rate of 4 ml/s. All data sets of the functional cardiac parameters were reconstructed in end-systolic and end-diastolic phase. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and ejection fraction (EF) were determined from multiplanar reformations orthogonally through the cardiac short axis and analyzed using special evaluation software (ARGUS, Siemens). The results were compared with ESV, EDV and EF obtained from invasive ventriculography. Results: In all cases, a sufficient quality of the MDCT images was achieved. EDV (150.1±16.2 ml MDCT vs. 138.7±16.9 ml ventriculography; mean difference 11.4±12.7 ml,. r=0.51) had an acceptable correlation to conventional ventriculography, and ESV (58.1±14.6 ml vs. 50.2±13.4 ml; mean difference 7.9±8.8 ml; r=0.81) and EF (60.9±13.6% vs. 64.9±12.7%; mean difference 4.0±6.2%; r=0.79) showed a good correlation. In comparison with invasive ventriculography, MDCT tended to overestimate significantly EDV (p=0.008) and ESV (p=0.003) and to underestimate EF (0.001). Conclusion: MDCT of the heart with retrospective ECG-gating enables efficient estimation of left ventricular function, providing important additional information of non-invasive cardiac imaging using MDCT. However, EDV and EVS were significantly overestimated and EF was underestimated in MDCT compared to ventriculography. (orig.)

  3. Influence of emphysema distribution on pulmonary function parameters in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Novais e Bastos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact that the distribution of emphysema has on clinical and functional severity in patients with COPD. METHODS: The distribution of the emphysema was analyzed in COPD patients, who were classified according to a 5-point visual classification system of lung CT findings. We assessed the influence of emphysema distribution type on the clinical and functional presentation of COPD. We also evaluated hypoxemia after the six-minute walk test (6MWT and determined the six-minute walk distance (6MWD. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were included. The mean age was 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 91.9% were male, and all but one were smokers (mean smoking history, 62.7 ± 38.4 pack-years. The emphysema distribution was categorized as obviously upper lung-predominant (type 1, in 36.0% of the patients; slightly upper lung-predominant (type 2, in 25.6%; homogeneous between the upper and lower lung (type 3, in 16.3%; and slightly lower lung-predominant (type 4, in 22.1%. Type 2 emphysema distribution was associated with lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and DLCO. In comparison with the type 1 patients, the type 4 patients were more likely to have an FEV1 < 65% of the predicted value (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 1.43-33.45; p = 0.016, a 6MWD < 350 m (OR = 6.36, 95% CI: 1.26-32.18; p = 0.025, and post-6MWT hypoxemia (OR = 32.66, 95% CI: 3.26-326.84; p = 0.003. The type 3 patients had a higher RV/TLC ratio, although the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD appears to be greater in type 4 patients, and type 3 patients tend to have greater hyperinflation. The distribution of emphysema could have a major impact on functional parameters and should be considered in the evaluation of COPD patients.

  4. Towards all-order Laurent expansion of generalized hypergeometric functions around rational values of parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykov, M.Yu.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-07-15

    We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in {epsilon} of the Gauss hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+(p/q)+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z) and {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+ a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), where I{sub 1},I{sub 2},I{sub 3},p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and {epsilon} is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+c{epsilon};z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1}({gamma}(j))/({gamma}(1+j-(p)/(q))) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1) and the multiple rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1} ({gamma}(j+(p)/(q)))/({gamma}(1+j)) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1), where S{sub a}(j)={sigma}{sup j}{sub k=1}(1)/(k{sup a}) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p.1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon},(p)/(q)+B{sub p-1};z) and {sub p}F{sub p-1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon},(p)/(q)+A{sub p};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon};z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of streamer properties in air as function of pulse and reactor parameters by ICCD photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winands, G J J [HMVT, 6710 BD, Ede (Netherlands); Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Van Heesch, E J M [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yan, K [Zhejiang University, 310082, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-12-07

    Streamer properties such as their velocity, diameter, intensity and density, can be obtained by analysis of temporal and spatial resolved ICCD imaging. In this paper, experimental results on streamer generation and propagation as a function of several high-voltage pulse and reactor parameters are described. Experiments were performed on a large scale wire-plate reactor in ambient air. The set-up allows for independent variation of the parameters over wide ranges. The minimum gate time of the ICCD camera is 5 ns, allowing for a high temporal resolution. The camera can be triggered with a precision of 1 ns. Both negative and positive polarity pulses are investigated. The most important conclusions are as follows. (1) The streamer velocity ((0.5-2.5) x 10{sup 6} m s{sup -1}) increases if the applied electric field and/or the voltage rise rate is increased. (2) The same is true regarding the velocity ((0.2-1.2) x 10{sup 5} m s{sup -1}) with which the streamer diameter (0.7-3.0 mm) increases during propagation. (3) Typical properties (velocity, diameter, etc) of negative and positive polarity streamers vary less than 25%, especially when the applied electric field is high. (4) As long as the dc bias voltage is below the dc corona onset value it does not have a separate effect on the visual streamer properties. Only the total voltage (peak voltage + dc) is of importance. (5) A simple model was used to determine the electric field in the secondary streamer channel. It was found that in the light emitting part of the secondary streamer the electric field is approximately 21.5 kV cm{sup -1}. In the remainder (dark part) of the channel the electric field is around 6.5 kV cm{sup -1}. This paper shows mainly experimental findings. Not all observed relations and phenomena could be explained. This is partly caused by the fact that current theoretical and numerical models are not yet able to describe the experimental situation as used during this study.

  6. Density functional theory computation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance parameters in light and heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Kiplangat

    This thesis illustrates the utilization of Density functional theory (DFT) in calculations of gas and solution phase Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) properties of light and heavy nuclei. Computing NMR properties is still a challenge and there are many unknown factors that are still being explored. For instance, influence of hydrogen-bonding; thermal motion; vibration; rotation and solvent effects. In one of the theoretical studies of 195Pt NMR chemical shift in cisplatin and its derivatives illustrated in Chapter 2 and 3 of this thesis. The importance of representing explicit solvent molecules explicitly around the Pt center in cisplatin complexes was outlined. In the same complexes, solvent effect contributed about half of the J(Pt-N) coupling constant. Indicating the significance of considering the surrounding solvent molecules in elucidating the NMR measurements of cisplatin binding to DNA. In chapter 4, we explore the Spin-Orbit (SO) effects on the 29Si and 13C chemical shifts induced by surrounding metal and ligands. The unusual Ni, Pd, Pt trends in SO effects to the 29Si in metallasilatrane complexes X-Si-(mu-mt)4-M-Y was interpreted based on electronic and relativistic effects rather than by structural differences between the complexes. In addition, we develop a non-linear model for predicting NMR SO effects in a series of organics bonded to heavy nuclei halides. In chapter 5, we extend the idea of "Chemist's orbitals" LMO analysis to the quantum chemical proton NMR computation of systems with internal resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds. Consequently, we explicitly link the relationship between the NMR parameters related to H-bonded systems and intuitive picture of a chemical bond from quantum calculations. The analysis shows how NMR signatures characteristic of H-bond can be explained by local bonding and electron delocalization concepts. One shortcoming of some of the anti-cancer agents like cisplatin is that they are toxic and researchers are looking for

  7. 模拟不同海拔氦氧潜水和体力负荷对人体心肺功能的影响%Effect of simulated different high altitude helium-oxygen diving and physical load on cardiopulmonary function of divers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪涛; 周述尧; 张延猛; 石路

    2013-01-01

    Objective To monitor physiological indexes of divers in simulated different high altitude helium-oxygen (heliox) diving,and also to explore the effect of different high-altitude diving and physical load on the cardiopulmonary function of divers.Methods In the dual-purpose hyperbaric-hypobaric chambers,4 divers were exposed to simulated altitudes of 50 (plain),3000,4000 and 5200 m for a succession of 9 days.The divers stayed at 50,3000 and 4000 m for 2 days respectively,but at 5200 m they stayed for 3 days.At 3000 and 4000 m,the divers conducted 30 m simulated dives,once a day.On the first day at 5200 m,the divers carried out a 30 m simulated dive,and on the second day a 50 m dive,but on the third day no diving activity was conducted.The duration of diving was all 60 minutes.Heart rate and stroke volume of the divers were detected every morning,after they sat at ease for 10 minutes.Heart rate,arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and exhaled end CO2 volume were measured after the divers took 1 min rest on the treadmill.Then,the divers had 5-minute treadmill exercise with load of 0.5 kg and speed of 60r/min.The pace of exercise was measured with a pacemeter,and heart rate and SaO2 at the end of each minute were detected for a succession of 5 minutes.After exercise,the divers sat at ease on the treadmill,and heart rate,SaO2 and exhaled end CO2 volume were recorded at the end of each minute for a succession of 3 minutes.Every afternoon,the divers carried out simulated dives,during which heart rate was monitored.(No diving at the plain,but the physiological indexes was measured,which was used as basic value).Change value of heart rate was the heart rate at the 5th minute subtracted by the recovery heart rate at the 3rd minute.The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was thus calculated according to heart rate by using the Astrand P.O nomogram.Results (1) When the simulated 30 m dive was performed at the altitudes of 3 000 and 4 000 m,the heart rates of the divers decreased by 9

  8. Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest due to penetrating cardiac injury treated by percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in the emergency room: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Yoshihiko; Kano, Hitoshi; Yama, Naoya; Nara, Satoshi; Hase, Mamoru; Asai, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Penetrating cardiac injury tends to generally be repaired without cardiopulmonary bypass in the operating room. We herein report the case of penetrating cardiac injury repaired using percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in an emergency room. A 57-year-old man attempted suicide by stabbing himself in the left anterior chest with a knife. Although the patient suffered cardiopulmonary arrest for 7 min in the ambulance, spontaneous circulation was restored following pericardiotomy through emergency left thoracotomy in the emergency room. To prevent coronary artery injury and control the massive bleeding, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was instituted without systemic heparinization and the cardiac injury was repaired in the emergency room. The patient was then transferred to another hospital on day 46 for further rehabilitation. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support might be helpful for treating critical patients in an emergency room, even in the case of trauma patients. PMID:17342366

  9. File management for experiment control parameters within a distributed function computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt to design and implement a computer system for control of and data collection from a set of laboratory experiments reveals that many of the experiments in the set require an extensive collection of parameters for their control. The operation of the experiments can be greatly simplified if a means can be found for storing these parameters between experiments and automatically accessing them as they are required. A subsystem for managing files of such experiment control parameters is discussed. 3 figures

  10. Lethal systemic Degos disease with prominent cardio-pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degos disease (DD) is a rare obstructive vasculopathy characterized by distinctive skin lesions. Involvement of the soles, palms and genitalia is rare. In most cases disease has an unfavorable course and involves gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and occasionally other organs. Pleural and pericardial involvements are usually minor manifestations with prolonged course. Death occurs in approximately 50% of the patients usually due to intestinal perforation or central nervous system bleeding. We describe a 48-year-old man of lethal systemic DD. Widespread skin lesions with involvement of palm plantar surfaces, genitalia and scalp were ignored for 3 years, whereas the disease revealed its own malignant nature. The disorder progressed to nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary system that led to death after 5 months from onset of systemic involvement as severe restrictive cardio-pulmonary insufficiency. Autopsy showed diffuse fibrotic changes in serial membranes and internal organs. (author)

  11. Glycemic control and outcome related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Steven; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia, aggravated by cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients. Whereas hyperglycemia was originally perceived as an adaptive response to surgical stress, it is now clear that glycemic control is a strategy to reduce adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. The optimal blood glucose target, whether or not glycemic control should be initiated already intraoperatively, and whether or not perioperative glucose administration affects the impact of glycemic control on ischemia-reperfusion damage remain open questions. Hypoglycemia, the risk of which is increased with glycemic control, is also associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether brief episodes of hypoglycemia, rapidly corrected during glycemic control, have adverse effects on outcome. This review gives an overview of the currently available literature on glycemic control during and after cardiac surgery and focuses on the indicated open questions about this intervention for this specific patient population. PMID:26060029

  12. Direct estimates of food and eating production function parameters for 2004-12 using an ATUS/CEX synthetic dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar; Rios-Avila, Fernando; Kim, Kijong

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the presence of heterogeneity, by household type, in the elasticity of substitution between food expenditures and time and in the goods intensity parameter in the household food and eating production functions. We use a synthetic dataset constructed by statistically matching the American Time Use Survey and the Consumer Expenditure Survey. We establish the presence of heterogeneity in the elasticity of substitution and in the intensity parameter. We find that the elastici...

  13. [On the prediction of the supercompensation phase by determining the parameters of the living functional system of the body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, A A; Sazonov, S V

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the overdamped Duffing model, a technique for determining the key parameters of functional systems of the living body has been developed which characterizes its properties during recovery from standard physical load. As an example, the dynamics of restoration of pulse frequency is considered. The knowledge of these parameters allows one to predict the response of the living body to intensive external loads. This information can also be helpful for the optimization of the training process. PMID:17907417

  14. Estimating the parameters of stochastic differential equations using a criterion function based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, A. David; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of parameters in the drift and diffusion terms of stochastic differential equations involves simulation and generally requires substantial data sets. We examine a method that can be applied when available time series are limited to less than 20 observations per replication. We compare and contrast parameter estimation for linear and nonlinear first-order stochastic differential equations using two criterion functions: one based on a Chi-square statistic, put forward by Hurn and Lin...

  15. [Dissociation of structural and functional parameters of the retina and optic nerve in a patient with Alzheimer's disease (clinical case)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichev, V P; Panyushkina, L A; Ronzina, I A

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is often one of the earliest sings of Alzheimer's disease. This article reports a clinical case of a female patient diagnosed with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. As revealed by a comprehensive examination, her visual fields and visual evoked potentials were markedly changed, while morphometric parameters of the retina and optic nerve appeared normal. Such a significant dissociation of structural and functional parameters may indicate a more proximal involvement of visual pathways in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26080589

  16. Computing Likelihood Functions for High-Energy Physics Experiments when Distributions are Defined by Simulators with Nuisance Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Radford, M

    2008-01-01

    When searching for new phenomena in high-energy physics, statistical analysis is complicated by the presence of nuisance parameters, representing uncertainty in the physics of interactions or in detector properties. Another complication, even with no nuisance parameters, is that the probability distributions of the models are speci ed only by simulation programs, with no way of evaluating their probability density functions. I advocate expressing the result of an experiment by means of the likelihood function, rather than by frequentist con dence intervals or p-values. A likelihood function for this problem is dif- cult to obtain, however, for both of the reasons given above. I discuss ways of circumventing these problems by reducing dimensionality using a classi er and employing simulations with multiple values for the nuisance parameters.

  17. Concurrent supplementation of arginine, vitamin E, and vitamin C improve cardiopulmonary performance in broilers chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine, vitamin E (VE), and vitamin C (VC) on cardiopulmonary performance and ascites parameters of broilers reared under a cold environmental temperature. One-day-old male broilers were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (control, 1.2% arginine and 40 IU of VE), or the basal diet supplemented with 1% arginine and either 200 IU vitamin E (AE), 500 mg of vitamin C (AC), or a combination of VE and VC at the same amounts (AEC) per kilogram of feed. Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and mean arterial pressure were recorded in clinically healthy, anesthetized birds (28 to 42 d old) before and after an epinephrine (Epi) challenge (0.5 mg/kg of BW, i.v.), an aminoguanidine hemisulfate challenge (100 mg/kg of BW, i.v.), and an N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester challenge (50 mg/kg of BW, i.v.) at 20-min intervals. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, and the Student Newman-Keuls test was used to separate means within groups. The PAP increased 30 s after the Epi challenge in all birds, but the peak PAP was lower in the AEC group than in all the other groups, whereas birds in the AE and AC groups had lower PAP peaks than did the control group. After 120 s of challenge, the PAP was lower in AEC birds compared with the other birds. The PAP returned to pre-Epi amounts within 300 s in all groups. The PAP was increased (P < 0.05) within 60 s after the aminoguanidine hemisulfate and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester challenges in all groups, but no differences were found among groups. The mean arterial pressure responses did not differ among groups. Plasma NO was greater in the AEC group than in all the other groups before and after the Epi challenge. These results showed that Epi elicited lower amplitude PAP and less prolonged increases in PAP in birds from the AEC group, and this may have been related to the increased vasodilation attributable to NO production. The AEC may have had complementary effects against

  18. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfart Björn; Paskevicius Audrius; Sjöberg Trygve; Liao Qiuming; Steen Stig

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8) or LUCAS-...

  19. Cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular xylazine-ketamine in calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Rings, D M; Muir, W W

    1982-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of an intramuscular xylazine (0.088 mg/kg)-ketamine (4.4 mg/kg) drug combination were evaluated in calves. Heart rate, central venous and mean pulmonary artery blood pressures, and cardiac output did not change after drug administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) 15 minutes after drug administration. Respiratory frequency increased significantly (P less than 0.05) whereas arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decre...

  20. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li; Lu, Yuan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them.

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran; Valerie J Ehlers

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Botswana nurses provide most health care in the primary, secondary and tertiary level clinics and hospitals. Trauma and medical emergencies are on the increase, and nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skills in order to be able to implement effective interventions in cardiac arrest situations.Objective: The objective of this descriptive study was to assess registered nurses’ CPR knowledge and skills.Method: A pre-test, intervention and re-test ...

  2. Successful cardiopulmonary bypass in diabetics with anaphylactoid reactions to protamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, W. S.; Reid, K G; Hider, C F; Davidson, I. A.; Boulton, F. E.; Yap, P L

    1984-01-01

    Two insulin dependent diabetics with previous anaphylactic like (anaphylactoid) reactions to protamine underwent successful cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery surgery. Platelet concentrates instead of protamine were used to neutralise their systemic heparinisation. In both cases the anaphylactoid reactions first became apparent after administration of protamine sulphate at the end of cardiac catheterisation. These cases show that adverse reactions to protamine need not be a contraindi...

  3. Potential wrist ligament injury in rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Curran; Sasha Sorr; Eva Aquino

    2013-01-01

    Wrist pain in rescuers performing chest compressions as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been reported anecdotally and recently in the literature. Studies have indicated that rescuers apply as much as 644 N of force to the victim′s chest with each compression, while standards require one hundred compressions per minute. Recent research suggests that forces transmitted through the rescuers′ wrists of less than 10% of those seen during the performance of chest compressions significantl...

  4. Implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation workshop in first MBBS

    OpenAIRE

    Saiyad, Shaista M; Saiyad, Mubassir; Pandya, Charu J

    2015-01-01

    Context: Students should be exposed to early clinical scenario so that they start developing competency-based learning right from their MBBS 1st year. Medical Council of India has recognized this need and has suggested early clinical exposure of MBBS 1st year students in their document Vision 2015. Medical education in India needs change for achieving desired competencies. It has been concluded that Indian medical undergraduates have inadequate knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)...

  5. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali; Urman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlat...

  6. Current Care Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation : Implementation, skills and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    MÀkinen, Marja

    2010-01-01

    Background: The national resuscitation guidelines were published in Finland in 2002 and are based on international guidelines published in 2000. The main goal of the national guidelines, available on the Internet free of charge, is early defibrillation by nurses in an institutional setting. Aim: To study possible changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practices, especially concerning early defibrillation, nurses and students attitudes of guideline implementation and nurses and ...

  7. Effect of loading condition, specimen geometry, size-effect and softening function on double- fracture parameters of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents numerical investigation of the influence of the specimen geometry, loading condition, size-effect and softening function of concrete on double- fracture parameters. The input data needed for computation of the double- fracture parameters are obtained from the well-known version of Fictitious Crack Model (FCM). FCM is developed for three standard specimens: three-point bend test, compact tension specimen and four-point bend test of size range 100–600 mm at relative size of initial crack length 0.3. The analysis of numerical results shows some interesting behaviour of double- fracture parameters.

  8. Characterization of Micro- and Nanometer Resolved Technical Surfaces with Function-oriented Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    The structural properties of technical surfaces become more important in the applications of micro and nanotechnology. The possible relationships between geometrical properties of technical surfaces and their functional behavior are commonly investigated by functional tests. Although functional tests may provide correlations between the measured variable and the functional behavior of products, available information is not always sufficient to understand reasons for the lack of functionality ...

  9. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and contrast media reactions in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To assess current knowledge and training in the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation within a radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard of knowledge about the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation among radiologists, radiographers and nurses were audited using a two-section questionnaire. Our results were compared against nationally accepted standards. Repeat audits were undertaken over a 28-month period. Three full audit cycles were completed. RESULTS: The initial audit confirmed that although a voluntary training programme was in place, knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques were below acceptable levels (set at 70%) for all staff members. The mean score for radiologists was 50%. Immediate changes instituted included retraining courses, the distribution of standard guidelines and the composition and distribution of two separate information handouts. Initial improvements were complemented by new wallcharts, which were distributed throughout the department, a series of lectures on management of contrast reactions and regular reviews with feedback to staff. In the third and final audit all staff groups had surpassed the required standard. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of contrast media reactions and resuscitation needs constant updating. Revision of skills requires a prescriptive programme; visual display of advice is a constant reminder. It is our contention all radiology departmental staff should consider it a personal duty to maintain their resuscitation skills at appropriate standards. O'Neill, J.M., McBride, K.D.(2001). Clinical Radiology 00, 000-000

  11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and contrast media reactions in a radiology department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, John M.; McBride, Kieran D

    2001-04-01

    AIM: To assess current knowledge and training in the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation within a radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard of knowledge about the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation among radiologists, radiographers and nurses were audited using a two-section questionnaire. Our results were compared against nationally accepted standards. Repeat audits were undertaken over a 28-month period. Three full audit cycles were completed. RESULTS: The initial audit confirmed that although a voluntary training programme was in place, knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques were below acceptable levels (set at 70%) for all staff members. The mean score for radiologists was 50%. Immediate changes instituted included retraining courses, the distribution of standard guidelines and the composition and distribution of two separate information handouts. Initial improvements were complemented by new wallcharts, which were distributed throughout the department, a series of lectures on management of contrast reactions and regular reviews with feedback to staff. In the third and final audit all staff groups had surpassed the required standard. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of contrast media reactions and resuscitation needs constant updating. Revision of skills requires a prescriptive programme; visual display of advice is a constant reminder. It is our contention all radiology departmental staff should consider it a personal duty to maintain their resuscitation skills at appropriate standards. O'Neill, J.M., McBride, K.D.(2001). Clinical Radiology 00, 000-000.

  12. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Ekiz, MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p 0.05. KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters.

  13. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Timur; Aslan, Meryem Doğan; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT) application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p 0.05). KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters. PMID:26220179

  14. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševerdija, Ervin E; Vranken, Nousjka P A; Teerenstra, Steven; Ganushchak, Yuri M; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p partial oxygen pressures changed. Cerebral tissue oximetry effectively identifies changes related to surgical events or vulnerable periods during cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation. PMID:26390677

  15. Effect of Dextrose-Crystalloid Priming Solution on Fluid Requirements and Urine Output During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Samuel; Hacker, Jerriann

    1986-01-01

    We examined the influence of the addition of dextrose to crystalloid cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution. Ten patients received only lactated Ringer's solution during the perioperative period and as their cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution, while ten others, managed identically in all other respects, received only 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's solution (D 5LR). During cardiopulmonary bypass, patients who did not receive glucose required more supplementary fluid (20.0 vs 2.2 ml Kg−...

  16. Effect of window function for measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter using fast fourier transform of tone-burst signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Jong Beom; Song, Dong Gil; Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In ultrasonic nonlinear parameter measurement using the fast Fourier transform(FFT) of tone-burst signals, the side lobe and leakage on spectrum because of finite time and non-periodicity of signals makes it difficult to measure the harmonic magnitudes accurately. The window function made it possible to resolve this problem. In this study, the effect of the Hanning and Turkey window functions on the experimental measurement of nonlinear parameters was analyzed. In addition, the effect of changes in tone burst signal number with changes in the window function on the experimental measurement was analyzed. The result for both window functions were similar and showed that they enabled reliable nonlinear parameter measurement. However, in order to restore original signal amplitude, the amplitude compensation coefficient should be considered for each window function. On a separate note, the larger number of tone bursts was advantageous for stable nonlinear parameter measurement, but this effect was more advantageous in the case of the Hanning window than the Tukey window.

  17. Effect of window function for measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter using fast fourier transform of tone-burst signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ultrasonic nonlinear parameter measurement using the fast Fourier transform(FFT) of tone-burst signals, the side lobe and leakage on spectrum because of finite time and non-periodicity of signals makes it difficult to measure the harmonic magnitudes accurately. The window function made it possible to resolve this problem. In this study, the effect of the Hanning and Turkey window functions on the experimental measurement of nonlinear parameters was analyzed. In addition, the effect of changes in tone burst signal number with changes in the window function on the experimental measurement was analyzed. The result for both window functions were similar and showed that they enabled reliable nonlinear parameter measurement. However, in order to restore original signal amplitude, the amplitude compensation coefficient should be considered for each window function. On a separate note, the larger number of tone bursts was advantageous for stable nonlinear parameter measurement, but this effect was more advantageous in the case of the Hanning window than the Tukey window

  18. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on postoperative cardiopulmonary function and quality of life after oesophagectomy%吸气肌训练对食管癌根治术后患者心肺功能及生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏利娟; 马亚飞; 伍军; 李利霞; 张三虎; 陈小莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of preoperative and postoperative inspiratory muscle training(IMT) on cardiopulmonary function and quality of life for patients undergoing esophagectomy.Methods Sixty patients who had received esophagectomy for esophageal cancer were randomly divided into an observation group (n =30) and a control group (n =30).All of the subjects were given conventional treatment (including preoperative health education,abdominal respiration training,pursed lip respiration training and expectoration training).On this basis,the patients in the treatment group were advised to do deep respiratory training using a breathing training device,four times a day,lasting 20 minutes each time,for 10 days (including five days before and five days after the operation).Respiratory muscle strength,blood gases,six minute walk test (6MWT) distances and Borg dyspnea scores were measured on admission,on the day prior to the operation and on the 1st,3rd and 5th day after the operation.And also on admission and on the 5th day after the operation their pulmonary function was tested,and their psychological status and quality of life were evaluated using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the Nottingham health profile (NHP) respectively.Results There was no significant difference in any index between the two groups on admission(P > 0.05).Everyone's respiratory function and exercise capacity were sharply decreased,and Borg dyspnea score increased on the first postoperative day,and then gradually and significantly improved in both groups compared to that on admission(P < 0.05).On the fifth postoperative day,the maximal inspiratory pressure of 67.41 ± 14.53 mmH2O,maximal ventilatory volume of 79.83 ± 5.37 L,6MWT of 427.19 ± 46.52 m,Borg score of 1.45 ± 0.48 points,postoperative anxiety score of 8.14 ±2.80 points,NHP total (128.91 ± 25.12 points),NHP pain score (24.66 ± 10.12 points),NHP sleeping score (25.18 ± 9.75 points),and NHP physical

  19. The Effect of Chemical Therapy with Bleomycin Sulfate on the Functional Parameters of the Endocrine Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bleomycin sulfate on parameters related to the functionality of pancreatic tissue, with emphasis on the glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, insulinemia and static secretion of insulin as well as the insulin receptor, and PKA, PKC and GLUT2 concentrations in the pancreatic islets. Design Twenty-four male rats were divided into 2 groups: control and treated with bleomycin (2.5 mg/kg, intratracheal mode. After 7 days, the animals were euthanized and the analyses were carried out. Statistics The normality and the homoscedasticity of the data distribution were tested and ANOVA was applied. The Tukey post hoc test followed ANOVA for the comparison of the static insulin secretion test at different glucose concentrations. Results In the glucose tolerance test, the bleomycin group showed a larger area (17,306±539 mg/dLx60min than that of the control group (9,151±517 mg/dLx60min and in the insulin tolerance test, there was a greater percentage fall in glycemia (8.08±0.56% in the bleomycin than in the control group (3.87±1.14%. The bleomycin group also presented a reduction in insulin secretion and an increase in plasmatic insulin concentration in the static insulin secretion test. With respect to the concentrations of the insulin receptor, GLUT2, PKC and PKA in the pancreatic islets of the bleomycin group, there was an increase in GLUT2 (48.4% and PKC (70.8% and a reduction in PKA (38.5%. Conclusion During treatment with bleomycin, innumerable chemical-metabolic alterations were unleashed in the tissues which were not primary targets of the chemical therapy and which could compromise the homeostasis of the systems taking part in the glycemic adjustment, predisposing the organism to the development of a pre-diabetic pattern whose degree of incidence or reversibility is still unknown to the scientific community.

  20. Cardiopulmonary complications to chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic cardiovascular and pulmonary hemodynamic changes. A vasodilatatory state and a hyperdynamic circulation affecting the cardiac and pulmonary functions dominate the circulation. The recently defined cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may ...

  1. Parameter-free ansatz for inferring ground state wave functions of even potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Flego, S. P.; A. Plastino; Plastino, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's equation (SE) and the information-optimizing principle based on Fisher's information measure (FIM) are intimately linked, which entails the existence of a Legendre transform structure underlying the SE. In this comunication we show that the existence of such an structure allows, via the virial theorem, for the formulation of a parameter-free ground state's SE-ansatz for a rather large family of potentials. The parameter-free nature of the ansatz derives from the structural inf...

  2. Characteristics of the functional parameters of children of different somatotype during the period between 8 and 10 years

    OpenAIRE

    Слюсарчук, Виктор Васильевич

    2011-01-01

    Studied the expression and change in functional parameters of the same girls and boys of different somatotypes between 8 and 10 years. In ascertaining experiment was attended by 80 girls and boys who at baseline was 8 years old. Found that girls and boys the same age but different somatotypes. They are similar trends: a high level of features to ensure aerobic metabolic reactions, higher aerobic and anaerobic capacity lower, below the required functionality to most of the studied systems. The...

  3. Influence of neglected covariances on the estimation of Earth rotation parameters, geophysical excitation functions and second degree gravity field coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiker, Andrea; Kutterer, Hansjörg

    2010-05-01

    The Earth rotation variability is redundantly described by the combination of Earth rotation parameters (polar motion and length of day), geophysical excitation functions and second degree gravity field coefficients. There exist some publications regarding the comparison of the Earth rotation parameters and excitation functions. However, most authors do not make use of the redundancy. In addition, existing covariances between the input parameters are not considered. As shown in previous publications we use the redundancy for the independent mutual validation of the Earth rotation parameters, excitation functions and second degree gravity field coefficients based on an extended Gauss-Markov model and least-squares adjustment. The work regarding the mutual validation is performed within the project P9 "Combined analysis and validation of Earth rotation models and observations" of the research Unit FOR 584 ("Earth rotation and global dynamic processes") which is funded by the German Research Unit (DFG); see also abstract "Combined Analysis and Validation of Earth Rotation Models and Observations". The adjustment model is determined at first by the joint functional relations between the parameters and second by the stochastic model of the input data. A variance-covariance component estimation is included in the adjustment model. The functional model is based on the linearized Euler-Liouville equation. The construction of an appropriate stochastic model is prevented in practice by insufficient knowledge on variances and covariances. However, some numerical results derived from arbitrarily chosen stochastic models indicate that the stochastic model may be crucial for a correct estimation. The missing information is approximated by analyzing the input data. Synthetic variance-covariance matrices are constructed by considering empirical auto- and cross-correlation functions. The influence of neglected covariances is quantified and discussed by comparing the results derived

  4. Functional modelling of protection parameters following IEC 61850; Funktionales Datenmodell in Anlehnung an IEC 61850: Herstellerunabhaengige Modellierung von Schutzparametern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwan, M. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Forschungsgemeinschaft fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Stromwirtschaft (FGH) e.V., Mannheim (Germany); Wolters, J. [Forschungsgemeinschaft fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Stromwirtschaft (FGH) e.V., Mannheim (Germany)

    2005-10-31

    The authors present a newly developed data model for parameters of network protection devices. The model was developed following the standard series IEC 61850. The description of data items is strictly functional and thus independent from proprietary formats of equipment manufacturers. Together with its flexibility for further expansions, this accounts for various possibilities for practical application. (orig.)

  5. 四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练对心率变异性的影响%Experimental Study on the Effects of Four-weeks' Swiss ball Core Stability Training on Cardiopulmonary and its Regulatory Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞; 赵敬国

    2012-01-01

    观察为期四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练(球上跪姿抬臂)对非运动员女大学生自主神经调节功能的影响.利用芬兰产的POLAR S810i遥测心率表作为工具,测量比较了四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练前后18名非运动员女大学生(实验组10人,对照组8人)心率变异性指标的变化.经过四周锻炼,实验组的10名受试者均能在瑞士球上维持跪姿抬臂标准姿势5 min.实验组的SD、RMSSD以及HF都出现了显著性增加(P<0.05);而心率则出现了显著性降低(P<0.05).对照组各项指标均未出现显著性差异(P>0.05).四周瑞士球核心稳定性训练可降低安静时交感神经的紧张性,增加副交感神经的紧张性.提示该训练方法对强身健体、缓解压力可能有显著性作用.%To observe the effects of four - weeks' Swiss ball core stability training (raising arms and kneeling on the Swiss ball) on heart rate variability (HRV) and maximal oxygen uptake in non - athlete female students. The changes of heart rate variability indexes, maximal oxygen uptake, blood pressure and heart rate in 18 non - athlete female students ( experiment group, n = 10 and control group, n = 8) were measured and analyzed with POLAR S810i heart rate monitor and polar precision performance SW produced in Finland and Monark Ergomedic 839E bicycle ergometer produced in Sweden before and after four - week's Swiss ball core stability training. In experimental group, the subjects all could maintain the posture of raising arms and kneeling on the Swiss ball for 5 min after four-week training. Comparing with the value before the training, the maximal oxygen absolute value was very significantly increased (P 0.05) in all indexes before and after in control group. Four - week Swiss ball core stability training can significantly improve cardiopulmonary function, decrease resting sympathetic nervous, increase parasympathetic nervous. It is suggested that this training method might have a

  6. BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF THE SHAPE PARAMETER OF THE GENERALISED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION UNDER DIFFERENT LOSS FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANKU DEY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The generalized exponential (GE distribution proposed by Gupta and Kundu (1999 is an important lifetime distribution in survival analysis. In this article, we propose to obtain Bayes estimators and its associated risk based on a class of  non-informative prior under the assumption of three loss functions, namely, quadratic loss function (QLF, squared log-error loss function (SLELF and general entropy loss function (GELF. The motivation is to explore the most appropriate loss function among these three loss functions. The performances of the estimators are, therefore, compared on the basis of their risks obtained under QLF, SLELF and GELF separately. The relative efficiency of the estimators is also obtained. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performances of the Bayes estimates under different situations.

  7. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS...

  8. Parameter-free ansatz for inferring ground state wave functions of even convex potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrödinger's equation (SE) and the information-optimizing principle based on Fisher's information measure are intimately linked (Frieden et al 1999 Phys. Rev. E 60 48), which entails the existence of a Legendre transform structure underlying the SE (Flego et al 2011 J. Math. Phys. 52 082103). In this paper, we show that the existence of such a structure allows, via the virial theorem, for the formulation of a parameter-free ground state's SE ansatz for a rather large family of potentials. The parameter-free nature of the ansatz derives from the structural information it incorporates through its Legendre properties. (paper)

  9. Parameter-free ansatz for inferring ground state wave functions of even potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Flego, S P; Plastino, A R

    2011-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's equation (SE) and the information-optimizing principle based on Fisher's information measure (FIM) are intimately linked, which entails the existence of a Legendre transform structure underlying the SE. In this comunication we show that the existence of such an structure allows, via the virial theorem, for the formulation of a parameter-free ground state's SE-ansatz for a rather large family of potentials. The parameter-free nature of the ansatz derives from the structural information it incorporates through its Legendre properties.

  10. Hybrid functional calculations on the band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1‑x N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Yixu, Xu; Jianhua, Zhang; Shunqing, Wu; Zizhong, Zhu

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structures and band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1‑x N are studied by the first-principles method based on the density functional theory. Calculations by employing both the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerh of hybrid functional (HSE06) and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) one are performed. We found that the theoretical band gap bowing parameter is dependent significantly on the calculation method, especially on the exchange-correlation functional employed in the DFT calculations. The band gap of In x Ga1‑x N alloy decreases considerably when the In constituent x increases. It is the interactions of s–s and p–p orbitals between anions and cations that play significant roles in formatting the band gaps bowing. In general, the HSE06 hybrid functional could provide a good alternative to the PBE functional in calculating the band gap bowing parameters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11204257, 21233004) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2012M511447).

  11. Characteristics of the functional parameters of children of different somatotype during the period between 8 and 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sljusarchuk Viktor Vasil'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studied the expression and change in functional parameters of the same girls and boys of different somatotypes between 8 and 10 years. In ascertaining experiment was attended by 80 girls and boys who at baseline was 8 years old. Found that girls and boys the same age but different somatotypes. They are similar trends: a high level of features to ensure aerobic metabolic reactions, higher aerobic and anaerobic capacity lower, below the required functionality to most of the studied systems. The features associated primarily with the age in which the possibility of a deteriorating system. The above must be considered when choosing the optimal parameters of physical activity and develop programs to improve the functionality of primary school children during physical education.

  12. Ifluence of soil structural parameters on hydraulic functions for soil-water balance modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum W.E.H.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were conducted to prove the application of different methods for measuring soil hydraulic properties. Estimations of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity with different models were compared to measurements. The sensitivity of the computer model on soil structure parameter was tested.

  13. Interpretation of the Three-Parameter Testlet Response Model and Information Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    The testlet response model is designed for handling items that are clustered, such as those embedded within the same reading passage. Although the testlet is a powerful tool for handling item clusters in educational and psychological testing, the interpretations of its item parameters, the conditional correlation between item pairs, and the…

  14. Cardiopulmonary complications in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic cardiovascular and pulmonary hemodynamic changes. A vasodilatatory state and a hyperdynamic circulation affecting the cardiac and pulmonary functions dominate the circulation. The recently defined cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may...... portopulmonary hypertension in some patients. Recent research has focused on the assertion that the hemodynamic and neurohumoral dysregulation are of major importance for the development of the cardiovascular and pulmonary complications in cirrhosis. This aspect is important to take into account in the...... management of these patients....

  15. Cardiopulmonary complications to chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic cardiovascular and pulmonary hemodynamic changes. A vasodilatatory state and a hyperdynamic circulation affecting the cardiac and pulmonary functions dominate the circulation. The recently defined cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may...... portopulmonary hypertension in some patients. Recent research has focused on the assertion that the hemodynamic and neurohumoral dysregulation are of major importance for the development of the cardiovascular and pulmonary complications in cirrhosis. This aspect is important to take into account in the...... management of these patients....

  16. Tissue scattering parameter estimation through scattering phase function measurements by goniometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhu; Zhihua Ding; Martial Geiser

    2007-01-01

    @@ An automated optical system is built up to perform goniometric measurement of scattering phase function.Measurements of typical samples including monodisperse polystyrene micro-spheres solution, and mutlidisperse polystyrene micro-spheres solution are carried out in a dark room. The possibility of estimating the average particle size of phantom through analyzing its scattering phase function is demonstrated.

  17. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB. PMID:26613267

  18. An integrated mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system: model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonio; Cheng, Limei; Ursino, Mauro; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2016-04-01

    Several cardiovascular and pulmonary models have been proposed in the last few decades. However, very few have addressed the interactions between these two systems. Our group has developed an integrated cardiopulmonary model (CP Model) that mathematically describes the interactions between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, along with their main short-term control mechanisms. The model has been compared with human and animal data taken from published literature. Due to the volume of the work, the paper is divided in two parts. The present paper is on model development and normophysiology, whereas the second is on the model's validation on hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. The CP Model incorporates cardiovascular circulation, respiratory mechanics, tissue and alveolar gas exchange, as well as short-term neural control mechanisms acting on both the cardiovascular and the respiratory functions. The model is able to simulate physiological variables typically observed in adult humans under normal and pathological conditions and to explain the underlying mechanisms and dynamics. PMID:26683899

  19. Changes in Pulmonary Functional Parameters after Surgical Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smiljanić, Iva; Kovač, Vladimir; Čimić, Mislav

    2009-01-01

    There is a controversy in results about influence of surgery on pulmonary function in idiopathic scoliosis. The aim of the study was to study pulmonary function in severe thoracic idiopathic scoliosis and to detect changes in pulmonary function after the three-dimensional anterior surgical correction in severe thoracic scoliosis. 91 patients at the age of 16±5.1yrs underwent surgery in order to make a correction of scoliotic deformity. All the curves were greater than 70° (86±5.1). Group I co...

  20. A new ensemble algorithm of differential evolution and backtracking search optimization algorithm with adaptive control parameter for function optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Nama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE is an effective and powerful approach and it has been widely used in different environments. However, the performance of DE is sensitive to the choice of control parameters. Thus, to obtain optimal performance, time-consuming parameter tuning is necessary. Backtracking Search Optimization Algorithm (BSA is a new evolutionary algorithm (EA for solving real-valued numerical optimization problems. An ensemble algorithm called E-BSADE is proposed which incorporates concepts from DE and BSA. The performance of E-BSADE is evaluated on several benchmark functions and is compared with basic DE, BSA and conventional DE mutation strategy.

  1. Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rafati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262 who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using binomial and Chi Square tests. Of the patients included (n=2262, 741 patients (32.8% had successful CPR. The number of male patients requiring CPR was more than females in need of the procedure. The majority of patients requiring CPR were older than 60 years (56.4±17.9. The number of successful CPR cases in long-day shift (7:00 to 19:00 was more than that in the night shift (19:00 to 7:00. Furthermore, 413 (18.4% cases were resuscitated on holidays and 1849 (81.7% on the working days. The duration of CPR was 10 min or less in 710 (31.4% cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations which lasted less than 10 minutes were associated with better outcomes. The findings of the present study indicate that some manageable factors including the duration of CPR, working shift, working day (holiday or non-holiday could affect the CPR outcomes. The findings might also be taken as evidence to suggest that the allocation of more personnel in each shift especially in night shifts and holidays, planning to increase the personnel's CPR skills, and decreasing the waste time would result in the improvement of CPR outcome.

  2. Distributed-parameter problem solved on a hybrid computer by a modified function storage technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, N.J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes a method which is based on a function storage technique improved by a number of modifications; it fulfils the two main demands: the solution is based directly on the physical equations, and is accurate within 1%...

  3. Pedotransfer functions to estimate proctor test parameters under different tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Rosa Álvarez; Federico Guillermo Micucci; Carolina Bustingorri; Miguel Angel Taboada

    2010-01-01

    The Proctor test is time-consuming and requires sampling of several kilograms of soil. Proctor test parameters were predicted in Mollisols, Entisols and Vertisols of the Pampean region of Argentina under different management systems. They were estimated from a minimum number of readily available soil properties (soil texture, total organic C) and management (training data set; n = 73). The results were used to generate a soil compaction susceptibility model, which was subsequently validated u...

  4. Experimental determination of solubility parameters of oils as a function of pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Duong, Diep; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the solubility parameter of dead and live crude oils was measured at 303.15 K and up to 300 bar, using the internal pressure approach. An indirect technique was chosen, using thermal expansivities (determined from microcalorimetric measurements) and isothermal compressibilities...... (calculated from density measurements). This method was tested on seven pure compounds, and the deviation with literature data is oils, and a deviation of

  5. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Amir LAKZIAN; Mohammad BANNAYAN AVAL; Nasrin GORBANZADEH

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC), -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP), -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay w...

  6. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface. PMID:25319038

  7. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Adolescents With Dystrophinopathies : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Bart; Takken, Tim; Blank, A. Christian; van Moorsel, Huib; van der Pol, W. Ludo; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine exercise response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies. Methods: Exercise response on the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was compared with a standard care test protocol. Results: Nine boys (aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years) wi

  8. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange...

  9. Parameter estimation of soil hydraulic and thermal property functions for unsaturated porous media using the HYDRUS-2D code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhaei Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil hydraulic and thermal properties is essential for studies involving the combined effects of soil temperature and water input on water flow and redistribution processes under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the parameters characterizing these properties from a transient water flow and heat transport field experiment. Real-time sensors built by the authors were used to monitor soil temperatures at depths of 40, 80, 120, and 160 cm during a 10-hour long ring infiltration experiment. Water temperatures and cumulative infiltration from a single infiltration ring were monitored simultaneously. The soil hydraulic parameters (the saturated water content θ s, empirical shape parameters α and n, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and soil thermal conductivity parameters (coefficients b1, b2, and b3 in the thermal conductivity function were estimated from cumulative infiltration and temperature measurements by inversely solving a two-dimensional water flow and heat transport using HYDRUS-2D. Three scenarios with a different, sequentially decreasing number of optimized parameters were considered. In scenario 1, seven parameters (θ s, Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem. The results indicated that this scenario does not provide a unique solution. In scenario 2, six parameters (Ks, α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem. The results showed that this scenario also results in a non-unique solution. Only scenario 3, in which five parameters (α, n, b1, b2, and b3 were included in the inverse problem, provided a unique solution. The simulated soil temperatures and cumulative infiltration during the ring infiltration experiment compared reasonably well with their corresponding observed values.

  10. Perioperative considerations in a sickle cell patient undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Raut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old child, a known case of sickle cell anaemia with a history suggestive of sickling crisis in the past was scheduled for surgical pulmonary valvotomy. Pre-operative blood transfusion and hydroxyurea were administered. Pre-operative blood transfusion is indicated in sickle cell disease patients to raise the haematocrit level and lower sickle haemoglobin (HbS levels. Before the start of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, exchange transfusion was performed to reduce HbS level and raise adult haemoglobin level. Hypothermia was prevented by employing normothermic CPB.

  11. Digital subtraction cardiopulmonary angiography using FCR (Fuji computed radiography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction cardiopulmonary angiography using FCR was performed on 46 patients including lung cancer, mediastinal tumor, giant bullous formation and others. The images of digital subtraction for pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and thoracic aorta were studied by comparing to the conventional pulmonary angiogram. Good images of pulmonary artery due to digital subtraction were obtained in 80 % of the 45 cases. This method needed only half volume of contrast media compared to the conventional for obtaining good images and thus reduced side effect. Therefore this method seems to be an usefull pre-operative examination in various chest diseases, especially in case of lung cancer. (author)

  12. A method of automatic control procedures cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.

  13. Potential wrist ligament injury in rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Curran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrist pain in rescuers performing chest compressions as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been reported anecdotally and recently in the literature. Studies have indicated that rescuers apply as much as 644 N of force to the victim′s chest with each compression, while standards require one hundred compressions per minute. Recent research suggests that forces transmitted through the rescuers′ wrists of less than 10% of those seen during the performance of chest compressions significantly strain the scapholunate ligament. Biomechanical research should be performed to further evaluate this possible correlation. Compensation for worker injury maybe involved.

  14. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary System in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Sevimli; Fuat Kocyigit

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in cardiopulmonary system stimulated by aerobic exercise in different age group of children and to find out in which age group aerobic exercise is more effective. METHOD: Totally, 76 children participated in this study. Ages of the participants ranged between 11–17, and mean age was 14.08±0.65. Participants were divided into three groups according to their age range. There were 23 in the first and second and 30 participant...

  15. Lepirudin as an alternative to "heparin allergy" during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissis Haralabos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A treatment strategy of a difficult and unusual problem is presented. We are reporting a case of a patient who had a documented allergy to heparin and required Cardiac surgery for an ASD closure. The anticoagulation regime used during cardiopulmonary bypass was lepirudin based. This report indicates that r-hirudin provides effective anticoagulation, however unless ECT is monitoring, post operative hemorrhage is encountered. Therefore this case is unique not only because of its rarity but also by the fact that it presents the caveats encountered when ECT is not available.

  16. Estudo da função simpático-adrenal em crianças submetidas a cirurgia cardíaca com hipotermia de superfície, perfusão limitada e parada circulatória Simpathoadrenal function during cardiac surgery in infants using the technique of surface cooling, limited cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Firmin

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de catecolamina plasmática foram medidos em 20 crianças (idade média de 6,00 ± 5,86 meses; peso médio 5,3 ± 1,82 kg, durante a correção de defeitos cardíacos congênitos, usando-se a hipotermia de superfície (26ºC, perfusão cardiopulmonar limitada e parada circulatória (15ºC. Adrenalina e noradrenalina plasmática foram dosadas em amostras sangüíneas arteriais seriadas, usando-se a cromatografia. A hipotermia de superfície produziu um significante aumento de ambas as catecolaminas. Durante o resfriamento central, os níveis caíram devido à hemodiluição. Após o período de parada circulatória (23/64 minutos, média de 41,3, ocorreu um aumento das catecolaminas plasmáticas, que persistiu durante o reaquecimento. Após o reaquecimento, as catecolaminas plasmáticas permaneceram elevadas até o final do ato cirúrgico. Nossos resultados mostram que a técnica de hipotermia de superfície, perfusão cardiopulmonar limitada e parada circulatória, sob as nossas condições de anestesia, produziu significante aumento da concentração de adrenalina e noradrenalina plasmática, porém o significado biológico é, ainda, inseguro.Plasma catecholamine levels were measured in 20 infants (mean age 6.0 ± 5.86 months; mean weigh 5.3 ± 1.82 Kg, undergoing correction of congenital heart defects using surface cooling (26ºC, limited cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest (15ºC. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline were assayed in serial arterial blood samples using cromatography and electrochemical techniques. Surface cooling produced a significant rise in adrenaline and noradrenaline: the levels of both catecholamines fell, however, during core-cooling on cardiopulmonary bypass. Following the period of circulatory arrest (23/64 min, mean 41.3 min, there was a further increase in plasma catecholamines, which persisted during rewarming. Following rewarming, plasma catecholamines remained elevated untill the end of the

  17. Muscle strength and executive function as complementary parameters for the assessment of impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannyel Barbirato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between the quantitative results of functional and cognitive performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and disease severity; and to study the relationship between patients' functional and cognitive capacity and motor impairment (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS III. Method Twenty-nine subjects clinically diagnosed with PD were classified into three groups according to disease severity using the modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y. They were submitted to functional (Senior Fitness Test and neuropsychological tests. Stepwise regression analysis showed a significant association between H&Y and upper limb strength (r 2 =0.30; p=0.005 and executive function (r 2 =0.37; p=0.004. In relation to UPDRS III, there was a significant association between lower limb strength (r 2 =0.27; p=0.010 and global cognitive status (r 2 =0.24; p=0.024. Conclusion The implementation of simple tests of functional capacity associated with neuropsychological testing can help to assess disease severity and motor impairment, and can be used to monitor the response to treatment in PD.

  18. Mechanical performance of heat treated 319 alloys as a function of alloying and aging parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Alloying additions effect on tensile properties of 319 alloys. ► Aging parameters effect on the tensile properties and fracture surface. ► Factorial design evaluates the statistically significant alloying and aging conditions. -- Abstract: An investigation was carried out to determine the effect of Mg, Sr, and Ti additions and artificial T5 and T6 aging treatments on the tensile properties of 319 alloys, with the aim of adjusting these parameters to produce castings with suitable mechanical properties. A statistical DOE model was also developed for the analysis of the correlation between the properties of alloy and independent parameters (composition and aging conditions). The microstructure and fracture of the alloy were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The obtained results show that addition of Ti to alloys containing Mg and Sr produces sounder casting with finer grain size and improves the alloy strength. Excess amounts of Sr, however, deteriorate the tensile properties of alloys containing high Mg content by increasing the total amount of Mg–Sr intermetallic phase and porosity. Fine and dense precipitates with a smaller inter-particle spacing are formed at a lower aging temperature of 150 °C compared to coarse, less dense and more widely dispersed at higher temperature, i.e., 250 °C. The strength of 319 alloys increases with the Mg content and decreases with Sr and aging temperature and time. Increasing the Mg content up to 0.45% enhances the alloy response to heat treatment in the T5 and T6 tempers, more particularly, in the latter case. Fracture of intermetallic phases in the interdendritic regions is mostly brittle, with the formation of microcracks at the interface between Si, Cu, Fe-base intermetallic particles and aluminum. From the statistical analysis, the most effective parameters on the tensile properties were Mg content and aging temperature. The interaction between Mg content and aging temperature and/or aging

  19. Piecewise function parameters as responses of the design of experiment in the development of a pulsatile release chronopharmaceutical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonica-Gligor, Andreea Loredana; Tomuţă, Ioan; Leucuţa, Sorin E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a pulsatile release system with metoprolol for chronotherapeutical use by coating swellable mini-tablets with Eudragit RS. To study the influence of the formulation factors (amount of coating polymer, plasticizer percentage in film coating and swelling agent percentage in mini-tablets), a Box-Behnken design of experiment (DoE) was used. To evaluate the influence of the studied factors on the sigmoid shape of the dissolution profile, piecewise function parameters were used as the responses of DoE. The results show that higher concentrations of coating polymer and higher concentrations of plasticizer polymer led to a thicker and more elastic polymeric film, which led to a delay in drug release. Using the parameters of the piecewise function as DoE responses, an optimum formulation with a sigmoid shape dissolution profile and a 2.5-h lag time followed by rapid drug release were obtained. PMID:27279062

  20. On switching H∞ controllers for nuclear steam generator water level: A multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor control of the steam generator (SG) water level in the secondary circuit of a nuclear power plant can lead to frequent reactor shutdowns. From the viewpoint of economic operation, it is critical to keep the water level of SG in well control. This paper presents a new framework for addressing this problem based on switching control to linear parameter varying (LPV) systems. A family of LPV controllers are designed, and each of them is suitable for a specific operating range. Under the admissible switching logic, the closed-loop system remains stable and achieves prescribed H∞ performance in the entire operating range. The approach is based on multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions, which is less conservative than the employment of a single Lyapunov function. The switching LPV control scheme is then applied to the level control problem

  1. Preliminary design and analysis of multi-functional fusion engineering experimental reactor plasma parameters based on regular Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-functional fusion test reactor concept named FDS-MFX (multi- functional engineering experimental reactor) proposed as a scenario option of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) has been presented by FDS Team. FDS- MFX has been proposed for checking and validating the fusion DEMO reactor relevant technologies based on viable technologies. The preferred fusion core of FDS-MFX is regular Tokamak, with alternative choices such as spherical Tokamak and magnetic mirror, etc. In this paper, the core plasma parameters of FDS-MFX based on regular Tokamak were designed with the independently developed fusion system optimization and economic analysis code SYSCODE and analyzed based on the 'ITER Physics Basis'. We simulated the plasma equilibrium configuration and plasma discharge using the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC); the result showed the core plasma parameters of FDS-MFX were preliminarily feasible. (authors)

  2. Age-associated changes in pulmonary function: a comparison of pulmonary function parameters in healthy young adults and the elderly living in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wei-ying; LI Li; ZHAO Rong-ya; ZHU Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background The respiratory system changes with age and a better understanding of the changes contribute to detect and prevent respiratory dysfunctions in old population.The purpose of this study was to observe age-associated changes of pulmonary function parameters in healthy young adults and the elderly.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 male and female subjects aged 19 to 92 years.The subjects were divided into three groups by age:young adult (19-39 years),middle-aged adult (40-59 years),and the elderly (≥60 years).The pulmonary function was measured with routine examination methods and 13 parameters including vital capacity (VC),residual volume (RV),functional residual capacity (FRC),total lung capacity (TLC),RV/TLC,forced vital capacity (FVC),forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1),FEV1/FVC,peak expiratory flow (PEF),forced expiratory flow at 25% of FVC exhaled (FEF25),forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC exhaled (FEF50),diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO),and specific diffusion capacity of CO (KCO) were collected and analyzed.Changes in pulmonary function parameters among the pre-elderly and elderly subjects,especially the aging influence on FEV1/FVC and RV were studied further.Results Ten pulmonary function parameters including VC,FVC,FEV1,FEV1/FVC,PEF,FEF25,FEF50,TLC,DLCO and KCO decreased significantly with age in both male and female subjects (P <0.01).RV and RV/TLC were increased with age (P <0.01).FRC remained stable during aging.Except FRC,the linear relationship was significant between age and other pulmonary function parameters.In the pre-elderly and elderly subjects,RV had a non-significantly increasing tendency with age (P >0.05),and FEV1/FVC did not change significantly with age (P >0.05).Conclusion Total pulmonary function was declined with advancing age,but FRC was stable,and the increasing tendency of RV and decreasing tendency of FEV1/FVC obviously slowed down in the pre-elderly and

  3. Can Motor Evoked Potentials Be an Objective Parameter to Assess Extremity Function at the Acute or Subacute Stroke Stage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude ratio measurements are sufficiently objective to assess functional activities of the extremities. We also delineated the distribution between the presence or absence of MEPs and the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale for muscle strength of the extremities. Methods We enrolled 183 patients with first-ever unilateral hemiplegia after stroke. The MEP parameters were amplitude ratio (amplitude of affected side/amplitude of ...

  4. A parameter-dependent refinement of the discrete Jensen's inequality for convex and mid-convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth László

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a new parameter-dependent refinement of the discrete Jensen's inequality is given for convex and mid-convex functions. The convergence of the introduced sequences is also studied. One of the proofs requires an interesting convergence theorem with probability theoretical background. We apply the results to define some new quasi-arithmetic and mixed symmetric means and study their monotonicity and convergence.

  5. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Methods: Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening traini...

  6. Surface-Layer Similarity Functions for Dissipation Rate and Structure Parameters of Temperature and Humidity Based on Eleven Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Hartogensis, Oscar K.

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, no consensus can be found on the exact form of the universal funtions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for the structure parameters of temperature, {C_T}^2 , and humidity, {C_q}^2 , and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, \\varepsilon . By combining 11 datasets and applying data treatment with spectral data filtering and error-weighted curve-fitting we first derived robust MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and \\varepsilon that cover a large stability range for both unstable and stable conditions. Second, as all data were gathered with the same instrumentation and were processed in the same way—in contrast to earlier studies—we were able to investigate the similarity of MOST functions across different datasets by defining MOST functions for all datasets individually. For {C_T}^2 and \\varepsilon we found no substantial differences in MOST functions for datasets over different surface types or moisture regimes. MOST functions of {C_q}^2 differ from that of {C_T}^2 , but we could not relate these differences to turbulence parameters often associated with non-local effects. Furthermore, we showed that limited stability ranges and a limited number of data points are plausible reasons for variations of MOST functions in the literature. Last, we investigated the sensitivity of fluxes to the uncertainty of MOST functions. We provide an overview of the uncertainty range for MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and \\varepsilon , and suggest their use in determining the uncertainty in surface fluxes.

  7. Pedotransfer functions to estimate proctor test parameters under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Rosa Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Proctor test is time-consuming and requires sampling of several kilograms of soil. Proctor test parameters were predicted in Mollisols, Entisols and Vertisols of the Pampean region of Argentina under different management systems. They were estimated from a minimum number of readily available soil properties (soil texture, total organic C and management (training data set; n = 73. The results were used to generate a soil compaction susceptibility model, which was subsequently validated using a second group of independent data (test data set; n = 24. Soil maximum bulk density was estimated as follows: Maximum bulk density (Mg m-3 = 1.4756 - 0.00599 total organic C (g kg-1 + 0.0000275 sand (g kg-1 + 0.0539 management. Management was equal to 0 for uncropped and untilled soils and 1 for conventionally tilled soils. The established models predicted the Proctor test parameters reasonably well, based on readily available soil properties. Tillage systems induced changes in the maximum bulk density regardless of total organic matter content or soil texture. The lower maximum apparent bulk density values under no-tillage require a revision of the relative compaction thresholds for different no-tillage crops.

  8. Is the common envelope ejection efficiency a function of the binary parameters?

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, P J; Knigge, C

    2011-01-01

    We reconstruct the common envelope (CE) phase for the current sample of observed white dwarf-main sequence post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs). We apply multi-regression analysis in order to investigate whether correlations exist between the CE ejection efficiencies, alpha_CE, inferred from the sample, and the binary parameters: white dwarf mass, secondary mass, orbital period at the point the CE commences, or the orbital period immediately after the CE phase. We do this with and without consideration for the internal energy of the progenitor primary giants' envelope. Our fits should pave the first steps towards an observationally motivated recipe for calculating alpha_CE using the binary parameters at the start of the CE phase, which will be useful for population synthesis calculations or models of compact binary evolution. If we do consider the internal energy of the giants' envelope, we find a statistically significant correlation between alpha_CE and the white dwarf mass. If we do not, a correlation is ...

  9. Revised Damping Parameters for the D3 Dispersion Correction to Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel G A; Burns, Lori A; Patkowski, Konrad; Sherrill, C David

    2016-06-16

    Since the original fitting of Grimme's DFT-D3 damping parameters, the number and quality of benchmark interaction energies has increased significantly. Here, conventional benchmark sets, which focus on minimum-orientation radial curves at the expense of angular diversity, are augmented by new databases such as side chain-side chain interactions (SSI), which are composed of interactions gleaned from crystal data and contain no such minima-focused bias. Moreover, some existing databases such as S22×5 are extended to shorter intermolecular separations. This improved DFT-D3 training set provides a balanced description of distances, covers the entire range of interaction types, and at 1526 data points is far larger than the original training set of 130. The results are validated against a new collection of 6773 data points and demonstrate that the effect of refitting the damping parameters ranges from no change in accuracy (LC-ωPBE-D3) to an almost 2-fold decrease in average error (PBE-D3). PMID:27203625

  10. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O’Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  11. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O'Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    The epoc(®) blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc(®) system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article "Analytical evaluation of the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients" [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc(®) meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  12. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters.

  13. Phenomenological simulation and density functional theory prediction of 57Fe Mössbauer parameters: application to magnetically coupled diiron proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of phenomenological spin Hamiltonians and of spin density functional theory for the analysis and interpretation of Mössbauer spectra of antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic diiron centers is briefly discussed. The spectroscopic parameters of the hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenase (MMOH), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methane to methanol, have been studied. In its reduced diferrous state (MMOHRed) the enzyme displays 57Fe Mössbauer and EPR parameters characteristic of two ferromagnetically coupled high spin ferrous ions. However, Mössbauer spectra recorded for MMOHRed from two different bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, display slightly different electric quadrupole splittings (ΔEQ) in apparent contradiction to their essentially identical active site crystallographic structures and biochemical functions. Herein, the Mössbauer spectral parameters of MMOHRed have been predicted and studied via spin density functional theory. The somewhat different ΔEQ recorded for the two bacteria have been traced to the relative position of an essentially unbound water molecule within their diiron active sites. It is shown that the presence or absence of the unbound water molecule mainly affects the electric field gradient at only one iron ion of the binuclear active sites.

  14. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duara Rajnish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1 cases where residual pump blood was used and (2 controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1 st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained.

  15. Self-priming hemodynamic reservoir and inline flow meter for a cardiopulmonary bypass simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, David; Austin, Jon; Tallman, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Simulator exercises are used at Midwestern University to augment academic and laboratory training toward consolidating particular skills, increasing situation awareness, and preparing the student for practice within the team environment of an operating room. This paper describes an enhanced cardiopulmonary bypass simulator consisting of a self-priming hemodynamic reservoir that includes an inline flow meter. A typical cardiopulmonary bypass adult perfusion circuit was assembled using a roller pump console and integrated oxygenator/heat exchanger/reservoir and primed with 2 liters of water. For patient simulation, a soft-sided reservoir bag was mounted onto an inclined platform. A 1-liter soft-sided bag was placed just above the reservoir, providing an overflow reservoir. The priming line extended to the head of the mannequin. The arterial, venous, and suction lines extended through the open chest. The primed perfusion circuit was connected to ports on the filled reservoir bag. To test the patient simulation, the arterial pump output was adjusted to flow rates ranging from 1-7 liters per minute, with a complete interruption (to zero flow) between each test run. An inline flow meter was added to the bypass circuit and an analog to digital converter board was used to pass flow data into the computer-based simulation program. The use of an inclined hemodynamic reservoir bag proved to be self-priming and functional without problems over a wide range of flows tested. By including a reservoir with the mannequin, plus processing and displaying real-time flow data using the CPB-Sim simulation program, a higher fidelity and more realistic simulation experience was created. PMID:20648900

  16. Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from wheat straw: Effect of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaushik, Anupama; Ahuja, Dheeraj

    2016-10-01

    Aggregates of microfibrillated cellulose isolated from wheat straw fibers were subjected to propionylation under different processing conditions of time, temperature and concentration. The treated fibers were then homogenized to obtain surface modified nanofibrillated cellulose. For varying parameters, progress of propionylation and its effects on various characteristics was investigated by FTIR, degree of substitution, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, TEM, X-ray diffraction, static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Thermal stability of the nanofibrils was also investigated using thermogravimetric technique. FTIR analysis confirmed the propionylation of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers. The variations in reaction conditions such as time and temperature had shown considerable effect on degree of substitution (DS) and surface contact angle (CA). These characterization results represent the optimizing conditions under which cellulose nanofibrils with hydrophobic characteristics up to contact angle of 120° can be obtained. PMID:27312612

  17. Permeability parameter as a function of population density in classical infiltration equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nor Hafizah; Ahmad, Rohanin; Nordin, Syarifah Zyurina

    2014-12-01

    Rapid development of urban areas has caused many problems especially related to water issues. The increase in urban development also means the increase in impervious surfaces due to expansion of buildings, roads, parking lots to name a few. Impervious surfaces have low water permeability compared to pervious surfaces. Also, infiltration capacity is dependent on the permeability of the area and subsequently permeability is dependent on the surface conditions. In this paper, we study the infiltration capacity with the assumption that permeability parameter can be described in the term of the population density of the area. The modified model is based on the original form of Green-Ampt equation. The new model with population density is able to describe permeability, hence the infiltration capacity of an area.

  18. Do Radiologists Want/Need Training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prompt and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decreases morbidity and mortality following cardiopulmonary arrest. Radiologists are frequently confronted with severely ill patients, who may deteriorate at any time. Furthermore, they have to be aware of life-threatening reactions towards contrast media. This study was designed to assess experience and self-estimation of German-speaking radiologists in CPR and cardiac defibrillation (CD). Material and Methods: 650 German-speaking radiologists were audited by a specially designed questionnaire, which was sent via e-mail. The answers were expected to be re-mailed within a 2-month period. Results: The response rate was 12.6%. 72.8% of the responders had performed at least 1 CPR (range 9.5 ± 13.1) and 37% at least 1 CD. 67.9% had had opportunities to attend training courses, which had been utilized by 41.8% of them. The last training of the responders was more than 2 years ago in 69.2% and more than 5 years ago in 37%. Of all responders 75.6% expressed the need for further education. Conclusion: The small response rate indicates the small importance of CPR in the subpopulation surveyed. The vast majority of the responders, however, showed interest in basic and advanced life support and advocated regular updates. It seems reasonable that radiological Dept. themselves should organize courses in order to cope with their specific situations

  19. Hypothermia and normothermia effects on mortality rate of cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahdari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with higher risk of mortality and morbidity, thus it should be investigated regarding the major risk factors. Temperature management have a significant role in postoperative cerebral and neurological complications; however the optimum temperature during cardiopulmonary surgery is not certainly detected. This systematic review has investigated the differences between hypothermia and normothermia regarding postoperative mortality. Method: PubMed was searched for the relevant articles. Only English language articles were included with no time limitation. Data regarding in-hospital patient deaths provided in each article mostly within 30 days after the surgery, were extracted and compared based on relative risk reduction (RRR, absolute risk reduction (ARR, and number needed to treat (NNT.Result: Totally, 28 articles were retrieved and extracted. The mortality rate was zero in hypothermic and normotehrmic groups of 8/28 included studies, thus the RRR, ARR, and NNT could not be calculated. There were no significant differences between investigated groups of each included studies regarding the patients’ age, gender, and preoperative conditions.Conclusions: No significant difference was obtained between two studied groups. Similar prevalence of death observed between hypothermic and normothermic groups might be due to the sample size of studies, or the subsequent cares performed in intensive care units that assist to reduce the postoperative mortality rate. According to the obtained results, both of these procedures might be similarly safe regarding mortality rate.

  20. Age-related changes in chest geometry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Schleien, C L; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Rogers, M C; Traystman, R J

    1987-06-01

    We studied alterations of chest geometry during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized immature swine. Pulsatile force was applied to the sternum in increments to determine the effects of increasing compression on chest geometry and intrathoracic vascular pressures. In 2-wk- and 1-mo-old piglets, permanent changes in chest shape developed due to incomplete recoil of the chest along the anteroposterior axis, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were generated. In 3-mo-old animals, permanent chest deformity did not develop, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were not produced. We propose a theoretical model of the chest as an elliptic cylinder. Pulsatile displacement along the minor axis of an ellipse produces a greater decrease in cross-sectional area than displacement of a circular cross section. As thoracic cross section became less circular due to deformity, greater changes in thoracic volume, and hence pressure, were produced. With extreme deformity at high force, pulsatile displacement became limited, diminishing pressure generation. We conclude that changes in chest geometry are important in producing intrathoracic intravascular pressure during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in piglets. PMID:3610916

  1. Density functional calculation of band-parameters for boron nitride at normal and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work employs the total-energy pseudopotential technique within the framework of the density-functional theory with both the local-density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation functional so as to calculate the structural, electronic, chemical bonding and elastic properties of BN in the zinc-blende structure at normal and high pressures. The results are generally in good agreement with the available experimental data. We found that in many cases (except may be for elastic constants) the GGA improves agreement with experiment. The calculations showed that the transition pressure for BN from the zinc-blende phase to the rocksalt phase is much smaller than previously reported theoretical values

  2. Liver Function Parameters in Hip Fracture Patients: Relations to Age, Adipokines, Comorbidities and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Fisher, Alexander; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To asses liver markers in older patients with hip fracture (HF) in relation to age, comorbidities, metabolic characteristics and short-term outcomes. Methods: In 294 patients with HF (mean age 82.0±7.9 years, 72.1% women) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, bilirubin, 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, thyroid function and cardiac troponin I were measured. Results: Eleva...

  3. Geometric modeling, functional parameter calculation, and visualization of the in-vivo distended rectal wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Manduca, Armando; Camp, Jon J.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Robb, Richard A.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2006-03-01

    The rectum can distend to accommodate stool, and contracts in response to distention during defecation. Rectal motor dysfunctions are implicated in the pathophysiology of functional defecation disorders and fecal incontinence. These rectal motor functions can be studied by intra-luminal measurements of pressure by manometry, or combined with volume during rectal balloon distention. Pressure-volume (p-v) relationships provide a global index of rectal mechanical properties. However, balloon distention alone does not measure luminal radius or wall thickness, which are necessary to compute wall tension and stress respectively. It has been suggested that the elastic modulus, which is the linear slope of the stress-strain relationship, is a more accurate measure of wall stiffness. Also, measurements of compliance may not reflect differences in rectal diameter between subjects prior to inflation, and imaging is necessary to determine if, as has been suggested, rectal pressure-volume relationships are affected by extra-rectal structures. We have developed a technique to measure rectal stress:strain relationships in humans, by simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during rectal balloon distention. After a conditioning distention, a rectal balloon was distended with water from 0 to 400 ml in 50 ml steps, and imaged at each step with MRI. The fluid filled balloon was segmented from each volume, the phase-ordered binary volumes were transformed into a geometric characterization of the inflated rectal surface. Taken together with measurements of balloon pressure and of rectal wall thickness, this model of the rectal surface was used to calculate regional values of curvature, tension, strain, and stress for the rectum. In summary, this technique has the unique ability to non-invasively measure the rectal stress:strain relationship and also determine if rectal expansion is limited by extra-rectal structures. This functional information allows the direct clinical analysis

  4. Novel heart rate parameters for the assessment of autonomic nervous system function in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, M; Fifer, W P; Sahni, R; Signorini, M G

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance is a key factor in homeostatic control of cardiac activity, breathing and certain reflex reactions such as coughing, sneezing and swallowing and thus plays a crucial role for survival. ANS impairment has been related to many neonatal pathologies, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Moreover, some conditions have been identified as risk factors for SIDS, such as prone sleep position. There is an urgent need for timely and non-invasive assessment of ANS function in at-risk infants. Systematic measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) offers an optimal approach to access indirectly both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on ANS functioning. In this paper, data from premature infants collected in a sleep physiology laboratory in the NICU are presented: traditional and novel approaches to HRV analyses are applied and compared in order to evaluate their relative merits in the assessment of ANS activity and the influence of sleep position. Indices from time domain and nonlinear approaches contributed as markers of physiological development in premature infants. Moreover, significant differences were observed as a function of sleep position. PMID:27480495

  5. Photopeak shape function: Formulation based on stochastic event analysis and parameter estimation by the maximum-likelihood estimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model to describe the photopeak shape function has been developed by introducing an instrument function, which is a convolution of the statistical fluctuation of the charge carriers and the stochastic process of escape of the charge-carrier collection by capture at trapping centers. The photopeak shape function is a convolution of the instrument function and a Poisson probability-density functional representation of a reduced random summing event. The functions have been tested by using three coaxial, high-purity Ge detectors of a conventional type. The parameters were estimated by the maximum-likelihood estimation method. The position indicating the incident photon energy appeared at the centroid of the intrinsic normal distribution. The most probable peak-height position is no more than a ''conventional'' one, though it is commonly used in spectroscopy. The theory predicts the photopeak shape of many photons by folding an input function of the subject. The theory provides standards for the detector and the detection system. (orig.)

  6. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Is Associated with the Morphologic and Functional Parameters in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Pudil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is mostly autosomal dominant disease of the myocardium, which is characterized by myocardial hypertrophy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is involved in myocyte function, growth, and survival. The aim of study was to analyze the clinical significance of VEGF in structural and functional changes in patient with HCM. Methods. In a group of 21 patients with nonobstructive HCM, we assessed serum VEGF and analyzed its association with morphological and functional parameters. Compared to healthy controls, serum VEGF was increased: 199 (IQR: 120.4–260.8 ng/L versus 20 (IQR: 14.8–37.7 ng/L, P<0.001. VEGF levels were associated with left atrium diameter (r=0.51, P=0.01, left ventricle ejection fraction (r=-0.56, P=0.01, fractional shortening (r=-0.54, P=0.02, left ventricular mass (r=0.61, P=0.03, LV mass index (r=0.46, P=0.04, vena cava inferior diameter (r=0.65, P=0.01, and peak gradient of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.46, P=0.03. Conclusions. Increased VEGF level is associated with structural and functional parameters in patients with HCM and serves as a potential tool for diagnostic process of these patients.

  7. Analysis of the strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels as a function of the hot rolling parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretero Olalla, V., E-mail: Victor.carretero@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Bliznuk, V., E-mail: vitaliy.bliznuk@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Sanchez, N., E-mail: nuria.sanchezmourino@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Global R and D Gent, OCAS NV Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, BE-9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Thibaux, P., E-mail: philippe.thibaux@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Global R and D Gent, OCAS NV Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, BE-9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Kestens, L.A.I., E-mail: leo.kestens@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Petrov, R.H., E-mail: Roumen.Petrov@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    The yield strength of different pipeline steel grades, rolled under four different conditions, was correlated with calculated strengthening contributions. Slabs with the same composition were rolled under identical roughing conditions but varied finish rolling temperature (FRT). Two cooling routes, consisting of accelerated water cooling condition (ACC) followed by slow cooling in an oven to simulate coiling and air cooling were applied after the last rolling pass. The microstructures obtained after each thermo mechanical controlled process (TMCP) schedule, were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties of the plates were determined by means of tensile tests and Charpy V-notch impact test. It was confirmed that a combination of fast cooling rate and low finish rolling temperature produces higher strength than the slow cooling rate and high finish rolling temperature. Contributions to the strengthening arising from the various microstructural features like solid solution strengthening, grain size, dislocation density and precipitation hardening, were analyzed using Taylor, Hall–Petch and Ashby–Orowan approaches. The root of the sum of the squares method was applied to link the experimental with the model-predicted strength. It is believed that this approach provides a better understanding of the effect of TMCP parameters on the microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels.

  8. Analysis of the strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels as a function of the hot rolling parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield strength of different pipeline steel grades, rolled under four different conditions, was correlated with calculated strengthening contributions. Slabs with the same composition were rolled under identical roughing conditions but varied finish rolling temperature (FRT). Two cooling routes, consisting of accelerated water cooling condition (ACC) followed by slow cooling in an oven to simulate coiling and air cooling were applied after the last rolling pass. The microstructures obtained after each thermo mechanical controlled process (TMCP) schedule, were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties of the plates were determined by means of tensile tests and Charpy V-notch impact test. It was confirmed that a combination of fast cooling rate and low finish rolling temperature produces higher strength than the slow cooling rate and high finish rolling temperature. Contributions to the strengthening arising from the various microstructural features like solid solution strengthening, grain size, dislocation density and precipitation hardening, were analyzed using Taylor, Hall–Petch and Ashby–Orowan approaches. The root of the sum of the squares method was applied to link the experimental with the model-predicted strength. It is believed that this approach provides a better understanding of the effect of TMCP parameters on the microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels

  9. Long-term abdominal adiposity activates several parameters of cardiac energy function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal obesity increases the incidence of cardiac events but reduces mortality when one of these events occurs. The phenomenon called obesity paradox might be related to myocardial energetics. This study was aimed at determining whether long-term abdominal adiposity alters cardiac energy function. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a Western-type (WD) diet for 8 months. The ex vivo coronary reactivity and mechanical function as well as the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and hydrogen peroxide release (mH2O2r) were determined. Abdominal adiposity was augmented by the WD. This was also the case for the coronary reactivity to acetylcholine, but the rate pressure product remained roughly stable despite a reduction of the left ventricle-developed pressure partly compensated by a slight increase in heart rate. The prolonged WD administration resulted in an improvement of mOxPhos, but the mH2O2r was exaggerated which was confirmed in the whole cell by a reduced aconitase to fumarase ratio. This did not modify the plasma oxidative stress due to an increased plasma antioxidant status. In conclusion, long-term WD administration improved the cardiac fitness and might predispose the organism to the obesity paradox. Conversely, the increased mitochondrial mH2O2r can precipitate the heart toward cardiomyopathy if the WD is maintained for a longer duration. PMID:26255304

  10. [Oxidative homeostasis and functional parameters of rats at high altitudes with alpha-lipoic acid correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskiĭ, A A; Dzhantaeva, G A; Zhaparalieva, Ch O

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative and functional effects of alpha-lipoic acid (a-LA) were studied in the course of 45-day adaptation to high altitudes (3200 m in the Central Tien Shan, June - August). Comparison of a-LA with mildronate stated similarity of their antioxidant and membrane effects on the third (stable) phase of adaptation (day 45), as both substances demonstrated a distinct lyso-PL-limiting effect and did not change dramatically concentration of diene conjugates (primary products of lipid peroxidation) in brain tissue. a-LA surpassed mildronate in the rate of the compensating effect in respect of behavior disorders and anxiety in rats. Besides, the substances contributed equally to physical performance increment by the end of adaptation. The positive effect of a-LA on the functional characteristics was hand in hand with minimization of the consequences of oxidative stress. These experimental data imply that a-LA can be effective in controlling the long process of adaptation to high altitude conditions. PMID:21916251

  11. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  12. Critical Crossover Functions for Simple Fluids: Non-Analytical Scaling Determination of the Ising-Like Crossover Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Marre, Samuel; LeNeindre, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    A non-analytical scaling determination of the Ising-like crossover parameter is proposed considering the critical isochore of a simple fluid at finite distance from its critical temperature. The mean crossover functions, estimated from the bounded results of the massive renormalization scheme in field theory applied to the ( Φ 2) d2( n) model in three dimensions (d=3) and scalar order parameter (n=1), are used to formulate the corresponding scaling equations valid in two well-defined temperature ranges from the critical temperature. The validity range and the Ising-like nature of the corresponding crossover description are discussed in terms of a single Ising-like scale factor characterizing the critical isochore. The asymptotic value of this scale factor can be predicted within the Ising-like preasymptotic domain. Unfortunately, the absence of precise experimental data in such a close vicinity of the critical point leads the direct testing impossible. A contrario, from our scaling equations and the use of precise measurements performed at finite distance from the critical point, its local value can be estimated beyond the Ising-like preasymptotic domain. This non-analytical scaling determination only needs to make reference to the universal features estimated from the mean crossover functions and to introduce a single master dimensionless length common to all the simple fluids. This latter parameter guaranties the uniqueness of the physical length unit used for the theoretical crossover functions and the fluid singular properties when the generalized critical coordinates of the vapor-liquid critical point of each fluid are known. Xenon case along its critical isochore is considered as a typical example to demonstrate the singleness of the Ising-like crossover parameter. With the measurements at finite temperature range of the effective singular behaviors of the isothermal compressibility in the homogeneous domain, and the vapor-liquid coexisting densities in the

  13. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al-Salahy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah, Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared with healthy normal subjects. Neutrophils levels were significantly higher in cases of falciparum malaria in comparison to healthy normal subjects. Serums AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct in falciparum malaria patients were significantly higher (p<0.0001 than those of falciparum malaria of free individuals. Hematological and liver dysfunctions measured parameters were seen associated with moderate and severe parasitaemia infection. This study concludes that hematological and hepatic dysfunction parameters could be indicator of malaria in endemic regions.

  14. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salahy, Mohamed; Shnawa, Bushra; Abed, Gamal; Mandour, Ahmed; Al-Ezzi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared with healthy normal subjects. Neutrophils levels were significantly higher in cases of falciparum malaria in comparison to healthy normal subjects. Serums AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct) in falciparum malaria patients were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than those of falciparum malaria of free individuals. Hematological and liver dysfunctions measured parameters were seen associated with moderate and severe parasitaemia infection. This study concludes that hematological and hepatic dysfunction parameters could be indicator of malaria in endemic regions. PMID:27051422

  15. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salahy, Mohamed; Shnawa, Bushra; Abed, Gamal; Mandour, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared with healthy normal subjects. Neutrophils levels were significantly higher in cases of falciparum malaria in comparison to healthy normal subjects. Serums AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct) in falciparum malaria patients were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than those of falciparum malaria of free individuals. Hematological and liver dysfunctions measured parameters were seen associated with moderate and severe parasitaemia infection. This study concludes that hematological and hepatic dysfunction parameters could be indicator of malaria in endemic regions. PMID:27051422

  16. Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver function: a case-control study in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal level of thyroid hormones is important for normal hepatic function and thyroid dysfunction may modulate metabolic function of liver. The purpose of this study is to determine whether liver function is associated with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Thyroid and liver function tests were evaluated in 47 patients with overt (TSH ≥10.0 mIU/L and 77 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 6.0-9.9mIU/L and compared with 120 age-matched euthyroid controls. Subjects with overt hypothyroidism had significantly raised serum ALT, AST, ALP and total protein levels as compared to controls whereas subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly increased levels of serum ALT, ALP and total protein. Further, TSH showed significant positive correlation with AST and ALP values whereas fT3 and fT4 had a negative correlation with AST in overt hypothyroidism. Thus, overt hypothyroid state is associated with significant derangement in biochemical parameters of liver function. Hence, liver function should be regularly monitored in hypothyroid patients.

  17. Some parameters of thyroid function in Dutch-Miranda rats submitted to chronic treatment of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of thyroid function in rats whose blood lithium levels were maintained are investigated. At therapeutic levels during 1,5 to 2 months. Adult young male rats (isogenic Dutch-Miranda) of the same litter were randomly distributed into paired experimental and control groups of 3 animals. The animals were fed comercial chow and received tap water or LiCl 12,5 mM in distiled water to drink, ad-libitum. At the end of experimental period each animal received an intraperitoneal tracer dosis of I-131 (5-6 uCi), 72 h later their thyroids were removed, weighed and counted to determine the I-131 uptake. The pooled thyroids of each group were homogeneized and supernadant and particulate fractions were separed by centrifugation. TPO activity was determined in the pseudosolubilized particulate feaction. (Author)

  18. Sound quality characteristics of refrigerator noise in real living environments with relation to psychoacoustical and autocorrelation function parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin-ichi; You, Jin; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2007-07-01

    Psychoacoustical and autocorrelation function (ACF) parameters were employed to describe the temporal fluctuations of refrigerator noise during starting, transition into/from the stationary phase and termination of operation. The temporal fluctuations of refrigerator noise include a click at start-up, followed by a rapid increase in volume, a change of pitch, and termination of the operation. Subjective evaluations of the noise of 24 different refrigerators were conducted in a real living environment. The relationship between objective measures and perceived noisiness was examined by multiple regression analysis. Sound quality indices were developed based on psychoacoustical and ACF parameters. The psychoacoustical parameters found to be important for evaluating noisiness in the stationary phase were loudness and roughness. The relationship between noisiness and ACF parameters shows that sound energy and its fluctuations are important for evaluating noisiness. Also, refrigerator sounds that had a fluctuation of pitch were rated as more annoying. The tolerance level for the starting phase of refrigerator noise was found to be 33 dBA, which is the level where 65% of the participants in the subjective tests were satisfied. PMID:17614491

  19. Differences in Neural Activation as a Function of Risk-taking Task Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza eCongdon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence supporting a relationship between impulsivity and naturalistic risk-taking, the relationship of impulsivity with laboratory-based measures of risky decision-making remains unclear. One factor contributing to this gap in our understanding is the degree to which different risky decision-making tasks vary in their details. We conducted an fMRI investigation of the Angling Risk Task (ART, which is an improved behavioral measure of risky decision-making. In order to examine whether the observed pattern of neural activation was specific to the ART or generalizable, we also examined correlates of the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking (BART task in the same sample of 23 healthy adults. Exploratory analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between neural activation, performance, impulsivity and self-reported risk-taking. While activation in a valuation network was associated with reward tracking during the ART but not the BART, increased fronto-cingulate activation was seen during risky choice trials in the BART as compared to the ART. Thus, neural activation during risky decision-making trials differed between the two tasks, and this observation was likely driven by differences in task parameters, namely the absence vs. presence of ambiguity and/or stationary vs. increasing probability of loss on the ART and BART, respectively. Exploratory association analyses suggest that sensitivity of neural response to the magnitude of potential reward during the ART was associated with a suboptimal performance strategy, higher scores on a scale of dysfunctional impulsivity and a greater likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, while this pattern was not seen for the BART. Our results suggest that the ART is decomposable and associated with distinct patterns of neural activation; this represents a preliminary step towards characterizing a behavioral measure of risky decision-making that may support a better understanding of naturalistic risk-taking.

  20. Effect of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae on pulmonary function parameters in a bovine respiratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, M; Prohl, A; Ostermann, C; Diller, R; Greub, G; Reinhold, P

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary dysfunction induced by experimental infection with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in calves. Intrabronchial inoculation with P. acanthamoebae was performed in 31 calves aged 2-3 months old at two different challenge doses of 10(8) and 10(10) inclusion-forming units (IFU) per animal. Control animals received heat inactivated bacteria. The effects on pulmonary gas exchange were determined by arterial blood gas analysis and haemoximetry during the 7 days post inoculation (DPI). For pulmonary function testing (PFT), impulse oscillometry, capnography, and measurement of O2 uptake were undertaken in spontaneously breathing animals 7 and 3 days before inoculation and were repeated until 10 DPI. In the early phase after challenge (1-3 DPI), mild hypoxaemia occurred, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in both tidal and alveolar volumes (each related to bodyweight, BW). In parallel, expiratory flow rate and specific ventilation (i.e. minute ventilation related to O2 uptake) were significantly increased. Minute and alveolar ventilations (each related to metabolic BW) increased significantly due to higher respiratory rates, lasting until 4 and 5 DPI, respectively. Oxygen uptake was slightly reduced during the first 2 days after challenge, but increased significantly during the recovery phase, from 4 to 8 DPI. No deterioration in respiratory mechanics or acid-base balance was observed. Respiratory infection with 10(10) IFU P. acanthamoebae per calf induced mild respiratory dysfunction, mainly characterised by hypoxaemia. The study's findings do not indicate severe pathophysiological consequences of P. acanthamoebae infection on pulmonary function in the bovine host. PMID:27240907

  1. Biochemical parameters of liver function in artisans occupationally exposed to "vat dyes"

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    Soyinka Oluwatosin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vat dyes are the class of dyes used in textile dyeing in Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria. While some dyes (including vat dyes intermediates have been associated with adverse effects on manufacturer′s health, there is paucity of data on effects of occupational exposure to vat dyes among end users, such as those involved in textile dyeing and finishing. Aims and Objectives: To investigate the possible effect of occupational exposure to vat dyes on the functions of the liver. Materials and Methods: Using convenience sampling technique, a cohort of dye workers (n=117 with a minimum of one year and a maximum of 60 years duration of exposure (mean =17.03 ± 1.19 years were recruited in this study. Sixty traders, matched for age and sex and who had no previous exposure to vat dyes were selected as controls. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic, occupational and environmental characteristics of the subjects. Plasma activities of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin and total bilirubin were measured using standard spectrophotometric methods. Statistical analyses: SPSS version 11.0 was used for statistical analyses. Tests of significance were carried out using Student′s t test, and correlation co-efficient. Results and Conclusion : The activity of ALP and the concentrations of total protein and albumin were significantly lower ( P < 0.05 in the exposed group. ALT and AST activities were significantly higher ( P < 0.05 in the exposed group. Occupational exposure to vat dyes may result in sub-clinical adverse effects on the liver, involving inhibition of its synthetic function.

  2. Total heart volume as a function of clinical and anthropometric parameters in a population of external beam radiation therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to determine anthropometric parameters leading to the least uncertain estimate of heart size when connecting a computational phantom to an external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) patient. From computed tomography images, we segmented the heart and calculated its total volume (THV) in a population of 270 EBRT patients of both sexes, aged 0.7–83 years. Our data were fitted using logistic growth functions. The patient age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area (BSA) were used as explanatory variables. For both genders, good fits were obtained with both weight (R2 = 0.89 for males and 0.83 for females) and BSA (R2 = 0.90 for males and 0.84 for females). These results demonstrate that, among anthropometric parameters, weight plays an important role in predicting THV. These findings should be taken into account when assigning a computational phantom to a patient. (paper)

  3. Better estimation of protein-DNA interaction parameters improve prediction of functional sites

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    O'Flanagan Ruadhan A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing transcription factor binding motifs is a common bioinformatics task. For transcription factors with variable binding sites, we need to get many suboptimal binding sites in our training dataset to get accurate estimates of free energy penalties for deviating from the consensus DNA sequence. One procedure to do that involves a modified SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment method designed to produce many such sequences. Results We analyzed low stringency SELEX data for E. coli Catabolic Activator Protein (CAP, and we show here that appropriate quantitative analysis improves our ability to predict in vitro affinity. To obtain large number of sequences required for this analysis we used a SELEX SAGE protocol developed by Roulet et al. The sequences obtained from here were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The resulting bioinformatic model characterizes the sequence specificity of the protein more accurately than those sequence specificities predicted from previous analysis just by using a few known binding sites available in the literature. The consequences of this increase in accuracy for prediction of in vivo binding sites (and especially functional ones in the E. coli genome are also discussed. We measured the dissociation constants of several putative CAP binding sites by EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay and compared the affinities to the bioinformatics scores provided by methods like the weight matrix method and QPMEME (Quadratic Programming Method of Energy Matrix Estimation trained on known binding sites as well as on the new sites from SELEX SAGE data. We also checked predicted genome sites for conservation in the related species S. typhimurium. We found that bioinformatics scores based on SELEX SAGE data does better in terms of prediction of physical binding energies as well as in detecting functional sites. Conclusion We think that training binding site detection

  4. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  5. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Zeng, Hongchun [First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Ultrasonography, Urumqi (China); Koestenberger, Martin [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  6. Long-term effect of early protein malnutrition on growth curve, hematological parameters and macrophage function of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Laraya, Rodrigo Domingues; Silva, Paula Roberta Colacino; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Felipe, Ionice; Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of mild-early maternal protein malnutrition on weight gain, hematological parameters and macrophage function in rats at adult age, we compared rats whose dams were fed diets containing either 9.5% (low protein-LPD) or 23% protein (normal-NPD) for the first 12 d of lactation. At 80 d of age, the functions of spreading, phagocytosis and killing Candida albicans were determined in resident peritoneal macrophages, whereas leukocytes and red blood cells were counted in peripheral blood. The number of resident peritoneal macrophages from LPD was the same as from NPD, but the ability of spreading and phagocytosing opsonised yeast was impaired. Besides, they were not able to block the germ tube formation or kill C. albicans to the same extent as in the control group. The low protein diet produced a significant reduction in the pups' growth and in hematological parameters although no difference was found in leukocyte counts. Taken together the data suggest that protein malnutrition during early lactation induces permanent alterations in macrophage function, body composition and hematological status, which are not restored completely even after a normal protein diet is supplied. PMID:17330504

  7. Integrative modeling of small artery structure and function uncovers critical parameters for diameter regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed VanBavel

    Full Text Available Organ perfusion is regulated by vasoactivity and structural adaptation of small arteries and arterioles. These resistance vessels are sensitive to pressure, flow and a range of vasoactive stimuli. Several strongly interacting control loops exist. As an example, the myogenic response to a change of pressure influences the endothelial shear stress, thereby altering the contribution of shear-dependent dilation to the vascular tone. In addition, acute responses change the stimulus for structural adaptation and vice versa. Such control loops are able to maintain resistance vessels in a functional and stable state, characterized by regulated wall stress, shear stress, matched active and passive biomechanics and presence of vascular reserve. In this modeling study, four adaptation processes are identified that together with biomechanical properties effectuate such integrated regulation: control of tone, smooth muscle cell length adaptation, eutrophic matrix rearrangement and trophic responses. Their combined action maintains arteries in their optimal state, ready to cope with new challenges, allowing continuous long-term vasoregulation. The exclusion of any of these processes results in a poorly regulated state and in some cases instability of vascular structure.

  8. The pulsed microwave damage trend of a bipolar transistor as a function of pulse parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zhen-Yang; Chai Chang-Chun; Ren Xing-Rong; Yang Yin-Tang; Zhao Ying-Bo; Qiao Li-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we conduct a theoretical study of the thermal accumulation effect of a typical bipolar transistor caused by high power pulsed microwaves (HPMs),and investigate the thermal accumulation effect as a function of pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and duty cycle.A study of the damage mechanism of the device is carried out from the variation analysis of the distribution of the electric field and the current density.The result shows that the accumulation temperature increases with PRF increasing and the threshold for the transistor is about 2 kHz.The response of the peak temperature induced by the injected single pulses indicates that the falling time is much longer than the rising time.Adopting the fitting method,the relationship between the peak temperature and the time during the rising edge and that between the peak temperature and the time during the falling edge are obtained.Moreover,the accumulation temperature decreases with duty cycle increasing for a certain mean power.

  9. Thioether profragrances: parameters influencing the performance of precursor-based fragrance delivery in functional perfumery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Umberto; Trachsel, Alain; Fankhauser, Peter; Berthier, Damien L; Benczédi, Daniel; Wang, Wei; Xi, Xiujuan; Shen, Youqing; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A series of thioether profragrances was prepared by reaction of different sulfanylalkanoates with δ-damascone and tested for their release efficiencies in a fabric-softener and an all-purpose cleaner application. Dynamic headspace analysis on dry cotton and on a ceramic plate revealed that the performance of the different precursors depended on the structure, but also on the particular conditions encountered in different applications. Moreover, profragrances derived from other α,β-unsaturated fragrance aldehydes and ketones were synthesized analogously and evaluated using the same test protocol. Thioethers were found to be suitable precursors to release the corresponding fragrances, but neither the quantity of profragrance deposited from an aqueous environment onto the target surface, nor the amount of fragrance released after deposition could be linearly correlated to the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of the compounds. Different sets of compounds were found to be the best performers for different types of applications. Only one of the compounds evaluated in the present work, namely the thiolactic acid derivative of δ-damascone, efficiently released the corresponding fragrance in both of the tested applications. Profragrance development for functional perfumery thus remains a partially empirical endeavour. More knowledge (and control) of the various application conditions are required for an efficient profragrance design. PMID:25408319

  10. Validation of geophysical excitation functions by a rigorous combination with Earth orientation parameters and gravity field coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiker, A.; Kutterer, H.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysical excitation functions model the re-distribution of atmospheric, oceanic and hydrologic masses. The change of the mass distribution of the Earth affects polar motion and length of day as well as gravity field coefficients of second degree. As all these quantities are related to the unknown Earth's tensor of inertia, a combined analysis allows to identify inconsistencies between the data and to determine the tensor of inertia. Usually, this physical relation between the Earth rotation parameters, excitation functions and second degree gravity field coefficients which is induced by the tensor of inertia, is not considered. In our study, we rigorously exploit it for the independent mutual validation based on least-squares estimation including variance-covariance component estimation. The functional model is based on the well known linear approximation of the Euler-Liouville equation. The construction of an appropriate stochastic model is hindered in practice due to insufficient knowledge on variances and covariances. Here, the missing stochastic information is determined empirically by analyzing the input data. Improved Earth orientation parameters, second degree gravity field coefficients and improved excitation functions are obtained as estimation results. Furthermore the unknown tensor of inertia is determined. The observation residuals indicate the degree of mutual consistency of the data. We give a short overview of our adjustment model. We present and discuss some results obtained from two different oceanic and atmospheric excitations (NCEP + ECCO and ECMWF + OMCT). The analysis and discussion of the resulting estimated excitation functions is emphasized. The work regarding the mutual validation is performed within the project P9 “Combined analysis and validation of Earth rotation models and observations” of the Research Unit FOR 584 (“Earth rotation and global dynamic processes”) which is funded by the German research funding organization DFG.

  11. Fast computation of the Gauss hypergeometric function with all its parameters complex with application to the Pöschl Teller Ginocchio potential wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, N.; Stoitsov, M. V.

    2008-04-01

    The fast computation of the Gauss hypergeometric function F12 with all its parameters complex is a difficult task. Although the F12 function verifies numerous analytical properties involving power series expansions whose implementation is apparently immediate, their use is thwarted by instabilities induced by cancellations between very large terms. Furthermore, small areas of the complex plane, in the vicinity of z=e, are inaccessible using F12 power series linear transformations. In order to solve these problems, a generalization of R.C. Forrey's transformation theory has been developed. The latter has been successful in treating the F12 function with real parameters. As in real case transformation theory, the large canceling terms occurring in F12 analytical formulas are rigorously dealt with, but by way of a new method, directly applicable to the complex plane. Taylor series expansions are employed to enter complex areas outside the domain of validity of power series analytical formulas. The proposed algorithm, however, becomes unstable in general when |a|, |b|, |c| are moderate or large. As a physical application, the calculation of the wave functions of the analytical Pöschl-Teller-Ginocchio potential involving F12 evaluations is considered. Program summaryProgram title: hyp_2F1, PTG_wf Catalogue identifier: AEAE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6839 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 63 334 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Fortran 90 Computer: Intel i686 Operating system: Linux, Windows Word size: 64 bits Classification: 4.7 Nature of problem: The Gauss hypergeometric function F12, with all its parameters complex, is uniquely

  12. Combined cardiopulmonary assessments with implantable telemetry device in conscious freely moving cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, S; Haefner, Paul; Fournier, S; Troncy, E; Moon, L B

    2010-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys were surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters recording ECG (DII), arterial pressure, physical activity, body temperature, and tidal volume. Respiratory rate (RR) and tidal volume (TV) were monitored simultaneously with the telemetry transmitter using impedance. Impedance-based monitoring of RR and TV by telemetry correlated with controlled TV and with pneumotachometer (>98%) in restrained animals. Control drugs with cardiovascular and respiratory effects, including saline, medetomidine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.04mg/kg) and cocaine (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg/kg) were administered intravenously. An averaging epoch of 5min was used for analysis of respiratory data. Medetomidine induced significant respiratory depression with decrease in RR and TV in freely moving animals while cocaine increased TV, RR and minute ventilation (MV) with concomitant increase in heart rate when compared with time matched values from saline-treated animals. The onset, duration and magnitude of cardiovascular and respiratory changes were correlated. This highlights the dependency of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The use of cardiopulmonary monitoring can allow continuous monitoring including during night time when variability of respiratory parameters is lower. Monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters in the same animals could also help to decrease the number of animals used in research. PMID:20570745

  13. Establishment of an animal model of non-transthoracic cardiopulmonary bypass in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Hong-wei; XIAO Ying-bin; LIU Mei; CHEN Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish an animal model of non-transthoracic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in rats. Methods: Ten adult male Sprague-Dawlay rats, weighing 350-500 g, were used in this study. CPB was established in these animals through cannulating the left carotid and right jugular vein for arterial perfusion and venous return. The components of perfusion circuit, especially the miniature oxygenator and cannula, were specially designed and improved. The mean arterial pressure was measured with a blood pressure meter through cannulating the left femoral artery. The hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were also monitored. Results: The rat model of non-transthoracic CPB was established successfully. The hemodynamical parameters were changed within an acceptable region during CPB. The miniature oxygenator was sufficient to meet the standard of satisfactory CPB.Conclusions: The rat model of non-transthoracic CPB established through the carotid and jugular cannulation is feasible, easily operated, safe, reliable, and economic. It is an ideal model for the pathophysiological research of CPB.

  14. [Monitoring and simulation of soil electrical conductivity based on the hyperspectral parameters of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) functional leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Tang, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-03-01

    Taking the salt-tolerant cotton variety CCRI-44 and salt-sensitive cotton variety Sumian 12 as test materials, a two-year pot experiment was conducted at the Pailou experimental station of Nanjing Agricultural University in 2008 and 2009 to study the relationships of soil electrical conductivity (EC) with the spectral reflectance and hyperspectral indices of cotton functional leaves at different growth stages under five simulated salinity levels (0, 0.35%, 0.60%, 0.85%, and 1.00%) of coastal saline soils, and the quantitative monitoring models on the cotton soil EC were established. With increasing salinity level, the cotton functional leaves had an increased spectral reflectance in near-infrared and middle-infrared regions, and the spectral parameter normalized difference spectrum index (NDSI) based on 1350 nm and 2307 nm, i. e., NDSI (R1350, R2307), correlated well to the soil EC. With the NDSI (R1350, R2307) as independent variable, the soil EC monitoring model was constructed as EC = -42.899 NDSI (R1350, R2307) +27.338. Among the derivative spectral parameters, TM5-SWIR was most correlated to soil EC, and thus, the soil EC monitoring model was constructed as EC = 0.0574TM5-SWIR2-2.5928TM5 -SWIR+30.021. The two models with NDSI (R1350, R2307) and TM5-SWIR as the independent variables respectively all had higher prediction precision, with the determination coefficient being 0. 887 and 0. 814 and the root mean square error being 1.09 and 1.29 dS x m(-1), respectively, suggesting that using the hyperspectral parameters NDSI (R1350, R2307) and TM5-SWIR of cotton functional leaves could effectively monitor the soil EC of saline cotton fields. PMID:22720615

  15. Numerical effects on energy distribution functions in particle-in-cell simulations with Monte Carlo collisions: choosing numerical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle-in-cell simulations with Monte Carlo collisions are expected to calculate the velocity distribution functions of charged species correctly, even if these distribution functions have exotic features such as gross anisotropy in velocity space, marked departures from a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, or failure of the local field approximation. Correct computation of the electron energy distribution function, in particular, is crucial in chemically complex plasmas, where radicals produced by electron impact processes usually have a dominant role. In such cases, accurate calculation of the rate constants for electron impact processes is a major motivation for the use of a kinetic simulation procedure, such as the particle-in-cell method. Like any numerical procedure, the particle-in-cell algorithm has limitations, and one of these limitations is that velocity space diffusion can distort the particle energy distribution functions. This paper presents examples of some conditions where such numerical distortion of particle energy distribution functions is important, and draws conclusions with implications for the choice of numerical parameters for particle-in-cell simulations. In particular, we show that the number of particles per cell that is required varies significantly with the conditions (as much as three orders of magnitude), and can sometimes be very large indeed. We suggest a heuristic for selecting the number of particles per cell, derived from the examples we discuss. (paper)

  16. Impact of pericardial adhesions on diastolic function as assessed by vortex formation time, a parameter of transmitral flow efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heys Jeffrey J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pericardial adhesions are a pathophysiological marker of constrictive pericarditis (CP, which impairs cardiac filling by limiting the total cardiac volume compliance and diastolic filling function. We studied diastolic transmitral flow efficiency as a new parameter of filling function in a pericardial adhesion animal model. We hypothesized that vortex formation time (VFT, an index of optimal efficient diastolic transmitral flow, is altered by patchy pericardial-epicardial adhesions. Methods In 8 open-chest pigs, the heart was exposed while preserving the pericardium. We experimentally simulated early pericardial constriction and patchy adhesions by instilling instant glue into the pericardial space and using pericardial-epicardial stitches. We studied left ventricular (LV function and characterized intraventricular blood flow with conventional and Doppler echocardiography at baseline and following the experimental intervention. Results Significant decreases in end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction, stroke volume, and late diastolic filling velocity reflected the effects of the pericardial adhesions. The mean VFT value decreased from 3.61 ± 0.47 to 2.26 ± 0.45 (P = 0.0002. Hemodynamic variables indicated the inhibiting effect of pericardial adhesion on both contraction (decrease in systolic blood pressure and +dP/dt decreased and relaxation (decrease in the magnitude of -dP/dt and prolongation of Tau function. Conclusion Patchy pericardial adhesions not only negatively impact LV mechanical functioning but the decrease of VFT from normal to suboptimal value suggests impairment of transmitral flow efficiency.

  17. Endothelial Functioning and Hemodynamic Parameters in Rats with Subclinical Hypothyroid and the Effects of Thyroxine Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixia Gao

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH and its associations with atherosclerosis (AS and cardiovascular disease remain controversial. The purpose of our study was to observe changes in endothelial functioning and hemodynamics in rats with SCH and to determine whether L-thyroxine (L-T4 administration affects these changes.In total, sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following three groups with 20 rats each: control euthyroid rats, SCH rats and SCH rats that had been treated with thyroxine (SCH+T4. The SCH rats were induced by administration of 10 mg x kg(-1 x d(-1 methimazole (MMI once daily by gavage for 3 months. The SCH+T4 rats were administered the same dose of MMI for three months in addition to 2 μg x kg(-1 x d(-1 L-T4 once daily by gavage after 45 days of MMI administration. The control rats received physiological saline via gavage.The SCH group had significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and endothelin (ET levels and a lower nitric oxide (NO level than the control and SCH+T4 groups. The tail and carotid artery blood pressures, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and aorta ventralis blood flow were significantly lower in the SCH group than in the control and SCH+T4 groups. ACH treatment caused concentration-dependent relaxation, which was reduced in the SCH arteries compared with the control and SCH+T4 arteries. Histopathological examination revealed the absence of pathological changes in the SCH rat arteries.These findings demonstrate that L-T4 treatment ameliorates endothelial dysfunction and hemodynamic changes in SCH rats.

  18. Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Generalized Function Projective Synchronization of Different Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.

  19. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analysis (Chapter XXX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, G.J; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Scheffer, G.J.;

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the human in caring for others is reflected in the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Superstition, divine intervention and finally science have contributed to the development of a technique which may allow any person to save another’s life. Fully 50% of the first...... presentation of coronary artery disease is sudden death, typically in (western) men. [Anonymous, 2000, ID-469] However, achieving a clear understanding of why CPR saves some lives remains shrouded in mist; mist made even thicker by contradictory reports, different school of thought and persistently low...... survival rates. Despite the suggestion that much remains unclear, CPR is not new. An early report, in an 18 year old woman, of CPR as performed today, initially known as closed-chest cardiac resuscitation (CCCR), dates from 1858 [Husveti, ID-649]. Following airway obstruction and hypoxia, cardiac arrest...

  20. Voice advisory manikin versus instructor facilitated training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla; Rasmussen, Maria B;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training of healthcare staff in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is time-consuming and costly. It has been suggested to replace instructor facilitated (IF) training with an automated voice advisory manikin (VAM), which increases skill level by continuous verbal feedback during...... individual training. AIMS: To compare a VAM (ResusciAnne CPR skills station, Laerdal Medical A/S, Norway) with IF training in CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) in terms of skills retention after 3 months. METHODS: Forty-three second year medical students were included and CPR performance (ERC Guidelines for...... Resuscitation 2005) was assessed in a 2 min test before randomisation to either IF training in groups of 8 or individual VAM training. Immediately after training and after 3 months, CPR performance was assessed in identical 2 min tests. Laerdal PC Skill Reporting System 2.0 was used to collect data. To quantify...

  1. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  2. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  3. Quantification of cardiopulmonary blood volume turnover using dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Kero, Tanja;

    index, the central circulatory turnover (CCT) which represents the fractional exchange of blood per stroke within the cardiopulmonary blood pool and can be measured from any dynamic PET scan. Methods: Data from 111 clinical patients were analysed retrospectively. Patients underwent a 6-min 15O...... and RV time-activity curves were extracted after which their first-pass peaks were isolated and the centroid of each peak was obtained. Mean pulmonary transit time (MPTT, min) was defined as the difference between the LV centroid and the RV centroid and CCT was defined as 1/(MPTT*heart rate). Results.......001). Decrease of CCT was especially pronounced in severely ischemic patients already at rest Conclusion: Pulmonary transit times and central circulatory turnover can be measured automatically using dynamic PET. Since both are correlated with severity of myocardial ischemia already at rest, they appear to...

  4. Myhre syndrome: Clinical features and restrictive cardiopulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lois J; Grange, Dorothy K; Delaney, Jeffrey W; Yetman, Anji T; Hammel, James M; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Perry, Deborah A; Schaefer, G Bradley; Olney, Ann Haskins

    2015-12-01

    Myhre syndrome, a connective tissue disorder characterized by deafness, restricted joint movement, compact body habitus, and distinctive craniofacial and skeletal features, is caused by heterozygous mutations in SMAD4. Cardiac manifestations reported to date have included patent ductus arteriosus, septal defects, aortic coarctation and pericarditis. We present five previously unreported patients with Myhre syndrome. Despite varied clinical phenotypes all had significant cardiac and/or pulmonary pathology and abnormal wound healing. Included herein is the first report of cardiac transplantation in patients with Myhre syndrome. A progressive and markedly abnormal fibroproliferative response to surgical intervention is a newly delineated complication that occurred in all patients and contributes to our understanding of the natural history of this disorder. We recommend routine cardiopulmonary surveillance for patients with Myhre syndrome. Surgical intervention should be approached with extreme caution and with as little invasion as possible as the propensity to develop fibrosis/scar tissue is dramatic and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:26420300

  5. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly: a clinical and ethical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The daily practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in elderly patients has brought up the attention of outcome research and resource allocation. Determinants to predict survival have been well identified. There has been empirical evidence that CPR is of doubtful utility in the geriatric population, more studies have showed controversial data. Sometimes situations in which CPR needs to be given in the elderly, causes stress to healthcare providers, due to lack of communication of the patient's wishes and the belief that it will not be successful. It is of importance to state that we have the duty to identify on time the patients that will most likely benefit from CPR, and find out the preferences of the same. Whenever it is possible to institute these guidelines, we will avoid patient suffering.

  6. Note on the slope parameter of the baryonic Λb->Λc Isgur-Wise function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the framework of the Heavy Quark Effective Theory we have re-analyzed the Isgur-Wise function describing semileptonic Λb->Λc decays in the QCD sum rule approach. The slope parameter of the Isgur-Wise function is found to be ρ2=1.35+/-0.13, which is consistent with an experimental measurement and a lattice calculation. To O(1/mb,1/mc) of the heavy quark expansion the integrated Λb decay width is used to extract the CKM matrix element Vcb for which we obtain a value of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar =0.041+/-0.004+/-0.001 in excellent agreement with the value of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar determined from semileptonic B->D* decays

  7. Coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent papers have raised doubt as to the magnitude of coronary blood flow during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We will describe experiments that concern the methods of coronary flow measurement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nine anesthetized swine were instrumented to allow simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow by both electromagnetic cuff flow probes and by the radiomicrosphere technique. Cardiac arrest was caused by electrical fibrillation and closed-chest massage was performed by a Thumper (Dixie Medical Inc., Houston). The chest was compressed transversely at a rate of 66 strokes/min. Compression occupied one-half of the massage cycle. Three different Thumper piston strokes were studied: 1.5, 2, and 2.5 inches. Mean aortic pressure and total systemic blood flow measured by the radiomicrosphere technique increased as Thumper piston stroke was lengthened (mean +/- SD): 1.5 inch stroke, 23 +/- 4 mm Hg, 525 +/- 195 ml/min; 2 inch stroke, 33 +/- 5 mm Hg, 692 +/- 202 ml/min; 2.5 inch stroke, 40 +/- 6 mm Hg, 817 +/- 321 ml/min. Both methods of coronary flow measurement (electromagnetic [EMF] and radiomicrosphere [RMS]) gave similar results in technically successful preparations (data expressed as percent prearrest flow mean +/- 1 SD): 1.5 inch stroke, EMF 12 +/- 5%, RMS 16 +/- 5%; 2 inch stroke, EMF 30 +/- 6%, RMS 26 +/- 11%; 2.5 inch stroke, EMF 50 +/- 12%, RMS 40 +/- 20%. The phasic coronary flow signal during closed-chest compression indicated that all perfusion occurred during the relaxation phase of the massage cycle. We concluded that coronary blood flow is demonstrable during closed-chest massage, but that the magnitude is unlikely to be more than a fraction of normal

  8. The effect of choral music on emotions, immune parameters and lung function during physiotherapy treatment of pneumonia and bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Le Roux

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Music, processed by the brain, has a strong impacton the emotions and health.  The Magnificat in D major of JS Bach communicates not only a positive emotion of happiness but also motivational behaviour. Infectious lung conditions are often associated with negative emotions which develop due to physiological changes. The hormonal action of the hypothalamuspituitary-adrenal axes (HPA could be negatively affected by emotions of anger and depression.  This will result in a disturbance of the mind-body inter-action.  Music therefore can exert a powerful influence on therapeutic benefits by changing the psychological status and the immune endocrine functions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of music, during respiratory physiotherapy treatment on a theemotional status, b neuroendocrine responses, c immune functions and d lung functions of subjects with infected lung conditions.Method and Materials: Forty subjects attending physiotherapy treatment was selected according to set criteria and randomly assigned to an experimental and control group. The parameters (Profile Of Mood State [POMS]; CD4:CD8 cell ratios; Cortisol; the Cortisol: DHEA ratio; PF; FEV1; FVC and FEV1/FVC % were measured on day 1before the treatment and on day 3 after the treatment.  Data were analysed with Statistica (Statsoft using the RepeatedANOVA tests. Results: Results indicated that the intervention of music had a positive effect on the immunological parameter (CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and on the cortisol and cortisol:DHEA ratio levels.  At the same time the psychological  status as measured by Profile of Mood States (POMS scale improved with a significant improvement in the lung functions.Conclusion: The research provided sufficient scientific evidence that music affects both the biomedical and psycho-somatic aspects of infectious lung conditions.

  9. Process modeling and parameter optimization using radial basis function neural network and genetic algorithm for laser welding of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Yue, Chen

    2015-11-01

    The welded joints of dissimilar materials have been widely used in automotive, ship and space industries. The joint quality is often evaluated by weld seam geometry, microstructures and mechanical properties. To obtain the desired weld seam geometry and improve the quality of welded joints, this paper proposes a process modeling and parameter optimization method to obtain the weld seam with minimum width and desired depth of penetration for laser butt welding of dissimilar materials. During the process, Taguchi experiments are conducted on the laser welding of the low carbon steel (Q235) and stainless steel (SUS301L-HT). The experimental results are used to develop the radial basis function neural network model, and the process parameters are optimized by genetic algorithm. The proposed method is validated by a confirmation experiment. Simultaneously, the microstructures and mechanical properties of the weld seam generated from optimal process parameters are further studied by optical microscopy and tensile strength test. Compared with the unoptimized weld seam, the welding defects are eliminated in the optimized weld seam and the mechanical properties are improved. The results show that the proposed method is effective and reliable for improving the quality of welded joints in practical production.

  10. Variation of radon retention parameters for radium-burdened dog skeletons as a function of exposure age and dosage level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 was administered to 36 beagles at various levels in eight semimonthly injections at ages 60 to 160, 120 to 220, or 435 to 535 days. Approximately 400 individual radon retention values were obtained from γ-ray spectra taken at intervals over the life span of the animals. Radon retention was fitted by regression analysis to a power function of the form At/sup b/ (t = time after injection midpoint). Mean values and associated standard errors of the parameters anti A (SE) and anti b (SE), for animals of both sexes given 10 μCi/kg body weight at injection midpoint ages of 110, 170, and 485 days were [3.11 (0.15 SE); 0.293 (0.006 SE)], [5.31 (0.38 SE); 0.214 (0.006 SE)], and [6.08 (0.21 SE); 0.200 (0.007 SE)], respectively. The smaller coefficients, A (t = 1-day intercept), and larger exponents, b (rate parameter), found for earlier ages at injection are attributed to age-dependent differences in the mineral density of bone and the intrabone radium distribution pattern. The mean values of the parameters for animals receiving total dosages 226Ra dosage levels are interpreted in terms of radiation damage to bone which alters the degree of mineralization in regions of radium deposition

  11. Combined Computational Approach Based on Density Functional Theory and Artificial Neural Networks for Predicting The Solubility Parameters of Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, J Darío; Langner, Stefan; Salvador, Michael; Kontos, Janos; Jarvas, Gabor; Winkler, Florian; Machui, Florian; Görling, Andreas; Dallos, Andras; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2016-05-19

    The solubility of organic semiconductors in environmentally benign solvents is an important prerequisite for the widespread adoption of organic electronic appliances. Solubility can be determined by considering the cohesive forces in a liquid via Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). We report a numerical approach to determine the HSP of fullerenes using a mathematical tool based on artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN transforms the molecular surface charge density distribution (σ-profile) as determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations within the framework of a continuum solvation model into solubility parameters. We validate our model with experimentally determined HSP of the fullerenes C60, PC61BM, bisPC61BM, ICMA, ICBA, and PC71BM and through comparison with previously reported molecular dynamics calculations. Most excitingly, the ANN is able to correctly predict the dispersive contributions to the solubility parameters of the fullerenes although no explicit information on the van der Waals forces is present in the σ-profile. The presented theoretical DFT calculation in combination with the ANN mathematical tool can be easily extended to other π-conjugated, electronic material classes and offers a fast and reliable toolbox for future pathways that may include the design of green ink formulations for solution-processed optoelectronic devices. PMID:27070101

  12. The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiška Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle.We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the level of aerobic (AeT and anaerobic thresholds (AT, maximum heart rate (HRmax and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05 and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01 the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05.The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05 in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s. during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1, upper level of oxygen regime (A2 and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2 during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

  13. Correlation between carotid parameters measured by ultrasonography and cerebral infarction or left ventricular diastolic function in chronic hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies have reported that carotid parameters measured by ultrasonography are predictors for cerebral infarction in nondialysis patients. Using a cross-sectional design, this study investigated whether those carotid parameters are also associated with cerebral infarction and left ventricular diastolic function in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. We studied 63 HD patients aged 61.4±11.5 years who underwent regular hemodialysis in Hidaka Hospital. All subjects underwent carotid ultrasound measurements when they performed brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Cerebral infarction was detected significantly more frequently in patients with max intima-media thickness of common carotid artery (IMT) >2.2 mm (Odds ratio=3.14, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.11-8.92). There was a positive correlation between PS and E/E' (r=0.322, p=0.009). These findings suggest that max IMT is significantly associated with the presence of cerebral infarction, while PS is related to left ventricular diastolic function in chronic HD patients. (author)

  14. Influence on functional parameters of intestinal tract induced by short-term exposure to fumonisins contaminated corn chyme samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, F; Debellis, L; Garbetta, A; De Girolamo, A; Schena, R; Portincasa, P; Visconti, A

    2014-04-01

    The gut is a possible target toward mycotoxin fumonisins (FBs) exposure. The study aims to investigate the effects induced by FBs contaminated-corn chyme samples on functional parameters of human and rat intestine by using Ussing chamber. Fumonisins-contaminated corn and processed corn samples were undergone to in vitro digestion process and then added to luminal side. A reduction (about 90%) of short circuit current (Isc μA/cm(2)) during exposure of human colon tissues to fumonisins-free corn chyme samples was observed, probably related to increased chyme osmolality. This hyperosmotic stress could drain water towards the luminal compartment, modifying Na(+) and Cl(-) transports. The presence of FBs in corn chyme samples, independently to their concentration, did not affect significantly the Isc, probably related to their interference towards epithelial Na(+) transport, as assessed by using a specific inhibitor (Amiloride). The rat colon tract represents a more accessible model to study FBs toxicity showing a similar functional response to human. In the rat small intestine a significant reduction (about 15%) of Isc parameter during exposure to uncontaminated or FBs contaminated corn chyme samples was observed; therefore such model was not suitable to assess the FBs toxicity, probably because the prevalent glucose and amino acids electrogenic absorption overwhelmed the FBs influence on ionic transport. PMID:24480040

  15. Is the center of mass (COM) a reliable parameter for the localization of brain function in fMRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center of mass (COM) in functional MRI studies is defined as the center of a cerebral activation cluster. Although the COM is a well-accepted parameter for exactly localizing brain function, the reliability of COMs has not received much attention until now. Our goal was to investigate COM reliability as a function of the thresholding technique, the threshold level, and the type of COM calculation. Therefore 15 subjects were examined repeatedly using simple hand and tongue movement paradigms. Postprocessing was performed with uncorrected, corrected, and proportional thresholding as well as different threshold levels. Geometric and T-weighted COMs of left-hemispheric primary hand and tongue motor clusters were calculated. The COM variation was evaluated within and between repeated sessions depending on the different postprocessing setups. Mean COM variations over three repeated sessions varied between 1.6 mm and 9.8 mm for the hand paradigm and between 7.0 mm and 14.4 mm for the tongue task. Stringent thresholding techniques and high threshold levels were required to assess reliable results, whereas the kind of COM calculation was of lesser relevance. Thus, COM reliability cannot be presupposed; it depends strongly on the individual postprocessing techniques. This should be considered when using COMs for localizing brain function. (orig.)

  16. Results of the evaluation of numerical parameters of the hepatobiliary functional scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study serves to differentiate the various causes of pathological icterus in the neonatal and infant period by means of data from hepatobiliary functional scintigraphy. There is only good differentiation between extrahepatic biliary atresia and the group of intrahepatic liver-diseases. The neonatal hepatitis and intrahepatic biliary atresia, both located primarily in the liver, can be differentiated only with difficulty by the hepatobiliary functional scintigraphy, because in both diseases the hepatocytes are impaired. The other causes, such as choledochal cysts, are represented by too few patients in the study to perform a useful statistical analysis. The most appropriate parameters can be found by a statistical method, the so-called Maximum-Likelihood-Method. These are the ascent of the liver curve at the time of 420 seconds p.i. (cut-off-point 0.14), the activity in the liver at the end of the examination (cut-off-point 29), the maximum of the intestinal activity (cut-off-point 11), the quotient between liver activity and the activity of the whole range of measurement at the time of the maximum of the activity of the whole range of measurement (cut-off-point 0.65), the elimination-index (cut-off-point 970) and the clinical parameter GGT (cut-off-point 200). Besides these parameters we determine in this study some others, which describe the phases of the tracer-uptake in the liver (accumulation, retention and elimination) quantitatively. From these the best are described above. We find a sensitivity of the test of 100% for diagnosing an extrahepatic biliary atresia. The specificity of the test is 85.7%

  17. Changing attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in older people: a 15-year follow-up study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P E

    2009-03-01

    while it is well established that individual patient preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may change with time, the stability of population preferences, especially during periods of social and economic change, has received little attention.

  18. Utilising cardiopulmonary bypass for cancer surgery. Malignancy-induced protein C deficiency and thrombophilia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, C

    2012-02-03

    Cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved over the last 30 years. It is an important tool for the cardiac surgeon today and also has applications in non-cardiac operations such as surgery to extract tumours. Such patients undergoing surgery for cancer may be at an increased risk of a thromboembolic event post surgery, due to disturbances in the normal clotting pathway leading to hypercoagulability. One such disturbance is malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency. A deficiency of Protein C can cause hypercoagulabitity. Recent studies have examined cardiopulmonary bypass and inherited Protein C deficiency. However, surgery for cancer patients with a malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency involving cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported. Surgery using CPB in these patients may result in increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to review the literature in order to discuss the occurrence, the aetiology and possible management of cancer patients with malignancy-induced Protein C deficiencies that require cardiopulmonary bypass for their surgery.

  19. Wireless System for Continuous Cardiopulmonary Monitoring in a Space Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the NJM Sense-It system based on small sensor tags, which include a cardiopulmonary MEMS sensor for measuring heartbeat and breath rates...

  20. Distribution functions and statistical parameters that may be used to characterize limb sounders gravity wave climatologies in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; Luna, D.; de la Torre, A.; Schmidt, T.

    2015-08-01

    The number of gravity wave (GW) activity climatologies in the stratosphere started to increase more than 10 years ago since the appearance of large amounts of limb and nadir satellite sounders data. There have been very few discussions regarding the adequate statistical description of GW activity in terms of a distribution function and its parameters. We put forward the question whether a general statistical functional representation adaptable to the characteristics of GW activity in diverse geographic regions and seasons exists. Here we approach this issue for two different types of limb sounders and in particular we try to find out which parameters may represent at best the climatological features. We study results for a region close to the Patagonian Andes and their prolongation in the Antarctic Peninsula, which is well-known for the generation by topography of intense stratospheric GW, specially during winter and spring. Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) records presently provide over 2000 profiles per day. We used 5 years of COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) mission GPS RO data, which supplied almost 150,000 retrievals for our study. Three different distribution functions have been approached to describe the GW activity climatologies: gaussian, log-normal and gamma. The latter function has not been used in previous work. It has been shown here that it is a competitive option to the log-normal distribution. In addition, its use allows not only to quantify the GW activity level of each climatology in the stratosphere, but also to find out the number of significant modes that essentially determine it. Alternative parameters to the mean like the median may be used to characterize the climatologies. The use of the median may exhibit advantages in cases where the presence of spurious large GW activity measurements are suspected in GPS RO data. The mean is equally suitable to establish GW activity

  1. Coronary flow and reactivity, but not arrhythmia vulnerability, are affected by cardioplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liuba, Petru; Johansson, Sune; Pesonen, Erkki;

    2013-01-01

    velocity (cPFV) rose significantly after surgery especially in the cardioplegia group (p0.4). There was no difference in systolic myocardial function between groups at any time point.Conclusion: In piglets, CPB with cardioplegia was associated with profound abnormalities in coronary vasomotor tone and......Background: Surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity in both pediatric and adult patients but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Abnormalities in coronary flow and function have been suggested to play an important role. Prior...... studies suggest protective effects on coronary and myocardial function by short intravenous (i.v.) infusion of cyclosporine A before CPB.Methods: Barrier-bred piglets (10-12 kg, n=20) underwent CPB for 45 min, with or without antegrade administration of cardioplegic solution. Prior to CPB, half of the...

  2. Self-priming Hemodynamic Reservoir and Inline Flow Meter for a Cardiopulmonary Bypass Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Raasch, David; Austin, Jon; Tallman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Simulator exercises are used at Midwestern University to augment academic and laboratory training toward consolidating particular skills, increasing situation awareness, and preparing the student for practice within the team environment of an operating room. This paper describes an enhanced cardiopulmonary bypass simulator consisting of a self-priming hemodynamic reservoir that includes an inline flow meter. A typical cardiopulmonary bypass adult perfusion circuit was assembled using a roller...

  3. Ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass did not attenuate inflammatory response or affect postoperative outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Salman, Nevriye; Utku Unal, Ertekin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiopulmonary bypass causes a series of inflammatory events that have adverse effects on the outcome. The release of cytokines, including interleukins, plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the process. Simultaneously, cessation of ventilation and pulmonary blood flow contribute to ischaemia–reperfusion injury in the lungs when reperfusion is maintained. Collapse of the lungs during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to postoperative atelectasis, which correlates with the amount...

  4. Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites in sedentary subjects and sportsmen before and after a cardiopulmonary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Caimi, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of an exercise test on some indices of oxidative status and endothelial function, in trained and untrained subjects. We examined lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and their ratio before and after a cardiopulmonary test, using a cycloergometer. We enrolled 60 male subjects who practiced sport unprofessionally, subdivided in two groups (A and B) according to the values of VO2max. Group A included sportsmen with poor or fair aerobic fitness (VO2max 39 ml/Kg/min). The control group included 19 male sedentary subjects. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by detection of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS); the NOx were evaluated employing the Griess reagent. At rest, in comparison with sedentary controls, an increase in TBARS, NOx and TBARS/NOx ratio was found in all sportsmen and partially in the two groups. After the cardiopulmonary test, the increase of TBARS and TBARS/NOx ratio was significantly more evident in sedentary controls than in sportsmen. No variation was observed for NOx in any group. These data suggest that sportsmen are protected against the acute oxidative stress induced by an exercise test, and that protection is not strictly dependent on the aerobic fitness. PMID:22710809

  5. Forecasting Constraints on the Evolution of the Hubble Parameter and the Growth Function by Future Weak Lensing Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The cosmological information encapsulated within a weak lensing signal can be accessed via the power spectrum of the so called convergence. We use the Fisher information matrix formalism with the convergence power spectrum as the observable to predict how future weak lensing surveys will constrain the expansion rate and the growth function as functions of redshift without using any specific model to parameterize these two quantities. To do this, we divide redshift space into bins and linearly interpolate the functions with the centers of the redshift bins as sampling points, using a fiducial set of parameters. At the same time, we use these redshift bins for power spectrum tomography, where we analyze not only the power spectrum in each bin but also their cross-correlation in order to maximize the extracted information. We find that a small number of bins with the given photometric redshift mea- surement precision is sufficient to access most of the information content and that the projected constraints are c...

  6. Survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a major referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghafinia Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, by the code blue team at our center to compare with other centers. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from all adult patients who underwent CPR at our hospital from 2007 to 2008. CPR was performed on 290 patients and it was given 313 times. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated via binomial and chi square-tests. Results: Of the 290 patients included, 95 patients (30.4% had successful CPR. However, only 35 patients (12% were alive at discharge. The majority requiring CPR were above 60 years of age (61.7%. Males required CPR more than females. There were 125 women (43.1% and 165 males (56.9% aged 3 to 78 (average 59.6 years. Majority (179 of the cases (61.7% were above 60 years of age. Regarding the various wards, 54 cases (17.3% were in the internal medicine ward, 63 cases (20.1% in the surgery ward, 1 case (0.3% in the clinic, 11 cases (3.5% in the paraclinic, 116 cases (37.1% in the emergency (ER, 55 cases (17.5% in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU and Coronary Care Unit (CCU, and 13 cases (4.2% were in other wards. Cardiac massage was done in 133 cases (42.5%, defibrillation only via electroshock 3 cases (1%, and both were used in177 cases (56.5%. The ER had the most cases of CPR. Both cardiac massage and electroshock defibrillation were needed in most cases. Conclusion: In-hospital CPR for cardiopulmonary arrest was associated with 30.4% success at our center at the end of CPR but only 12% were alive at discharge. Duration of CPR> 10 minutes was predictive of significantly decreased survival to discharge.

  7. Significance of adrenomedullin under cardiopulmonary bypass in children during surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi M

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effect of adrenomedullin (AM on fluid homeostasis under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, we investigated the serial changes in plasma AM and other parameters related to fluid homeostasis in 13 children (average age, 28.2 months with congenital heart disease during cardiac surgery under CPB. Arterial blood and urine samples were collected just after initiation of anesthesia, just before commencement of CPB, 10 min before the end of CPB, 60 min after CPB, and 24 h after operation. Plasma AM levels increased significantly 10 min before the end of CPB and decreased 24 h after operation. Urine volume increased transiently during CPB, which paralleled changes in AM. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma AM level correlated significantly with urinary vasopressin, urine volume, urinary sodium excretion, and plasma osmolarity. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that urine volume was the most significant determinant of plasma AM levels. Percent rise in AM during CPB relative to control period correlated with that of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (r = 0.57, P < 0.01. Our results suggest that AM plays an important role in fluid homeostasis under CPB in cooperation with other hormones involved in fluid homeostasis.

  8. A numerical performance assessment of a commercial cardiopulmonary by-pass blood heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Filippo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Pelosi, Alessandra; Reggiani, Stefano; Redaelli, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    We developed a numerical model, based on multi-physics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, to assist the design process of a plastic hollow-fiber bundle blood heat exchanger (BHE) integrated within the INSPIRE(TM), a blood oxygenator (OXY) for cardiopulmonary by-pass procedures, recently released by Sorin Group Italia. In a comparative study, we analyzed five different geometrical design solutions of the BHE module. Quantitative geometrical-dependent parameters providing a comprehensive evaluation of both the hemo- and thermo-dynamics performance of the device were extracted to identify the best-performing prototypical solution. A convenient design configuration was identified, characterized by (i) a uniform blood flow pattern within the fiber bundle, preventing blood flow shunting and the onset of stagnation/recirculation areas and/or high velocity pathways, (ii) an enhanced blood heating efficiency, and (iii) a reduced blood pressure drop. The selected design configuration was then prototyped and tested to experimentally characterize the device performance. Experimental results confirmed numerical predictions, proving the effectiveness of CFD modeling as a reliable tool for in silico identification of suitable working conditions of blood handling medical devices. Notably, the numerical approach limited the need for extensive prototyping, thus reducing the corresponding machinery costs and time-to-market. PMID:25890509

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Fisioterapia, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lopes, S.L.B. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Benze, B.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Estatística, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR{sub peak}: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO{sub 2peak}: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO{sub 2VT}: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  11. Stereological estimation of left-ventricular volumetric and functional parameters from multidetector-row computed tomography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to optimize the stereological method for estimating left-ventricular (LV) parameters from retrospectively electrocardiography-gated 16-row MDCT and to compare stereological estimations with those by MRI. MDCT was performed in 17 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary disease. Stereological measurements based on point counting were optimized by determining the appropriate distance between grid points. LV parameters were evaluated by standard CT analysis using a semi-automatic segmentation method. Two independent observers evaluated the reproducibility of the stereological method. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) estimations with a coefficient of error below 5% were obtained in a mean time of 2.3 ± 0.5 min with a point spacing of 25 and 15 pixels, respectively. The intra- and interobserver variability for estimating LV parameters was 2.6-4.4 and 4.9-8.2%, respectively. MRI estimations were highly correlated with those by standard CT analysis (R > 0.82) and stereology (R > 0.84). Stereological method significantly overestimated EDV and ESV compared to MRI (EDV: P = 0.0011; ESV: P = 0.0013), whereas for stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF), no difference was observed (P > 0.05). For standard CT analysis and MRI, significant differences were found except for SV and EF (EDV: P = 0.0008; ESV: P = 0.0004; EF: P = 0.051; SV: P = 0.064). The time-efficient optimized stereological method enables the reproducible evaluation of LV function from MDCT. (orig.)

  12. The change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Shi; Yi-Xin Yang; Qian Xu; Yanhua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.Methods: Chose 89 patients with HDCP, they were set as HDCP group, chose another 60 cases health late pregnancy women and 42 cases non pregnant female, they were set as late pregnant group and non-pregnant control group, detected the platelet parameters: the average blood platelet count (PLT), platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and blood coagulation indexes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes in three groups.Results: (1) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PLT was significantly lower, while the MPV and PDW were significantly higher in HDCP group; PLT in late pregnant group was significantly lower than that in non-pregnant group, and there were no significantly difference of MPV and PDW in the two groups; (2) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PT and APTT levels were significantly lower, while FIB and D-D were significantly higher in HDCP group; The level of PT and APTT in late pregnant group were significantly lower, and FIB and D-D levels were significantly higher than that in non-pregnant group, However, The level of TT were no statistical significance difference among the three groups.Conclusion: HDCP existence phenomenon of platelet activation and apparent high coagulation state, dynamic detection of HDCP patients platelet parameters and blood coagulation indexes to prevent related complications, improve obstetrics safety is of great significance.

  13. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-Hamiltonian parameters for serine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-Hamiltonian parameters: chemical shifts δ and indirect spin–spin coupling constants J, have been calculated for serine, a brain metabolite. Serine molecules in the gas-phase as well as in solution in water have been investigated using density functional theory. Solvent and conformer effects as well as zero-point vibrational corrections have been taken into account. For the non-vibrating molecule, the best agreement is obtained when solvent and conformer effects are included. Zero-point vibrational corrections improve the agreement with experimental values, leading to a root mean square deviation of 0.05 ppm for chemical shifts and 0.7 Hz for spin–spin coupling constants

  14. The accuracy of functional parameters extracted from ventricular time-activity curves by Fourier curve fitting: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of functional parameters derived from multiple harmonic fourier curve fitting of left ventricular time-activity curves (TACs) was assessed in simulated curves of exactly known characteristics. Curves were generated to represent TACs of equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV). Curves of varying shape and noise characteristics were studied. The number of harmonics used in the fitting process was variable, the number being determined by an automated 'goodness of fit' test based on the chi-squared test. The accuracy of measured peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) was independent of the shape of the curve, but the accuracy of the time to these slopes (TPER, TPFR) was dependent on the steepness of the slope. The accuracy of the measured parameters improved as the influence of noise decreased allowing more harmonics to be added. The values of PER and PFR in control subjects varied between individuals, and with heart rate. There was less variation in the ratio (PER/PFR) of the slopes between individuals and the accuracy of the ratio was better than that of the individual values of PER and PFR. (author)

  15. Complete switched modified function projective synchronization of a five-term chaotic system with uncertain parameters and disturbances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fei Yu; Chunhua Wang; Qiuzhen Wan; Yan Hu

    2013-02-01

    A five-term three-dimensional (3D) autonomous chaotic system with an exponential nonlinear term is reported in this paper. Basic dynamical behaviours of the chaotic system are further investigated. Then a new synchronization phenomenon, complete switched modified function projective synchronization (CSMFPS), for this novel five-term chaotic system with uncertain parameters and disturbances is investigated. This paper extends previous work, where CSMFPS of chaotic systems means that all the state variables of the drive system synchronize with different state variables of the response system. As the synchronization scheme has many combined forms, it is a promising type of synchronization and can provide greater security in secure communication. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a robust adaptive controller is contrived to acquire CSMFPS, parameter identification and suppress disturbances simultaneously. Finally, the Lorenz system and the new five-term chaotic system are taken as examples and the corresponding numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Dosimetric parameter predicting the deterioration of hepatic function after helical tomotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify parameters capable of predicting the deterioration of hepatic function after helical tomotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Between March 2006 and February 2012, 72 patients were eligible for this study. All patients received hypofractionated radiotherapy using the TomoTherapy Hi-Art (TomoTherapy, Madison, WI, USA) at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea. The radiation dose was a median 50 Gy (range: 40–50 Gy) in 10 fractions to 95% of the planning target volume. Radiation-induced hepatic toxicity was defined as an increase of at least 2 points in the Child-Pugh (CP) score within 3 months after completion of helical tomotherapy. An increase of at least 2 points in the CP score occurred in 32 of the 72 patients (44.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that pretreatment CP class and V15Gy were significant parameters associated with an increase in CP score (p = 0.009 and p < 0.001, respectively). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.863 for V15Gy (p < 0.001). For V15Gy, with a cutoff value of 43.2%, the accuracy was 0.806 (58/72) with a sensitivity of 0.938 and a specificity of 0.725. An increase of at least 2 points in the CP score is a radiation dose-limiting factor, and the non-target normal liver receiving a dose more than 15 Gy (V15Gy) should be <43.2% to reduce the risk of the deterioration of hepatic function

  17. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Materials and Methods Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Results Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). Conclusion There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait. PMID:26632404

  18. Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

  19. Orbital Fitness: An Overview of Space Shuttle Cardiopulmonary Exercise Physiology Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Limited observations regarding the cardiopulmonary responses to aerobic exercise had been conducted during short-duration spaceflight before the Space Shuttle program. This presentation focuses on the findings regarding changes observed in the cardiopulmonary exercise responses during and following Shuttle flights. During flight, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) remained unchanged as did the maximum work rate achievable during cycle exercise testing conducted during the last full flight day. Immediately following flight, the ubiquitous finding, confirmed by investigations conducted during the Spacelab Life Sciences missions 1 and 2 and by NASA Detailed Supplemental Objective studies, indicated that VO2max was reduced; however, the reduction in VO2max was transient and returned to preflight levels within 7 days following return. Studies regarding the influence of aerobic exercise countermeasures performed during flight on postflight performance were mostly limited to the examination of the heart rate (HR) response to submaximal exercise testing on landing day. These studies revealed that exercise HR was elevated in individuals who performed little to no exercise during their missions as compared to individuals who performed regular exercise. In addition, astronauts who performed little to no aerobic exercise during flight demonstrated an increased HR and lowered pulse pressure response to the standard stand test on landing day, indicating a decrease in orthostatic function in these individuals. With regard to exercise modality, four devices were examined during the Shuttle era: two treadmills, a cycle ergometer, and a rowing device. Although there were limited investigations regarding the use of these devices for exercise training aboard the Shuttle, there was no clear consensus reached regarding which proved to be a "superior" device. Each device had a unique operational or physiologic limitation associated with its use. In conclusion, exercise research conducted

  20. A pulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass and its clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Kawai, T; Nishiyama, K; Murayama, Y; Toda, S; Wada, T; Kitaura, K; Sato, S; Kadowaki, M; Kanki, Y

    1988-09-01

    A pulsatile pump driven by a coil spring, which was designed and constructed by us, is described in this report. It consists of two main parts, a disposable blood chamber and a driving section. The blood chamber has two leaflet valves and a piston, which is covered with two bellofram rolling diaphragms and moves into the housing to draw in and eject the blood. The driving section consists of three cams, an electric motor and a coil spring. The ejection force is wholly produced by the compressed coil spring and is transmitted to the piston in the blood chamber by a rod. This pump allows the ejection pressure, the beat rates, and the stroke volume all to be changed independently. The performance of the pump was tested by using a circulation model where the beat rate was adjusted from 30 to 250 bpm. The output subsequently increased from 0.8 l/min to 5.7 l/min and the stroke volume, from 20.4 ml to 36.7 ml. This new pump has been used for clinical cardiopulmonary bypasses in 24 patients of open heart surgery and the pressure traces during perfusion resembled those of the patients' own hearts. PMID:3230723

  1. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: who should decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Zohar; Garasic, Mirko; Piperberg, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Whether to allow the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a highly contentious topic in recent years. Even though a great deal of evidence and professional guidelines support the option of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), many healthcare professionals still oppose it. One of the main arguments espoused by the latter is that family members should not be allowed for the sake of the patient's best interests, whether it is to increase his chances of survival, respect his privacy or leave his family with a last positive impression of him. In this paper, we examine the issue of FPDR from the patient's point of view. Since the patient requires CPR, he is invariably unconscious and therefore incompetent. We discuss the Autonomy Principle and the Three-Tiered process for surrogate decision making, as well as the Beneficence Principle and show that these are limited in providing us with an adequate tool for decision making in this particular case. Rather, we rely on a novel principle (or, rather, a novel specification of an existing principle) and a novel integrated model for surrogate decision making. We show that this model is more satisfactory in taking the patient's true wishes under consideration and encourages a joint decision making process by all parties involved. PMID:23557910

  2. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 . Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO 2 (PETCO 2 and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO 2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA. There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO 2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes.

  3. The Role of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in IPF Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Triantafillidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In IPF, defects in lung mechanics and gas exchange manifest with exercise limitation due to dyspnea, the most prominent and disabling symptom. Aim. To evaluate the role of exercise testing through the 6MWT (6-minute walk test and CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the survival of patients with IPF. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study evaluating in 25 patients the relationship between exercise variables through both the 6MWT and CPET and survival. Results. By the end of the observational period 17 patients were alive (33% mortality. Observation ranged from 9 to 64 months. VE/VCO2 slope (slope of relation between minute ventilation and CO2 production, VO2 peak/kg (peak oxygen consumption/kg, VE/VCO2 ratio at anaerobic threshold, 6MWT distance, desaturation, and DLCO% were significant predictors of survival while VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg had the strongest correlation with outcome. The optimal model for mortality risk estimation was VO2 peak/kg + DLCO% combined. Furthermore, VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak/kg were correlated with distance and desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusion. The integration of oxygen consumption and diffusing capacity proved to be a reliable predictor of survival because both variables reflect major underlying physiologic determinants of exercise limitation.

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Botswana nurses provide most health care in the primary, secondary and tertiary level clinics and hospitals. Trauma and medical emergencies are on the increase, and nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge and skills in order to be able to implement effective interventions in cardiac arrest situations.Objective: The objective of this descriptive study was to assess registered nurses’ CPR knowledge and skills.Method: A pre-test, intervention and re-test time-series research design was adopted, and data were collected from 102 nurses from the 2 referral hospitals in Botswana. A multiple choice questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data.Results: All nurses failed the pre-test. Their knowledge and skills improved after training, but deteriorated over the three months until the post-test was conducted.Conclusion: The significantly low levels of registered nurses’ CPR skills in Botswana should be addressed by instituting country-wide CPR training and regular refresher courses.

  5. Trainers' Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, M.; Castrén, M.; Nurmi, J.; Niemi-Murola, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers' attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D), Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N = 185) focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree). Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse's Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation). Cronbach's alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student's t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p Nurse's Role (p CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills. PMID:27144027

  6. Trainers’ Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mäkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers’ attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D, Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N=185 focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree. Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse’s Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation. Cronbach’s alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student’s t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p<0.01. Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p<0.01 were less confident about their Nurse’s Role (p<0.01 and Nontechnical Skills (p<0.01. Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills.

  7. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to recommend more effective CPR strategies for Botswana’s hospitals. Interviews, comprising two quantitative sections with closed ended questions and one qualitative section with semi-structured questions, were conducted with 22 unit managers. The quantitative data indicated that all unit managers had at least eight years’ nursing experience, and could identify CPR shortcomings in their hospitals. Only one interviewee had never performed CPR. The qualitative data analysis revealed that the hospital units sometimes had too few staff members and did not have fully equipped emergency trolleys and/or equipment. No CPR teams and no CPR policies and guidelines existed. Nurses and doctors reportedly lacked CPR knowledge and skills. No debriefing services were provided after CPR encounters. The participating hospitals should address the following challenges that might affect CPR outcomes: shortages of staff, overpopulation of hospital units, shortcomings of the emergency trolleys and CPR equipment, absence of CPR policies and guidelines, absence of CPR teams, limited CPR competencies of doctors and nurses and the lack of debriefing sessions after CPR attempts.

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG) signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE), complexity index (CI), and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA) are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (p CPR-IMFs amplitude differences. PMID:27529068

  9. Prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Folke, Fredrik; Kragholm, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: We included 1316 adult OHCA individuals with pre-hospital ROSC (2005-2011) handled by the largest nationwide ambulance provider in Denmark. Patients were stratified into 0-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25 and >25min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by...... emergency medical services until ROSC was achieved. Nursing home admission and diagnosis of anoxic brain damage were measured as proxies of poor neurological/functional outcomes. FINDINGS: Median time from CPR initiation to ROSC was 12min (IQR: 7-18) while 20.4% achieved ROSC after >25min. Overall, 37.......5% (494) of the study population achieved 30-day survival. Thirty-day survival was inversely related to minutes of CPR to ROSC: ranging from 59.6% (127/213) for ≤5min to 13.8% (19/138) for >25min. If bystander initiated CPR before ambulance arrival, corresponding values ranged from 70.4% (107/152) to 21...

  10. Theophylline Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymoyer, Adam; Su, Felice; Grimm, Paul C; Sutherland, Scott M; Axelrod, David M

    2016-09-01

    Children undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently develop acute kidney injury due to renal ischemia. Theophylline, which improves renal perfusion via adenosine receptor inhibition, is a potential targeted therapy. However, children undergoing cardiac surgery and CPB commonly have alterations in drug pharmacokinetics. To help understand optimal aminophylline (salt formulation of theophylline) dosing strategies in this population, a population-based pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) from 71 children (median age 5 months; 90% range 1 week to 10 years) who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB and received aminophylline as part of a previous randomized controlled trial. A 1-compartment model with linear elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Weight scaled via allometry was a significant predictor of clearance and volume. In addition, allometric scaled clearance increased with age implemented as a power maturation function. Compared to prior reports in noncardiac children, theophylline clearance was markedly reduced across age. In the final population pharmacokinetic model, optimized empiric dosing regimens were developed via Monte Carlo simulations. Doses 50% to 75% lower than those recommended in noncardiac children were needed to achieve target serum concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/L. PMID:26712558

  11. Cardiorespiratory adaptation to breath-holding in air: Analysis via a cardiopulmonary simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonio; Limei Cheng; Ursino, Mauro; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2015-08-01

    Apnea via breath-holding (BH) in air induces cardiorespiratory adaptation that involves the activation of several reflex mechanisms and their complex interactions. Hence, the effects of BH in air on cardiorespiratory function can become hardly predictable and difficult to be interpreted. Particularly, the effect on heart rate is not yet completely understood because of the contradicting results of different physiological studies. In this paper we apply our previously developed cardiopulmonary model (CP Model) to a scenario of BH with a twofold intent: (1) further validating the CP Model via comparison against experimental data; (2) gaining insights into the physiological reasoning for such contradicting experimental results. Model predictions agreed with published experimental animal and human data and indicated that heart rate increases during BH in air. Changes in the balance between sympathetic and vagal effects on heart rate within the model proved to be effective in inverting directions of the heart rate changes during BH. Hence, the model suggests that intra-subject differences in such sympatho-vagal balance may be one of the reasons for the contradicting experimental results. PMID:26738098

  12. Clinical Review: Management of weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Licker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizable number of cardiac surgical patients are difficult to wean off cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB as a result of structural or functional cardiac abnormalities, vasoplegic syndrome, or ventricular dysfunction. In these cases, therapeutic decisions have to be taken quickly for successful separation from CPB. Various crisis management scenarios can be anticipated which emphasizes the importance of basic knowledge in applied cardiovascular physiology, knowledge of pathophysiology of the surgical lesions as well as leadership, and communication between multiple team members in a high-stakes environment. Since the mid-90s, transoesophageal echocardiography has provided an opportunity to assess the completeness of surgery, to identify abnormal circulatory conditions, and to guide specific medical and surgical interventions. However, because of the lack of evidence-based guidelines, there is a large variability regarding the use of cardiovascular drugs and mechanical circulatory support at the time of weaning from the CPB. This review presents key features for risk stratification and risk modulation as well as a standardized physiological approach to achieve successful weaning from CPB.

  13. Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification: A Possible Cause of Refractory Cardiopulmonary Failure in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification is a rare autosome recessive disease characterized by extensive calcification of medium and large arteries. Loss-of-function mutations in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene have been described in more than 80% of the cases. Although the diagnosis is usually made at autopsy, it is possible to identify cases based on clinical presentation, radiology findings, and molecular studies. Appropriate treatment can be initiated and has been shown to successfully induce permanent remission. We report a 4-week-old neonate who initially presented with respiratory distress, heart failure, and Coxsackie B viremia suggestive of viral induced cardiomyopathy. His symptoms progressed to multiple organ failure and he eventually expired at four weeks of age. On autopsy, diffuse calcium deposition within the internal elastic lamina of medium and large arteries was identified, as well as narrowing of lumen due to myointimal proliferation. This case report will emphasize the importance of taking this rare curable disease into consideration in all cases of infants with cardiopulmonary failure.

  14. Large Scale Parameter Estimation Problems in Frequency-Domain Elastodynamics Using an Error in Constitutive Equation Functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Biswanath; Walsh, Timothy F; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation and implementation of an Error in Constitutive Equations (ECE) method suitable for large-scale inverse identification of linear elastic material properties in the context of steady-state elastodynamics. In ECE-based methods, the inverse problem is postulated as an optimization problem in which the cost functional measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses. Furthermore, in a more recent modality of this methodology introduced by Feissel and Allix (2007), referred to as the Modified ECE (MECE), the measured data is incorporated into the formulation as a quadratic penalty term. We show that a simple and efficient continuation scheme for the penalty term, suggested by the theory of quadratic penalty methods, can significantly accelerate the convergence of the MECE algorithm. Furthermore, a (block) successive over-relaxation (SOR) technique is introduced, enabling the use of existing parallel finite element codes with minimal modification to solve the coupled system of equations that arises from the optimality conditions in MECE methods. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully reconstruct the spatial distribution of elastic material parameters from partial and noisy measurements in as few as ten iterations in a 2D example and fifty in a 3D example. We show (through numerical experiments) that the proposed continuation scheme can improve the rate of convergence of MECE methods by at least an order of magnitude versus the alternative of using a fixed penalty parameter. Furthermore, the proposed block SOR strategy coupled with existing parallel solvers produces a computationally efficient MECE method that can be used for large scale materials identification problems, as demonstrated on a 3D example involving about 400,000 unknown moduli. Finally, our numerical results suggest that the proposed MECE

  15. Multivariate benthic ecosystem functioning in the Arctic – benthic fluxes explained by environmental parameters in the southeastern Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Link

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems and their biogeochemical cycles are difficult to predict given the complex physical, biological and chemical interactions among the ecosystem components. We studied benthic biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic and the influence of short-term (seasonal to annual, long-term (annual to decadal and other environmental variability on their spatial distribution to provide a baseline for estimates of the impact of future changes. In summer 2009, we measured fluxes of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, soluble reactive phosphate and silicic acid at the sediment–water interface at eight sites in the southeastern Beaufort Sea at water depths from 45 to 580 m. The spatial pattern of the measured benthic boundary fluxes was heterogeneous. Multivariate analysis of flux data showed that no single or reduced combination of fluxes could explain the majority of spatial variation, indicating that oxygen flux is not representative of other nutrient sink–source dynamics. We tested the influence of eight environmental parameters on single benthic fluxes. Short-term environmental parameters (sinking flux of particulate organic carbon above the bottom, sediment surface Chl a were most important for explaining oxygen, ammonium and nitrate fluxes. Long-term parameters (porosity, surface manganese and iron concentration, bottom water oxygen concentrations together with δ13Corg signature explained most of the spatial variation in phosphate, nitrate and nitrite fluxes. Variation in pigments at the sediment surface was most important to explain variation in fluxes of silicic acid. In a model including all fluxes synchronously, the overall spatial distribution could be best explained (57% by the combination of sediment Chl a, phaeopigments, δ13Corg, surficial manganese and bottom water oxygen concentration. We conclude that it is necessary to consider long-term environmental variability along with

  16. Relation between Fresnel transform of input light field and the two-parameter Radon transform of Wigner function of the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hong-Yi; Hu Li-Yun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proves a new theorem on the relationship between optical field Wigner function's two-parameter Radon transform and optical Fresnel transform of the field, I.e., when an input field ψ(x') propagates through an optical [D (-B) (-C) A] system, the energy density of the output field is equal to the Radon transform of the Wigner function of the input field, where the Radon transform parameters are D, B. It prove this theorem in both spatial-domain and frequency-domain, in the latter case the Radon transform parameters are A, C 7.

  17. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  18. Analysis of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT, Proton and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT for Reducing Perioperative Cardiopulmonary Complications in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted C. Ling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. While neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy has improved outcomes for esophageal cancer patients, surgical complication rates remain high. The most frequent perioperative complications after trimodality therapy were cardiopulmonary in nature. The radiation modality utilized can be a strong mitigating factor of perioperative complications given the location of the esophagus and its proximity to the heart and lungs. The purpose of this study is to make a dosimetric comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT, proton and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT with regard to reducing perioperative cardiopulmonary complications in esophageal cancer patients. Materials. Ten patients with esophageal cancer treated between 2010 and 2013 were evaluated in this study. All patients were simulated with contrast-enhanced CT imaging. Separate treatment plans using proton radiotherapy, IMRT, and 3D-CRT modalities were created for each patient. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and analyzed to compare plans between the three modalities. The organs at risk (OAR being evaluated in this study are the heart, lungs, and spinal cord. To determine statistical significance, ANOVA and two-tailed paired t-tests were performed for all data parameters. Results. The proton plans showed decreased dose to various volumes of the heart and lungs in comparison to both the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans. There was no difference between the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans in dose delivered to the lung or heart. This finding was seen consistently across the parameters analyzed in this study. Conclusions. In patients receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer, proton plans are technically feasible while achieving adequate coverage with lower doses delivered to the lungs and cardiac structures. This may result in decreased cardiopulmonary toxicity and less morbidity to esophageal cancer patients.

  19. Analysis of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), Proton and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for Reducing Perioperative Cardiopulmonary Complications in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry M.; Nookala, Prashanth; Mifflin, Rachel; Grove, Roger; Ly, Anh M.; Patyal, Baldev; Slater, Jerry D.; Yang, Gary Y., E-mail: gyang@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson Street, A875, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Background. While neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy has improved outcomes for esophageal cancer patients, surgical complication rates remain high. The most frequent perioperative complications after trimodality therapy were cardiopulmonary in nature. The radiation modality utilized can be a strong mitigating factor of perioperative complications given the location of the esophagus and its proximity to the heart and lungs. The purpose of this study is to make a dosimetric comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), proton and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with regard to reducing perioperative cardiopulmonary complications in esophageal cancer patients. Materials. Ten patients with esophageal cancer treated between 2010 and 2013 were evaluated in this study. All patients were simulated with contrast-enhanced CT imaging. Separate treatment plans using proton radiotherapy, IMRT, and 3D-CRT modalities were created for each patient. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and analyzed to compare plans between the three modalities. The organs at risk (OAR) being evaluated in this study are the heart, lungs, and spinal cord. To determine statistical significance, ANOVA and two-tailed paired t-tests were performed for all data parameters. Results. The proton plans showed decreased dose to various volumes of the heart and lungs in comparison to both the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans. There was no difference between the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans in dose delivered to the lung or heart. This finding was seen consistently across the parameters analyzed in this study. Conclusions. In patients receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer, proton plans are technically feasible while achieving adequate coverage with lower doses delivered to the lungs and cardiac structures. This may result in decreased cardiopulmonary toxicity and less morbidity to esophageal cancer patients.

  20. Using Parameters of Dynamic Pulse Function for 3d Modeling in LOD3 Based on Random Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehashrafi, B.

    2015-12-01

    The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated 3D model(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having 3D model in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the 3D model in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of Dynamic Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the 3D model contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is dynamically proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define