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Sample records for cardiometabolic risk profile

  1. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  2. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

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    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  3. Genetic risk scores link body fat distribution with specific cardiometabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Sandholt, Camilla H; Andersson Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid;

    2016-01-01

    on the risk of incident diabetes and associations with detailed cardiometabolic phenotypes were tested. METHODS: In a prospective study of 6,121 Inter99 individuals, the risk of incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards regression was evaluated. Using linear regession, the associations between genetic...

  4. Cardiometabolic risk profiles associated with chronic complications in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes patients in South China.

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    Yanzhen Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by altered cardiometabolic risk profiles, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. The association of altered cardiometabolic risk profiles with chronic complications of diabetes is not well investigated. METHODS: We recruited 2954 type 2 diabetes patients with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 who visited the diabetes clinics of 62 hospitals in 21 cities in Guangdong province of China from August 2011 to March 2012. Demographic characteristics, personal and family medical histories, and data on chronic complications of diabetes were collected. Clinical examinations and laboratory assessment were conducted. RESULTS: Abdominal obesity was found in 91.6% of the study population, elevated blood pressure in 78.3%; elevated serum triacylglycerols in 57.8%, and reduced serum HDL-C in 55.9%. Among the cardiometabolic risk factors, elevated blood pressure was significantly associated with almost all the chronic complications of diabetes. After adjusting for age, gender, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c, elevated blood pressure was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.22-2.19, diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.16, 95% CI: 2.25-4.46, cardiovascular disease (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.70-4.32, and stroke (OR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.15-3.12. Abdominal adiposity was significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy (OR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.11-1.74. Elevated triacylglycerols was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.58 and diabetic nephropathy (OR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05-1.58. Reduced HDL-C was significantly associated with stroke (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.88. CONCLUSIONS: Altered cardiometabolic risk profiles, and elevated blood pressure in particular, were significantly associated with chronic complications in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Future studies on the prevention of chronic complications of diabetes might make lowering blood

  5. A School-Based Intervention Associated with Improvements in Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén, Eva Flygare; Müllersdorf, Maria; Christensson, Kyllike; Marcus, Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates a multifactorial school-based intervention with the aim of decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors by means of a healthy lifestyle, primarily with daily physical activity and healthy food during school hours, at an upper secondary school for students with intellectual disabilities. The outcome is measured in terms of…

  6. Effects of daily quercetin-rich supplementation on cardiometabolic risks in male smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Hea; Park, Eunju; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Cha, Yong-Jun; Kim, Jung-Mi; Lee, Hyeran; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Limited information from human studies indicates that dietary quercetin supplementation influences blood lipid profiles, glycemic response, and inflammatory status, collectively termed cardiometabolic risks. We tested the hypothesis that quercetin-rich supplementation, derived from onion peel extract, improves cardiometabolic risk components in healthy male smokers in a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled parallel design. Randomly assigned subjects were instructed to take either th...

  7. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela;

    2009-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...... ratio for the metabolic syndrome of those in the highest quartile of fasting insulin compared with those in the lower quartiles was 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10.3, adjusted for insulin sensitivity) in men and 5.1 (2.6-9.9) in women. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome of those with insulin......OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...

  8. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jihua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values. Methods Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male, 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile. The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR ( Results 9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5 and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR Conclusion WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.

  9. Development of cardiometabolic risk in childhood and adolescence. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process leading to cardiovascular disease begins early in life and is influenced over time by several risk factors. Investigating determinants that contribute to an unfavourable cardiometabolic profile in childhood and adolescence is important for specifying time windows suitable

  10. Maternal parity, fetal and childhood growth, and cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Rurangirwa, Akashi A; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Franco, Oscar H; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-08-01

    We examined the associations of maternal parity with fetal and childhood growth characteristics and childhood cardiometabolic risk factors in a population-based prospective cohort study among 9031 mothers and their children. Fetal and childhood growth were repeatedly measured. We measured childhood anthropometrics, body fat distribution, left ventricular mass, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin levels at the age of 6 years. Compared with nulliparous mothers, multiparous mothers had children with higher third trimester fetal head circumference, length and weight growth, and lower risks of preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational-age at birth but a higher risk of large-size-for-gestational-age at birth (Pbody mass index, total fat mass percentage, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than children of nulliparous mothers (Pratio, 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.63–0.88]). The risk of childhood clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors was not statistically significantly different (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.05). Among children from multiparous mothers only, we observed consistent trends toward a lower risk of childhood overweight and lower cholesterol levels with increasing parity (P<0.05). In conclusion, offspring from nulliparous mothers have lower fetal but higher infant growth rates and higher risks of childhood overweight and adverse metabolic profile. Maternal nulliparity may have persistent cardiometabolic consequences for the offspring. PMID:24866145

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch of Northern Québec

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    Françoise Proust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: To examine fatty acids (FAs status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants. Design: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829 conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. FAs were quantified in red blood cells (RBCs under fasting conditions. Results: A total of 89% of the participants were overweight (with 69% obesity, 33% had hypertriglyceridemia, 44% had low plasma HDL-c and 77% had fasting plasma insulin ≥90 pmol/l. Total n-3 PUFAs accounted for 6% of total FAs and were higher among older participants, while n-6 PUFAs accounted for 31% of total FAs and were higher among younger participants. According to the adjusted multiple linear regression models, n-3 LC-PUFA was associated (p<0.05 with higher total cholesterol, LDL-c and apo B-100, and was also associated (p<0.05 with lower blood glucose. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed that n-3 LC-PUFA levels measured in the RBCs of the Cree adults are relatively low and tend towards lower levels among youth. These levels might be insufficient to offset the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  12. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  13. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.;

    2014-01-01

    Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Obj...

  14. [Shift work and cardiometabolic risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Bracci, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    Shift work is frequently associated with coronary heart disease. Medical research indicate metabolic disturbance among shift workers, which is characterized by associated modifications in the concentration of serum glucose and serum lipids, hypertension and obesity, especially addominal weight. Atrasversal study has been carried out: 193 (126 females and 67 males) healthcare shift workers were compared with 221 (160 females and 61 males) day workers. Medical history, health examination including anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements were assessed. All participants were submitted a standardized questionnaire on health-related behaviours and biochemical determinations (fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides). Job seniority of shift work resulted at 13.5 +/- 8.2 among shift workers and 19.0 +/- 11.3 among day workers. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome relevance was defined according to the criterions proposed by the International Diabetes Federation. The 20% shift workers (33% males and 13% females) was affected by metabolic syndrome against 12% non shift workers (20% males and 9% females). The most frequently altered parameter, apart from metabolic syndrome, was high abdominal obesity, which occurred in 64% of the sample (70% shift workers vs 58% day workers). The results of multiple logistic regression attested the presence of a higher relative risk among shift workers regarding both the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome (OR 2,1 - 95% Cl 1.15-3.86) and the excess in abdominal obesity (OR 1.8 - 95% Cl 1.16-3.25). After adjusting confusing factors such as smoke, age, alchool, consumption, physical activity, scholastic degree, a OR 2.9 - 95%Cl 1,53-5.53 and a OR 1.9 - 95%.Cl 1.32-3.86 were confirmed. PMID:20066881

  15. Hostility Modifies the Association between TV Viewing and Cardiometabolic Risk

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    Anthony Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was hypothesized that television viewing is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, people with hostile personality type may be more susceptible to TV-induced negative emotions and harmful health habits which increase occurrence of cardiometabolic risk. Purpose. The prospective association of TV viewing on cardiometabolic risk was examined along with whether hostile personality trait was a modifier. Methods. A total of 3,269 Black and White participants in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA study were assessed from age 23 to age 35. A cross-lagged panel model at exam years 5, 10, 15, and 20, covering 15 years, was used to test whether hours of daily TV viewing predicted cardiometabolic risk, controlling confounding variables. Multiple group analysis of additional cross-lagged panel models stratified by high and low levels of hostility was used to evaluate whether the association was modified by the hostile personality trait. Results. The cross-lagged association of TV viewing at years 5 and 15 on clustered cardiometabolic risk score at years 10 and 20 was significant (B=0.058 and 0.051, but not at 10 to 15 years. This association was significant for those with high hostility (B=0.068 for exam years 5 to 10 and 0.057 for exam years 15 to 20 but not low hostility. Conclusion. These findings indicate that TV viewing is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Further, they indicate that hostility might be a modifier for the association between TV viewing and cardiometabolic risk.

  16. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Silvia I.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Liem, Eryn T.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this associati

  17. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  18. Weight Fluctuation during Childhood and Cardiometabolic Risk at Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Langenberg, Daniella; Hoekstra, Trynke; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Wouwe, Jacobus P.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Renders, Carry M.; de Kroon, Marlou L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that greater weight fluctuation between 2 and 6 years is associated with an increase in weight measures (such as body mass index [BMI]) and cardiometabolic risk in young adulthood. Study design Weight fluctuation (determined by BMI SD scores) was measured at least 3

  19. Weight fluctuation during childhood and cardiometabolic risk at young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, D. van de; Hoekstra, T.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Hirasing, R.A.; Renders, C.M.; Kroon, M.L.A. de

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that greater weight fluctuation between 2 and 6 years is associated with an increase in weight measures (such as body mass index [BMI]) and cardiometabolic risk in young adulthood. Study design Weight fluctuation (determined by BMI SD scores) was measured at least 3

  20. Sleep and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Jonas S; Sjödin, Anders; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hjorth, Mads F

    2016-10-01

    The evidence for a link between sleep and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents is accumulating; however, the literature has not yet been reviewed. Seventy-five studies investigating associations between sleep variables and measures of abdominal adiposity, glucose homeostasis, blood lipids, blood pressure (BP), and inflammatory markers were included in the present review. The current evidence indicates that inadequate sleep may play a role in cardiometabolic risk at a later age for children and adolescents. Most compelling is the evidence for an association between inadequate sleep and abdominal adiposity, decreased insulin sensitivity as well as high BP, whereas the evidence for potential links between sleep and blood lipids as well as inflammatory markers is less convincing. It should, however, be noted that the majority of studies linking sleep with cardiometabolic outcomes are cross-sectional in nature, and sleep is often assessed using parent or self-report. We suggest that future studies should investigate longitudinal associations between sleep and cardiometabolic risk factors with the use of objective sleep measurements conducted for several days, including weekdays and weekend days, at multiple time points over time. Meanwhile, based on the available evidence, we recommend that children and adolescents get adequate amounts of good sleep in a regular pattern. PMID:26683701

  1. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...... patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak...

  2. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary

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    Jermendy György

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2% or in public services (23.9%. Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years, men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p vs 13.4%; p vs 21.7%; p vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers.

  3. Sleep and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Jonas Salling; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Chaput, Jean-Philippe;

    2016-01-01

    The evidence for a link between sleep and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents is accumulating; however, the literature has not yet been reviewed. Seventy-five studies investigating associations between sleep variables and measures of abdominal adiposity, glucose homeostasis......, blood lipids, blood pressure (BP), and inflammatory markers were included in the present review. The current evidence indicates that inadequate sleep may play a role in cardiometabolic risk at a later age for children and adolescents. Most compelling is the evidence for an association between inadequate...... weekdays and weekend days, at multiple time points over time. Meanwhile, based on the available evidence, we recommend that children and adolescents get adequate amounts of good sleep in a regular pattern....

  4. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Hispanic adolescents: correlations with adipocytokines and markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cynthia M; Ortiz, Ana P; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Velázquez-Torres, Guermarie; Santiago, Damarys; Giovannetti, Katya; Bernabe, Raúl; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adypocytokines in a Hispanic adolescent subgroup. A clinic-based sample of 101 Puerto Rican adolescents, 48 of whom were overweight or obese based on body mass index percentiles for age and sex, was recruited during 2010. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and blood drawing. Overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 16.8 % and increased to 37.5 % among overweight/obese youth. The overweight/obese group exhibited significantly (p reactive protein, fibrinogen, leptin, and IL-6 and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, and IGF-1. Total adiponectin significantly correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors independent of sex, Tanner stage, and adiposity. Altered cardiometabolic and adipocytokine profiles were present in this Hispanic subgroup, reinforcing the need to strengthen strategies addressing childhood obesity. PMID:23828626

  5. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among USadolescents with disabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah E Messiah; Denise C Vidot; Gabriel Somarriba; Kanathy Haney; Semra Aytur; Ruby A Natale; Jeffrey P Brosco; Kristopher L Arheart

    2015-01-01

    AIM To generate prevalence estimates of weightstatus and cardiometabolic disease risk factors amongadolescents with and without disabilities.METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Healthand Nutrition Examination Survey data was conductedamong 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and withoutdisabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference,fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol,triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure andmetabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) wereexamined by the following standardized body mass index(BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities;overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - 〈 95th percentile for age andsex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity(BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit witheach cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently ascontinuous outcomes to show relationships with disabilitystatus.RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%)and severely obese (12%) vs their peers withoutdisabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight,obese and severely obese children with disabilities hadabnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well asMetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% ofseverely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%,16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents withdisabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS(OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs theirpeers with no disabilities.CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents withdisabilities are disproportionately affected by obesityand poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers withno disabilities. Health care professionals shouldmonitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents withdisabilities.

  6. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Tanik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing interest in the association between erectile dysfunction (ED and cardiovascular risk factor. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is associated with insulin resistance, increased cardiometabolic risk, and coronary artery disease. Our aim was to investigate relationships between epicardial fat thickness (EFT as a cardiometabolic risk factor and erectile dysfunction. Method. We selected 30 erectile dysfunction patients without comorbidities and 30 healthy individuals. IIEF-5 score was applied to all patients, and IIEF-5 score below 22 was considered as erectile dysfunction. EFT was measured by echocardiography. Results. Body mass index (BMI was higher in ED patients than those without ED (28.19 ± 4.45 kg/m2 versus 23.84±2.36 kg/m2, P = 0.001, resp.. Waist circumstance (WC was higher in ED patients than those without ED (106.60±5.90 versus 87.86 ± 14.51, P = 0.001, resp.. EFT was higher in ED patients compared to non-ED patients (0.49 ± 0.09 cm versus 0.45 ± 0.03 cm, P = 0.016, resp.. There was positive correlation among BMI, WC, and EFT. There was negative correlation between EFT and IIEF-5 score (r : -0.632, P = 0.001. Conclusion. EAT, BMI, and WC as cardiometabolic risk factors were higher in erectile dysfunction patients.

  7. TV Time but Not Computer Time Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Dutch Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Altenburg, Teatske M; De Kroon, Marlou L. A.; Renders, Carry M.; Remy Hirasing; Mai J M Chinapaw

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TV time and total sedentary time have been positively related to biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk in adults. We aim to examine the association of TV time and computer time separately with cardiometabolic biomarkers in young adults. Additionally, the mediating role of waist circumference (WC) is studied. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data of 634 Dutch young adults (18-28 years; 39% male) were used. Cardiometabolic biomarkers included indicators of overweight, blood pressure, blood levels...

  8. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Luan, Jian'an; Sherar, Lauren B;

    2012-01-01

    Sparse data exist on the combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children.......Sparse data exist on the combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children....

  9. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sylvia I.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Liem, Eryn T.; Lemmink, Koen A.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundFatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this associatio

  10. Principal component analysis reveals gender-specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Mark D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific pattern of pediatric cardiometabolic risk with principal component analysis, using several biological, behavioral and parental variables in a large cohort (n = 2866 of 6th grade students. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score (MetScore. Stratified risk components and MetScore were analyzed for association with age, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, physical activity (PA, and parental factors. Results In both boys and girls, BMI and CRF were associated with multiple risk components, and overall MetScore. Maternal smoking was associated with multiple risk components in girls and boys, as well as MetScore in boys, even after controlling for children’s BMI. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease (CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls. Children’s PA levels, maternal history of early CVD, and paternal BMI were also indicative for various risk components, but not MetScore. Conclusions Several biological and behavioral factors were independently associated with children’s cardiometabolic disease risk, and thus represent a unique gender-specific risk profile. These data serve to bolster the independent contribution of CRF, PA, and family-oriented healthy lifestyles for improving children’s health.

  11. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

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    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  12. BMI as a mediator of the relationship between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children: a mediation analysis.

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    Ana Díez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI.Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI.Children with normal weight (NW had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW or obese (OB peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean ± SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.09 >-1.16 ± 0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01 ± 0.16 > 0.10 ± 0.09 > -1.02 ± 0.15 in girls, both p < 0.001, but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z = -11.44 for boys; z = -11.83 for girls; p < 0.001 in CMRI mediation model and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001.BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight.

  13. Fitness and Adiposity Are Independently Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth

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    Duncan S. Buchan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine the independent associations of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered cardiometabolic risk. Methods. A cross-sectional sample of 192 adolescents (118 boys, aged 14–16 years, was recruited from a South Lanarkshire school in the West of Scotland. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were taken. The 20 m multistage fitness test was the indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. A clustered cardiometabolic risk score was constructed from HDL-C (inverted, LDL-C, HOMA, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were also measured and examined relative to the clustered cardiometabolic risk score, CRF, and adiposity. Results. Although significant, partial correlations between BMI and waist circumference (WC and both CRF and adiponectin were negative and weak to moderate, while correlations between the BMI and WC and CRP were positive but weak to moderate. Weak to moderate negative associations were also evident for adiponectin with CRP, IL-6, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. WC was positively associated while CRF was negatively associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk. With the additional adjustment for either WC or CRF, the independent associations with cardiometabolic risk persisted. Conclusion. WC and CRF are independently associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk in Scottish adolescents.

  14. The Prevalence and Awareness of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Southern Chinese Population with Coronary Artery Disease

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    Xinrui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiometabolic risk factors significantly accelerate the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD; however, whether CAD patients in South China are aware of the prevalence of these risk factors is not clear yet. Methods. The study consisted of 2312 in-admission CAD patients from 2008 to 2011 in South China. Disease history including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes was relied on patients' self-reported records. Physical and clinical examinations were tested to assess the real prevalence of the cardiometabolic risk factors. Results. 57.9% of CAD patients had more than 3 cardiometabolic risk factors in terms of the metabolic syndrome. The self-known and real prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were 56.6%, 28.3%, and 25.1% and 91.3%, 40.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. The awareness rates were 64.4%, 66.3%, and 28.5% for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was significantly different among gender and among disease status. Conclusions. Most CAD patients in South China had more than three cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the awareness rate of cardiometabolic diseases was low, especially for dyslipidemia. Strategies of routine physical examination programs are needed for the early detection and treatment of cardiometabolic risk factors in order to prevent CAD progression and prognosis.

  15. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes

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    Alina Sokup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P=0.04. The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR.

  16. Hypovitaminosis D and Associated Cardiometabolic Risk in Women with PCOS

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    Das, Ashok Kumar; Das, Swarnalata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) frequently suffer from metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Accumulating evidences suggest that Vitamin D deficiency is common in PCOS and may be associated with metabolic and endocrinal dysfunctions in PCOS. Thus women with PCOS may be at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Aim Present study aims to evaluate Vitamin D status and to assess its association with metabolic and endocrinal dysregulations in women with PCOS, which might help in early identification and prevention of future symptomatic cardiac disease. Materials and Methods A total of 44 women with PCOS, diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria and 45 healthy control without PCOS, were evaluated for Vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors, including fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hs-CRP. That apart, several endocrinal parameters of hyperandrogenism were also examined. Several correlation studies were determined to establish the role of Vitamin D as a cardiometabolic risk factor in PCOS. Results Results were expressed as mean±SD and were statistically analysed using SPSS software version 16, unpaired student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We found lower levels of Vitamin D, which was statistically significant as compared to healthy controls. Hyperinsulinemia, rise in insulin resistance and marked dyslipidemia was observed in the present study. Another relevant finding was significant correlation of Vitamin D with insulin and Homeostatic Model of Assessment- Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR). Conclusion Hypovitaminosis D was prevalent in PCOS. This was related to metabolic and hormonal disorders in PCOS. Possibly this combined with impaired fasting glucose, IR and dyslipidemia, could account for Cardio vascular risks in PCOS. Further prospective observational studies and randomized control trials are required to explore the above hypothesis. PMID

  17. Serum uric acid level and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects

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    Bijan Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess serum uric acid (UA accumulation can lead to various diseases. Increasing evidences reveal that UA may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the associations of UA levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects with family history of diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, a sample containing 643 (302 prediabetic subjects and 341 normal of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55-years old were investigated. Samples were assessed in prediabetic and normal groups using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined based on American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Body weight and height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, UA, creatinine (Cr, albumin (Alb, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profiles were measured and compared between two groups. Results: Prediabetic persons were older and obese than normal persons. Also, prediabetic persons (5.2 ± 1.3 mg/dl had significantly higher UA than normal persons (4.9 ± 1.4 mg/dl (P 1, P < 0.05 associated with glucose tolerance categories. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting the effects of age and BMI. Also, the association between glucose tolerance categories and UA were positively significant in both genders. Conclusion: High UA level was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals compared with normal person. UA level was also a significant predictor for prediabetes condition.

  18. Preventing and Managing Cardiometabolic Risk: The Logic for Intervention

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    Rita Carreón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk (CMR, also known as metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, comprises obesity (particularly central or abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Leading to death from diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, the root cause of CMR is inadequate physical activity, a Western diet identified primarily by low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and high in saturated fat, as well as a number of yet-to-be-identified genetic factors. While the pathophysiological pathways related to CMR are complex, the universal need for adequate physical activity and a diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables and whole grains, while minimizing food high in added sugars and saturated fat suggests that these behaviors are the appropriate focus of intervention.

  19. Sociodemographic and Cultural Determinants of Sleep Deficiency: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knutson, Kristen L.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is a biological imperative associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. As such, a thorough discussion of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of sleep is warranted, if not overdue. This paper begins with a brief review of the laboratory and epidemiologic evidence linking sleep deficiency, which includes insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, with increased risk of chronic cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Identification of the determina...

  20. Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and dental caries in a population-based sample of youths

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    Kelishadi Roya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors begin from early life and track onto adulthood. Oral and dental diseases share some risk factors with CVD, therefore by finding a clear relation between dental diseases and cardiometabolic risk factors; we can then predict the potential risk of one based on the presence of the other. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of dental caries between two groups of age-matched adolescents with and without CVD risk factors. Methods In this case-control study, the decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS, based on the criteria of the World Health Organization, were compared in two groups of equal number (n = 61 in each group of population-based sample of adolescents with and without CVD risk factors who were matched for sex and age group. Results The study participants had a median age 13 y 5 mo, age range 11 y 7 mo to 16 y 1 mo, with male-to-female proportion of 49/51. We found significant difference between the mean values of DMFS, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, as well as serum lipid profile in the case and control groups. Significant correlations were documented for DMFS with TC (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, LDL-C (r = 0.55, p = 0.01 and TG (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 in the case group; with LDL-C (r = 0.47, p = 0.03 in the whole study participants and with TC in control s(r = 0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusions Given the significant associations between dental caries and CVD risk factors among adolescents, more attention should be paid to oral health, as one of the topics to be taken into account in primordial/primary prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.

  1. Metabolomic Profiles of Body Mass Index in the Framingham Heart Study Reveal Distinct Cardiometabolic Phenotypes.

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    Jennifer E Ho

    Full Text Available Although obesity and cardiometabolic traits commonly overlap, underlying pathways remain incompletely defined. The association of metabolite profiles across multiple cardiometabolic traits may lend insights into the interaction of obesity and metabolic health. We sought to investigate metabolic signatures of obesity and related cardiometabolic traits in the community using broad-based metabolomic profiling.We evaluated the association of 217 assayed metabolites and cross-sectional as well as longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic traits among 2,383 Framingham Offspring cohort participants. Body mass index (BMI was associated with 69 of 217 metabolites (P<0.00023 for all, including aromatic (tyrosine, phenylalanine and branched chain amino acids (valine, isoleucine, leucine. Additional metabolic pathways associated with BMI included the citric acid cycle (isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, aconitate, the tryptophan pathway (kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and the urea cycle. There was considerable overlap in metabolite profiles between BMI, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance [IR] and dyslipidemia, modest overlap of metabolite profiles between BMI and hyperglycemia, and little overlap with fasting glucose or elevated blood pressure. Metabolite profiles were associated with longitudinal changes in fasting glucose, but the involved metabolites (ornithine, 5-HIAA, aminoadipic acid, isoleucine, cotinine were distinct from those associated with baseline glucose or other traits. Obesity status appeared to "modify" the association of 9 metabolites with IR. For example, bile acid metabolites were strongly associated with IR among obese but not lean individuals, whereas isoleucine had a stronger association with IR in lean individuals.In this large-scale metabolite profiling study, body mass index was associated with a broad range of metabolic alterations. Metabolite profiling highlighted considerable overlap with abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance

  2. Leisure-time physical activity and cardiometabolic risk among children and adolescents

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    Luz M. Cárdenas-Cárdenas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on cardiometabolic risk by nutritional status in Mexican children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 1,309 participants aged between 5 and 17 years. Nutritional status was classified according to the BMI Z-score by age and gender. A previously validated questionnaire was used to evaluate LTPA; a cardiometabolic risk score was calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of LTPA on cardiometabolic risk. RESULTS: After adjusting for risk factors, mild LTPA were positively associated with cardiometabolic risk score (ßMildvsIntenseLTPA: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.18 to 1.18; pfortrend = 0.007. This association became stronger when estimated for overweight (ß MildvsIntenseLTPA: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.24 to 2.24; pfortrend = 0.015 and obese participants (ß MildvsIntenseLTPA: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.97; pfortrend= 0.045 CONCLUSION: Mild LTPA was positively associated with cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Given the emerging childhood obesity epidemic in Mexico, these results may be useful in the design of strategies and programs to increase physical activity levels in order to achieve better health.

  3. The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center

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    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on questionnaires was determine too the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus type II. Analysis of the results revealed the strong correlations between lifestyle and cardio-metabolic risk in these students.

  4. Cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian children: comparison with UK Indian and white European children.

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    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available UK Indian adults have higher risks of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes than Indian and UK European adults. With growing evidence that these diseases originate in early life, we compared cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian, UK Indian and white European children.Comparisons were based on the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort Study (MPBCS, India and the Child Heart Health Study in England (CHASE, which studied 9-10 year-old children (538 Indian, 483 UK Indian, 1375 white European using similar methods. Analyses adjusted for study differences in age and sex.Compared with Mysore Indians, UK Indians had markedly higher BMI (% difference 21%, 95%CI 18 to 24%, skinfold thickness (% difference 34%, 95%CI 26 to 42%, LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.48, 95%CI 0.38 to 0.57 mmol/L, systolic BP (mean difference 10.3, 95% CI 8.9 to 11.8 mmHg and fasting insulin (% difference 145%, 95%CI 124 to 168%. These differences (similar in both sexes and little affected by adiposity adjustment were larger than those between UK Indians and white Europeans. Compared with white Europeans, UK Indians had higher skinfold thickness (% difference 6.0%, 95%CI 1.5 to 10.7%, fasting insulin (% difference 31%, 95%CI 22 to 40%, triglyceride (% difference 13%, 95%CI 8 to 18% and LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.12 mmol/L, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.19 mmol/L.UK Indian children have an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile, especially compared to Indian children. These differences, not simply reflecting greater adiposity, emphasize the need for prevention strategies starting in childhood or earlier.

  5. The Heart of New Ulm Project: using community-based cardiometabolic risk factor screenings in a rural population health improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Pereira, Raquel F; Boucher, Jackie L; Britt, Heather R; Stephens, Charles W; Thygeson, N Marcus; Graham, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    Awareness of cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk factors can improve the health of individuals and populations. Community-based risk factor screening programs may be particularly useful for quantifying the burden of cardiometabolic risk in a given population, particularly in underserved areas. This study provided a description of a screening platform and how it has been used to monitor the cardiometabolic risk profile within the broader Heart of New Ulm Project, which is based in a rural Minnesota community. A cross-sectional, descriptive examination of baseline screening data indicated that 45% of the target population participated in the program over 8 months. Overall, 13% of the sample reported a personal history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Among the subset without active cardiometabolic disease, 35% were found to be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes over the next 8-10 years. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, obesity, and low fruit/vegetable consumption were of particular concern in this community. This article describes the use of screening results to inform the design of intervention programs that target these risk factors at both the community and individual levels. In addition, design considerations for future community-based cardiometabolic risk factor screening programs are discussed, with a focus on balancing program objectives related to health surveillance, research, and the delivery of preventive health care services.

  6. Self-reported screen time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents.

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    Teatske M Altenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the association between sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk exists among obese adolescents. We examined the association between screen time (TV and computer time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For the current cross-sectional study, baseline data of 125 Dutch overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years participating in the Go4it study were included. Self-reported screen time (Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults and clustered and individual cardiometabolic risk (i.e. body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density (LDL-C, high-density (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, glucose and insulin were assessed in all participants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We found no significant relationship between self-reported total screen time and clustered cardiometabolic risk or individual risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents. Unexpectedly, self-reported computer time, but not TV time, was slightly but significantly inversely associated with TC (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.003;-0.000] and LDL-C (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.001;0.000]. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescents we could not confirm the hypothesised positive association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk. Future studies should consider computer use as a separate class of screen behaviour, thereby also discriminating between active video gaming and other computer activities.

  7. Discordant Risk: Overweight and cardiometabolic risk in Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Adair, Linda S.; Meigs, James B.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Herring, Amy; Yan, Shengkai; Zhang, Bing; Shufa, Du; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent US work identifies “metabolically healthy overweight” and “metabolically at risk normal weight” individuals. Less is known for modernizing countries with recent increased obesity. Fasting blood samples, anthropometry and blood pressure from 8,233 adults aged 18–98 in the 2009 nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey, were used to determine prevalence of overweight (Asian cut point, BMI≥23 kg/m2) and five risk factors [pre-diabetes/diabetes (HbA1c≥5.7%) inflammation (hsCRP ≥3 mg/L),...

  8. Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study

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    Stronks Karien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few prospective studies have been able to investigate the longer-term effects of stress in detail, i.e. effects in childhood. Therefore, our general aim is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile in the child at age five. Methods/design Data are available from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands. Between 2003-2004, 8,266 pregnant women filled out a questionnaire including instruments to determine anxiety (STAI, pregnancy related anxiety (PRAQ, depressive symptoms (CES-D, parenting stress (PDH scale and work stress (Job Content Questionnaire. Outcome measures in the offspring (age 5-7 are currently collected. These include lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, body composition (body mass index, waist circumference and bioelectrical impedance analysis, autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic and sympathetic measures and blood pressure. Potential mediators are maternal serum cortisol, gestational age and birth weight for gestational age (intrauterine growth restriction. Possible gender differences in programming are also studied. Discussion Main strengths of the proposed study are the longitudinal measurements during three important periods (pregnancy, infancy and childhood, the extensive measurement of maternal psychosocial stress with validated questionnaires and the thorough measurement of the children's cardio-metabolic profile. The availability of several confounding factors will give us the opportunity to quantify the independent contribution of maternal stress during

  9. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight w

  10. Importance of proper scaling of aerobic power when relating to cardiometabolic risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, Robert; Hosick ‎, Peter; Bugge, Anna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) and aerobic power (VO(2max)) scaled as mL O(2) per kilogram body mass is controversial because mass includes both fat and fat-free mass, and fat mass is independently associated with the CMRF. AIM: To examine common units used...

  11. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. METHOD: Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  12. Cardiometabolic and vascular risks in young and adolescent girls with Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Mavinkurve

    2015-06-01

    General significance: From a clinical perspective, this review highlights the importance of regular screening and pro-active management of cardiometabolic risk from childhood in TS cohorts and that future research should aim to address whether modification of these variables at a young age can alter the disease process and atherosclerotic outcomes in adulthood.

  13. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  14. Assessment of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors among Young Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the past two decades there has been a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome in developing countries. The current study was thus undertaken to map the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS and to assess the cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adult females (n = 1303 aged 18-26y from four girls hostel of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Approach: The anthropometric analysis showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (20.8%, abdominal obesity (12.7% among the subjects. The clinical profile revealed that 12.1% were hypertensives. The prevalence of dyslipidemia revealed that no one had hypercholesterolemia and 4.1% had hypertriglyceridemia, 12.1% had elevated LDL-C and 40.3% had low levels of HDL-C. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.4 and 4.1% according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and World Health Organization (WHO criteria respectively. Lipid profile in relation to metabolic syndrome showed that VLDL-C and Triglyceride (TG values were non-significantly higher among the young adult females and HDL-C values were significantly (pResults: The three common and predominant risk factors (>80% identified were lower intake of fruits (81.5%, vegetables (96% and physical inactivity (88.7%. The other risk factors which were present between 30-50% were hypertension, lower HDL-C, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Among the non-modifiable factor heredity component was present in 34% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study highlights that lifestyle factors had equivalent risk for overweight and metabolic syndrome. Multiple risk factor scenario calls for lifestyle management to avert later consequences.

  15. Anti-mullerian hormone is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Anderson

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence for associations of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH with cardiometabolic risk factors is lacking. Existing evidence comes from small studies in select adult populations, and findings are conflicting. We aimed to assess whether AMH is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a general population of adolescent females.AMH, fasting insulin, glucose, HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured at a mean age 15.5 years in 1,308 female participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations of AMH with these cardiometabolic outcomes.AMH values ranged from 0.16-35.84 ng/ml and median AMH was 3.57 ng/ml (IQR: 2.41, 5.49. For females classified as post-pubertal (n = 848 at the time of assessment median (IQR AMH was 3.81 ng/ml (2.55, 5.82 compared with 3.25 ng/ml (2.23, 5.05 in those classed as early pubertal (n = 460, P≤0.001. After adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, pubertal stage, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, adiposity and use of hormonal contraceptives, there were no associations with any of the cardiometabolic outcomes. For example fasting insulin changed by 0% per doubling of AMH (95%CI: -3%,+2% p  = 0.70, with identical results if HOMA-IR was used. Results were similar after additional adjustment for smoking, physical activity and age at menarche, after exclusion of 3% of females with the highest AMH values, after excluding those that had not started menarche and after excluding those using hormonal contraceptives.Our results suggest that in healthy adolescent females, AMH is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.

  16. Nutrition: a key environmental dietary factor in clinical severity and cardio-metabolic risk in psoriatic male patients evaluated by 7-day food-frequency questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Barrea, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Tarantino, Giovanni; Di Somma, Carolina; Pane, Elena; Balato, Nicola; Napolitano, Maddalena; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background Western dietary pattern is included among the environmental dietary factors involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Nutritional data collection methods and gender differences might affect the association between diet and psoriasis. The 7-day food records is considered the “gold standard” of self-administered food frequency questionnaires. In this study, we evaluated the differences in the dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cardio-metabolic risk profile in a group of...

  17. A behavioral intervention in a cohort of Japanese-Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Almeida-Pititto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a health promotion program on cardiometabolic risk profile in Japanese-Brazilians. METHODS: A total of 466 subjects from a study on diabetes prevalence conducted in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, in 2000 completed a 1-year intervention program (2005-2006 based on healthy diet counseling and physical activity. Changes in blood pressure and metabolic parameters in the 2005-2006 period were compared with annual changes in these same variables in the 2000-2005 period. RESULTS: During the intervention, there were greater annual reductions in mean (SD waist circumference [-0.5(3.8 vs. 1.2(1.2 cm per year, p<0.001], systolic blood pressure [-4.6(17.9 vs. 1.8(4.3 mmHg per year, p<0.001], 2-hour plasma glucose [-1.2(2.1 vs. -0.2(0.6 mmol/L per year, p<0.001], LDL-cholesterol [-0.3(0.9 vs. -0.1(0.2 mmol/L per year, p<0.001] and Framingham coronary heart disease risk score [-0.25(3.03 vs. 0.11(0.66 per year, p=0.02] but not in triglycerides [0.2(1.6 vs. 0.1(0.42 mmol/L per year, p<0.001], and fasting insulin level [1.2(5.8 vs. -0.7(2.2 IU/mL per year, p<0.001] compared with the pre-intervention period. Significant reductions in the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes were seen during the intervention (from 58.4% to 35.4%, p<0.001; and from 30.1% to 21.7%, p= 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A one-year community-based health promotion program brings cardiometabolic benefits in a high-risk population of Japanese-Brazilians.

  18. Circulating Ghrelin, Leptin, and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentrations and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Community-Based Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ingelsson, Erik; Larson, Martin G.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Thomas J.; Meigs, James B; Lipinska, Izabella; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Keaney, John F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The conjoint effects and relative importance of ghrelin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adipokines involved in appetite control and energy expenditure in mediating cardiometabolic risk, is unknown.

  19. High versus Moderate Intensity Running Exercise to Impact Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Randomized Controlled RUSH-Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Kemmler; Michael Scharf; Michael Lell; Carina Petrasek; Simon von Stengel

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise positively impacts cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases; however, the most effective exercise training strategies have yet to be identified. To determine the effect of high intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) versus moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness we conducted a 16-week crossover RCT with partial blinding. Eighty-one healthy untrained middle-aged males were randomly assigned to two st...

  20. Evaluation of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Identifying Overweight Individuals at Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Maxine J. E.; Byrne, Christopher D.; Wilson, James F; Wild, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether bioelectrical impedance analysis could be used to identify overweight individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, defined as the presence of metabolic syndrome and/or diabetes.DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a Scottish population including 1210 women and 788 men. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of percentage body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis to identify people at increased cardiometabolic risk was assessed using re...

  1. Subclinical Hearing Loss, Longer Sleep Duration, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Japanese General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss leads to impaired social functioning and quality of life. Hearing loss is also associated with sleeping disorders and cardiometabolic risk factors. Here, we determined whether subclinical hearing loss is associated with sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of healthy Japanese general population. 48,091 men and women aged 20–79 years who underwent medical checkups were included in a cross-sectional study, and 6,674 were included in an 8-year longitudinal study. The prevalence of audiometrically determined hearing loss (>25 dB at 4000 and 1000 Hz increased significantly with increasing sleep duration in any age strata. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with reference sleep duration (6 h longer sleep duration (≥8 h was significantly associated with hearing loss, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Simultaneously, hearing loss was significantly associated with male sex, diabetes, and no habitual exercise. In the longitudinal study, the risk of longer sleep duration (≥8 h after 8 years was significantly greater in subjects with hearing loss at 4000 Hz at baseline. In conclusion, current results suggest a potential association of subclinical hearing loss with longer sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Japanese general population.

  2. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (PCRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  3. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  4. The Ecologic Validity of Fructose Feeding Trials: Supraphysiological Feeding of Fructose in Human Trials Requires Careful Consideration When Drawing Conclusions on Cardiometabolic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Vivian L.; John L Sievenpiper

    2015-01-01

    Background Select trials of fructose overfeeding have been used to implicate fructose as a driver of cardiometabolic risk. Objective We examined temporal trends of fructose dose in human controlled feeding trials of fructose and cardiometabolic risk. Methods We combined studies from eight meta-analyses on fructose and cardiometabolic risk to assess the average fructose dose used in these trials. Two types of trials were identified: (1) substitution trials, in which energy f...

  5. The ecologic validity of fructose feeding trials: Supraphysiological feeding of fructose in human trials requires careful consideration when drawing conclusions on cardiometabolic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Vivian L.; John L Sievenpiper

    2015-01-01

    Background: Select trials of fructose overfeeding have been used to implicate fructose as a driver of cardiometabolic risk.Objective: We examined temporal trends of fructose dose in human controlled feeding trials of fructose and cardiometabolic risk.Methods: We combined studies from eight meta-analyses on fructose and cardiometabolic risk to assess the average fructose dose used in these trials. Two types of trials were identified: 1) substitution trials, in which energy from fructose was e...

  6. The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN; Avram, Claudiu; Stela IURCIUC; Petru MERGHEȘ; Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on qu...

  7. Dietary patterns are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a representative study population of German adults

    OpenAIRE

    Heidemann, Christin; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Richter, Almut; Mensink, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Studies that investigated complex actual eating behaviours of the general population and their relation to cardiometabolic risk markers are sparse. We aimed to identify dietary patterns within a nationally representative sample of 4025 German adults by factor analysis based on validated dietary history interviews. Furthermore, we evaluated associations of the derived dietary patterns with abnormalities clustered within the metabolic syndrome and related metabolic markers by logistic regressio...

  8. Nutrition and cardiometabolic risk: a prospective population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Funtikova, Anna N.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the principal cause of mortality worldwide. Lifestyle plays a crucial role in preventing the development of CVD, and one of its key elements is diet, which directly affects cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular risk. Given the complexity of diet and also of cardiovascular disease etiology, a lot of recent research into the association between diet and disease have focused on dietary patterns, as this is currently the most holistic way to study dietary hab...

  9. ABO Genotype, ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jingzhou Wang; Bibiana García-Bailo; Nielsen, Daiva E.; Ahmed El-Sohemy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 'Blood-Type' diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, the association between blood type-based dietary patterns and health outcomes has not been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between 'blood-type' diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and whether an individual's ABO genotype modifies any associations. ...

  10. The effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiometabolic risk factors and anthropometrics parameters: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Chaudhri, Owais; Karimi, Ehsan; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious rituals of all healthy adult Muslims. However, there is no clear agreement on the effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular disease. Comorbidities and factors such as age, gender, health status, daily duration of fasting, food intake before and after fasting may impact on a fasting individual’s cardiometabolic risk. This review was undertaken to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on: the incidence of cardiovascular disease during the mo...

  11. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Revdal, Anders; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Ingul, Charlotte Bjørk

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise...

  12. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Revdal, Siri M. Hollekim-Strand, Charlotte B. Ingul

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bo...

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiometabolic Risks: A Juxtaposition of Arab Adolescents and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M Al-Daghri

    Full Text Available The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and girls, remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 2225 apparently healthy Saudi adolescents (1187 boys and 1038 girls, aged 13-17 years old and 830 adults (368 men and 462 women, aged 18-50 years old were respectively recruited from different public schools and medical practices within Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were taken and fasting blood samples withdrawn to examine serum glucose and lipid profile by routine analysis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by ELISA. Almost half of the girls (47.0% had vitamin D deficiency as compared to only 19.4% of the boys (p<0.001, 36.8% of the adult women and 17.7% of the adult men (p<0.001. Furthermore, in boys there were more significant inverse associations between serum 25(OHvitamin D levels and cardiometabolic indices than girls, while in contrast women had more significant associations than men. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 [OR 3.47 (CI1.26-5.55; p<0.05] and pre-DM [OR 2.47 (CI 1.48-4.12; p<0.01] in boys. Furthermore, vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in boys [OR 2.75 (CI 1.1-7.1; p<0.05]. These associations for DMT2 and abdominal obesity were not observed in adult males, girls and adult women. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and hyperglycemia is high among Arab adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is mostly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent Arab boys. This indicates a sex- and age-related disadvantage for boys with low vitamin D status and challenges the extra-skeletal protection of vitamin D correction in adolescent females.

  14. Sitting Time and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African American Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings from previous research linking sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors and body composition are inconsistent, and few studies address population groups most vulnerable to these compromising conditions. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship of sitting time to cardiometabolic risk factors and body composition among African American women. A subsample of African American women (N=135 completed health and laboratory assessments, including measures of blood pressure, resting heart rate, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, body mass index, body fat, sitting time, and demographics. Simultaneous, adjusted regression models found a positive association between weekend sitting time and glucose and an inverse association between weekly sedentary time and cholesterol (ps<.05. There were no significant associations between sedentary behavior and body composition. The unexpected relationship between sedentary time and cholesterol suggests that the relationship of sedentary behavior to cardiometabolic risk factors may depend on existing characteristics of the population and measurement definition of sedentary behavior. Results suggest distinctly different relationships between weekend and weekday sitting time, implicating a need for careful measurement and intervention that reflects these differences.

  15. Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Gina Leslie; Oddy, Wendy Hazel; Huang, Rae Chi; Mori, Trevor Anthony; Beilin, Lawrence Joseph; Jebb, Susan Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: High sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in children and adolescents. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that higher SSB intakes are associated with increases in cardiometabolic risk factors between 14 and 17 y of age. Design: Data were provided by 1433 adolescent offspring from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. At 14 and 17 y of age, SSB intakes were ...

  16. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Paquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c. Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893 and Paris (France, n = 6430 for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health.

  17. Severe obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: comparison from two international classification systems.

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    Giuliana Valerio

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or the World Health Organization (WHO curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001. The CDC 99(th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2, higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3 and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9 than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥ 2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1. Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, in particular in children ≤ 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99(th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of

  18. Severe Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: Comparison from Two International Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Giuliana; Maffeis, Claudio; Balsamo, Antonio; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Brufani, Claudia; Grugni, Graziano; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Brambilla, Paolo; Manco, Melania

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB) in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. Results The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001). The CDC 99th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2), higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3) and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9) than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1). Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile, in particular in children ≤10 years. Conclusions Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age. PMID:24386280

  19. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition. PMID:27453812

  20. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  1. Muscle Carnosine Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora de Courten

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists.Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography, % body fat (bioimpedance, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging, insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry, free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04 and subcutaneous (r = 0.38, p = 0.02 but not visceral fat (r = 0.17, p = 0.33. Muscle carnosine content was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.44, p = 0.008, REE (r = -0.58, p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.048. Insulin sensitivity and physical activity were the best predictors of muscle carnosine content after adjustment for adiposity.Our data shows that higher carnosine content in human skeletal muscle is positively associated with insulin resistance and fasting metabolic preference for glucose. Moreover, it is negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and basal energy expenditure. Intervention studies targeting insulin resistance, metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors are necessary to evaluate its putative role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  2. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  3. Cardiometabolic risk in psoriasis: differential effects of biologic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Mariana J

    2008-01-01

    Mariana J KaplanDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications. Overall, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in premature CV complications in psoriasis appear to be complex and multifactorial, with traditional and nontraditional risk factors possibly contributing to the increased risk. Based on what is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasis and extrapo...

  4. Sedentary behaviour, visceral fat accumulation and cardiometabolic risk in adults: a 6-year longitudinal study from the Quebec Family Study.

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    Travis J Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has recently emerged as a unique risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality. One factor that may explain this relationship is visceral adiposity, which is prospectively associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine whether sedentary behaviour was associated with increased accumulation of visceral fat or other deleterious changes in cardiometabolic risk over a 6-year follow-up period among adult participants in the Quebec Family Study. METHODS: The current study included 123 men and 153 women between the ages of 18 and 65. Total sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by self-report questionnaire. Cross-sectional areas of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were assessed using computed tomography. Cardiometabolic biomarkers including fasting insulin, glucose, blood lipids, HOMA-Insulin Resistance, and oral glucose tolerance were also measured. All variables of interest were collected at both baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, baseline BMI, physical activity, energy intake, smoking, education, income and menopausal status, baseline sedentary behaviour was not associated with changes in visceral adiposity or any other marker of cardiometabolic risk. In the longitudinal model which adjusted for all studied covariates, every 15-minute increase in sedentary behaviour from baseline to follow-up was associated with a 0.13 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI = 0.02, 0.25. However, there was no association between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in visceral adiposity or other markers of cardiometabolic risk. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that neither baseline sedentary behaviour nor changes in sedentary behaviour are associated with longitudinal changes in visceral adiposity in adult men and women. With the exception of waist circumference, the present study did

  5. Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for identifying overweight individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine J E Lamb

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether bioelectrical impedance analysis could be used to identify overweight individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, defined as the presence of metabolic syndrome and/or diabetes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a Scottish population including 1210 women and 788 men. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of percentage body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis to identify people at increased cardiometabolic risk was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Odds ratios for increased cardiometabolic risk in body mass index categories associated with values above compared to below sex-specific percentage body fat thresholds with optimal diagnostic performance were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analyses. The validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure percentage body fat in this population was tested by examining agreement between bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a subgroup of individuals. RESULTS: Participants were aged 16-91 years and the optimal bioelectrical impedance analysis cut-points for percentage body fat for identifying people at increased cardiometabolic risk were 25.9% for men and 37.1% for women. Stratifying by these percentage body fat cut-points, the prevalence of increased cardiometabolic risk was 48% and 38% above the threshold and 24% and 19% below these thresholds for men and women, respectively. By comparison, stratifying by percentage body fat category had little impact on identifying increased cardiometabolic risk in normal weight and obese individuals. Fully adjusted odds ratios of being at increased cardiometabolic risk among overweight people with percentage body fat ≥ 25.9/37.1% compared with percentage body fat <25.9/37.1% as a reference were 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.20-3.10 for men and 1.79 (1.10-2.92 for women. CONCLUSION: Percentage body fat measured using

  6. Association between quality of the diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Ventura, Danyelle; de Matos Fonseca, Vânia; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Marinheiro, Lizanka Paola Figueiredo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; de Miranda Chaves, Celia Regina Moutinho; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques

    2014-01-01

    Background Climateric is a phase of women’s life marked by the transition from the reproductive to the non-reproductive period. In addition to overall weight gain, the menopause is also associated with the increase of abdominal fat. We used The Healthy Eating Index as a summary measure to evaluate the major components and the quality of women’s diet after the onset of the menopause. This study aims at examining the association between the quality of the diet and cardiometabolic risk factors i...

  7. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk management in students from Timișoara and Szeged University Centres

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN; Claudiu AVRAM; Stela IURCIUC; Anna FEHÉRNÉ KISS; Mária BARNAI

    2012-01-01

    This is the presentation of a project financed by the Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme 2007-2013; the title of the project is ”Obesity and cardiometabolic risk management in students from Timisoara and Szeged University Centres”, code HURO/1001/116/2.4.2. The project aims to provide financial and logistical support to launch a joint program of cooperation between the Timisoara University Centre and University of Szeged. The project’s proposal takes into account the needs in...

  8. Anthropometric indicators of obesity for identifying cardiometabolic risk factors in a rural Bangladeshi population

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmik, Bishwajit; Munir, Sanjida B; Diep, Lien M; Siddiquee, Tasnima; Habib, Samira H; Samad, Mohammad A; Azad Khan, Abul Kalam; Hussain, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist‐to‐hip ratio (WHR), waist‐to‐height ratio (WHtR) and body fat percentages (BF%) for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors, namely type 2 diabetes (DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods A total of 2293 subjects aged ≥20 years from rural Bangladesh were randomly selected in a population‐...

  9. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David; Willeit, Peter; Butterworth, Adam S.; Bansal, Narinder; O'Keeffe, Linda M.; Gao, Pei; Wood, Angela M.; Burgess, Stephen; Freitag, Daniel F.; Pennells, Lisa; Peters, Sanne A.; Hart, Carole L.; Haheim, Lise Lund; Gillum, Richard F.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Nietert, Paul J.; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Simons, Leon A.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Selmer, Randi; Crespo, Carlos J.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Salomaa, Veikko; Svardsudd, Kurt; van der Harst, Pim; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Wallace, Robert B.; Brenner, Hermann; Amouyel, Philippe; Barr, Elizabeth L. M.; Iso, Hiroyasu; Onat, Altan; Trevisan, Maurizio; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Cooper, Cyrus; Kavousi, Maryam; Welin, Lennart; Roussel, Ronan; Hu, Frank B.; Sato, Shinichi; Davidson, Karina W.; Howard, Barbara V.; Leening, Maarten; Rosengren, Annika; Dorr, Marcus; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Kiechl, Stefan; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kromhout, Daan; Price, Jackie F.; Peters, Annette; Meade, Tom W.; Casiglia, Edoardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Gallacher, John; Nagel, Dorothea; Franco, Oscar H.; Assmann, Gerd; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Sundstrom, Johan; Woodward, Mark; Brunner, Eric J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Njolstad, Inger; Hedblad, Bo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Engstrom, Gunnar; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, Simon G.; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Age-and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using individu

  10. Disruptions in ovarian function are related to depression and cardio-metabolic risk during pre-menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleil, Maria E.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Latham, Melissa D.; Adler, Nancy E.; Pasch, Lauri A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extent to which mild disruptions in ovarian function indexed by changes in menstrual cycle length may relate to cardio-metabolic and psychological health in pre-menopausal women. Methods Among 804 healthy, regularly-cycling women (ages 25–45, M=35.5 [5.5]), patterns of any change (shortening, lengthening, or increased variability) versus no change in menstrual cycle length were examined in relation to a composite of cardio-metabolic risk and individual risk factors (high-density lipoprotein [HDL], triglycerides, waist circumference, glucose, hypertensive status) as well as in relation to depression indicators (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CESD] score ≥16 [yes/no], lifetime depression diagnosis [yes/no], lifetime anti-depressant medication use [yes/no]). Models were also explored to test whether changes in menstrual cycle length mediated relations between depression history and cardio-metabolic risk. Results In covariate-adjusted models, compared to no change, any change in menstrual cycle length was associated with higher cardio-metabolic risk composite scores and lower HDL (p’s<.05). In addition, compared to no change, any change in menstrual cycle length was associated with a CESD score ≥16, having received a depression diagnosis, and having used an anti-depressant medication (p’s<.05). In exploratory analyses, any change in menstrual cycle length partially mediated the relation between depression history and cardio-metabolic risk (b=0.152, p=.040) which attenuated (b=0.129, p=.083) when any change in menstrual cycle length was covaried. Conclusions Findings suggest disruptions in ovarian function marked by subtle changes in menstrual cycle length may relate to aspects of cardio-metabolic, and psychological health among healthy, pre-menopausal women. PMID:23715377

  11. Cardiometabolic risk in psoriasis: differential effects of biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana J Kaplan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mariana J KaplanDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV complications. Overall, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in premature CV complications in psoriasis appear to be complex and multifactorial, with traditional and nontraditional risk factors possibly contributing to the increased risk. Based on what is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasis and extrapolating the current knowledge on CV complications in other inflammatory diseases, studies are needed to investigate if appropriate control of the inflammatory, immunologic and metabolic disturbances present in psoriasis can prevent the development of this potentially lethal complication. It is clear that there is a great need for heightened awareness of the increased risk for vascular damage in patients with psoriasis. It is also crucial to closely monitor patients with psoriasis for CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Whether treatment regimens that effectively manage systemic inflammation will lead to prevention of CV complications in psoriasis needs to be investigated. Clearly, studies should focus on establishing the exact mechanisms that determine CV risk in psoriasis so that appropriate preventive strategies and treatment guidelines can be established.Keywords: psoriasis, atherosclerosis, inflammation, vascular

  12. Cardiometabolic risk in psoriasis: differential effects of biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana J Kaplan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana J KaplanDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV complications. Overall, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in premature CV complications in psoriasis appear to be complex and multifactorial, with traditional and nontraditional risk factors possibly contributing to the increased risk. Based on what is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasis and extrapolating the current knowledge on CV complications in other inflammatory diseases, studies are needed to investigate if appropriate control of the inflammatory, immunologic and metabolic disturbances present in psoriasis can prevent the development of this potentially lethal complication. It is clear that there is a great need for heightened awareness of the increased risk for vascular damage in patients with psoriasis. It is also crucial to closely monitor patients with psoriasis for CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Whether treatment regimens that effectively manage systemic inflammation will lead to prevention of CV complications in psoriasis needs to be investigated. Clearly, studies should focus on establishing the exact mechanisms that determine CV risk in psoriasis so that appropriate preventive strategies and treatment guidelines can be established.Keywords: psoriasis, atherosclerosis, inflammation, vascular

  13. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk management in students from Timișoara and Szeged University Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the presentation of a project financed by the Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme 2007-2013; the title of the project is ”Obesity and cardiometabolic risk management in students from Timisoara and Szeged University Centres”, code HURO/1001/116/2.4.2. The project aims to provide financial and logistical support to launch a joint program of cooperation between the Timisoara University Centre and University of Szeged. The project’s proposal takes into account the needs in DKMT Euroregion, as well as the capacities and resources of both partners. This project is part of a priority axis entitled ”Strenghten social and economic cohesion on the border area”; the key area of intervention is called ”Healthcare and prevention of common threats” and the project’s activities are integrated in a common action called ”Joint institution building, coordination and training”. The main objective of this project is to assess 1000 students from both University Centres (in regard to body composition and cardiometabolic risk – weight, waist circumference, fat, active mass, visceral fat area, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, arterial stiffness and autonomic function, total cardiovascular risc and risk of diabetes and to train the students from the target group in order to change their quality of life for medium and long-term, to change their physical activity level and their nutritional habits, despite to our common traditions.

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf C; Qorbani, Mostafa;

    2016-01-01

    -metabolic risk factors in seafarers of National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 234 Iranian male seafarers of NITC in 2015. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the reports of National Committee of Obesity. Three main blood parameters...... (of elevated total cholesterol, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and general obesity were included as additional cardio-metabolic risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36.0 ± 10.3 years. The prevalence of Met......S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27) were associated with the increase...

  15. Primary dyslipidemia and cardiometabolic risk: potential of pitavastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezin A.E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The review is de­voted to the most important aspects of primary mixed dyslipidemia treatment in patients at high risk with concomitant metabolic comorbidities. Evidences for novel modern approaches regarding primary prevention of cardiovascular events among dyslipidemic patients are considered. The potential role of lipid-lowering treatment with statins and their role in reducing the cardiovascular risk are discussed. Information about modern methods of minimization of residual cardiovascular risk using a combined lipid-lowering strategies and new representatives of the statins are provided. It has been discussed various strategies of statin administering to patients with dyslipidemia of different age with exiting comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome. Objective findings and treatment approaches obtained from the patient with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and asymptomatic atherosclerosis are provided. The role of pitavastatin in primary prevention program of cardiovascular events is discussed.

  16. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K;

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has...... increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms...

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  18. Comparison of Visceral Fat Measures with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungjune Pak

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the associations of visceral adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in normal subjects with integrated 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT. A total of 58 normal subjects who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for cancer screening were included in this study. Volume and average Hounsfield unit (HU of visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured from CT components of integrated PET/CT. Standardized uptake values (SUVmax of liver, spleen, lumbar spine and ascending aorta (AA were measured from PET components of integrated PET/CT. Body mass index (coefficient 78.25, p = 0.0259, glucose (37.62, p<0.0001, insulin (348.90, p = 0.0011, logarithmic transformation of homeostatic model assessment index-insulin resistance (-2118.37, p = 0.0007, and VAT HU (-134.99, p<0.0001 were independently associated with VAT volume. Glucose (0.1187, p = 0.0098 and VAT volume (-0.004, p<0.0001 were found to be associated with VAT HU. Both VAT volume and VAT HU of whole abdominal cavity is significantly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.

  19. Sedentary behaviour as an emerging risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (e.g. TV viewing, seated video game playing, prolonged sitting) has recently emerged as a distinct risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth. This narrative review provides an overview of recent evidence in this area and highlights research gaps. Current evidence suggests that North American children and youth spend between 40% and 60% of their waking hours engaging in sedentary pursuits. Although data are lacking concerning temporal trends of objectively measured sedentary time, self-reported sedentary behaviours have increased over the past half century, with a rapid increase since the late 1990s. Excessive sedentary behaviour has been found to have independent and deleterious associations with markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk. These associations are especially consistent for screen-based sedentary behaviours (TV viewing, computer games, etc), with more conflicting findings observed for overall sedentary time. The above associations are possibly mediated by the influence of screen-based sedentary behaviours on energy intake. Although excessive sitting has been reported to have adverse acute and chronic metabolic impacts in adults, research on children is lacking. Research is particularly needed to investigate the impact of characteristics of sedentary behaviour (i.e. type/context, sedentary bout length, breaks in sedentary time, etc), as well as interventions that examine the health and behavioural impacts of sitting per se.

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.27) were associated with the increase......Background: Since Iran’s economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers’ health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio...... (of elevated total cholesterol, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and general obesity were included as additional cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.0 ± 10.3 years. The prevalence of Met...

  1. Urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Riha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases.Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24, low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23, and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77.This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. Inpatient and outpatient cardiac rehabilitation programmes improve cardiometabolic risk in revascularized coronary patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Avram; Adina Avram; L.aura Crăciun; Stela Iurciuc; Lucian Hoble; Alexandra Rusu; Bogdan Almăjan-Guţă; Silvia Mancaş

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cardiometabolic risk reduction of diabetic patients following coronary revascularizationprocedures after participation in outpatients or inpatients cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Materials and methods: weperformed a retrospective analytical study which included a group of 103 revascularized coronary patients with diabetesmellitus. Depending on participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program we have defined the following subgroups of patients:Grou...

  3. The Epidemiological Boehringer Ingelheim Employee Study—Part I: Impact of Overweight and Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Kempf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity-dependent diseases cause economic burden to companies. Large-scale data for working populations are lacking. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Boehringer Ingelheim (BI Employee cohort and the relationship between body mass index (BMI and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases were estimated. Design and Methods. Employees (≥38 years, employed in Ingelheim ≥2 years; n=3151 of BI Pharma GmbH & Co. KG were invited by the medical corporate department to participate in intensive health checkups. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected through 2006–2011 was performed. Results. 90% of eligible subjects participated (n=2849. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 40% and 18% and significantly higher in men and participants ≥50 years. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels and prevalences of cardiometabolic diseases significantly increased with BMI and were higher in overweight and obese participants. Cut-points for increased risk estimated from ROC curves were ≈25 kg/m2 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertriglyceridemia and 26.7–28.0 kg/m2 for the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, increased intima media thickness, and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. This is the first large-scale occupational health care cohort from a single company. Cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases accumulate with increasing BMI. Occupational weight reduction programs seem to be reasonable strategies.

  4. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  5. Tooth brushing and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: Is there an association? the caspian-iii study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest an independent and protective role of teeth brushing frequency for some cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Increasing both the general health awareness and improving oral health should be considered in primordial and primary prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  6. Urinary isoflavone concentrations are inversely associated with lower cardiometabolic risk markers in pregnant U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some evidence suggests that phytoestrogens such as soy-derived isoflavones may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and glycemic control. These data are mainly limited to postmenopausal women or individuals at elevated cardiometabolic risk. There is a lack of data for pregnant women who ...

  7. The role of physical training in lowering the cardio-metabolic risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz Timea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cardio-metabolic risk represents the overall risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and / or cardiovascular disease(including heart atack or stroke due to a complex risk factors. The aim of the current prospective study is to evaluate thelifestyle intervention group in a special benefit (overweight young students with cardio-metabolic risk. Material andMethods: Subjects considered for the study: young obese, sedentary, a number of 43 patients (mean age 21.3 ± 3.1years, 93% female. There were made two evaluations on an interval of 6 months, during which patients haveperformed physical training at least 3 times a week (individually according to the individual test, supervised by aphysical therapist. The remission rate was high (37%, from the initial of 43 patients only 27 remained at the second test.Results: After 6 months of lifestyle intervention, we noticed a significant decrease of weight (from 83.61 ± 21.04 to 79.7 ±20.13, body mass index (from 30.93 ± 6.67 to 29.55 ± 6.74, FindRisc score (2.7 to 2 waist circumference (from 98.98 ±10.14 to 89.54 ± 12.32, waist to hip ratio (from 0.87 to 0.85, visceral fat area (98.6 to 88. Conclusion: The activeintervention and closely monitoring of changing lifestyles leads to a significant improvement of cardiovascular risk factors atyoung obese patients. This type of intervention is effective both in terms of benefits in medium term, and relatively increaseddue compliance of young patients to programs involving physical activity.

  8. Body adiposity index versus body mass index and other anthropometric traits as correlates of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene T Lichtash

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The worldwide prevalence of obesity mandates a widely accessible tool to categorize adiposity that can best predict associated health risks. The body adiposity index (BAI was designed as a single equation to predict body adiposity in pooled analysis of both genders. We compared body adiposity index (BAI, body mass index (BMI, and other anthropometric measures, including percent body fat (PBF, in their correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors. We also compared BAI with BMI to determine which index is a better predictor of PBF. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 698 Mexican Americans. We calculated correlations of BAI, BMI, and other anthropometric measurements (PBF measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, waist and hip circumference, height, weight with glucose homeostasis indices (including insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance from euglycemic clamp, lipid parameters, cardiovascular traits (including carotid intima-media thickness, and biomarkers (C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin. Correlations between each anthropometric measure and cardiometabolic trait were compared in both sex-pooled and sex-stratified groups. RESULTS: BMI was associated with all but two measured traits (carotid intima-media thickness and fasting glucose in men, while BAI lacked association with several variables. BAI did not outperform BMI in its associations with any cardiometabolic trait. BAI was correlated more strongly than BMI with PBF in sex-pooled analyses (r = 0.78 versus r = 0.51, but not in sex-stratified analyses (men, r = 0.63 versus r = 0.79; women, r = 0.69 versus r = 0.77. Additionally, PBF showed fewer correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI. Weight was more strongly correlated than hip with many of the cardiometabolic risk factors examined. CONCLUSIONS: BAI is inferior to the widely used BMI as a correlate of the cardiometabolic risk factors studied

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lucinda J; Burrows, Sally; Lucas, Robyn M; Marshall, Carina E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Chan She Ping-Delfos, Wendy; Beilin, Lawrence J; Holt, Patrick G; Hart, Prue H; Oddy, Wendy H; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence associating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors is inconsistent and studies have largely been conducted in adult populations. We examined the prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood in the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations, BMI, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the 17-year (n 1015) and 20-year (n 1117) follow-ups. Hierarchical linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to investigate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors, accounting for potential confounders. In males and females, respectively, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 73·6 (sd 28·2) and 75·4 (sd 25·9) nmol/l at 17 years and 70·0 (sd 24·2) and 74·3 (sd 26·2) nmol/l at 20 years. Deseasonalised serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI (coefficient -0·01; 95 % CI -0·03, -0·003; P=0·014). No change over time was detected in the association for males; for females, the inverse association was stronger at 20 years compared with 17 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with log-HOMA-IR (coefficient -0·002; 95 % CI -0·003, -0·001; P<0·001) and positively associated with log-TAG in females (coefficient 0·002; 95 % CI 0·0008, 0·004; P=0·003). These associations did not vary over time. There were no significant associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and HDL-cholesterol or SBP. Clinical trials in those with insufficient vitamin D status may be warranted to determine any beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance, while monitoring for any deleterious effect on TAG. PMID:27153206

  10. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Juscelino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD. Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active diet (AD with a control diet (CD devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313. Results Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P P P P = 0.0056, LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P P 1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013, hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497 and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123. The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P P Conclusion The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD.

  11. Body composition and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.): sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul B; Rodriguez, Perla J; Voruganti, V Saroja; Mattern, Vicki; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Rice, Karen; Raabe, Timothy; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.) exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in body size. Sexual dimorphism is also exhibited in a number of circulating factors associated with risk of cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether sexual dimorphism in body size and composition underlie these differences. We examined data from 28 male and 24 female outdoor group-housed young adult baboons enrolled in a longitudinal observational study of cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Animals were sedated with ketamine HCl (10 mg/kg) before undergoing venous blood draws, basic body measurements, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition scans. Percentage glycated hemoglobin A1c (%HbA1c ) was measured in whole blood. Serum samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. Males were heavier and had greater body length and lean tissue mass than females. Females had a greater body fat percentage relative to males (10.8 ± 6.4 vs. 6.9 ± 4.0, P = 0.01). Although C-peptide, fasting glucose, and %HbA1c did not differ between the sexes, females had greater fasting insulin and triglyceride compared to their male counterparts. Insulin and percentage body fat were significantly correlated in males (r = 0.61, P = 0.001) and to a lesser extent in females (r = 0.43, P = 0.04). Overall, relations between adiposity and fasting insulin and fasting triglyceride were stronger in males. After accounting for differences in percentage body fat, fasting insulin and triglyceride were no longer statistically different between males and females. Despite stronger correlations between relative adiposity and insulin and triglyceride in males, the higher fasting insulin and triglyceride of female baboons may be underlain by their greater relative body fat masses.

  12. Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review

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    Vasilios G. Athyros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors, either when called metabolic syndrome (MetS or not, substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and causes mortality. One of the possible mechanisms for this clustering's adverse effect is an increase in arterial stiffness (AS, and in high central aortic blood pressure (CABP, which are significant and independent CVD risk factors. Arterial hypertension was connected to AS long ago; however, other MetS components (obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia or MetS associated abnormalities not included in MetS diagnostic criteria (renal dysfunction, hyperuricaemia, hypercoaglutability, menopause, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnea have been implicated too. We discuss the evidence connecting these cardio-metabolic risk factors, which negatively affect AS and finally increase CVD risk. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of possible lifestyle and pharmacological interventions on all these cardio-metabolic risk factors, in an effort to reduce CVD risk and identify features that should be taken into consideration when treating MetS patients with or without arterial hypertension.

  13. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gokulakrishnan, K.; Deepa, M; F Monickaraj; Mohan, V

    2011-01-01

    Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome ...

  14. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country - a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ramly, Mazliza; Moy, Foong Ming; Pendek, Rokiah; Suboh, Suhaili; Tan Tong Boon, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical...

  15. Cardiometabolic risk loci share downstream cis- and trans-gene regulation across tissues and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Oscar; Ermel, Raili; Cohain, Ariella; Akers, Nicholas K; Di Narzo, Antonio; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi-Asl, Hassan; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Fullard, John F; Sukhavasi, Katyayani; Köks, Sulev; Gan, Li-Ming; Giannarelli, Chiara; Kovacic, Jason C; Betsholtz, Christer; Losic, Bojan; Michoel, Tom; Hao, Ke; Roussos, Panos; Skogsberg, Josefin; Ruusalepp, Arno; Schadt, Eric E; Björkegren, Johan L M

    2016-08-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk loci. However, they contribute little to genetic variance, and most downstream gene-regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We genotyped and RNA-sequenced vascular and metabolic tissues from 600 coronary artery disease patients in the Stockholm-Tartu Atherosclerosis Reverse Networks Engineering Task study (STARNET). Gene expression traits associated with CMD risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) identified by GWAS were more extensively found in STARNET than in tissue- and disease-unspecific gene-tissue expression studies, indicating sharing of downstream cis-/trans-gene regulation across tissues and CMDs. In contrast, the regulatory effects of other GWAS risk SNPs were tissue-specific; abdominal fat emerged as an important gene-regulatory site for blood lipids, such as for the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk gene PCSK9 STARNET provides insights into gene-regulatory mechanisms for CMD risk loci, facilitating their translation into opportunities for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention.

  16. Screen Time and Its Relation to Cardiometabolic Risk among Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

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    Saeid SAFIRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs, the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes is more prominent. CNCDs origin in early life; with sedentary habits, notably prolonged screen time (ST, leisure time spent on watching TV and working computer, suggested as one of their risk factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between ST and cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, 5,625 school students aged 10-18 were studied in the third national survey of a school-based surveillance program. For ensuring representativeness of sample, subjects were selected using multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran (2009-10. ST was assessed through validated self-administered questionnaire, and cardiometabolic factors were determined. In addition, metabolic syndrome components were defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. In addition, high total cholesterol (TC, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and generalized obesity were assessed as other cardiometabolic risk factors.Results: Mean age was 14.73±2.41. While, positive significant association was found between ST and abdominal obesity, blood pressure, levels of LDL-C and triglycerides (P <0.05, it was reversely correlated with HDL-C level (P <0.05. However, there was positive but not statistically significant association between ST and odds of metabolic syndrome (P =0.32.Conclusion: The association between ST and some metabolic syndrome components, reducing ST should be considered as one of the preventive strategies among children and adolescents. Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Screen time, Physical activity, Children, Adolescent, Cardiometabolic risk factors, Iran 

  17. Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; de Novaes, Juliana Farias; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search wa...

  18. Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Naruna Pereira Rocha; Luana Cupertino Milagres; Juliana Farias de Novaes; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search ...

  19. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Kuang Yeh; Ying-Chun Cho; Ting-Chi Yeh; Chung-Yi Hu; Li-Ching Lee; Chun-Yen Chang

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol) and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systoli...

  20. Reciprocal Association of Plasma IGF-1 and Interleukin-6 Levels With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondiabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Succurro, Elena; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciaqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the relationship between plasma IGF-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in Caucasian nondiabetic subjects and evaluate the association of IGF-1 and IL-6 with the cardiometabolic risk factors characterizing metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The study group consisted of 186 Caucasian nondiabetic subjects who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex, was used...

  1. High versus Moderate Intensity Running Exercise to Impact Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Randomized Controlled RUSH-Study

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    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise positively impacts cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases; however, the most effective exercise training strategies have yet to be identified. To determine the effect of high intensity (interval training (HI(IT versus moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE training on cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness we conducted a 16-week crossover RCT with partial blinding. Eighty-one healthy untrained middle-aged males were randomly assigned to two study arms: (1 a HI(IT-group and (2 a sedentary control/MICE-group that started their MICE protocol after their control status. HI(IT focused on interval training (90 sec to 12 min >85–97.5% HRmax intermitted by active recovery (1–3 min at 65–70% HRmax, while MICE consisted of continuous running at 65–75% HRmax. Both exercise groups progressively performed 2–4 running sessions/week of 35 to 90 min/session; however, protocols were adjusted to attain similar total work (i.e., isocaloric conditions. With respect to cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness both exercise groups demonstrated similar significant positive effects on MetS-Z-Score (HI(IT: -2.06±1.31, P=.001 versus MICE: -1.60±1.77, P=.001 and (relative VO2max (HI(IT: 15.6±9.3%, P=.001 versus MICE: 10.6 ± 9.6%, P=.001 compared with the sedentary control group. In conclusion, both exercise programs were comparably effective for improving cardiometabolic indices and cardiorespiratory fitness in untrained middle-aged males.

  2. Relationship between Dietary and Other Lifestyle Habits and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men

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    Katano Sayuri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of men with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF is increasing in Japan. Few studies have comprehensively examined the relation between lifestyles and CMRF. Methods We examined the baseline data from 3,498 male workers ages 19 to 69 years who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP study at 12 large-scale companies throughout Japan. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Dietary intake was surveyed by a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. We defined four CMRF in this study as follows: 1 high blood pressure (BP: systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2 dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration 2. Results Those who had 0 to 4 CMRF accounted for 1,597 (45.7%, 1,032 (29.5%, 587 (16.8%, 236 (6.7%, and 44 (1.3% participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors that contributed to the number of CMRF were age (b = 0.020, P Conclusions Alcohol intake, percent protein and total energy intake were positively associated, whereas drinking frequency and IPAQ were inversely associated, with the number of CMRF.

  3. Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor (The 5A Study: Mexico

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    Garcia-Rubi E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas Ramos1, Roopa Mehta1, Julieta De La Luz Castro2, Rutila Castañeda Limones3, Ernesto García Rubí4, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas11Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion "Salvador Zubiran" (INCMNSZ; 2Cardiodiabetes Unit, Sanofi-Aventis de México; 3Clinical Epidemiology Research Unit, Hospital General Regional No 1 Dr Carlos Mac Gregor Sánchez Navarro; 4Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Angeles Metropolitano, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: The Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Study assesses the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women and evaluates how physicians manage these patients.Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study. Internists, cardiologists, and endocrinologists contributed patients to the study. A standardized questionnaire was completed and registered demographics, anthropometric measurements, lab results from the medical files, and any treatment utilized to manage dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.Results: A total of 1312 patients was included. The mean age was 49.3 ± 14.6 years and 834 (63.6% were female. The primary reason for the physician consultation was treatment of obesity (47.5%, followed by management of arterial hypertension (27.7%, diabetes (18.3%, dyslipidemia (14.2%, and cardiovascular disease (7.1%. The majority of patients identified excess body weight as a health problem (81.4%. However, patients had lost a mean of 4.3 ± 3.5 kg. Only 63.4% of patients with arterial hypertension were on drug therapy. Few of them had reached target values for diastolic (24.1% and systolic/diastolic (13.3% pressure. Less than half of the patients with dyslipidemia were receiving lipid-lowering medication. Only 32.2% were at their target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In patients with

  4. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

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    McQueen RB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available R Brett McQueen,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,1,2 Temitope Olufade,3 John J Sheehan,4 Kavita V Nair,1 Joseph J Saseen1,5 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, 4AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, 5Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Objective: Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs in the US. Methods: We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four, and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results: The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57 times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95

  5. Cardiometabolic risk factors in different clinicomorphological stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with abdominal obesity

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    K A Komshilova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare clinical, laboratory and morphological parameters in patients with abdominal obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and assessing the relationship between the degree of severity, stage NAFLD and cardiometabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the content of adiponectin and rates of glucose and lipid metabolism in obese patients at different stages of NAFLD. According to the study, morphologically NAFLD was confirmed in 95.2% of patients. NAFLD was associated with various cardiometabolic disorders (dyslipidemia, disorders of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, growing in frequency and severity with the progression NAFLD; and low levels of adiponectin decreasing with a deterioration NAFLD.

  6. Twelve-Week Aerobic Training Decreases Chemerin Level and Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Men

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    Saremi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The inflammatory state of adipose tissue in obese subjects may be the most important factor linking increased adipose tissue mass to insulin resistance. Chemerin is a newly discovered adipokine that plays an important role in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and may contribute to the development of inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined the effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on serum chemerin levels in association with cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese males. Methods Twenty-one overweight and obese subjects [44.3 (±4.1 yrs, body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were assigned to exercise training (obese EX, n= 11 and control (obese CON, n= 10 groups. The obese EX group participated in 12 weeks of progressive aerobic training 5 days a week. Serum chemerin, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, blood pressure, and body composition were all measured before and after the training. Results After the aerobic training, waist circumference (P=0.009, fat percent (P=0.03, visceral fat (P=0.03, subcutaneous fat (P=0.01, fasting glucose (P=0.01, insulin resistance (P=0.03, triglyceride (P=0.05, total cholesterol (P=0.04, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.05 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.04 of participates were significantly decreased. Concurrently, serum chemerin concentrations were significantly decreased after aerobic program (P=0.02. Conclusion Aerobic training caused an improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese subjects, and this improvement was accompanied by decreased chemerin levels.

  7. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  8. Cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranians with spinal cord injury: Analysis by injury-related variables

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    Hadis Sabour, MD, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI have a high prevalence of abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These abnormalities cause adverse coronary heart disease (CHD in patients with SCI. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the level-specific cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with SCI and analyzed the association of injury level on these risk factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 162 patients with SCI, assessing the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and smoking. Fasting blood sugar (>100 was diagnosed in 27 patients (16.7%. Of the total patients, 36 (22.2% had a total cholesterol (TC level of >200. A triglyceride level of >150 was present in 56 patients (34.6%. Hypertension was present in 2.5% of the entire patient group. Body mass index (BMI, TC, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were significantly higher in the paraplegia group than the tetraplegia group (24.44 +/– 4.23 vs 22.65 +/– 4.27, p = 0.01; 185.71 +/– 40.69 vs 163.28 +/– 37.92, p < 0.001; and 102.51 +/– 28.20 vs 89.15 +/– 22.35, p = 0.01, respectively. Patients with paraplegia may have increased hypertension, higher BMI, and increasing levels of serum LDL-C and TC than those with tetraplegia. Conventional risk factors for CHD should be identified and treated in individuals with SCI.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies provide support that the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish and fish oils are cardioprotective, particularly in the setting of secondary prevention. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit multiple cardiometabolic risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac function, as well as having antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Omega-3 fatty acids do not associate with any adverse effects and do not adversely interact with prescriptive drugs such as lipid-lowering, antihypertensive or hypoglycaemic medications. Clinical studies suggest that doses up to 4 g daily when prescribed with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs do not associate with increased risk of major bleeding episodes. Omega-3 fatty acids have gained widespread usage by general practitioners and clinicians in clinical settings such as pregnancy and infant development, secondary prevention in coronary heart disease patients and treatment of dyslipidaemias. Health authorities currently recommend an intake of at least two oily fish meals per week for the general population which equates to approximately 500 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In patients with coronary heart disease the guidelines recommend 1 g daily supplements and in hypertriglyceridaemic patients up to 4 g per day. These doses are now achievable with readily available purified encapsulated preparations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, a more practical recommendation for increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake in the general population is to incorporate fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake.

  10. Imbalance in the intestinal microbiota as a risk factor of cardiometabolic diseases

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    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review shows the role of the intestinal microflora in the development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, overweight / obesity and diabetes. It is well known that consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and cholesterol (meat, egg yolk and milk products with high fat content is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, new studies show that the atherogenic properties of these products are also due to the high content of L-carnitine and its structural analog choline, which, after entering the body is metabolized by intestinal bacteria up to trimethylamine (TMA, and then converted in the liver to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO having direct atherogenic action. It was found that elevated levels of TMAO increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac failure and death, including the common causes. In the center of international attention is also the question of the role of the intestinal microbiota imbalance in the development of insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, increase of the adhesive properties of macrophages, the appearance of dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, overweight. Attention of the doctors is focused on the extremely importance of maintaining a normal balance of the intestinal microbiota to prevent cardiometabolic diseases apart from implementation of already well-known and generally accepted preventive measures.

  11. The prospective relationship between sedentary time and cardiometabolic health in adults at increased cardiometabolic risk – the Hoorn Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teatske M Altenburg; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Bot, Sandra D; Nijpels, Giel; Chinapaw, Mai JM

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary time has been identified as an important and independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adults. However, to date most studies have focused on TV time, few also included other sedentary behaviours such as computer use and reading, and most studies had a cross-sectional design. We aimed to examine the prospective relationship between time spent on sedentary behaviours in different domains with individu...

  12. Dietary patterns are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a representative study population of German adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christin; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Richter, Almut; Mensink, Gert B M

    2011-10-01

    Studies that investigated complex actual eating behaviours of the general population and their relation to cardiometabolic risk markers are sparse. We aimed to identify dietary patterns within a nationally representative sample of 4025 German adults by factor analysis based on validated dietary history interviews. Furthermore, we evaluated associations of the derived dietary patterns with abnormalities clustered within the metabolic syndrome and related metabolic markers by logistic regression models and ANCOVA. A high adherence to the 'processed foods' pattern reflected a high intake of refined grains, processed meat, red meat, high-sugar beverages, eggs, potatoes, beer, sweets and cakes, snacks and butter, whereas a high adherence to the 'health-conscious' pattern represented a high intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, legumes, fruits, fish and whole grains. For subjects in the highest compared with those in the lowest quintile of the processed foods pattern, the occurrence of abdominal obesity was 88 (95 % CI 31, 169) % higher, hypertension was 34 (95 % CI - 4, 86) % higher, hypertriacylglycerolaemia was 59 (95 % CI 11, 128 ) % higher and the metabolic syndrome was 64 (95 % CI 10, 143) % higher when adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, socio-economic status, sport activity and smoking. Furthermore, subjects in the highest quintile had statistically significantly higher uric acid concentrations and lower folate concentrations (P for trend < 0·05). In contrast, subjects in the highest quintile of the health-conscious pattern had a 30 (95 % CI 10, 46) % lower occurrence of hypertension, higher folate concentrations and lower homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations (P for trend < 0·05). These data strengthen the findings from non-representative studies and emphasise the importance of healthy overall food patterns for preventing metabolic disturbances. PMID:21736839

  13. Antioxidants deficiency: a sensitive indicator of cardiometabolic risk in chronic renal failure?

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    Pooja S.K. Rai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antioxidant depletion occurring in chronic renal failure patients is an important cause of associated morbidity & mortality, which in turn imposes a great socioeconomic burden of health care. Early diagnosis & targeted management of this preventable deficiency may have a positive impact on the management of co morbidities associated with chronic renal failure. Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the status of antioxidants as an early indicator of cardiometabolic risk in chronic renal failure patients. Settings & Design: This was a randomised case Control study including 10 controls of either sex with normal renal function between age group 20-60 years and 15 patients of chronic renal failure on dialysis between the age group of 16 - 60 years. Methods: 12 hour fasting venous blood samples were collected from all the participants and were assayed for various antioxidants. Statistical analysis: Results were analyzed by unpaired t test, p value was determined & Correlation coefficient was calculated amongst various parameters. Results: In the present study, significantly low levels of vitamin C ( Cases: 0.367 ± 0.13 mg/dl controls: 1.324 ± 0.61 mg/dl; p < 0.01 & vitamin E (cases: 0.235 ± 0.102 mg/dl, controls (0.854 ± 0.28 mg/dl; p < 0.01 were observed in chronic renal failure patients as compared to controls. Conclusion: Diminished levels of Vitamin C & E in our study may be an indicator of increased oxidative stress which can be a responsible factor for increased incidence of cardiovascular complications. Supplementing these patients with recommended dosage of these vitamins may provide an essential tool to reduce the burden of suffering. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 87-92

  14. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Revdal, Siri M. Hollekim-Strand, Charlotte B. Ingul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bout; 10x1-minute at 90 % of HRmax; n = 10 or extremely low volume sprint interval exercise (SIE; 10 minutes/bout; 2x20 seconds at maximum achievable intensity; n = 11 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, blood pressure and body composition were measured at baseline and post test. Both HIIE and SIE improved VO2peak (3.3 mL·min-1·kg-1, 10.4 %, p < 0.01, and 1.4 mL·min-1·kg-1 (4.6 %, p = 0.03, respectively. Only HIIE reduced body fat percentage (4.5 %, p = 0.04 and two minute heart rate recovery (11.0 bpm, p = 0.02. Neither HIIE nor SIE improved HbA1c. In conclusion, this study indicates that substantially lower exercise volumes than recommended in current guidelines can improve aerobic exercise capacity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of time efficient high intensity exercise did not improve glycemic control, and interventions of longer duration should be investigated.

  15. Increasing objectively measured sedentary time increases clustered cardiometabolic risk: a 6 year analysis of the ProActive study

    OpenAIRE

    Wijndaele, Katrien; Orrow, Gillian; Ekelund, Ulf; Sharp, Stephen J.; Brage, Søren; Simon J Griffin; Simmons, Rebecca K

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We aimed to quantify the associations between change in objectively measured sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) times and self-reported television viewing over 6 years and change in a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (CCMR), including and excluding waist circumference (CCMR without adiposity component, CCMR no adip ), and its individual components, among the adult children of people with type 2 diabetes. Methods In 171 adults (mean ± SD age 42.52 ±...

  16. Low physical activity level and short sleep duration are associated with an increased cardio-metabolic risk: a longitudinal study in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M.; Chaput, J.; Damsgaard, C.;

    2014-01-01

    Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity [PA], sedentary time and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid to prevent metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Aim......: To examine prospective associations between movement behaviors and markers of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 8–11 year old Danish children. Methods: Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; >2296 counts/min), sedentary time (... well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet’. Supported by a grant from the Nordea Foundation....

  17. Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96 and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26 related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration ( Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health.

  18. Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruna Pereira Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis: Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Conclusions: Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors.

  19. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    being modified by individual-level education. Population-level interventions for communities defined by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage are needed to reduce cardiometabolic risks.

  20. Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in an Urban and Rural Population in the Ashanti Region-Ghana: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obirikorang, Christian; Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Anto, Enoch Odame; Amponsah, Samuel Opoku; Adarkwa, Opei Kwafo

    2015-01-01

    There is a surge in chronic diseases in the developing world, driven by a high prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. This study described differences in prevalence of obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors between urban and rural settlements in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. This comparative cross-sectional study included 672 participants (median age 50 years), of which 312 were from Kumasi (urban) and 360 from Jachie-Pramso (rural). Demographic, anthropometric and other cardio-metabolic risk factors were gathered and venous blood samples were drawn for biochemical assays. Results suggested significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (80.0 mmHg vs 79.5 mmHg; p = 0.0078), and fasting blood sugar (5.0 mmo/l vs 4.5 mmol/l; p urban area. Participants in the urban area were more likely than rural participants, to have high total cholesterol and LDL-c (p urban area. Markers of adiposity were higher amongst females than males in both areas (p urban area, hypertension, diabetes and lifestyle risk factors were more prevalent amongst males than females. Differences in risk factors by urban/rural residence remained significant after adjusting for gender and age. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are more prevalent amongst urban settlers, highlighting an urgent need to avert the rise of diet and lifestyle-related chronic diseases.

  1. Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in an Urban and Rural Population in the Ashanti Region-Ghana: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obirikorang, Christian; Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Anto, Enoch Odame; Amponsah, Samuel Opoku; Adarkwa, Opei Kwafo

    2015-01-01

    There is a surge in chronic diseases in the developing world, driven by a high prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. This study described differences in prevalence of obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors between urban and rural settlements in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. This comparative cross-sectional study included 672 participants (median age 50 years), of which 312 were from Kumasi (urban) and 360 from Jachie-Pramso (rural). Demographic, anthropometric and other cardio-metabolic risk factors were gathered and venous blood samples were drawn for biochemical assays. Results suggested significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (80.0 mmHg vs 79.5 mmHg; p = 0.0078), and fasting blood sugar (5.0 mmo/l vs 4.5 mmol/l; p consumption (p = 0.0186) were more prevalent amongst participants in the urban area. Markers of adiposity were higher amongst females than males in both areas (p < 0.05). In the urban area, hypertension, diabetes and lifestyle risk factors were more prevalent amongst males than females. Differences in risk factors by urban/rural residence remained significant after adjusting for gender and age. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are more prevalent amongst urban settlers, highlighting an urgent need to avert the rise of diet and lifestyle-related chronic diseases. PMID:26046349

  2. A cross-sectional investigation of regional patterns of diet and cardio-metabolic risk in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy KS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of diet in India's rapidly progressing chronic disease epidemic is unclear; moreover, diet may vary considerably across North-South regions. Methods The India Health Study was a multicenter study of men and women aged 35-69, who provided diet, lifestyle, and medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood, urine, and anthropometric measurements. In each region (Delhi, n = 824; Mumbai, n = 743; Trivandrum, n = 2,247, we identified two dietary patterns with factor analysis. In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education, income, marital status, religion, physical activity, tobacco, alcohol, and total energy intake, we investigated associations between regional dietary patterns and abdominal adiposity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Across the regions, more than 80% of the participants met the criteria for abdominal adiposity and 10 to 28% of participants were considered diabetic. In Delhi, the "fruit and dairy" dietary pattern was positively associated with abdominal adiposity [highest versus lowest tertile, multivariate-adjusted OR and 95% CI: 2.32 (1.03-5.23; Ptrend = 0.008] and hypertension [2.20 (1.47-3.31; Ptrend trend = 0.03] and the "snacks and sweets" pattern was positively associated with abdominal adiposity [2.05 (1.34-3.14; Ptrend = 0.03]. In Mumbai, the "fruit and vegetable" pattern was inversely associated with hypertension [0.63 (0.40-0.99; Ptrend = 0.05] and the "snack and meat" pattern appeared to be positively associated with abdominal adiposity. Conclusions Cardio-metabolic risk factors were highly prevalent in this population. Across all regions, we found little evidence of a Westernized diet; however, dietary patterns characterized by animal products, fried snacks, or sweets appeared to be positively associated with abdominal adiposity. Conversely, more traditional diets in the Southern regions were inversely related to diabetes and

  3. Evaluation of a multispectral diffuse optical spectroscopy device for assessment of cardiometabolic risk related alterations of body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkevics, Z.; Volceka, K.; Ozolina-Moll, L.; Zaharans, J.

    2013-11-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases encompass a combination of conditions which lead to an increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the increasing percentage of the population becoming overweight, it is important to diagnose when the excess adipose tissue becomes malign. The development of a safe, mobile, non-invasive method that would be easy to perform, and low-cost, but also would offer an accurate assessment of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) both in lean and in obese persons is required. A prototype device using an optical method for measurement of the SAT in vivo has been developed, it contains multiple LEDs with four wavelengths (660nm, 780nm, 870nm, 940nm) distributed at various distances from the photodetector which allow different light penetration depths into the subcutaneous tissue. Five young healthy female students participated in the study; the measurements were performed on three body sites: calf, upper and lower abdomen. The backscattered light acquired with the prototype was compared to SAT measured with high resolution ultrasound imaging. The coefficient of variation indicated high reliability of the measurements. Statistically significant (from r=0.81 to r=0.95; p<0.05) correlation between intensity of backscattered light and SAT thicknesses for all four wavelength was observed, especially at source-detector distance 25mm. The novel device prototype has a potential to be a good alternative for conventional SAT measurement and assessment of cardiometabolic risk. Amultispectral approach can potentially increase precision and spatial resolution of SAT determination.

  4. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, R Brett; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Olufade, Temitope; Sheehan, John J; Nair, Kavita V; Saseen, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in the US. Methods We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four), and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57) times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95% CI: $70, $763), US$2,326 (95% CI: $1,864, $2,788), and US$4,117 (95% CI: $3,428, $4,807), respectively. Those with three or four CMRFs reported employment of 60%, compared with 80% in patients with zero CMRFs. People with three or four CMFRs had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.17) times higher expected rate of days missed at work due to illness, compared with people with zero CMRFs. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a direct association between economic burden and number of CMRFs. Although this was expected, the increase in burden

  5. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revdal, Anders; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M.; Ingul, Charlotte B.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bout; 10x1-minute at 90 % of HRmax; n = 10) or extremely low volume sprint interval exercise (SIE; 10 minutes/bout; 2x20 seconds at maximum achievable intensity; n = 11) 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and body composition were measured at baseline and post test. Both HIIE and SIE improved VO2peak (3.3 mL·min-1·kg-1, 10.4 %), p < 0.01, and 1.4 mL·min-1·kg-1 (4.6 %), p = 0.03, respectively). Only HIIE reduced body fat percentage (4.5 %, p = 0.04) and two minute heart rate recovery (11.0 bpm, p = 0.02). Neither HIIE nor SIE improved HbA1c. In conclusion, this study indicates that substantially lower exercise volumes than recommended in current guidelines can improve aerobic exercise capacity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of time efficient high intensity exercise did not improve glycemic control, and interventions of longer duration should be investigated. Key points Low volume high-intensity interval exercise can improve peak oxygen uptake in previously sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes The weekly exercise volumes in the two intervention groups of 81 and 30 minutes respectively, is substantially lower than recommended in current exercise guidelines and could reduce the time-barrier associated with exercise among patients with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of structured, supervised low-volume exercise did not improve glycemic control, indicating a need for

  6. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revdal, Anders; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-06-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bout; 10x1-minute at 90 % of HRmax; n = 10) or extremely low volume sprint interval exercise (SIE; 10 minutes/bout; 2x20 seconds at maximum achievable intensity; n = 11) 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and body composition were measured at baseline and post test. Both HIIE and SIE improved VO2peak (3.3 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1), 10.4 %), p body fat percentage (4.5 %, p = 0.04) and two minute heart rate recovery (11.0 bpm, p = 0.02). Neither HIIE nor SIE improved HbA1c. In conclusion, this study indicates that substantially lower exercise volumes than recommended in current guidelines can improve aerobic exercise capacity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of time efficient high intensity exercise did not improve glycemic control, and interventions of longer duration should be investigated. Key pointsLow volume high-intensity interval exercise can improve peak oxygen uptake in previously sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetesThe weekly exercise volumes in the two intervention groups of 81 and 30 minutes respectively, is substantially lower than recommended in current exercise guidelines and could reduce the time-barrier associated with exercise among patients with type 2 diabetes.However, 12 weeks of structured, supervised low-volume exercise did not improve glycemic control, indicating a need for exercise volumes or longer intervention period. PMID:27274669

  7. Prevalence and predictors of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk among construction workers in Ireland: the Construction Workers Health Trust screening study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2013-07-01

    Construction workers (CW) are at increased risk for a range of chronic diseases. We screened 983 CW for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk. The age range was 18-64 years, with mean age of 36.3 years. Self-reported questionnaires, Finnish diabetes risk score and fasting blood tests were collected at the workplace. The unadjusted prevalence of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus were 3.6% and 1.2%, respectively; 21% of CW had the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The majority were either overweight (48.3%) or obese (21.8%). In a regression model, age remained the strongest predictor of fasting glucose (p < 0.001). Pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with presence of the MetS [odds ratio (OR) 5.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8-11.5, p < 0.001 and OR 5.5; 95% CI: 1.6-18.7, p = 0.006, respectively]. Subjects engaged in greater physical activity outside of work had lower body mass index (26.9 vs. 28.8 kg\\/m(2), p = 0.03), waist circumference (95.8 vs. 98.1 cm, p = 0.03) and fasting serum triglycerides (1.1 vs. 1.4 mmol\\/L, p = 0.03) compared to those who were sedentary. Despite their youth and a physically demanding occupation, CW are at risk of cardiometabolic diseases. This risk increases with age and the MetS. Screening tools may be useful to identify those who are at risk.

  8. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF %) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. Methods: WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to standardiz

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.;

    2014-01-01

    ) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7...

  10. Potential role of the endocannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant in the management of cardiometabolic risk: a narrative review of available data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A Bronander

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirk A Bronander1, Michael J Bloch21Division of General Internal Medicine, 2Divisions of Cardiology and General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The endocannabinoid system (ECS is an endogenous physiological system composed of two cannabinoid receptors and several endogenous ligands. The ECS is intimately involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis, which makes it an intriguing target for pharmacological treatment of obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Rimonabant is the first cannabinoid receptor (CB-1 antagonist being studied and utilized to treat obesity (it is approved in Europe but is currently under review in the United States. Large randomized trials with rimonabant have demonstrated efficacy in treatment of overweight and obese individuals with weight loss significantly greater than a reduced calorie diet alone. In addition, multiple other cardiometabolic parameters were improved in the treatment groups including increased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduced triglycerides, reduced waist circumference, improved insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin levels, and in diabetic patients improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin percentage. There was an increase in the adverse effects of depression, anxiety, irritability, and nausea in rimonabant-treated groups. This novel medication may become an important therapeutic option in the fight to reduce cardiovascular disease worldwide through its unique action on cardiometabolic risk.Keywords: rimonabant, endocannabinoid, metabolic syndrome, obesity

  11. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (beverage intake (>500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5–7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI explains a part of these associations. Pediatric adiposity might be

  12. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively. Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week, long screen time (≥3 h/day and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.5–7.3, 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4, and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0 odds ratio (OR of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3; p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009. The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI

  13. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12-16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1-2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5-1.6 and 1.9-4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5-7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1-4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2-229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%-95.6% and 16.9%-60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3-17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI explains a part of these associations. Pediatric adiposity might be multiplicatively associated with sugar

  14. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gokulakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome (MS was diagnosed based on modified ATPIII guidelines. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test or one-way ANOVA (with Tukey′s HSD was used to compare groups for continuous variables. Results : Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HOMA IR, serum cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with increasing tertiles of body fat (P<0.001. There was a linear increase in the percentage of body fat with increase in number of components of MS (no metabolic abnormality: 25±11, one metabolic abnormality: 28±10, two metabolic abnormalities: 33±8, and three and more metabolic abnormalities: 35±7 (P<0.001. Regression models showed significant association of body fat with MS after adjusting for age, gender, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin (Odds ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 - 1.08, P<0.001. In linear regression analysis, body fat showed a significant association with insulin resistance after adjusting for age, gender, and glycated hemoglobin (β=0.030, P<0.001. Conclusions : A significant association exists between body fat, MS, and cardiometabolic risk factors even among subjects with NGT.

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

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    Ting-Kuang Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance.

  16. Inpatient and outpatient cardiac rehabilitation programmes improve cardiometabolic risk in revascularized coronary patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Claudiu Avram

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cardiometabolic risk reduction of diabetic patients following coronary revascularizationprocedures after participation in outpatients or inpatients cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Materials and methods: weperformed a retrospective analytical study which included a group of 103 revascularized coronary patients with diabetesmellitus. Depending on participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program we have defined the following subgroups of patients:Group O (N=37 - attended the outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program; Group H (N=37 - attended the inpatient cardiacrehabilitation program; Group C (N=34 - did not participate in any cardiac rehabilitation program. Between those two momentsof assessment: T0 - revascularization / early post-revascularization and T1 - time of the interview (16±2.3 months afterrevascularization, patients in groups A and S participated in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (12 weeks, 3sessions/week of exercise training, with clinical and paraclinical evaluation scheduled at 1, 6, 12 months afterrevascularization, or inpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (3 weeks, intensive sessions, scheduled at 1, 3, 6 and 12months after revascularization. Results: at the end of the study, we found significant differences among the three groups forthe following parameters: body mass index (p=0.01, systolic blood pressure (p=0.002, total cholesterol (p<0.001, LDLcholesterol(p<0.001 and non-HDL cholesterol (p=0.004 in favor of groups A and S, that have participated in comprehensivecardiac rehabilitation programs. Conclusions: comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programmes, performed outpatient orinpatient, are effective methods of reducing the high cardiometabolic risk, specific in revascularized coronary patients withdiabetes.

  17. Dietary protein intake is associated with favorable cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

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    Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajifaraji, Majid; Bahadoran, Zahra; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that dietary protein content and type are related to cardiometabolic risk factors including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum fasting glucose, and blood pressure. This population-based study was conducted on 2537 subjects aged 19 to 70 years and selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Associations between intakes of total protein as well as the animal-to-plant (A/P) protein ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. Dietary protein intakes were 13.7% and 13.6% of energy, in men and women, respectively; the A/P protein ratio in women was significantly higher than in men (1.8 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.9). Body mass index was associated with total protein intake in men (β = 0.14, P = .01) and A/P protein ratio in women (β = 0.075, P = .01). Waist circumference was associated with total protein intake (β = -0.048, P = .03) and A/P protein ratio (β=0.031, P = .05) in women. Serum fasting glucose was associated with both total protein intake (β=0.061 and 0.11, P protein intake (β = 0.107 and 0.07, P protein intake (β = -0.125, P = .01). In conclusion, higher dietary protein intake was associated with enhanced HDL-C levels, WC, and diastolic BP, and a higher ratio of A/P protein intake was related with lower serum fasting glucose andWC.

  18. Association of Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Normal-Weight and Overweight Children

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    Atoosa Adibi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aimed to determine the prevalence of increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT, defined by a gender-specific cutoff value, among normal weight and overweight children; and to assess the relationship of increasing ALT levels with cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted among school students, aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. Based on the body mass index (BMI percentiles, a group of normal-weight was compared with a group of overweight and obese students. Gender differences were considered for increased levels of ALT, i.e. 19U/L and 30U/L for girls and boys respectively. Findings:The study participants consisted of 1172 students (56.2% girls, with a mean (SD age of 12.57 (3.3 years. Among overweight/obese students the mean triglycerides (TG and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those with increased ALT than in those with normal ALT levels. The logistic regression analysis showed that among overweight/obese boys, for each 1 unit increase in ALT, the odds ratio (OR of TG, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased significantly. After adjusting for age, these associations remained significant, and the OR of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c decreased significantly. In the model adjusting for age and BMI, the ORs of TG and HDL-c remained significant. After adjusting for age and waist circumference, HDL-c was the only parameter with significant OR. Among overweight/obese girls, in all models applied, the OR was significant for TG and total cholesterol. A significant independent association was documented for waist circumference and increase in ALT after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion:This study documented significant relationship of increased ALT levels, defined by a gender-specific cutoff point, with cardiometabolic risk factors and hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype in Iranian children and adolescents.

  19. Obesity and obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk factors in indigenous Nenets women from the rural Nenets Autonomous Area and Russian women from Arkhangelsk city

    OpenAIRE

    Petrenya, Natalia; Brustad, Magritt; Dobrodeeva, Liliya; Bichkaeva, Fatima; Lutfalieva, Gulnara; Cooper, Marie; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions varies by population groups. Indigenous women of the circumpolar north are believed to be at high risk of obesity.Objective. We studied, first the obesity prevalence in indigenous Arctic women, Nenets, compared to urban Russian women. Second, the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in the combined group of Nenets and Russian women. Third, ethnic differences in the association between obesity and card...

  20. Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in an Urban and Rural Population in the Ashanti Region-Ghana: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Christian Obirikorang

    Full Text Available There is a surge in chronic diseases in the developing world, driven by a high prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. This study described differences in prevalence of obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors between urban and rural settlements in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. This comparative cross-sectional study included 672 participants (median age 50 years, of which 312 were from Kumasi (urban and 360 from Jachie-Pramso (rural. Demographic, anthropometric and other cardio-metabolic risk factors were gathered and venous blood samples were drawn for biochemical assays. Results suggested significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (80.0 mmHg vs 79.5 mmHg; p = 0.0078, and fasting blood sugar (5.0 mmo/l vs 4.5 mmol/l; p < 0.0001 between the two groups. Further differences in anthropometric measures suggested greater adiposity amongst participants in the urban area. Participants in the urban area were more likely than rural participants, to have high total cholesterol and LDL-c (p < 0.0001 respectively. Risk factors including BMI ≥ 25 (p < 0.0001, BMI ≥ 30 (p < 0.0001, high waist circumference (p < 0.0001, high waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.0001 and alcohol consumption (p = 0.0186 were more prevalent amongst participants in the urban area. Markers of adiposity were higher amongst females than males in both areas (p < 0.05. In the urban area, hypertension, diabetes and lifestyle risk factors were more prevalent amongst males than females. Differences in risk factors by urban/rural residence remained significant after adjusting for gender and age. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are more prevalent amongst urban settlers, highlighting an urgent need to avert the rise of diet and lifestyle-related chronic diseases.

  1. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study.

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    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, changes in Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification index (NRI were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-β1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes increased the AUC to 0.803 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092-0.149] and 0.113 [0.093-0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model. The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028-0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model. Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013-0.038] compared to the basic model, 0.845 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028-0.059] compared to the basic model and 0.851 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003-0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of multiple

  2. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic profile in Chinese women: a randomised controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Chen, Xiafei; Tang, Lixin; Feng, Ying; Shai, Iris; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the potential adherence to and the effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with a habitually high carbohydrate intake. In the present controlled feeding trial, fifty overweight or obese women (age 47·9 (sem 0·9) years; BMI 26·7 (sem 0·3) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to a LC non-energy-restricted diet (initial carbohydrate intake 20 g/d, with a 10 g increase weekly) or an energy-restricted (ER) diet (carbohydrate intake 156-205 g/d, ER to 5021 or 6276 kJ/d, 35% average energy reduction) for 12 weeks. Over the intervention period, the two diets had comparable compliance (96%) and self-reported acceptability. At week 12, carbohydrate intake in the LC and ER groups contributed to 36·1 and 51·1% of total energy, respectively (P diets showed similarly decreased mean body weight (LC - 5·27 (95% CI - 6·08, - 4·46) kg; ER - 5·09 (95% CI - 5·50, - 4·67) kg, P = 0·67) and percentage of fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (LC - 1·19 (95% CI - 1·88, - 0·50)%; ER - 1·56 (95% CI - 2·20, - 0·92)%, P = 0·42), participants in the LC group had greater reductions in the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (P= 0·03) and also in the ratio of TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·01) than those in the ER group. The present 12-week diet trial suggested that both a LC non-energy-restricted diet and an ER diet were acceptable to Chinese women and both diets were equally effective in reducing weight and fat mass. Moreover, the LC diet showed beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles.

  3. The Association between Non-Invasive Hepatic Fibrosis Markers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Framingham Heart Study.

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    Michelle T Long

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular related death, particularly in those with hepatic fibrosis. We determined the prevalence of predicted fibrosis based on non-invasive fibrosis markers and the association of hepatic fibrosis with cardiovascular risk factors.Cross-sectional study of 575 Framingham Heart Study participants with NAFLD based on computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of predicted fibrosis based on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST/alanine aminotransferase (ALT ratio, AST to platelet ratio index (APRI, the Fibrosis-4 score (FIB4, and the NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined the association between low, indeterminate, or high risk for fibrosis according to the NFS and various cardiometabolic risk factors.The predicted risk of fibrosis was 12%, 4%, 5%, and 32% for the NFS, FIB4, APRI, and AST/ALT ratio, respectively. In multivariable models, participants with a high risk for advanced fibrosis by the NFS had a wider pulse pressure (adjusted mean difference = 6.87 mm Hg; p = 0.0002 and an increased odds of hypertension (OR 2.92; p = 0.007 compared to those with low risk of fibrosis. There were no statistically significant differences between other cardiovascular risk factors for those with a high versus low risk of fibrosis.The AST/ALT ratio, APRI, and NFS give widely disparate predictions of liver fibrosis. Participants with a high risk for fibrosis based on NFS had wider pulse pressure and increased odds of hypertension. Whether modifying these risk factors impacts cardiovascular endpoints in NAFLD patients remains unknown.

  4. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, P<0·001) and reductions in daily energy (-24 %, P<0·001) and Na (-26 %, P<0·001) intakes. Diet quality significantly improved, and the mean change was 3·6 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·9, P<0·05), although this finding was not significant after Bonferroni's correction. Increased vegetable intake was the main factor contributing to improved diet quality. Nutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:27153205

  5. Moderate Activity and Fitness, Not Sedentary Time, Are Independently Associated with Cardio-Metabolic Risk in U.S. Adults Aged 18–49

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    Jeroen H. P. M. van der Velde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study is one of the first to examine and compare the independent associations of objectively measured sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied 543 men and women (aged 18–49 years from the NHANES 2003–2004 survey. Sedentary time and MVPA were measured by accelerometry. Fitness was assessed with a submaximal treadmill test. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included: waist circumference (WC, BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL- and non HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Sedentary time, MVPA and fitness were used as predictors for the cardio-metabolic outcomes in a multiple regression analysis. Standardized regression coefficients were computed. Results show that sedentary time was associated with HDL-cholesterol (β = −0.080, p = 0.05 and TG (β = 0.080, p = 0.03. These results became non-significant after adjustment for MVPA and fitness. MVPA was associated with WC (β = −0.226, BMI (β = −0.239, TG (β = −0.108 and HDL-cholesterol (β = 0.144 (all p < 0.05. These results remained significant after adjustment for sedentary time and fitness. Fitness was associated with WC (β = −0.287, BMI (β = −0.266, systolic blood pressure (β = −0.159, TG (β = −0.092, and CRP (β = −0.130 (all p < 0.05. After adjustment for sedentary time and MVPA these results remained significant. These differences in relative importance of sedentary time, MVPA and fitness on cardio-metabolic-risk are important in the design of prevention programs. In this population, the strength of the associations between MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic markers appeared to be similar; both MVPA and fitness showed independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. In contrast, sedentary time showed no independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk after correction for fitness and MVPA.

  6. Effect of cardiometabolic risk factors on hypertension management: a cross-sectional study among 28 physician practices in the United States

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    Zacker Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor clusters (CMRFCs and their effect on BP control among hypertensive patients from 28 US physician practices. Methods Each participating practice identified a random sample of 150-300 adults aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with hypertension. The primary outcome variable was BP control (BP Results Overall, 6,527 hypertensive patients were identified for study inclusion. More than half (54.3% were female, and mean age was 64.7 years. Almost half (48.7% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. About 1 in every 4 patients (25.3% had diabetes, and 60.7% had dyslipidemia. Mean blood pressure was 132.5/77.9 mmHg, and 55.0% of all patients had controlled BP; 62.4% of non-diabetic patients, and 33.3% of diabetic hypertensive patients, had BP controlled to recommended levels. Most (81.7% hypertensive patients had ≥ 1 cardiometabolic risk factor, and 12.2% had all 3 risk factors. As compared to hypertensive patients without additional risk factors, adjusted odds ratios for BP control were significantly lower for all combinations of CMRFCs (ORs 0.15-0.83, all p Conclusions Across 28 US practices, only 18% of hypertensive patients did not have any additional cardiometabolic risk factors. The high prevalence of CMRFCs presents a challenge to effective hypertension management.

  7. Yogurt consumption and impact on health: focus on children and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marette, André; Picard-Deland, Eliane

    2014-05-01

    An accumulating body of epidemiologic data, clinical trials, and mechanistic studies suggests that yogurt consumption as part of a healthy diet may be beneficial to cardiometabolic health. This brief review focuses on children and adolescents, introducing new concepts underlying the effect of yogurt consumption on body weight maintenance and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Specific properties of yogurt are discussed, which highlight that yogurt is an easy-to-digest, nutrient-dense, and satiating food that contains high-quality protein and specific amino acids. Moreover, the role of yogurt as a modulator of the gut microbiota in infancy is explored. We also propose the idea that the specific matrix of yogurt has bioavailability and metabolic properties that can be exploited to increase the functionality of this dairy product.

  8. Association of body mass index, sagittal abdominal diameter and waist-hip ratio with cardiometabolic risk factors and adipocytokines in Arab children and adolescents

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    Al-Attas Omar S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD is a novel anthropometric measure hypothesized to be a surrogate measure of visceral abdominal obesity in adults. This study aims to determine whether SAD is superior to other anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR in terms of association to cardiometabolic risk and circulating adipocytokine concentrations in a cohort of Saudi children and adolescents. Methods A total of 948 (495 boys and 453 girls apparently healthy children with varying BMI, aged 10–17 years, were included in this cross sectional study. Fasting glucose, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin, TNF-α and aPAI-1 were measured in serum and HOMA-IR was calculated. MetS components were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Results BMI was superior to SAD as well as WHR, and had the highest number of significant associations to MetS components and adipocytokines even after adjustment for age and gender, including blood pressure, lipids, glucose and leptin. Conclusion In conclusion, while SAD is significantly associated with components of MetS among children and adolescents, it is not superior to BMI. The use of SAD therefore may not be practical for use in the pediatric clinical setting. Follow-up studies are needed to determine whether SAD has clinical significance in terms of harder outcomes such as predicting diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Obesity and obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk factors in indigenous Nenets women from the rural Nenets Autonomous Area and Russian women from Arkhangelsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petrenya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions varies by population groups. Indigenous women of the circumpolar north are believed to be at high risk of obesity. Objective: We studied, first the obesity prevalence in indigenous Arctic women, Nenets, compared to urban Russian women. Second, the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in the combined group of Nenets and Russian women. Third, ethnic differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional study performed in 2008–2009. Subjects: 93 Nenets women, aged 19–77 (the indigenous village, the Nenets Autonomous Area and 132 Russian women, aged 21–72 (Arkhangelsk city. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC≥88 cm and or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR≥0.85%. We assessed associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by linear and logistic regression models that included covariates of ethnicity, age, smoking and physical activity. We also tested for interaction between obesity measurements and ethnicity. Results: Prevalence of obesity estimated through BMI, WC and WHR were 42.5, 45.3 and 41.9% in Nenets and 34.4, 46.4 and 29.5% in Russians, respectively, with no differences found. BMI, WC and WHR associated positively with triglycerides, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index. In addition, BMI and WC correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apoliporotein A–I ratio. WC explained significant variation in fasting glucose (FG level. BMI predicted type 2 diabetes history. FG level associated strongly with ethnicity and was found to be higher in Russians. Conclusions: We found no differences in prevalence of obesity between Nenets and Russian females. Obesity was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of

  10. Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Changes Observed in Diabetes Prevention Programs in US Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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    Uma Mudaliar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP study showed that weight loss in high-risk adults lowered diabetes incidence and cardiovascular disease risk. No prior analyses have aggregated weight and cardiometabolic risk factor changes observed in studies implementing DPP interventions in nonresearch settings in the United States.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we pooled data from studies in the United States implementing DPP lifestyle modification programs (focused on modest [5%-7%] weight loss through ≥150 min of moderate physical activity per week and restriction of fat intake in clinical, community, and online settings. We reported aggregated pre- and post-intervention weight and cardiometabolic risk factor changes (fasting blood glucose [FBG], glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c], systolic or diastolic blood pressure [SBP/DBP], total [TC] or HDL-cholesterol. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases from January 1, 2003, to May 1, 2016. Two reviewers independently evaluated article eligibility and extracted data on study designs, populations enrolled, intervention program characteristics (duration, number of core and maintenance sessions, and outcomes. We used a random effects model to calculate summary estimates for each outcome and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI. To examine sources of heterogeneity, results were stratified according to the presence of maintenance sessions, risk level of participants (prediabetes or other, and intervention delivery personnel (lay or professional. Forty-four studies that enrolled 8,995 participants met eligibility criteria. Participants had an average age of 50.8 years and body mass index (BMI of 34.8 kg/m2, and 25.2% were male. On average, study follow-up was 9.3 mo (median 12.0 with a range of 1.5 to 36 months; programs offered a mean of 12.6 sessions, with mean participant attendance of 11.0 core sessions. Sixty percent of programs offered some form of

  11. Unanswered clinical questions in the management of cardiometabolic risk in the elderly: a statement of the Spanish society of internal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Giner-Galvañ, Vicente; Mostaza, José M; Cuende, José I; de Miguel-Yanes, Jose M.; Rovira, Eduardo; Sánchez-Fuentes, Demetrio; Fernández, Carmen Suárez; Sánchez, Pilar Román; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the progressive increase in life expectancy and the relationship between aging with multi-morbidities and the increased use of healthcare resources, current clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on cardiometabolic risk cannot be adequately applied to elderly subjects with multiple chronic conditions. Its management frequently becomes complicated by both, an excessive use of medications that may lead to overtreatment, drug interactions and increased toxicity, and errors in dosa...

  12. One year follow-up of the cardio-metabolic profile evolution in renal transplant patients treated with alemtuzumab, cyclosporine, and steroids in a reference hospital in Colombia

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    Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular events occur 50 times more often in kidney transplant patients than in the general population and are the leading cause of death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of cardio-metabolic profile and determine the incidence of major cardiovascular events in the first year after transplantation. Methods: This prospective study evaluated the behavior of cardio-metabolic profile in adult patients that were transplanted during 2011. Results: The median age was 44.3 ± 12.05 years, 68.7 % were men and 95.5 %, hypertensive. Alemtuzumab-cyclosporine and steroids were used in 89.6 %, delaying the introduction of the antimetabolite. In the first year after transplantation there were three cases of diabetes mellitus, three major cardiovascular events, and 12 cases of acute rejection. Albumin, hemoglobin, weight, body mass index (BMI, calcium and HbA1C increased (p<0.05, whereas paratohormone, phosphorus, creatinine and uric acid decreased (p<0.05. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was higher in patients without rejection (p=0.001. Conclusion: This immunosuppressive protocol with alemtuzumab, cyclosporine and steroids, and the delayed introduction of the antimetabolite improved bone mineral metabolism, uric acid, albumin and hemoglobin, but there were negative effects on HbA1c, weight and BMI. There was a low incidence of new onset diabetes mellitus and major ardiovascular events.

  13. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in children with metabolic syndrome: a triple-masked controlled trial

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this triple-masked controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: the study comprised 50 participants, aged 10 to16 years, who were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number. In this 12-week trial, one group received oral vitamin D (300,000 IU and the other group received placebo. Cardiometabolic risk factors, insulin resistance, and a continuous value of metabolic syndrome (cMetS were determined. Statistical analysis was conducted after adjustment for covariate interactions. RESULTS: overall, 21 patients in the vitamin D group and 22 in the placebo group completed the trial. No significant difference was observed in the baseline characteristics of the two groups. After the trial, in the vitamin D group, serum insulin and triglyceride concentrations, as well as HOM -IR and C-MetS decreased significantly, both when compared with the baseline and with the placebo group. No significant difference was observed when comparing total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure. CONCLUSION: the present findings support the favorable effects of vitamin D supplementation on reducing insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children.

  14. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11 year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile as well as the impact of fat mass and...... physical activity in Danish 8-11 year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the OPUS School Meal Study....

  15. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2015-09-08

    Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease.

  16. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

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    Rachel C. Brown

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ. The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, C-reactive protein (CRP and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044. Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014, with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023. There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001 and CRP (p = 0.045 were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease.

  17. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

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    Jayne A. Barbour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI 31 ± 4 kg/m2 alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP, lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05, following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001, predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05. Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.

  18. Geographic epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk factors in middle class urban residents in India: cross–sectional study

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    Rajeev Gupta

    2015-06-01

    these risk factors in both sexes (P<0.05. Conclusions Urban middle–class men and women in eastern region of India have significantly lower cardiometabolic risk factors compared to northern, western and southern regions. Low human social development index cities have lower risk factor prevalences.

  19. Childhood cardiometabolic outcomes of maternal obesity during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Steegers, Eric A P; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with impaired cardiometabolic health in offspring. Whether these associations reflect direct intrauterine causal mechanisms remains unclear. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4871 mothers, fathers, and their children, we examined the associations of both maternal and paternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with childhood body fat distribution and cardiometabolic outcomes and explored whether any association was explained by pregnancy, birth, and childhood factors. We measured childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, insulin, and C-peptide at the age of 6 years. We observed that higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with higher childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat mass measures, systolic blood pressure, and insulin levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Pobese mothers had increased risks of childhood overweight (odds ratio, 3.84 [95% confidence interval, 3.01-4.90]) and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (odds ratio, 3.00 [95% confidence interval, 2.09-4.34]). Smaller effect estimates for these outcomes were observed for paternal obesity. In conclusion, higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile in offspring, with stronger associations present for maternal prepregnancy BMI. These findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI may influence the cardiometabolic health of offspring through direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  20. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.;

    2014-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1......) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7...

  1. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

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    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  2. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

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    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  3. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation with Associated Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Depression in an Urbanizing Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Bishwajit Bhowmik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] in an urbanizing rural population of Bangladesh and associated cardiometabolic risk indicators and depression.MethodsA total of 2,293 subjects aged ≥20 years in an urbanizing rural Bangladeshi community were investigated. Socio-demographic and anthropometric details, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2 hours after 75 g plasma glucose (2hPG, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting serum insulin and lipid profiles were studied. Presence of depressive symptoms using Montogomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale was also assessed.ResultsThe prevalence of IFG, IGT, IFG+IGT, and T2DM were 3.4%, 4.0%, 1.2%, and 7.9%, respectively. The prevalence of T2DM and impaired glucose regulation differed between males and females, but, both increased with age in both sexes. FPG and 2hPG had positive correlation. Employing logistic regression, it was found that increased age, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and depression were independent risk indicators for diabetes. Both insulin resistance and β-cell deficiency were significantly related for causation of diabetes. Among the study population, 26.2% had general obesity, 39.8% central obesity, 15.5% hypertension, 28.7% dyslipidemia, 17.6% family history of diabetes, and 15.3% had depression. Physical inactivity and smoking habits were significantly higher in male.ConclusionRising prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in this urbanizing rural population exist as a significant but hidden public health problem. Depression and other cardiometabolic risk indicators including obesity, hypertension, and dyslipdemia were also prevalent in this population.

  4. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  5. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

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    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  6. Relative Handgrip Strength Is a Simple Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk among Middle-Aged and Older People: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Muscle strength may play an important role in cardiovascular health. The study was intended to evaluate the association between cardiometabolic risk, risk of coronary artery disease and handgrip strength by using the relative handgrip strength. Materials and Methods Data of 927 Taiwanese aged 53 years and older (510 men and 417 women) were retrieved from a nationwide representative population-based cohort cross-sectional study in 2006. All participants were interviewed face-to-face and received measures of anthropometry, dominant handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength (summation of both handgrip strength divided by body mass index) and serum biomarkers. Results Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the significant association between relative handgrip strength and favorable cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol to high density cholesterol(HDL-C) ratio, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), uric acid, Framingham risk score in men, and HDL-C, fasting glucose, HbA1c, log hsCRP in women. Dominant hand grip strength was only associated with log hsCRP in women. (p<0.05 for all), but was not significant associated with all cardiovascular biomarkers and FRS in both sex. Conclusions Joint with handgrip strength and body size, as relative handgrip strength, may be a better tool to capture conceptual concomitant health, which may be a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-use tool when targeting cardiovascular health in public health level. PMID:27559733

  7. Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.

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    Jing-Fang Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. METHODS: In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. RESULTS: L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01. The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5% and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001. L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index.

  8. The Role of FADS1/2 Polymorphisms on Cardiometabolic Markers and Fatty Acid Profiles in Young Adults Consuming Fish Oil Supplements

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    Kaitlin Roke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FAs known to influence cardiometabolic markers of health. Evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2 gene cluster may influence an individual’s response to n-3 FAs. This study examined the impact of a moderate daily dose of EPA and DHA fish oil supplements on cardiometabolic markers, FA levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC, and whether these endpoints were influenced by SNPs in FADS1/2. Young adults consumed fish oil supplements (1.8 g total EPA/DHA per day for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week washout period. Serum and RBC FA profiles were analyzed every two weeks by gas chromatography. Two SNPs were genotyped: rs174537 in FADS1 and rs174576 in FADS2. Participants had significantly reduced levels of blood triglycerides (−13% and glucose (–11% by week 12; however, these benefits were lost during the washout period. EPA and DHA levels increased significantly in serum (+250% and +51%, respectively and RBCs (+132% and +18%, respectively within the first two weeks of supplementation and remained elevated throughout the 12-week period. EPA and DHA levels in RBCs only (not serum remained significantly elevated (+37% and +24%, respectively after the washout period. Minor allele carriers for both SNPs experienced greater increases in RBC EPA levels during supplementation; suggesting that genetic variation at this locus can influence an individual’s response to fish oil supplements.

  9. A Healthy Nordic Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors : Intervention Studies with Special Emphasis on Plasma Lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Adamsson, Viola

    2013-01-01

    A healthy diet is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several risk factors, modifiable by diet, are involved in the development of CVD, e.g. hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertension. Little data however exist on diets composed of foods originating from the Nordic countries, and their potential to reduce CVD risk. This thesis aimed to investigate whether an ad libitum healthy Nordic diet (ND), either provided as a whole diet, or as ...

  10. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  11. Dairy products, yogurt consumption, and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba; Bueno, Gloria

    2015-08-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in children is a global health issue. Obesity in children and adolescents can result in hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia, increasing the risk of death, as children grow into adulthood, and raising public health concerns. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Dairy consumption may have a protective effect against the development of CVD, but there is scarce evidence of this in children and adolescents. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between dairy consumption and CVD risk factors in a sample of adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities. Overall, dairy products emerged as the food group that best identified adolescents at low CVD risk. Higher consumption of milk and yogurt and of milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for CVD, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness.

  12. Predicting incident fatty liver using simple cardio-metabolic risk factors at baseline

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    Sung Ki-Chul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and chronic liver disease but identifying patients who have NAFLD without resorting to expensive imaging tests is challenging. In order to help identify people for imaging investigation of the liver who are at high risk of NAFLD, our aim was to: a identify easily measured risk factors at baseline that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up, and then b to test the diagnostic performance of thresholds of these factors at baseline, to predict or to exclude incident fatty liver at follow up. Methods 2589 people with absence of fatty liver on ultrasound examination at baseline were re-examined after a mean of 4.4 years in a Korean occupational cohort study. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to identify baseline factors that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of these baseline factors to identify people with incident fatty liver at follow-up was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results 430 incident cases of fatty liver were identified. Several factors were independently associated with incident fatty liver: increased triglyceride (per mmol/l increase OR 1.378 [95%CIs 1.179, 1.611], p 9/L increase OR 1.004 [1.001, 1.006], p = 0.001; were each independently associated with incident fatty liver. Binary thresholds of the five factors were applied and the area under the ROC curve for incident fatty liver was 0.75 (95%CI 0.72–0.78 for the combination of all five factors above these thresholds. Conclusion Simple risk factors that overlap considerably with risk factors for type 2 diabetes allow identification of people at high risk of incident fatty liver at who use of hepatic imaging could be targeted.

  13. Cardiometabolic disease risk and HIV status in rural South Africa : establishing a baseline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Samuel J.; Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier; Houle, Brian; Thorogood, Margaret; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Angotti, Nicole; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Williams, Jill; Menken, Jane; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: To inform health care and training, resource and research priorities, it is essential to establish how non-communicable disease risk factors vary by HIV-status in high HIV burden areas; and whether long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) plays a modifying role. Methods: As part of a coho

  14. JS KSH-JSH-CHL 01-1 CARDIO-METABOLIC RISKS IN HYPERTENSION: ARE WE DIFFERENT FROM WESTERN SOCIETIES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Many hypertension guidelines have been published mainly from Western countries to standardize the management of hypertension all over the world, however, the significance of hypertension, along with other cardio-metabolic risks, such as obesity, diabetes or dyslipidemia should differ among different races. This paper compares the relevance of hypertension, one of the most important cardio-metabolic risk factors, in Asian and Western societies.1) Low target level of blood pressure control for diabetic hypertensives in JapanIn the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of Hypertension (JSH2014), the target of blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients with diabetes was set as high BMI, high BP, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglyceride, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality was compared between the USA (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III) and Japan (NIPPON DATA). It was shown that obesity, high BP, triglyceride, and HbA1c were the major risk factors in the USA, whereas only high BP and HbA1c level were significant in Japan. Since the prevalence of obesity was much higher in Western countries than in Asia, the relative importance of hypertension compared with obesity for CVD is higher in Asian than Western countries.The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, which involved more than 500,000 individuals, demonstrated that the increase of the incidence of stroke by the same increase of BP was greater by two-fold in Asians than in Caucasians. In contrast, the increase of the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) was almost the same.3) Salt consumptionIn 2010, the estimated mean level of global sodium consumption was 3.95 g per day. This was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 2 g/day and equivalent to 5 g/day of salt. In Japan, the mean salt intake still exceeds 10 g per day. Sodium intakes were highest in East Asia, Central Asia

  15. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP

  16. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo, E-mail: goliveira@cardiol.br; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP.

  17. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD. PMID:27227571

  18. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  19. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  20. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  1. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  2. Apo Lipoprotein A1 Gene Polymorphisms Predict Cardio-Metabolic Risk in South Asian Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Dodani; Rebecca Henkhaus; Lei Dong; Butler, Merlin G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death globally with increasing burden in South Asians in the US. Specific genetic variants that influence CAD have not been fully assessed in South Asian Immigrants. The goal is to identify Apo lipoprotein A1 (APOA1) gene polymorphisms and their association with CAD risk factors, metabolic syndrome and dysfunctional HDL (Dys-HDL). Methods: A community-based study on South Asians aged 35-65 years without CAD was conducted. APOA1 g...

  3. Does Microalbuminuria Affect Resistin and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Hypertensive Non-Diabetic Females?

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    Sena Ulu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance and lipid levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The association of cardiovascular risk with C-reactive protein and homocysteine has been debated for decades. Resistin and microalbuminuria are presumed to be associated with diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship of microalbuminuria with antropometric and metabolic parameters, C-reactive protein, homocyteine and resistin in non-diabetic hypertensive females. Methods: We conducted a randomized study including 37 female non-diabetic hypertensives without microalbuminuria and 47 female non-diabetic hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria. We made comparisons of anthropometric and metabolic parameters, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, insulin resistance index and resistin between the groups. Results: C-reactive protein, homocysteine, resistin, insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were higher in hypertensives with microalbuminuria than in hypertensives without microalbuminuria (all p<0.05. Conclusion: We found that microalbuminuria may have an influence on C-reactive protein, homocysteine and resistin levels in non-diabetic hypertensives. We also think that insulin and insulin resistance may also be related with microalbuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive female patients. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 172-6

  4. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Related to Vitamin D and Adiponectin in Obese Children and Adolescents

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    Fatih Kardas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related diseases are becoming the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several studies have suggested an association between low levels of vitamin D and obesity. In addition, plasma adiponectin levels have been found to be lower in obese subjects. We evaluated the association of metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D levels. The study consisted of 114 obese and healthy subjects. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels were positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (T-C, triglyceride (TG, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The mean 25(OHD levels in the obese and nonobese groups were and  ng/mL, respectively (. The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was lower than that in the nonobese group (. Lower vitamin D and adiponectin levels were strongly associated with metabolic risk factors and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents.

  5. The effect of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on cardiometabolic health: Rationale, design, and methods of a controlled feeding efficacy trial in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie M; Davy, Brenda M; Halliday, Tanya M; Hulver, Mathew W; Neilson, Andrew P; Ponder, Monica A; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Prediabetes is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). An elevated lipopolysaccharide concentration, associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in the development of both T2D and CVD. Selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics reduces intestinal permeability and endotoxin concentrations, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in rodents. The effect of prebiotic supplementation on cardio-metabolic function in humans at risk for T2D is not known. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility in adults at risk for T2D. We hypothesize that prebiotic supplementation with inulin will improve insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. We will randomize 48 adults (40-75 yrs) with prediabetes or a score ≥ 5 on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk screener to 6 weeks of prebiotic supplementation with inulin (10 g/day) or placebo. Subjects will be provided with all food for the duration of the study, to avoid potential confounding through differences in dietary intake between individuals. Intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and fecal bacterial composition will be measured at baseline and following treatment. The identification of prebiotic supplementation with inulin as an efficacious strategy for reducing cardio-metabolic risk in individuals at risk of T2D could impact clinical practice by informing dietary recommendations and increasing acceptance of prebiotics by the scientific and medical community.

  6. Epicardial fat thickness, an emerging cardiometabolic risk factor, is increased in young adults born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, P P; Fanos, V; Puddu, M; Marras, S; Mercuro, G

    2016-08-01

    Preterm birth and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) constitute novel risk factors for the onset of future adverse cardiovascular events. In total, 30 ex-extremely low birth weight (ex-ELBW) subjects (10 males, 20 females, aged 17-28) were enrolled and compared with 30 healthy peers. EFT was significantly higher (8.7±0.7 mm v. 5.6±0.9 mm; Pformer preterm subjects and is likewise associated with an increase in left ventricular mass. In view of the acknowledged correlation between the latter and an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, EFT appears to be an easy-to-measure tool capable of predicting the likely development of future adverse cardiovascular events in these subjects. PMID:27256709

  7. Prehypertension During Normotensive Pregnancy and Postpartum Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiong; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Yu-Heng; Mai, Cai-Yuan; Hou, Ming-Min; Lv, Li-Juan; Duan, Dong-Mei; Wen, Ji-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Peizhong P; Ling, Xuefeng B; Li, Yu-Ming; Niu, Jian-Min

    2016-08-01

    The nonstratification of blood pressure (BP) levels may underestimate future cardiovascular risk in pregnant women who present with BP levels in the range of prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg). We prospectively evaluated the relationship between multiple antepartum BP measurements (from 11(+0) to 13(+6) weeks' gestation to term) and the occurrence of postpartum metabolic syndrome in 507 normotensive pregnant women after a live birth. By using latent class growth modeling, we identified the following 3 distinctive diastolic BP (DBP) trajectory groups: the low-J-shaped group (34.2%; DBP from 62.5±5.8 to 65.0±6.8 mm Hg), the moderate-U-shaped group (52.6%; DBP from 71.0±5.9 to 69.8±6.2 mm Hg), and the elevated-J-shaped group (13.2%; DBP from 76.2±6.7 to 81.8±4.8 mm Hg). Notably, the elevated-J-shaped trajectory group had mean DBP and systolic BP levels within the range of prehypertension from 37(+0) and 26(+0) weeks of pregnancy, respectively. Among the 309 women who completed the ≈1.6 years of postpartum follow-up, the women in the elevated-J-shaped group had greater odds of developing postpartum metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 6.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-23.92; P=0.004) than the low-J-shaped group. Moreover, a parsimonious model incorporating DBP (membership in the elevated-J-shaped group but not in the DBP prehypertension group as identified by a single measurement) and elevated levels of fasting glucose (>4.99 mmol/L) and triglycerides (>3.14 mmol/L) at term was developed, with good discrimination and calibration for postpartum metabolic syndrome (c-statistic, 0.764; 95% confidence interval, 0.674-0.855; P<0.001). Therefore, prehypertension identified by DBP trajectories throughout pregnancy is an independent risk factor for predicting postpartum metabolic syndrome in normotensive pregnant women. PMID:27354425

  8. Visceral adiposity and cardiometabolic risks: epidemic of abdominal obesity in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalawansa SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunil J WimalawansaRobert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USAAbstract: Over the past 40 years, the prevalence of obesity has more than doubled in the United States. Approximately 67% of American adults older than 20 years of age are either obese or overweight. Obesity has now become a critically important issue facing more than 40% of Americans and has become a major burden on the American health care system. Today, obesity cannot be considered a simple lifestyle issue; it is a disease with major public health and economic consequences that requires serious attention by all stakeholders. Each individual has different causes and risk factors that lead to obesity and its associated complications. In addition to preventing becoming overweight, focusing on identifying the causes of obesity and then individualizing care and treatment plans to targeting weight loss, particularly intra-abdominal fat, could potentially generate huge cost savings. Excess intra-abdominal fat (visceral adiposity is linked to excess morbidity and mortality, and positively correlates with the risks of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and premature death. Therefore, overweight and obese patients should be offered healthy lifestyle changes including education about causes leading to excess weight, weight-reducing diets, physical activity regimens, and monitoring for progress. Medications and bariatric surgery are effective but are the last options and should be complementary to lifestyle and behavioral changes. The costs associated with managing obesity-related disorders and their complications are astounding; unless we intervene now, these are likely to triple over the next 2 decades. Thus, policymakers must pay serious attention to this progressive, insidious epidemic and determine the right paths for tackling obesity, which requires a paradigm shift in thinking

  9. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  10. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Orvar, E-mail: orvar.gunnarsson@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 16 Penn Tower, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Basaria, Shehzad [Department of Medicine, Section of Men’s Health, Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gignac, Gretchen A. [Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology and Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  11. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orvar Gunnarsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PCa is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI, vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4% patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  12. Gender Differences in Ghrelin Association with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Arab Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu-Farha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach produced hormone that has been shown to have protective role against development of CVD which is a leading cause of death in the Arab world. The objective of this study is to examine the gender difference in association between traditional CVD risk factors and plasma ghrelin among Arabs. 359 Arab residents in Kuwait participated in a cross-sectional survey (≥20 years old: 191 were females and 168 were males. Plasma level of ghrelin was assessed using Luminex-based assay. Ghrelin levels were significantly higher in females (935 ± 78 pg/mL than males (763 ± 65 pg/mL (P=0.0007. Females showed inverse association with WC (r=-0.23, P=0.001 and HbA1C (r=-0.19, P=0.0102 as well as SBP (r=-0.15, P=0.0383 and DBP (r=-0.16, P=0.0230, respectively. Higher levels of ghrelin were shown to associate with increased insulin resistance, as measured by HOMAIR, in male Arab subjects (P-trend = 0.0202 but not in females. In this study we show that higher ghrelin level was negatively associated with measures of obesity, HbA1C, and blood pressure in females and positively associated with increased insulin resistance in Arab males.

  13. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications

  14. Age-Related Changes in the Cardiometabolic Profiles in Singapore Resident Adult Population: Findings from the National Health Survey 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2016-01-01

    We describe the centile trends of the blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profiles as well as renal function of a representative population who participated in the Singapore National Health Survey in 2010. Representative survey population was sampled in two phases, first using geographical/ residential dwelling type stratification, followed up ethnicity. 2,407 survey participants without any self-reported medical or medication history for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were included in this analysis. All biochemistry analyses were performed on Roche platforms. After excluding outliers using Tukey's criteria, the results of the remaining participants were subjected to lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) analysis. In men, systolic blood pressure increased linearly with age. By contrast, an upward inflection around late 40s was seen in women. The diastolic blood pressure was highest in men in the late 30s-50s age group, and in women in the late 50s-60s age group. All glycemia-related parameters, i.e. fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose and HbA1c concentrations increased with age, although the rate of increase differed between the tests. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased with age, which became attenuated between the early 30s and late 50s in men, and declined thereafter. In women, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations gradually increased with age until late 30s, when there is an upward inflection, plateauing after late 50s. Our findings indicate that diagnostic performance of laboratory tests for diabetes may be age-sensitive. Unfavourable age-related cardiovascular risk profiles suggest that the burden of cardiovascular disease in this population will increase with aging population. PMID:27570971

  15. Age-Related Changes in the Cardiometabolic Profiles in Singapore Resident Adult Population: Findings from the National Health Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2016-01-01

    We describe the centile trends of the blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profiles as well as renal function of a representative population who participated in the Singapore National Health Survey in 2010. Representative survey population was sampled in two phases, first using geographical/ residential dwelling type stratification, followed up ethnicity. 2,407 survey participants without any self-reported medical or medication history for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were included in this analysis. All biochemistry analyses were performed on Roche platforms. After excluding outliers using Tukey's criteria, the results of the remaining participants were subjected to lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) analysis. In men, systolic blood pressure increased linearly with age. By contrast, an upward inflection around late 40s was seen in women. The diastolic blood pressure was highest in men in the late 30s-50s age group, and in women in the late 50s-60s age group. All glycemia-related parameters, i.e. fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose and HbA1c concentrations increased with age, although the rate of increase differed between the tests. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased with age, which became attenuated between the early 30s and late 50s in men, and declined thereafter. In women, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations gradually increased with age until late 30s, when there is an upward inflection, plateauing after late 50s. Our findings indicate that diagnostic performance of laboratory tests for diabetes may be age-sensitive. Unfavourable age-related cardiovascular risk profiles suggest that the burden of cardiovascular disease in this population will increase with aging population. PMID:27570971

  16. Aerobic training prevents oxidative profile and improves nitric oxide and vascular reactivity in rats with cardiometabolic alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Renata F; Gaique, Thaiane G; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Motta, Nádia A V; Brito, Fernanda C F; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Castro-Pinheiro, Camila; Oliveira, Karen J; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death worldwide; therefore it is important to understand the natural history of the pathophysiologic process and develop strategies to halt its progression. Thus this study investigated the protective effect of aerobic training on pathophysiological mechanisms involved in subclinical cardiometabolic alterations in a model with constant exposure to a prejudicial agent. Male Wistar rats were divided into a control group (C), which received drinking water, fructose group (F), which was fed 10% fructose in drinking water for 10 wk, and control training (CT) and fructose training groups (FT), in which moderate aerobic training was added in the last 8 wk of the study. Insulin, triacylglycerol, and isoprostane were higher and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was lower in the F group. There was no difference in thoracic aorta histology, but a decreased vascularization was seen in the F group, avoided by training in left ventricle. Regarding vascular function, the F group exhibited increased vasoconstrictory reactivity to phenylephrine. The F group presented impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine. Regarding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the F group presented a lower expression, and phosphorylated eNOS was higher in the trained groups than in their respective control groups. This same pattern was observed for nitric oxide bioavailability, antioxidant protein expression in aorta, left ventricle, and muscle (catalase, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase), serum SOD activity, and muscle mass. These results suggest that exercise training enhanced the antioxidant pathway and, as a consequence, the eNOS pathway, preventing an impairment in vascular vasodilatory capacity. PMID:27255525

  17. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the ‘Gold Standard’ Tarnished?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Mountain, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Methods and Results 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:27622523

  18. Cut-off points of the visceral adiposity index (VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Marco C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI is a sex-specific mathematical index, based on Waist Circumference (WC, Body Mass Index (BMI, triglycerides (TG and HDL cholesterol (HDL levels, indirectly expressing visceral adipose function and insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to find the optimal cut-off points of VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction (VAD associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population. Methods Medical check-up data of 1,764 Primary Care patients (PC patients were retrospectively and cross-sectionally examined using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve to determine appropriate stratified-for-age cut-off of VAI, for the identification of PC patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The PC patients with higher VAI scores were subdivided into three groups according to VAI tertiles (i.e. PC patients with mild VAD, moderate VAD or severe VAD. Finally, VAD classes were compared to classical cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors as independent predictors of coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and/or ischemic stroke. Results Moderate and severe VADs proved to be independently associated with cardiovascular events [(OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.92-14.87; p = 0.001 and (OR: 7.46; 95% CI: 2.64-21.05; p Conclusions Our study suggests that among Caucasian Sicilian subjects there are clear cut-off points of VAI able to identify a VAD strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk.

  19. Combination of diabetes risk factors and hepatic steatosis in Chinese: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC Study.

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    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available AIMS: Hepatic steatosis has been related to insulin resistance and increased diabetes risk. We assessed whether combination of diabetes risk factors, evaluated by the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, was associated with risk of hepatic steatosis in an apparently healthy Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 1,780 men and women (18-64 y were included in the final analyses. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We created combination of diabetes risk factors score on basis of age, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, physical activity at least 4 h a week, daily consumption of fruits, berries or vegetables, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose. The total risk score is a simple sum of the individual weights, and values range from 0 to 20. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was present 18% in the total population. In multivariate models, the odds ratios of hepatic steatosis were 1.20 (95%CI 1.15-1.25 in men and 1.25 (95%CI 1.14-1.37 in women by each unit increase in the combination of diabetes risk factors score, after adjustment for blood pressure, liver enzymes, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for hepatic steatosis was 0.78 (95%CI 0.76-0.80, 0.76 in men (95%CI 0.74-0.78 and 0.83 (95%CI 0.79-0.87 in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that combination of major diabetes risk factors was significantly related to risk of hepatic steatosis in Chinese adults.

  20. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

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    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  1. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  2. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences. PMID:26890580

  3. The association between obesity, cardiometabolic disease biomarkers, and innate immunity-related inflammation in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Costa LA

    2012-10-01

    , and obese groups, excluding CRP which showed a significant positive association with BMI in the overall population (β = 2.80, P < 0.0001 and in the normal weight (β = 3.20, P = 0.02, overweight (β = 3.53, P = 0.002, and obese (β = 2.22, P = 0.0002 groups.Conclusions: There is an apparent profile of cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers that emerges as BMI increases from normal weight to obesity. Understanding these profiles may permit developing an effective approach for early risk prediction for cardiometabolic disease.Keywords: obesity, inflammation, biomarkers, cardiometabolic disease

  4. Cintura hipertrigliceridêmica e risco cardiometabólico em mulheres hipertensas Hypertriglyceridemic waist and cardiometabolic risk in hypertensive women

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    Nayra Anielly Lima Cabral

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre cintura hipertrigliceridêmica (CH e fatores de risco cardiometabólicos em mulheres portadoras de hipertensão arterial. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 218 pacientes acompanhadas pelo Programa do Sistema de Cadastramento e Acompanhamento de Hipertensos e Diabéticos (HiperDia, em duas unidades de saúde de São Luís, MA, Brasil. A variável dependente foi CH e as variáveis independentes foram sociodemográficas, estilo de vida, antropométricas e agravos à saúde. RESULTADOS: A CH esteve presente em 33% da amostra e foi predominante na idade > 60 anos (56,4%, não brancas (81,7%, com oito anos ou menos de estudo (57,3% e pertencentes à classe C (49%. Observaram-se excesso de peso (68,8% e hipercolesterolemia (68,8%. A CH associou-se a: tabagismo (RP: 2,08; p = 0,017, sobrepeso (RP: 2,46; p = 0,010, obesidade (RP: 4,13; p 100 mg/dL ou ser diabética (RP: 1,86; p = 0,006. Após ajustamento, permaneceram associados o colesterol total (RP = 1,78; p = 0,012, HDL colesterol (RP: 3,03; p 25 a 30 kg/m² (RP = 3,61; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with hypertension. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 218 patients monitored by HiperDia (Enrollment and Monitoring Program for Hypertensive and Diabetic Individuals in two health units in São Luis, MA, Brazil. The dependent variable was HW and the independent variables were sociodemographics, lifestyle, anthropometrics, and health problems. RESULTS: HW was present in 33% of the sample and was predominant in women aged > 60 years (56.4%, non-whites (81.7%, those with eight or fewer years of schooling (57.3%, and those belonging to socioeconomic class C (49%. Excess weight (68.8% and hypercholesterolemia (68.8% were observed. HW was associated with: smoking (PR: 2.08; p = 0.017, overweight (PR: 2.46; p = 0.010, obesity (PR: 4.13; p 100 mg/dL or

  5. Cardio-Metabolic Disease Risks and Their Associations with Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Omega-3 Levels in South Asian and White Canadians.

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    Chao-Wu Xiao

    Full Text Available This study compared cardio-metabolic disease risk factors and their associations with serum vitamin D and omega-3 status in South Asian (SAC and White Canadians (WC living in Canada's capital region.Fasting blood samples were taken from 235 SAC and 279 WC aged 20 to 79 years in Ottawa, and 22 risk factors were measured.SAC men and women had significantly higher fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, ratios of total (TC to HDL cholesterol (HDLC and ApoB to ApoA1, leptin, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and omega-3 (p 4%-<8% or high (≥ 8% levels of omega-3 indices were related to lower E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and higher HDLC, 25(OHD levels in WC, but not in SAC. The BMIs of ≤ 25 kg/m2 were related to lower LDLC, ApoB, VEGF, creatinine and higher 25(OHD in WC, but not in SAC.The associations of vitamin D, omega-3 status, BMI and risk factors were more profound in the WC than SAC. Compared to WC, vitamin D status and omega-3 index may not be good predictive risk factors for the prevalence of CVD and diabetes in SAC.

  6. Relationship between cardiometabolic profile, vitamin D status and BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in non-institutionalized elderly subjects: Cardiometabolic profile, vitamin D status and BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in non-institutionalized elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Chahira Taha Mahd Ibrahim; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Medeiros, Marcia Silva; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; da Silva Diniz, Alcides; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José; Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the cardiometabolic profile, vitamin D status and BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in non-institutionalized elderly subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random and representative sample of 142 elderly subjects selected by cluster and recruited from a municipal assistance program. Clinical, nutritional, biochemical and inflammatory profiles, oxidative stress and genotyping for the BsmI polymorphism were evaluated. Participants had mean age of 69.9 (7.0) years, BMI of 28.3 (4.4) kg/m(2) and 80.3% were women. The prevalence of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status DEF group [25(OH)DDEF group B 38% and b 62%. The frequency of bb homozygosity was significantly associated with lower serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations compared to Bb, both in the general population and in the SUF group. Among individuals with bb, the INSUF/DEF group showed higher levels of triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol. Blood glucose levels and oxidative stress were increased in elderly subjects with 25(OH)D<75nmol/L. The presence of the bb genotype with adequate vitamin D status resulted in lower total and LDL cholesterol, but the benefit was lost when vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency was present. PMID:27125758

  7. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

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    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  8. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with the Evolution of Cardiometabolic Risk over Four Years in West-African Adults: The Benin Study

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    Charles Sossa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess in adults from Benin changes in cardiometabolic risk (CMR using both the Framingham risk score (FRS and metabolic syndrome (MetS and to examine the effects of diet, and lifestyles, controlling for location and socioeconomic status. Methods. Apparently healthy subjects (n=541 aged 25–60 years and randomly selected in the largest city, a small town, and rural areas were included in the four-year longitudinal study. Along with CMR factors, socioeconomic, diet and lifestyle data were collected in individual interviews. A food score based on consumption frequency of four “sentinel” food groups (meat and poultry, dairy, eggs, and vegetables was developed. Lifestyle included physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Education and income (proxy were the socioeconomic variables. Results. Among the subjects with four-year follow-up data (n=416, 13.5% were at risk at baseline, showing MetS or FRS ≥ 10%. The incidence of MetS and FRS ≥ 10% during follow-up was 8.2% and 5%, respectively. CMR deteriorated in 21% of subjects. Diet and lifestyle mediated location and income effects on CMR evolution. Low food scores and inactivity increased the likelihood of CMR deterioration. Conclusion. Combining MetS and FRS might be appropriate for surveillance purposes in order to better capture CMR and inform preventive measures.

  9. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Funtikova, Anna N.; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fit?? Colomer, Montserrat; Schr??der, H.

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship...

  10. The complement system in human cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, E; Stehouwer, C D A; van Greevenbroek, M M J

    2014-10-01

    The complement system has been implicated in obesity, fatty liver, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complement factors are produced in adipose tissue and appear to be involved in adipose tissue metabolism and local inflammation. Thereby complement links adipose tissue inflammation to systemic metabolic derangements, such as low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, complement has been implicated in pathophysiological mechanisms of diet- and alcohol induced liver damage, hyperglycaemia, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and fibrinolysis. In this review, we summarize current evidence on the role of the complement system in several processes of human cardiometabolic disease. C3 is the central component in complement activation, and has most widely been studied in humans. C3 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, liver dysfunction, risk of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CVD. C3 can be activated by the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathway of complement activation; and downstream activation of C3 activates the terminal pathway. Complement may also be activated via extrinsic proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolysis and the kinin systems. Studies on the different complement activation pathways in human cardiometabolic disease are limited, but available evidence suggests that they may have distinct roles in processes underlying cardiometabolic disease. The lectin pathway appeared beneficial in some studies on type 2 diabetes and CVD, while factors of the classical and the alternative pathway were related to unfavourable cardiometabolic traits. The terminal complement pathway was also implicated in insulin resistance and liver disease, and appears to have a prominent role in acute and advanced CVD. The available human data suggest a complex and potentially causal role for the complement system in human cardiometabolic disease. Further, preferably longitudinal studies are needed to

  11. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors

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    R. Burrows

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR, determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  12. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Shahr Babaki, Amir Eslami; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ataei-Jafari, Asal; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Asayesh, Hamid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC)) and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides (TG) and high fasting blood sugar (FBG)) were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group) increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC. PMID:27167372

  13. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann;

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence......-cholesterol concentrations by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·04) mmol/l (both Pdiet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference...

  14. Association of inflammatory sialoproteins, lipid peroxides and serum magnesium levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children of South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, G; Anitha, D; Srinivasan, A R; Velu, V Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C; Babu, M Sathish; Ramesh, R; Saha, S

    2014-06-01

    The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (≥95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population. PMID:25018680

  15. The Effect of Metformin and Metformin-Testosterone Combination on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men with Late-onset Hypogonadism and Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, R; Gilowski, W; Okopien, B

    2015-11-01

    No previous study has investigated the effect of metformin, administered alone or together with testosterone, on cardiometabolic risk factors in men with hypogonadism. The study included 30 men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had been complying with lifestyle intervention. After 12 weeks of metformin treatment (1.7 g daily), the participants were allocated to one of 2 groups treated for the following 12 weeks with oral testosterone undecanoate (120 mg daily, n=15) or not receiving androgen therapy (n=15). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, as well as plasma levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen were determined before and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy with the final dose of metformin. Patients with LOH and IGT had higher levels of hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen than subjects with only LOH (n=12) or only IGT (n=15). Metformin administered alone improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose and triglycerides. Testosterone-metformin combination therapy decreased also total and LDL cholesterol, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased plasma testosterone. The effect of this combination therapy on testosterone, insulin sensitivity, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen was stronger than that of metformin alone. The obtained results indicate that IGT men with LOH receiving metformin may gain extra benefits if they are concomitantly treated with oral testosterone. PMID:26600057

  16. Avoiding Weight Gain in Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthur, Nisa M; Kimberly Gudzune; Susan Hutfless; Fawole, Oluwakemi A.; Wilson, Renee F.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Bleich, Sara N.; Jodi Segal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic disease are at higher risk for obesity-related adverse effects. Even without weight loss, weight maintenance may be beneficial. We performed a systematic review to identify the effect of nonweight loss-focused lifestyle interventions in adults with cardiometabolic disease. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify comparative studies of lifestyle interventions (self-management, diet, exercise, or their combina...

  17. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  18. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  19. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44 vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12 and 1.12 (0.99-1.26; 5.70 (5.24-6.19 vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65 and 1.69 (1.57-1.82; and 3.73 (3.42-4.07 vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35 and 1.33 (1.25-1.40, respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

  20. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  1. Parental history of type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic biomarkers in offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Spijkerman, Annemieke; van der A, Daphne L.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (9): 974982 Abstract Background Parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with cardiometabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the associations of parental history of T2D with cardiometabolic biomarkers and to subsequently investigate to what extent these putat

  2. The Decreased Growth Hormone Response to Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Obesity Is Associated to Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Cordido; Jesús Garcia-Buela; Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos; Teresa Martinez; Ovidio Vidal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between GHRH-induced GH secretion in obese premenopausal women and cardiovascular risk markers or insulin resistance. Premenopausal obese women, aged 35–52 years, were studied. GH secretion, IGF-I, serum cardiovascular risk markers, insulin, leptin, mid-waist and hip circumference, total body fat, and truncal fat were measured. Subjects were classified as meeting the criteria for GH deficiency (GHD) when peak GH after stimulation w...

  3. The effect of communicating the genetic risk of cardiometabolic disorders on motivation and actual engagement in preventative lifestyle modification and clinical outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherly X; Ye, Zheng; Whelan, Kevin; Truby, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Genetic risk prediction of chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes and CVD currently has limited predictive power but its potential to engage healthy behaviour change has been of immense research interest. We aimed to understand whether the latter is indeed true by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating whether genetic risk communication affects motivation and actual behaviour change towards preventative lifestyle modification. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCT) since 2003 investigating the impact of genetic risk communication on health behaviour to prevent cardiometabolic disease, without restrictions on age, duration of intervention or language. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses for perceived motivation for behaviour change and clinical changes (weight loss) and a narrative analysis for other outcomes. Within the thirteen studies reviewed, five were vignette studies (hypothetical RCT) and seven were clinical RCT. There was no consistent effect of genetic risk on actual motivation for weight loss, perceived motivation for dietary change (control v. genetic risk group standardised mean difference (smd) -0·15; 95 % CI -1·03, 0·73, P=0·74) or actual change in dietary behaviour. Similar results were observed for actual weight loss (control v. high genetic risk SMD 0·29 kg; 95 % CI -0·74, 1·31, P=0·58). This review found no clear or consistent evidence that genetic risk communication alone either raises motivation or translates into actual change in dietary intake or physical activity to reduce the risk of cardiometabolic disorders in adults. Of thirteen studies, eight were at high or unclear risk of bias. Additional larger-scale, high-quality clinical RCT are warranted. PMID:27405704

  4. Risk-profile modification of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commodity futures and swaps markets are thought to be the invention of speculators, the bane of the oil business, or possibly something confined to finance departments of major corporations. In actuality, they should be considered more as an insurance vehicle and can be used at the project level to modify the risk profile of a property. In this context, an increased familiarity with them can be useful for an engineer. Either futures of swaps can be used to guarantee or modify product prices. While this does not necessarily maximize cash flow or present worth, it can protect a project or company for several years from downside price risk, thereby reducing the risk of the venture. This can be particularly important if lower product prices would cause unacceptable cash flows or net incomes. This paper reports that reducing risk by limiting downside price exposure could alter budgeting decisions, allow continued or expanded operations of a particular property, or increase debt capacity

  5. Association between relocation and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors: a longitudinal study in tsunami survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motoyuki; Yonekura, Yuki; Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Seiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine changes in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors with and without serious disaster-related mental and socioeconomic problems represented by relocation (REL). Design A longitudinal survey. Setting Multiphasic health check-ups for the general population affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Participants A total 6528 disaster survivors in heavily tsunami-damaged municipalities were recruited. Two sequential surveys were conducted and the data were analysed. Main outcome measures Multiphasic health check-ups including investigation of lifestyle and psychological and socioeconomic measures were performed in two sequential phases (8 and 18 months) after the disaster for tsunami survivors with REL (n=3160) and without REL (n=3368). Longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors between the two phases were compared in the REL and non-REL groups. Results In sex/age-adjusted analysis, we found increases in body weight and waist circumference between the two phases that were significantly greater in the REL group than in the non-REL group (body weight:+0.31 (0.23∼0.39) versus −0.24 (−0.32∼−0.16) kg, p<0.001; waist circumference:+0.58 (0.48∼0.68) versus+0.05 (−0.05∼0.15) cm, p<0.001)). A decrease in serum HDLC levels was found and again was significantly greater in the REL group than in the non-REL group (−0.65 (−0.96∼−0.34) versus −0.09 (−0.39∼0.21) mg/dL, p=0.009). In addition, deterioration in physical activity, mental health and socioeconomic status was more prevalent in the REL group than in the non-REL group (all p<0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that relocation after the devastating tsunami was related to weight gain and decreasing HDLC among survivors, and this change was associated with prolonged psychological distress and socioeconomic problems after the disaster. PMID:27173815

  6. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  7. Evaluation of the implementation of an integrated primary care network for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk in Montréal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provost Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this project is to evaluate the implementation of an integrated and interdisciplinary program for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk (PCMR. The intervention is based on the Chronic Care Model. The study will evaluate the implementation of the PCMR in 6 of the 12 health and social services centres (CSSS in Montréal, and the effects of the PCMR on patients and the practice of their primary care physicians up to 40 months following implementation, as well as the sustainability of the program. Objectives are: 1-to evaluate the effects of the PCMR and their persistence on patients registered in the program and the practice of their primary care physicians, by implementation site and degree of exposure to the program; 2-to assess the degree of implementation of PCMR in each CSSS territory and identify related contextual factors; 3-to establish the relationships between the effects observed, the degree of PCMR implementation and the related contextual factors; 4-to assess the impact of the PCMR on strengthening local services networks. Methods/Design The evaluation will use a mixed design that includes two complementary research strategies. The first strategy is similar to a quasi-experimental "before-after" design, based on a quantitative approach; it will look at the program's effects and their variations among the six territories. The effects analysis will use data from a clinical database and from questionnaires completed by participating patients and physicians. Over 3000 patients will be recruited. The second strategy corresponds to a multiple case study approach, where each of the six CSSS constitutes a case. With this strategy, qualitative methods will set out the context of implementation using data from semi-structured interviews with program managers. The quantitative data will be analyzed using linear or multilevel models complemented with an interpretive approach to qualitative data analysis

  8. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  9. The Decreased Growth Hormone Response to Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Obesity Is Associated to Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cordido

    2010-01-01

    Premenopausal obese women, aged 35–52 years, were studied. GH secretion, IGF-I, serum cardiovascular risk markers, insulin, leptin, mid-waist and hip circumference, total body fat, and truncal fat were measured. Subjects were classified as meeting the criteria for GH deficiency (GHD when peak GH after stimulation with GHRH was ≤3 μg/L. Mean total and LDL cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR were all higher, in subjects who would have been classified as GH-deficient compared with GH-sufficient. Peak GH secretion after stimulation was inversely associated with fasting insulin (R=−0.650, P=.012, HOMA-IR (R=−0.846, P=.001, total cholesterol (R=−0.532, P=.034, and LDL cholesterol (R=−0.692, P=.006 and positively associated with HDL cholesterol (R=0.561, P=.037. These data strongly suggest a role for insulin resistance in the decreased GH secretion of obesity and that the blunted GH secretion of central obesity could be the pituitary expression of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Population genomics of cardiometabolic traits: design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Shah

    Full Text Available Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array (Metabochip incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1 fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2 precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3 investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4 use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies.

  11. Population genomics of cardiometabolic traits: design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Dale, Caroline; Shah, Sonia; White, Jon; Giambartolomei, Claudia; McLachlan, Stela; Zabaneh, Delilah; Cavadino, Alana; Finan, Chris; Wong, Andrew; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ong, Ken; Gaunt, Tom; Holmes, Michael V; Warren, Helen; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Davies, Teri-Louise; Drenos, Fotios; Cooper, Jackie; Sofat, Reecha; Caulfield, Mark; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Talmud, Philippa J; Humphries, Steve E; Power, Christine; Hypponen, Elina; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas; Langenberg, Claudia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N; Whincup, Peter; Morris, Richard; Strachan, Mark W J; Price, Jacqueline; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Plagnol, Vincent; Dudbridge, Frank; Whittaker, John C; Casas, Juan P; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2013-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Metabochip) incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1) fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2) precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3) investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4) use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies. PMID:23977022

  12. Population Genomics of Cardiometabolic Traits: Design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrew; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ong, Ken; Gaunt, Tom; Holmes, Michael V.; Warren, Helen; Davies, Teri-Louise; Drenos, Fotios; Cooper, Jackie; Sofat, Reecha; Caulfield, Mark; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Humphries, Steve E.; Power, Christine; Hypponen, Elina; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N.; Whincup, Peter; Morris, Richard; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Price, Jacqueline; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Plagnol, Vincent; Dudbridge, Frank; Whittaker, John C.; Casas, Juan P.; Hingorani, Aroon D.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Metabochip) incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1) fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2) precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3) investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4) use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies. PMID:23977022

  13. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David;

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using i...

  14. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David; Willeit, Peter; Butterworth, Adam S; Bansal, Narinder; O'Keeffe, Linda M; Gao, Pei; Wood, Angela M; Burgess, Stephen; Freitag, Daniel F; Pennells, Lisa; Peters, Sanne A; Hart, Carole L; Håheim, Lise Lund; Gillum, Richard F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Psaty, Bruce M; Yeap, Bu B; Knuiman, Matthew W; Nietert, Paul J; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Kuller, Lewis H; Simons, Leon A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Selmer, Randi; Crespo, Carlos J; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Verschuren, W M Monique; Salomaa, Veikko; Svärdsudd, Kurt; van der Harst, Pim; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Wallace, Robert B; Brenner, Hermann; Amouyel, Philippe; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Iso, Hiroyasu; Onat, Altan; Trevisan, Maurizio; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Cooper, Cyrus; Kavousi, Maryam; Welin, Lennart; Roussel, Ronan; Hu, Frank B; Sato, Shinichi; Davidson, Karina W; Howard, Barbara V; Leening, Maarten J G; Leening, Maarten; Rosengren, Annika; Dörr, Marcus; Deeg, Dorly J H; Kiechl, Stefan; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kromhout, Daan; Price, Jackie F; Peters, Annette; Meade, Tom W; Casiglia, Edoardo; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Nagel, Dorothea; Franco, Oscar H; Assmann, Gerd; Dagenais, Gilles R; Jukema, J Wouter; Sundström, Johan; Woodward, Mark; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitsel, Eric A; Njølstad, Inger; Hedblad, Bo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Engström, Gunnar; Rosamond, Wayne D; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, Simon G; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using indi

  15. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O’Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09 per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90 per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995 and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03; these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  16. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  17. 青少年心血管代谢性健康风险与身体活动的剂量效应%Dose-effect relations between cardiometabolic health risks and physical activities of teenagers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关尚一; 朱为模

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify dose-effect relations between medium and high intensity physical activities and obe-sity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome of teenagers, so as to determine medium and high intensity physical activity doses recommended for preventing cardiometabolic health risks of teenagers, the authors selected 3162 aged 12~17 teenagers in US Health and Nutrition Survey in 200-2004 and 2005-2006 as their research sub-jects, measured the height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood fat, food intake and physical activity levels of the testees, used the fractional polynomial model to respectively analyze the relations be-tween medium and high intensity physical activity times and cardiometabolic health risks (obesity risk, hypertension risk, dyslipidemia risk and metabolic syndrome risk), worked out their dose-effect curves by fitting, and revealed the following findings:there were dose-effect relations between medium and high intensity physical activity times and obesity risk, hypertension risk, low and high density lipoprotein risks, high triglyceride risk and metabolic syndrome risk of teenagers;these cardiometabolic health risks tended to decrease in a curvilinear manner as daily medium and high intensity physical activity times increased.%为阐明中高强度身体活动与青少年肥胖、高血压、血脂异常和代谢综合征之间的剂量效应,以确定预防青少年心血管代谢性健康风险的中高强度身体活动推荐量。选取2003-2004、2005-2006年美国健康营养调查中3162名6~17岁的青少年作为研究对象,测量受试者的身高、体重、腰围、血压、血糖、血脂、膳食摄入情况以及身体活动水平,采用分数多项式模型分别分析中高强度身体活动时间与心血管代谢性健康风险(肥胖风险、高血压风险、血脂异常风险和代谢综合征风险)之间的关系,并拟合出它们之间的剂量效应曲线。结果显

  18. Health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin. Clinical records of all 150 new prostitutes who attended a drop-in clinic for prostitutes in Dublin city during the period 1991-1997 were reviewed. Variables examined included: age, use of injectable drugs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, hepatitis B and C status, presence of sexually transmitted disease (STD), cervical cytology. Results showed the mean age of the women was 32 years. Among those tested, 2.5% were HIV positive, 5% were hepatitis B positive, 8% were hepatitis C positive and 25% had an STD. Almost 8% were injecting drug users (IDU) with higher prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B and C compared with non-IDU (P < 0.001). The clinic has been successful in providing a health-care facility for the specific health needs of this patient cohort.

  19. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funtikova, Anna N; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship between their dietary patterns, especially when derived a posteriori, and cardiovascular risk. An adverse association of cardiovascular health and increased intake of sodium, saturated fat, meat, fast food and soft drinks has been reported in this population. In contrast, vitamin D, fiber, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, dairy, fruits and vegetables were positively linked to cardiovascular health.The aim of this review was to summarize current epidemiological and experimental evidence on the impact of nutrients, foods, and dietary pattern on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents. A comprehensive review of the literature available in English and related to diet and cardiometabolic health in this population was undertaken via the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. PMID:26574072

  20. Cardiometabolic health in students and young adults with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities : results from a longitudinal follow-up study and a school intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Flygare Wallén, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) develop the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease more frequently than individuals without ID. The knowledge about cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents with mild/moderate ID is scarce. Aims The aims were 1) to examine cardiometabolic health among adolescents with ID 2) to study the progress of cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood among young adults with and without I...

  1. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine;

    2014-01-01

    of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases...... number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity, T2DM, low-grade inflammation, and blood pressure. New metabolic and other potential risk markers and utilization of new methodology in the area of lipid....../serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore...

  2. Circulating Endocannabinoids and the Polymorphism 385C>A in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH Gene May Identify the Obesity Phenotype Related to Cardiometabolic Risk: A Study Conducted in a Brazilian Population of Complex Interethnic Admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro José de Moraes Martins

    Full Text Available The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with cardiometabolic complications of obesity. Allelic variants in coding genes for this system components may contribute to differences in the susceptibility to obesity and related health hazards. These data have mostly been shown in Caucasian populations and in severely obese individuals. We investigated a multiethnic Brazilian population to study the relationships among the polymorphism 385C>A in an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme gene (FAAH, endocannabinoid levels and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Fasting plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-oleoylethanolamide and N-palmitoylethanolamide were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 200 apparently healthy individuals of both genders with body mass indices from 22.5 ± 1.8 to 35.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 (mean ± 1 SD and ages between 18 and 60 years. All were evaluated for anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic variables, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and genotyping. The endocannabinoid levels increased as a function of obesity and insulin resistance. The homozygous genotype AA was associated with higher levels of anandamide and lower levels of adiponectin versus wild homozygous CC and heterozygotes combined. The levels of anandamide were independent and positively associated with the genotype AA position 385 of FAAH, C-reactive protein levels and body mass index. Our findings provide evidence for an endocannabinoid-related phenotype that may be identified by the combination of circulating anandamide levels with genotyping of the FAAH 385C>A; this phenotype is not exclusive to mono-ethnoracial populations nor to individuals with severe obesity.

  3. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 dia...

  4. Self-Rated Health in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, determinants and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH has been demonstrated to be an accurate reflection of a person's health and a valid predictor of incident mortality and chronic morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the distribution and factors associated with SRH and its association with biomarkers of cardio-metabolic diseases among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Methods Survey of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50 to 70 years, conducted in one urban and two rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai in 2005. SRH status was measured and categorized as good (very good and good vs. not good (fair, poor and very poor. Determinants of SRH and associations with biomarkers of cardio-metabolic diseases were evaluated using logistic regression. Results Thirty two percent of participants reported good SRH. Males and rural residents tended to report good SRH. After adjusting for potential confounders, residence, physical activity, employment status, sleep quality and presence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression were the main determinants of SRH. Those free from cardiovascular disease (OR 3.68; 95%CI 2.39; 5.66, rural residents (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.47; 2.43, non-depressed participants (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.67; 3.73 and those with good sleep quality (OR 2.95; 95% CI 2.22; 3.91 had almost twice or over the chance of reporting good SRH compared to their counterparts. There were significant associations -and trend- between SRH and levels of inflammatory markers, insulin levels and insulin resistance. Conclusion Only one third of middle-aged and elderly Chinese assessed their health status as good or very good. Although further longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings, interventions targeting social inequalities, lifestyle patterns might not only contribute to prevent chronic morbidity but as well to improve populations' perceived health.

  5. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs. Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index. We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis.

  6. A 21-day Daniel fast with or without krill oil supplementation improves anthropometric parameters and the cardiometabolic profile in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trepanowski John F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Daniel Fast is a vegan diet that prohibits the consumption of animal products, refined foods, white flour, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, flavorings, caffeine, and alcohol. Following this dietary plan for 21 days has been demonstrated to improve blood pressure, LDL-C, and certain markers of oxidative stress, but it has also been shown to lower HDL-C. Krill oil supplementation has been shown to increase HDL-C. Methods We investigated the effects of following a Daniel Fast dietary plan with either krill oil supplementation (2 g/day or placebo supplementation (coconut oil; 2 g/day for 21 days. The subjects in this study (12 men and 27 women were heterogeneous with respect to body mass index (BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obese, blood lipids (normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic, blood glucose (normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetic, and blood pressure (normotensive and hypertensive. Results Krill oil supplementation had no effect on any outcome measure (all p > 0.05, and so the data from the krill oil group and the placebo group were collapsed and analyzed to examine the effects of following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Significant reductions were observed in LDL-C (100.6 ± 4.3 mg/dL vs. 80.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL, the LDL:HDL ratio (2.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1, fasting blood glucose (101.4 ± 7.5 mg/dL vs. 91.7 ± 3.4 mg/dL, fasting blood insulin (7.92 ± 0.80 μU/mL vs. 5.76 ± 0.59 μU/mL, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (2.06 ± 0.30 vs. 1.40 ± 0.21, systolic BP (110.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg vs. 105.5 ± 1.7 mm Hg, and body weight (74.1 ± 2.4 kg vs. 71.5 ± 2.3 kg (all p  Conclusion Following a Daniel Fast dietary plan improves a variety of cardiometabolic parameters in a wide range of individuals in as little as 21 days, and these improvements are unaffected by krill oil supplementation. Trial registration

  7. Consumption of Energy-Dense Diets in Relation to Cardiometabolic Abnormalities among Tehranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Khayatzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the association between dietary energy density and prevalence of the cardiometabolic risk factors among Te-hranian adult women. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study we assessed habitual dietary intakes of 486 Tehranian adult women by the use of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary en-ergy density (DED was calculated as each individual’s reported daily energy intake (kcal/d into total weight of foods (excluding beverages consumed (g/d. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured. Diabetes (FPG? 126 mg/dL, dyslip-idemia (based on Adult Treatment Panel III and hypertension (based on Joint National Committee VI were defined. The presence of “at least one risk factor” and "at least two risk factors" of the three major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes were also evaluated. To explore the associations between DED and cardio-metabolic risk factors, we obtained prevalence ratios in different models accounting for con-founders. Results: Mean dietary energy density was 1.77±0.35 kcal/g. Consumption of energy-dense diets was associated with higher intakes of energy, dietary fat, cholesterol, vegetable oils, refined grains and high-fat dairy products and lower intakes of dietary carbohydrates, fruits, vegetables , meat and fish. Adherence to an energy-dense diet was associated with elevated levels of serum triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol and lower levels of serum HDL-cholesterol. Women in the top quartile of DED were more likely to have dyslipidemia (61% vs. 31%, P<0.05, at least one (68% vs. 35%, P<0.05 and at least two (29% vs. 10%, P<0.05 cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with those in the bottom quartile. Addi-tional control for BMI slightly attenuated the associations. No overall significant associations were found between consumption of energy

  8. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  9. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Xiong, Shiqiang; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction. PMID:27120617

  10. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1. TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction.

  11. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schwab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose

  12. Genetic risk profiles for coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tikkanen, Emmi

    2013-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major burden for public health worldwide. Several factors are known to be associated with the disease risk, including high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and blood pressure. The established risk factors do not, however, fully predict an individual s risk for the disease. In recent years, new candidate risk factors, including genetic markers, have been extensively studied. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have mapped over 40 genetic...

  13. Avoiding Weight Gain in Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa M. Maruthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cardiometabolic disease are at higher risk for obesity-related adverse effects. Even without weight loss, weight maintenance may be beneficial. We performed a systematic review to identify the effect of nonweight loss-focused lifestyle interventions in adults with cardiometabolic disease. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify comparative studies of lifestyle interventions (self-management, diet, exercise, or their combination without a weight loss focus in adults with or at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight, BMI, and waist circumference at ≥12 months were the primary outcomes. Of 24,870 citations, we included 12 trials (self-management, n=2; diet, n=2; exercise, n=2; combination, n=6 studying 4,206 participants. Self-management plus physical activity ± diet versus minimal/no intervention avoided meaningful weight (−0.65 to −1.3 kg and BMI (−0.4 to −0.7 kg/m2 increases. Self-management and/or physical activity prevented meaningful waist circumference increases versus control (−2 to −4 cm. In patients with cardiometabolic disease, self-management plus exercise may prevent weight and BMI increases and self-management and/or exercise may prevent waist circumference increases versus minimal/no intervention. Future studies should confirm these findings and evaluate additional risk factors and clinical outcomes.

  14. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    . Rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 2.4) and chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.5) was associated with site-specific osteoporosis by DXA at the total hip. Current use of loop diuretics (OR = 1.7) and glucocorticoid use (OR = 1.04-1.06) were associated with both total hip and femoral neck T-score ... confirms an independent negative association with BMD of many established risk factors, certain comorbidities, and medications. Exercise level, use of loop diuretics, and prevalent chronic pulmonary disease, risk factors not included in fracture risk calculators were associated with osteoporosis by DXA...

  15. β-Aminoisobutyric Acid Induces Browning of White Fat and Hepatic β-oxidation and is Inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lee D.; Boström, Pontus; O’Sullivan, John F.; Schinzel, Robert T.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Dejam, Andre; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Palma, Melinda J.; Calhoun, Sondra; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Chen, Ming-Huei; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Larson, Martin G.; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Souza, Amanda L.; Clish, Clary B.; Wang, Thomas J.; Estall, Jennifer L.; Soukas, Alexander A.; Cowan, Chad A.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 α (PGC-1α) regulates metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, and contributes substantially to the response of muscle to exercise. Muscle specific PGC-1α transgenic expression and exercise both increase the expression of thermogenic genes within white adipose. How the PGC-1α mediated response to exercise in muscle conveys signals to other tissues remains incompletely defined. We employed a metabolic profiling approach to examine metabolites secreted from myocytes with forced expression of PGC-1α, and identified β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) as a novel small molecule myokine. BAIBA increases the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes in white adipose tissue and fatty acid β-oxidation in hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo through a PPARα mediated mechanism, induces a brown adipose-like phenotype in human pluripotent stem cells, and improves glucose homeostasis in mice. In humans, plasma BAIBA concentrations are increased with exercise and inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. BAIBA may thus contribute to exercise-induced protection from metabolic diseases. PMID:24411942

  16. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  17. Impact of Cranberries on Gut Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Health: Proceedings of the Cranberry Health Research Conference 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Basu, Arpita; Krueger, Christian G; Lila, Mary Ann; Neto, Catherine C; Novotny, Janet A; Reed, Jess D; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Toner, Cheryl D

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in cranberry research have expanded the evidence for the role of this Vaccinium berry fruit in modulating gut microbiota function and cardiometabolic risk factors. The A-type structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins seems to be responsible for much of this fruit's efficacy as a natural antimicrobial. Cranberry proanthocyanidins interfere with colonization of the gut by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro and attenuate gut barrier dysfunction caused by dietary insults in vivo. Furthermore, new studies indicate synergy between these proanthocyanidins, other cranberry components such as isoprenoids and xyloglucans, and gut microbiota. Together, cranberry constituents and their bioactive catabolites have been found to contribute to mechanisms affecting bacterial adhesion, coaggregation, and biofilm formation that may underlie potential clinical benefits on gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, as well as on systemic anti-inflammatory actions mediated via the gut microbiome. A limited but growing body of evidence from randomized clinical trials reveals favorable effects of cranberry consumption on measures of cardiometabolic health, including serum lipid profiles, blood pressure, endothelial function, glucoregulation, and a variety of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. These results warrant further research, particularly studies dedicated to the elucidation of dose-response relations, pharmacokinetic/metabolomics profiles, and relevant biomarkers of action with the use of fully characterized cranberry products. Freeze-dried whole cranberry powder and a matched placebo were recently made available to investigators to facilitate such work, including interlaboratory comparability. PMID:27422512

  18. Is risk stratification ever the same as 'profiling'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, R Scott; Stevens, Elizabeth R; Caplan, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Physicians engage in risk stratification as a normative part of their professional duties. Risk stratification has the potential to be beneficial in many ways, and implicit recognition of this potential benefit underlies its acceptance as a cornerstone of the medical profession. However, risk stratification also has the potential to be harmful. We argue that 'profiling' is a term that corresponds to risk stratification strategies in which there is concern that ethical harms exceed likely or proven benefits. In the case of risk stratification for health goals, this would occur most frequently if benefits were obtained by threats to justice, autonomy or privacy. We discuss implications of the potential overlap between risk stratification and profiling for researchers and for clinicians, and we consider whether there are salient characteristics that make a particular risk stratification algorithm more or less likely to overlap with profiling, such as whether the risk stratification algorithm is based on voluntary versus non-voluntary characteristics, based on causal versus non-causal characteristics, or based on signifiers of historical disadvantage. We also discuss the ethical challenges created when a risk stratification scheme helps all subgroups but some more than others, or when risk stratification harms some subgroups but benefits the aggregate group.

  19. Biochemical profile and outcome in normal and high risk subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalaxmi, K. G.; Urooj, Asna

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the biochemical profile and outcome of pregnancy and study the adverse consequences if any, among normal and high risk pregnant women. The study group included 182 normal and 168 high risk cases attending to private and Government Hospitals in Bangalore. The high risk groups were: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), Adolescents and anemic cases. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced in PIH and GDM groups (5.56 nmol/m...

  20. A simple data base for identification of risk profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munganahalli, D.

    1996-12-31

    Sedco Forex is a drilling contractor that operates approximately 80 rigs on land and offshore worldwide. The HSE management system developed by Sedco Forex is an effort to prevent accidents and minimize losses. An integral part of the HSE management system is establishing risk profiles and thereby minimizing risk and reducing loss exposures. Risk profiles are established based on accident reports, potential accident reports and other risk identification reports (RIR) like the Du Pont STOP system. A rig could fill in as many as 30 accident reports, 30 potential accident reports and 500 STOP cards each year. Statistics are important for an HSE management system, since they are indicators of success or failure of HSE systems. It is however difficult to establish risk profiles based on statistical information, unless tools are available at the rig site to aid with the analysis. Risk profiles are then used to identify important areas in the operation that may require specific attention to minimize the loss exposure. Programs to address the loss exposure can then be identified and implemented with either a local or corporate approach. In January 1995, Sedco Forex implemented a uniform HSE Database on all the rigs worldwide. In one year companywide, the HSE database would contain information on approximately 500 accident and potential accident reports, and 10,000 STOP cards. This paper demonstrates the salient features of the database and describes how it has helped in establishing key risk profiles. It also shows a recent example of how risk profiles have been established at the corporate level and used to identify the key contributing factors to hands and finger injuries. Based on this information, a campaign was launched to minimize the frequency of occurrence and associated loss attributed to hands and fingers accidents.

  1. Toxicogenetic profile and cancer risk in Lebanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Kobeissi, Loulou

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) were identified among different ethnic groups. Some of these polymorphisms are associated with an increased cancer risk, while others remain equivocal. However, there is sufficient evidence that these associations become significant in populations overexposed to environmental carcinogens. Hence, genetic differences in expression activity of both Phase I and Phase II enzymes may affect cancer risk in exposed populations. In Lebanon, there has been a marked rise in reported cancer incidence since the 1990s. There are also indicators of exposure to unusually high levels of environmental pollutants and carcinogens in the country. This review considers this high cancer incidence by exploring a potential gene-environment model based on available DME polymorphism prevalence, and their impact on bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast, and lung cancer in the Lebanese population. The examined DME include glutathione S-transferases (GST), N-acetyltransferases (NAT), and cytochromes P-450 (CYP). Data suggest that these DME influence bladder cancer risk in the Lebanese population. Evidence indicates that identification of a gene-environment interaction model may help in defining future research priorities and preventive cancer control strategies in this country, particularly for breast and lung cancer.

  2. Pathophysiological, genetic and gene expression features of a novel rodent model of the cardio-metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complex etiology and pathogenesis of pathophysiological components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated in humans and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated extensive physiological, genetic and genome-wide gene expression profiles in a congenic strain of the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rat containing a large region (110 cM, 170 Mb of rat chromosome 1 (RNO1, which covers diabetes and obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL, introgressed onto the genetic background of the normoglycaemic Brown Norway (BN strain. This novel disease model, which by the length of the congenic region closely mirrors the situation of a chromosome substitution strain, exhibits a wide range of abnormalities directly relevant to components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications, including hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, enhanced insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and altered pancreatic and renal histological structures. Gene transcription data in kidney, liver, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue indicate that a disproportionately high number (43-83% of genes differentially expressed between congenic and BN rats map to the GK genomic interval targeted in the congenic strain, which represents less than 5% of the total length of the rat genome. Genotype analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in strains genetically related to the GK highlights clusters of conserved and strain-specific variants in RNO1 that can assist the identification of naturally occurring variants isolated in diabetic and hypertensive strains when different phenotype selection procedures were applied. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasize the importance of rat congenic models for defining the impact of genetic variants in well-characterised QTL regions on in vivo pathophysiological features and cis-/trans- regulation of gene expression. The congenic

  3. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods: Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents using a questionnaire. Results: Frequency of glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia was 0.7%, 13% and 27.2%, respectively. Plausible reporters consumed more animal protein and sodium and less legumes than recommended in nutritional recommendations and adequate amounts of fiber mainly derived from whole grains. Subjects skipping breakfast had unhealthy diets and greater body fatness. After adjustment for confounders, waist/height and fasting glucose were associated with sodium intake (r =0.149 and r = 0.142, respectively; p Conclusions: The cardiometabolic health of obese children improves with vegetable protein and whole grain intake, whereas dysglycemia and adiposity increase with sodium intake.

  4. Perceived stress as a risk factor for changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, P;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of stress on changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: The analyses were based on 7066 women and men...... health behaviour (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, overweight) and cardiac risk profile (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes). RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of stress compared to those with low levels of stress were less likely to quit smoking (OR = 0.58; 95% CI...... in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile....

  5. A risk profile for information fusion algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kenric P; Landau, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    E.T. Jaynes emphasized that there is an inevitable trade-off between the conflicting requirements of robustness and accuracy for any inferencing algorithm. This is because robustness requires discarding of information in order to reduce the sensitivity to outliers. The principal of nonlinear statistical coupling, which is an interpretation of the Tsallis entropy generalization, can be used to quantify this trade-off. The coupled-surprisal, -ln_k (p)=-(p^k-1)/k, is a generalization of Shannon surprisal or the logarithmic scoring rule, given a forecast p of a true event by an inferencing algorithm. The coupling parameter k=1-q, where q is the Tsallis entropy index, is the degree of nonlinear coupling between statistical states. Positive (negative) values of nonlinear coupling decrease (increase) the surprisal information metric and thereby biases the risk in favor of decisive (robust) algorithms relative to the Shannon surprisal (k=0). We show that translating the average coupled-surprisal to an effective proba...

  6. Interlinkage among cardio-metabolic disease markers in an urban poor setting in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main cardio-metabolic diseases – mostly cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and ischemic heart disease – share common clinical markers such as raised blood pressure and blood glucose. The pathways of development of many of these conditions are also interlinked. In this regard, a higher level of co-occurrence of the main cardio-metabolic disease markers is expected. Evidence about the patterns of occurrence of cardio-metabolic markers and their interlinkage in the sub-Saharan African setting is inadequate. Objective: The goal of the study was to describe the interlinkage among common cardio-metabolic disease markers in an African setting. Design: We used data collected in a cross-sectional study from 5,190 study participants as part of cardiovascular disease risk assessment in the urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Five commonly used clinical markers of cardio-metabolic conditions were considered in this analysis. These markers were waist circumference, blood pressure, random blood glucose, total blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Patterns of these markers were described using means, standard deviations, and proportions. The associations between the markers were determined using odds ratios. Results: The weighted prevalence of central obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were 12.3%, 7.0%, 2.5%, 10.3%, and 17.3%, respectively. Women had a higher prevalence of central obesity and hypercholesterolemia as compared to men. Blood glucose was strongly associated with central obesity, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels, whereas the association between blood glucose and total blood cholesterol was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study shows that most of the common cardio-metabolic markers are interlinked, suggesting a higher probability of comorbidity due to cardio-metabolic conditions and thus the need for integrated approaches.

  7. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect on Young People's Cardiometabolic Health and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents. PMID:27399821

  8. Ohio Financial Services and Risk Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in financial services and risk management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as financial accountant, loan…

  9. Cardiometabolic interventions – focus on transcriptional regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the largest healthcare burden in the Western world; and the increasing prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus, at least partially driven by a trend in lifestyle changes associated with global economic development, is likely to fuel this CVD burden worldwide. Over the past two decades, there has been an increased awareness of the convergence of risk factors contributing to both cardiovascular disease and diabetes leading to the concept of the metabolic syndrome, and the realisation of the opportunity to intervene at this intersection to simultaneously target CVD and metabolic dysfunction. This brings together the fields of cardiovascular medicine, diabetology, and increasingly clinical immunology for a unified and concerted effort to reduce risk for both conditions simultaneously. The discovery of the targeted pathways of drugs already in clinical use such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZD has led to accelerated basic and clinicalresearch into selective and dual PPAR-α and PPAR-γ agonists, which can theoretically target glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, as well as potentially exerting inhibitoryeffects in vascular inflammation, all of which might be predicted to reduce atherosclerosis. In this article, we will discuss the basic science as well as recent clinical development in the pursuit of optimal cardiometabolic intervention along with insight into strategies for future drug development.

  10. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  11. Recently Discovered Adipokines and Cardio-Metabolic Comorbidities in Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Barraco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available White adipose tissue (WAT asset, in terms of cell number, fat storage capacity and endocrine function, is largely determined in early stages of life and is pivotal for shaping the WAT pro-inflammatory behavior. WAT derived adipokines have been shown to play a main role in several cardio-metabolic abnormalities of obesity. This review focuses on the most recently identified adipokines, namely adipocyte-fatty acid-binding protein, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor-21, lipocalin-2, omentin-1 and vaspin; their role in the pathogenesis of obesity and associated cardio-metabolic abnormalities; and on their adaptive response to body weight change. Evidence consistently suggests a pathogenic role for A-FABP, chemerin and FGF-21. Nevertheless, large population studies are needed to verify whether they can be useful to predict the risk of cardio-metabolic abnormalities in adulthood and/or monitor the clinical response to therapeutic interventions.

  12. Report of a National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute Workshop: heterogeneity in cardiometabolic risk in Asian Americans In the U.S. Opportunities for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, K M Venkat; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Oza-Frank, Reena; Pandey, Mona; Curb, J David; McNeely, Marguerite; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Palaniappan, Latha; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2010-03-01

    The Asian and Pacific Islander population (Asian Americans) in the U.S. has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Yet, data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population are scarce. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health conducted an Expert Workshop to: 1) assess the importance of studying CVD in Asian Americans in the U.S.; and 2) consider strategic options for further investigations of CVD in this population. There is considerable geographical, ethnic, cultural, and genetic diversity within this population. Limited data also suggest striking differences in the risk of CVD, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other CVD risk factors across the Asian-American population. The Asian-American population is a new diverse pool with less contemporary genetic and cultural admixture relative to groups that have lived in the U.S. for generations, plus it is diverse in lifestyle including culture, diet, and family structure. This diversity provides a window of opportunity for research on genes and gene-environment interactions and also to investigate how acculturation/assimilation to U.S. lifestyles affects health and CVD risk among relatively homogenous groups of recent immigrants. Given the heterogeneity in body weight, body size, and CVD risk, the Asian-American population in the U.S. offers a unique model to study the interaction and relationships between visceral adiposity and adipose tissue distribution and beta cell function, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. PMID:20202512

  13. Profile sampling to characterize particulate lead risks in potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brandi; Masters, Sheldon; Edwards, Marc

    2014-06-17

    Traditional lead (Pb) profiling, or collecting sequential liters of water that flow from a consumer tap after a stagnation event, has recently received widespread use in understanding sources of Pb in drinking water and risks to consumer health, but has limitations in quantifying particulate Pb risks. A new profiling protocol was developed in which a series of traditional profiles are collected from the same tap at escalating flow rates. The results revealed marked differences in risks of Pb exposure from one consumer home to another as a function of flow rate, with homes grouped into four risk categories with differing flushing requirements and public education to protect consumers. On average, Pb concentrations detected in water at high flow without stagnation were at least three to four times higher than in first draw samples collected at low flow with stagnation, demonstrating a new "worst case" lead release scenario, contrary to the original regulatory assumption that stagnant, first draw samples contain the highest lead concentrations. Testing also revealed that in some cases water samples with visible particulates had much higher Pb than samples without visible particulates, and tests of different sample handling protocols confirmed that some EPA-allowed methods would not quantify as much as 99.9% of the Pb actually present (avg. 27% of Pb not quantified).

  14. A review of dopamine agonist therapy in type 2 diabetes and effects on cardio-metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, E M; Levitt, D L; Munir, K M

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine action appears to play a role in changes that are seen in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine-QR (Quick Release), a dopamine agonist, is approved for use in treatment of type 2 diabetes. It has demonstrated modest improvement in glycemic parameters, cholesterol and weight in certain cohorts. Limited data using cabergoline, a long-acting dopamine agonist, also demonstrate glycemic efficacy. Additionally, bromocriptine-QR appears to have a favorable cardiovascular risk reduction. The direct mechanism by which bromocriptine-QR, or central dopamine agonism, achieves modest glycemic control and favorable cardio-metabolic profile is unclear. This relationship appears to be more complex than the historical explanation of "resetting" the circadian clock and may further be elucidated using data in individuals with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma. PMID:26670921

  15. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carughi, Arianna; Feeney, Mary Jo; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Fulgoni, Victor; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bulló, Mònica; Webb, Densie

    2016-03-05

    Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9 % of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee identified a gap between recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and the amount the population consumes. Even fewer Americans consume tree nuts, which are a nutrient-dense food, rich in bioactive compounds and healthy fatty acids. Consumption of fruits and nuts has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. An estimated 5.5 to 8.4 % of U.S. adults consume tree nuts and/or tree nut butter. This review examines the potential of pairing nuts and dried fruit to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors and focuses on emerging data on raisins and pistachios as representative of each food category. Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of both could help improve Americans' nutritional status and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

  16. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carughi, Arianna; Feeney, Mary Jo; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Fulgoni, Victor; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bulló, Mònica; Webb, Densie

    2016-01-01

    Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9 % of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee identified a gap between recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and the amount the population consumes. Even fewer Americans consume tree nuts, which are a nutrient-dense food, rich in bioactive compounds and healthy fatty acids. Consumption of fruits and nuts has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. An estimated 5.5 to 8.4 % of U.S. adults consume tree nuts and/or tree nut butter. This review examines the potential of pairing nuts and dried fruit to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors and focuses on emerging data on raisins and pistachios as representative of each food category. Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of both could help improve Americans' nutritional status and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:26944400

  17. Family history of myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes and cardiometabolic markers in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Koppelman, Gerard H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Bo; Gehring, Ulrike; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Despite the overlap in occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes and their risk factors, family history of these diseases has not yet been investigated simultaneously in relation to cardiometabolic markers in offspring. We examined how a family history of CVD and

  18. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glu...

  19. Effects of High and Low Fat Dairy Food on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyne R Benatar; Karishma Sidhu; Stewart, Ralph A H

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Clear guidelines on the health effects of dairy food are important given the high prevalence of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and increasing global consumption of dairy food. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of increased dairy food on cardio metabolic risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Searches were performed until April 2013 using MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google,Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of ...

  20. Changes in risk factor profile after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete

    Background and aims. Adherence to preventive medication and to a healthy life style reduces stroke survivors’ risk of recurrent stroke. We investigated risk factor management in patients admitted to 3 Copenhagen hospitals with ischemic stroke (IS) Methods. 320 patients with acute IS were followed...... up 1 year after stroke. We constructed a baseline risk factor profile (RFP) of 6 variables: smoking, excessive drinking, physical inactivity, untreated hypertension, no cholesterol-lowering, and no antithrombotic treatment/warfarin at discharge from hospital. Each item was rated 0 or 1 giving......-fatal recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction Conclusions. We suggest the organisation of secondary prevention clinics within the stroke units for life style modification and treatment to target of risk factors immediately after discharge, thus extending the success of TIA clinics to all stroke survivors...

  1. Biochemical profile and outcome in normal and high risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, K G; Urooj, Asna

    2009-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the biochemical profile and outcome of pregnancy and study the adverse consequences if any, among normal and high risk pregnant women. The study group included 182 normal and 168 high risk cases attending to private and Government Hospitals in Bangalore. The high risk groups were: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), Adolescents and anemic cases. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced in PIH and GDM groups (5.56 nmol/ml and 3.98 nmol/ml) MDA values as compared to other groups. Vitamin E levels were significantly (plow birth weight were observed more in PIH group. The study revealed occurrence of oxidative stress and adverse outcome among high risk pregnancy groups. PMID:23105848

  2. Association of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Syndrome in Bank Employees: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev S. Walvekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome also referred as cardio metabolic syndrome is identified as the prestate for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and also for chronic kidney disease. Obesity is considered as the strongest component of metabolic syndrome as per the definition given by different organizations. The easiest way to measure obesity are waist circumference, Body Mass Index (BMI and waist to hip ratio. Aims and Objective: To find the association between microalbuminuria and components of cardiometabolic syndrome in the bank employees and also the association between waist circumference, body mass index and components of cardiometabolic syndrome, microalbumin. Material and Methods: This was a cross sectional study involving 73 subjects working in a reputed bank. Their anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters like fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, serum cortisol and microalbumin were measured. We defined microalbuminuria as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 to 299 mg/gm. Results: out of 73 participants, in 33 participants at least 3-5 parameters of cardiometabolic syndrome were found to be present and were labeled as cardiometabolic syndrome patients. Waist circumference showed positive correlation with age (r=0.498, systolic blood pressure (r=0.500, diastolic blood pressure (r=0.476, fasting blood glucose (r=0.300, triglyceride (r=0.408 and microalbumin (r=0.409. Microalbumin also exhibited a significant positive correlation with age (r=0.404, waist circumference (r=0.419, fasting blood glucose (r=0.476 and HbA1c (r=0.466, while BMI showed negative correlation with microalbumin (r=-0.085. Conclusions: Obesity, one of the parameters of cardiometabolic syndrome measured as waist circumference, is indicative of the syndrome rather than BMI. Microalbumin may be considered as a promising parameter of cardiometabolic syndrome.

  3. Divergent associations of height with cardiometabolic disease and cancer: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and global implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hu, Frank B; Schulze, Matthias B

    2016-05-01

    Among chronic non-communicable diseases, cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although high BMI and waist circumference, as estimates of total and abdominal fat mass, are now accepted as predictors of the increasing incidence of these diseases, adult height, which also predicts mortality, has been neglected. Interestingly, increasing evidence suggests that height is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but higher cancer risk, associations supported by mendelian randomisation studies. Understanding the complex epidemiology, biology, and pathophysiology related to height, and its association with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer, is becoming even more important because average adult height has increased substantially in many countries during recent generations. Among the mechanisms driving the increase in height and linking height with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. These pathways are thought to be activated by overnutrition, especially increased intake of milk, dairy products, and other animal proteins during different stages of child development. Limiting overnutrition during pregnancy, early childhood, and puberty would avoid not only obesity, but also accelerated growth in children-and thus might reduce risk of cancer in adulthood. PMID:26827112

  4. STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available `INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. In India Community Surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate for hemiplegia 200 per 1, 00, 000 population. It accounts for nearly 1.5% of all urban admissions, 4.5 % of all medical and about 20% of neurological cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Identification of risk factors and evaluation of clinical profile of acute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHOD: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Cases of acute stoke admitted in SGMH hospital were selected for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Brain injury cases, infective, neoplastic cases producing stroke were excluded. RESULTS: Stroke was more common in male, 58 % patients were male and 42% patients were female. It was more common in 5th and 6th decade. Most common etiology was infarction. Most common risk factor was hypertension followed by smoking. In addition to limb weakness, headache and vomiting were most common presenting symptoms followed by convulsion. These symptoms were more common in hemorrhagic stroke. Right sided hemiplegia was more common than left sided. Middle cerebral artery was involved in majority of cases in atherothrombotic stroke whereas basal ganglion was most common site of bleed in hemorrhagic stroke. Coma and mortality were more in hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: The risk factors and clinical profile of acute stroke in India are similar to that of Western countries. Common risk factors are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  6. Hyperhomocysteinemia in preeclampsia is associated to higher risk pressure profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, R; Neri, S; Noto, Z; Cilio, D; Abate, G; Noto, P; Pepi, F; Leanza, A; Molino, G

    2003-01-01

    Homocysteine levels have been determined with Chromatography on HPLC column, between the 20th and the 24th week of pregnancy, in women with analogous characteristics (a) normotensive, (b) with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), low (LR), medium (MR), high risk (HR). The group they belonged to was confirmed after natural or caesarean delivery. All the patients were submitted to 24 hour blood pressure monitoring for the evaluation of further pressure risk parameters: mean arterial pressure (MAP), non dippers, percentages of pressure peaks. Homocysteine levels in normotensive pregnant women (5.8 +/- 1.7 microM) were low. Significant high levels of homocysteine were present proportionally to the risk degree of PIH. Higher levels of homocysteine statistically significant were present in non dippers of all groups (MR p pregnant women presenting preeclampsia afterwards, high levels of homocysteine were not different from mean values present in high risk PIH pregnant women (13.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 16.4 +/- 1.7 microM). High levels of homocysteine early determined in the second trimester of PIH pregnancies seem to be associated to a pregnancy higher risk, coexisting with dangerous pressure profiles. High levels confirm a pregnant woman to belong to a higher or lower risk degree of vascular damage, but in the same group context high levels of homocisteine do not allow to identify those pregnant women who will develop eclampsia. PMID:14650644

  7. Association of circulating irisin levels with normal weight obesity, glycemic and lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabian, Sarvenaz; Taheri, Ehsaneh; Karkhaneh, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hosseini, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin, a recently identified myokine/adipokine, has potential role in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Normal weight obesity (NWO) is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate association of irisin level with NWO, glycemicand lipid profile in women. Methods In this matchedcase-control study, 38 subjects with NWO (body mass index (BMI)  30) as case and 26 controls (BMI

  8. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-05-01

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:25970149

  9. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-05-11

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation.

  10. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6. As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35–65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST (p < 0.05 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (p < 0.01, one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation.

  11. 78 FR 66010 - Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices... Profile: Pathogens and Filth in Spices'' (draft risk profile). Our main objectives were to: Describe the nature and extent of the public health risk posed by consumption of spices in the United States...

  12. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-12-31

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = -0.08, p sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups. Consequently, this

  13. SSA 04-3 LEPTIN/ADIPONECTIN IN CARDIOMETABOLIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-09-01

    2, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy. High concentrations of adiponectin are associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease, with an improvement in the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes, and with increased endotelial nitric oxide production. Therefore, it appears that interactions between angiotensin II and leptin/adiponectin imbalance may be important mediators of the elevated risk of developing DM2 and CVD associated with AO.While in the developed world the incidence of CVD is stabilizing or decreasing and prognosis is improving, incidence is increasing in the developing world. These differences in the global epidemiological profile of CVD may be due to diverse geographical, environmental, demographic, socioeconomic, and ethnic characteristics. One of the explanations for these differences is that the populations of developing countries are more prone to develop cardiovascular and metabolic diseases at lower levels of AO as a result of shorter exposure times to the new lifestyles associated with modernization. The shorter the exposure time, the less adapted the population and the greater the risk of an inflammatory imbalance at lower levels of AO. Ethnic differences in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disease risk have been described and it has been proposed that these may be the result of differences in circulating adipokines and inflammatory markers associated with ethnic variations in obesity and body fat distribution. In United States (US) significant ethnic differences in adiponectin has been reported, compared with white Americans, African-American men and women, Japanese-American women, and native Hawaiian women have significantly lower levels. Another study conducted in healthy Canadian Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian adults found that South Asians had the greatest insulin resistance, followed by Aboriginals, Chinese, and Europeans. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were

  14. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is fundamental to the cardiometabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistala, Ravi; Stump, Craig S

    2006-01-01

    The cardiometabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance and a dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism that occurs in multiple tissues. Of these, skeletal muscle is the most abundant insulin-sensitive tissue, handling > 40% of the postprandial glucose uptake, while consuming 20% of the body's energy. The inability to efficiently take up and store fuel, and to transition from fat to glucose as the primary source of fuel during times of plenty (increased insulin), has been termed metabolic inflexibility. This resistance to insulin is thought to be a major contributor to the whole-body metabolic dysregulation that leads to increased cardiovascular risk. Recent investigation has identified specific defects in postinsulin receptor signaling in skeletal muscle from resistant humans and animals. Potential mechanisms contributing to this reduced insulin signaling and action include decreases in mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increased intramuscular lipid accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species generation, and up-regulated inflammatory pathways. Future research is focused on understanding these and other potential mechanisms to identify therapeutic targets for reducing cardiometabolic syndrome risk. PMID:17675899

  15. Clinical Profile & Risk Factors in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yadav, D Joseph, P Joshi, P Sakhi, RK Jha, J Gupta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is becoming a major cause of morbidity & mortality burden in the developing world. Indians have been associated with a more severe form of CAD that has its onset at a younger age group with a male predominance. A prospective study was carried out to identify the risk factors and to know the emerging clinical profile in acute coronary syndrome (ACS including S T elevation & Non S T elevation myocardial infarction. We enrolled 200 consecutive patients with typical ECG changes & clinical history, admitted in emergency department from January 2009 to December 2009. A predefined Performa was completed in every patient with a detailed clinical history, physical examinations, and investigation studies. The clinical history revealed information about age, gender, risk factors, and modes of presentation and duration of symptoms. The details of physical examination including anthropometric data, vital signs and complete systemic evaluation were recorded. The regions of infarction and rhythm disturbances were also documented. Our study showed a significant male predominance with mean age being 56 years. Tobacco was identified as major risk factors (65% & obesity (BMI more than 25 is least common risk factor (13%.Patients had typical chest pain (94% and ECG showed anterior wall changes in54%. Forty percent patients developed complications, majority being arrhythmias (60% and least common is mechanical complication (2.5% Thus we conclude that ACS is more common in adult male with tobacco being major risk factors in our population.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  17. Z-Scan Analysis: a New Method to Determine the Oxidative State of Low-Density Lipoprotein and Its Association with Multiple Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Maria Camila Pruper; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Martins; Giampaoli, Viviane; da Conceição Quintaneiro Aubin, Elisete; de Araújo Lima Barbosa, Milena Maria; Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira

    2016-04-01

    The great atherogenic potential of oxidized low-density lipoprotein has been widely described in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the state of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human plasma measured by the Z-scan technique has an association with different cardiometabolic biomarkers. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B, paraoxonase-1, and glucose were analyzed using standard commercial kits, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was estimated using the Friedewald equation. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect electronegative low-density lipoprotein. Low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein sizes were determined by Lipoprint® system. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the non-linear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solution. Principal component analysis and correlations were used respectively to resize the data from the sample and test association between the θ parameter, measured with the Z-scan technique, and the principal component. A total of 63 individuals, from both sexes, with mean age 52 years (±11), being overweight and having high levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, were enrolled in this study. A positive correlation between the θ parameter and more anti-atherogenic pattern for cardiometabolic biomarkers together with a negative correlation for an atherogenic pattern was found. Regarding the parameters related with an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein profile, the θ parameter was negatively correlated with a more atherogenic pattern. By using Z-scan measurements, we were able to find an association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein state and multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers in samples from individuals with different cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Comparative cardiometabolic effects of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hwan; Oh, Pyung Chun; Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2013-09-10

    Even with the aggressive reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by statin therapy, a high residual risk of cardiovascular events remains substantially and attracts attention to the need for additional preventive therapies. Therefore, effective reductions of residual risk of cardiovascular disease have emerged as therapeutic targets. Fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids have been introduced to reduce triglycerides and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and have shown anti-atherosclerotic, vascular and metabolic effects. However, some effects are controversial and very recent randomized clinical trials report different results from the earlier ones. In this review, we address the vascular and metabolic effects and the results of recent clinical trials of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. We also compared their effects under modern guideline therapy regarding potential drugs to reduce a residual cardiometabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  20. Assessment of the Efficacy of Cardio-Metabolic Pathology Treatment and of the Medical Recommendations Adherence in a Military Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcrămioara Ana MOLDOVAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the efficacy of cardio-metabolic diseases treatment, the compliance to treatment, and to evaluate the obtained results compared to the previous published ones.Methods: A screening was conducted in the military population, including male and female with age at least 20 years, with of without: diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. The anthropometrics parameters, body fat percent, and blood pressure were evaluated. The following data were collected: glycemia, lipid profile, renal and hepatic function, level of physical activity, smoking status, personal associated diseases. The compliance to treatment was noted in percentages declared by patient in a survey. The IRIS 2 score of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk using EURO’98 charts, Framingham Score and SCORE system were calculated. The metabolic syndrome diagnosis was performed using the International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria. Results: 338 persons were investigated; the majority were males, 192 with normal glycemia. The objectives of the treatment were reached in < 50% cases for each pathological aspect. A negative correlation was found between anthropometric parameters and the compliance to diet and physical exercise, and positive correlation between bodyweight, high cardiovascular risk and medication. The study showed the same pattern of the treatment as in other studies, with a low compliance to medical nutrition therapy and with low percentage in witch the objective for cardio-metabolic pathology are reached. Conclusions: An active and sustained attitude is necessary to promote a healthy lifestyle in the respect of improvement of treatment and prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  1. Serum 25(OHD is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk profile among urban middle-aged Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic metabolic diseases. Limited evidence regarding vitamin D deficiency exists within the Chinese population. The present study aims to examine the association between serum vitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in the young and middle-aged, urban Chinese population Methods The cross-sectional relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations and indices of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, etc. were evaluated in 601 non-diabetic adults. Result Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was present in 66% of the tested population, and serum 25(OHD levels were lower in patients who were overweight/obese or suffered metabolic syndrome when compared to individuals of healthy weight without metabolic syndrome (24.08 ± 8.08 vs 31.70 ± 11.77 ng/ml, 21.52 ± 6.9 vs 31.74 ± 10.21 ng/ml respectively. 25(OHD was inversely associated with waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, and it was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol in a multivariable-adjusted regression model. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common in the young and middle-aged, urban Chinese population, with high prevalence in overweight/obese individuals and patients with metabolic syndrome. Low vitamin D concentration was associated with indices of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the cause-effect relation between vitamin D status, obesity and related metabolic disorders. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN21527585

  2. New factors of cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children: influence of pubertal status Nuevos factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en niños con obesidad severa: influencia del estado puberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Codoñer-Franch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the utility of new biochemical markers to assess cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children and adolescents. A total of 107 subjects aged 7 to 14 years, were clinically assessed and anthropometric measures and percentage of fat mass by single frequency bioimpedance analysis were recorded. Of these, 44 were non-overweight and 63 severely obese (body mass index Z-score >2.5 which were stratified by Tanner stages. To estimate the metabolic risk the following variables were considered for analysis: Waist circumference/height >0.5, fasting glucose >100 mg/dL, triglycerides >110 mg/dL, HDL-C 95th percentile for age and gender. Fasting insulinemia, apoprotein A1 and B, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, homocysteine, and folic and uric acids were determined. In severely obese children, metabolic risk was present more frequently in mid puberty. The normalized anthropometric parameters with respect to 50th percentile for age and gender did not differ in the presence of metabolic risk. Insulin resistance was an independent determinant of metabolic risk, adjusted by Tanner stages. Elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein was noted without any effect of metabolic risk or pubertal stage. Homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase values increased with metabolic risk and were not influenced by puberty. Although insulin resistance remains the main factor influencing metabolic risk, biochemical markers as homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase, may be useful for identifying severe obese pubertal subjects particularly prone to comorbidities.El objetivo de este estudio prospectivo ha sido evaluar la utilidad de nuevos marcadores bioquímicos para evaluar el riesgo cardiometabólico en niños y adolescentes extremadamente obesos. Un total de 107 sujetos de entre 7 a 14 años, se valoraron clínicamente registrando sus medidas antropométricas y el

  3. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P diet (P diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  4. Soy and cardio-metabolic abnormalities: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • Soy protein contains beneficial components like complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, vegetable protein, soluble fiber, oligosaccharides, vitamins, minerals, inositol-derived substances and phytoestrogens, particularly the isoflavones  genistein, diadzein, and glycitein, which might affect different cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Soy consumption has been reported to beneficially affect features of the metabolic syndrome in animal models and also in humans to some extent. There are inconsistent reports regarding the hypothesis of the effectiveness of soy protein on obesity. While some studies have shown that soy consumption can improve the features of the metabolic syndrome without affecting body weight, others showed that soy consumption has beneficial role in weight management and might improve the metabolic syndrome by affecting body weight control. Several studies have consistently reported the effects of soy on cardiovascular risks. Beneficial role of soy intake on diabetes is another aspect of soy inclusion in the diet. The present study discusses the effects of soy consumption on different cardio-metabolic abnormalities and provides information regarding the possible mechanisms by which soy protein might exert its beneficial roles.
    • KEY WORDS: Soy, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome.

  5. Achievement of cardiometabolic goals in aware hypertensive patients in Spain: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, José R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; de la Cruz-Troca, Juan J; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Coca, Antonio; Ruilope, Luis M; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Despite the importance of achieving cardiometabolic goals beyond blood pressure, in the health of hypertensives, no comprehensive assessment of these characteristics has been performed in whole countries. We studied in 2008-2010 a total of 11 957 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged≥18 years. Information on cardiometabolic characteristics was collected at the participants' homes, through structured questionnaires, physical examination, and fasting blood samples. A total of 3983 individuals (33.3%) had hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive drug treatment), 59.4% were aware of their condition, 78.8% treated among those aware, and 48.5% controlled among those aware and treated (22.7% of all hypertensives). Of the aware hypertensives, 13.8% had a body mass indexphysical activity. In conclusion, in a European country with a well-developed, free-access healthcare system, achievement of many cardiometabolic goals among hypertensives is poor. Moreover, a serious deficiency in hypertension awareness and in the effectiveness of some lifestyle interventions among aware hypertensives is present. Greater effort is needed in the management of coexisting risk factors and on lifestyle medical advice to improve the cardiometabolic health of hypertensives. PMID:22949530

  6. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  7. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Petrosino

    Full Text Available Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT. Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/- models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or

  8. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  9. MicroRNAs in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs with critical functions in multiple physiological and pathological processes. An explosion of reports on the discovery and characterization of different miRNA species and their involvement in almost every aspect of cardiac biology and diseases has established an exciting new dimension in gene regulation networks for cardiac development and pathogenesis. CONTENT: Alterations in the metabolic control of lipid and glucose homeostasis predispose an individual to develop cardiometabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Work over the last years has suggested that miRNAs play an important role in regulating these physiological processes. Besides a cell-specific transcription factor profile, cell-specific miRNA-regulated gene expression is integral to cell fate and activation decisions. Thus, the cell types involved in atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and its myocardial sequelae may be differentially regulated by distinct miRNAs, thereby controlling highly complex processes, for example, smooth muscle cell phenotype and inflammatory responses of endothelial cells or macrophages. The recent advancements in using miRNAs as circulating biomarkers or therapeutic modalities, will hopefully be able to provide a strong basis for future research to further expand our insights into miRNA function in cardiovascular biology. SUMMARY: MiRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are potent modulators of diverse biological processes and pathologies. Recent findings demonstrated the importance of miRNAs in the vasculature and the orchestration of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. MiRNA networks represent an additional layer of regulation for gene expression that absorbs perturbations and ensures the robustness of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mi

  10. Cardiometabolic treatment decisions in patients with type 2 diabetes : the role of repeated measurements and medication burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Stolk, R. P.; Denig, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines for cardiometabolic risk management indicate a simple threshold-based strategy for treatment, but physicians and their patients may be reluctant to modify drug treatment after a single elevated measurement. We determined how repeated measurements of blood pressure, choles

  11. Screen time, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers : mediation by physical activity, not snacking, among 11-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; Smit, H. A.; van Rossem, L.; Gehring, U.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D. S.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Wijga, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a relation of TV viewing with adiposity and increased cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. It is unclear to what extent this relation is mediated by snacking and lack of physical activity. We determined whether associations of screen time with a

  12. Screen time, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers: mediation by physical activity, not snacking, among 11-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendtzen, N.E.; Smit, H.A.; Rossem, van L.; Gehring, U.; Kerkhof, van de M.; Postma, D.S.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background:There is evidence for a relation of TV viewing with adiposity and increased cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. It is unclear to what extent this relation is mediated by snacking and lack of physical activity. We determined whether associations of screen time with ad

  13. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  14. Associations of Gestational Diabetes, Existing Diabetes, and Glycosuria With Offspring Obesity and Cardiometabolic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S.; Fraser, A; Davey Smith, G; Lindsay, R. S.; Sattar, N.; Nelson, S. M.; Lawlor, D A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess associations of gestational diabetes, existing diabetes, and glycosuria with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in offspring at adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Multivariable regression analyses were conducted in a prospective pregnancy cohort (n = 2,563–4,198 for different outcomes). Obstetric data were abstracted from clinical records. Offspring outcomes were assessed at mean age 15.5 years. Compared with those lost to follow-up, participants included in ...

  15. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies car...

  16. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    OpenAIRE

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Trevor A. Mori; Beilin, Lawrence J; Charlotte Wilson; Katherine Hafekost; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Rae Chi Huang; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860...

  17. Women may respond different from men to vitamin D supplementation regarding cardiometabolic biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Nasrin; Hajiani, Eskandar; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has revealed that vitamin D status is associated with the cardiometabolic risk factors. Moreover, few gender-specific analyses have been performed in the clinical trials regarding vitamin D supplementation. As a result, assessing gender differences regarding the effects of vitamin D supplementation on some cardiometabolic biomarkers in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was the aim of present study. We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of a double blind placebo controlled study. Patients with NAFLD randomly allocated to receive one oral pearl consisting of 50,000 IU vitamin D3 (n = 27, 13 men and 14 women) or a placebo (n = 26, 13 men and 13 women) every 14 days for four months. Serum lipid profiles, aminotransferases, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin as well as insulin resistance and dietary intakes were assessed pre- and post-study. In both genders, serum 25(OH) D3 increased significantly (P < 0.001). This increase was accompanied by significant decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC) (% of change: −7% in vitamin D vs. + 0.4% in placebo, P = 0.04) and LDL-C (%of change: −9.6% in vitamin D vs. −4% in placebo, P = 0.006) in women. However, in men, vitamin D supplementation increased the levels of serum TC (% of change: +9.2% in vitamin D vs. −10% in placebo, P = 0.02) with no significant effects on LDL-C. Moreover, vitamin D significantly reduced serum hs-CRP in women. The median daily calcium intake in both genders was well below the dietary reference intake for adults. In conclusion, improved vitamin D status might decrease serum TC and LDL-C levels as well as hs-CRP in women with NAFLD. However, it might increase serum TC in men who have low daily calcium intake. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26811103

  18. [Preventive and curative value of yoga in cardiometabolic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter

    2016-02-28

    Yoga and other body-mind techniques enjoy an increasing popularity in many fields of health maintaining practices, in prevention of some illnesses and in curative medicine in spite of our incomplete knowledge about its applicability and effects. There are large differences among the various yoga-schools and the heterogeneity of indications etc. In this article a bucket of recent information is offered for the inquirers on the potential advantages of yoga (diet, mind-exercises, asanas, pranayamas) for decreasing cardio-metabolic risk factors, stabilizing mental health, and its addictive use in curative medicine. Few adverse side-effects may occur only in the case of misapplication. Its advantages are low costs, availability for broad population, and very few contraindications. Disadvantages include differences in the ability of yoga instructors and in yoga practices. PMID:26895799

  19. Impact of Vitamin D Replacement on Markers of Glucose Metabolism and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Women with Former Gestational Diabetes--A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Peng Yeow

    Full Text Available Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM and vitamin D deficiency are related to insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function, with heightened risk for future development of diabetes. We evaluated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on markers of glucose metabolism and cardio metabolic risk in Asian women with former GDM and hypovitaminosis D. In this double blind, randomized controlled trial, 26 participants were randomized to receive either daily 4000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo capsules. 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT and biochemistry profiles were performed at baseline and 6 month visits. Mathematical models, using serial glucose, insulin and C peptide measurements from OGTT, were employed to calculate insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Thirty three (76% women with former GDM screened had vitamin D level of <50 nmol/L at baseline. Supplementation, when compared with placebo, resulted in increased vitamin D level (+51.1 nmol/L vs 0.2 nmol/L, p<0.001 and increased fasting insulin (+20% vs 18%, p = 0.034. The vitamin D group also demonstrated a 30% improvement in disposition index and an absolute 0.2% (2 mmol/mol reduction in HbA1c. There was no clear change in insulin sensitivity or markers of cardio metabolic risk. This study highlighted high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Asian women with former GDM. Six months supplementation with 4000 IU of vitamin D3 safely restored the vitamin D level, improved basal pancreatic beta-cell function and ameliorated the metabolic state. There was no effect on markers of cardio metabolic risk. Further mechanistic studies exploring the role of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis among different ethnicities may be needed to better inform future recommendations for these women with former GDM at high risk of both hypovitaminosis D and future diabetes.

  20. Willingness to participate in prevention programs for cardiometabolic diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petters, J.; Reitsma-van Rooijen, M.M.; Korevaar, J.C.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and result in decreased quality of life for patients and increased healthcare costs. Population-based prevention programs may prevent the onset and development of cardiometabolic diseases. The effectiveness of these progra

  1. Cognitive risk profiles for anxiety disorders in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Joseph R; Stevens, Erin N; Clark, Charles Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-09-30

    The purpose of the present study was to identify subgroups of participants who may be at particularly high risk for anxiety pathology based on specific combinations of demographic characteristics and higher-order cognitive abilities in a population at disproportionate risk for deficits in cognitive abilities (i.e., smokers within the criminal justice system). Participants (N=495) provided demographic information, were administered a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and completed a number of measures assessing cognitive abilities. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) model using signal detection theory indicated that the strongest predictor of anxiety disorder diagnosis was race, with White participants having a 30.6% likelihood of diagnosis and participants in the non-White category (97% of which identified as Black/African American) having a 18.9% likelihood of diagnosis. Interestingly, the individual risk profile associated with the highest probability of having a current anxiety disorder was characterized by White participants with impaired response inhibition (58.6%), and the lowest probability of having a current anxiety disorder was among non-White males (13.9%). The findings, which indicated that White individuals with impaired response inhibition are at a disproportionately high risk for anxiety disorders, suggest a potential target for prevention and intervention. PMID:26089016

  2. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p pregnancy, increased systolic (p Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial. PMID:27528436

  3. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014. AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SETTING: Community through home visit. STUDY DESIGN: Community based Cross sectional survey. STUDY DURATION: The study was conducted from July 2008 to September 2010. STUDY POPULATION: Through multistage sampling 3500 persons were studied in 12 villages of Wardha district (MH. STUDY INSTRUMENTS: Step-1(core of WHOs STEP-wise approach (2002. was used to study physical activity by home visit using a pretested structured schedule in English/Marathi. Step 1 contains Core or “minimum set”, self-report measures for all countries. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: The total physical activity is the sum of physical activity at work, transport and leisure time. Individuals were divided into physically inactive, moderately active and highly active according to MET minutes of exertion. CONSENT: Informed consent from participants and ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee was obtained. RESULTS: 3500 individuals (Male 54.86% and Female 45.14% were studied. Prevalence of physical inactivity was 26.88% in all, 18.75% in male and 35.44% in female; more in 15-24 years and 55-64 years, more in female than male in each age group. CONCLUSIONS: Physical inactivity is widely prevalent even in rural population but a preventable and modifiable NCD RF through organized multispectral efforts

  4. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (PPCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART.

  5. Study on the Credit Risk in Societies with Agricultural Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenica POPESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The credit risk is one of the most important risks the banks face in their daily work and it has a direct impact on bank performance. In the current context, a bank has available a variety of options to determine capital requirements, to decrease the credit risk. This study aims to analyze the correlation of the main indicators of creditworthiness of firms and the credit risk, that a bank will take giving credit to these firms.

  6. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  7. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L. H.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  8. Can milk proteins be a useful tool in the management of cardiometabolic health? An updated review of human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Ágnes A; Givens, D Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases is a significant public health burden worldwide. Emerging evidence supports the inverse association between greater dairy consumption and reduced risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Dairy proteins may have an important role in the favourable impact of dairy on human health such as blood pressure (BP), blood lipid and glucose control. The purpose of this review is to update and critically evaluate the evidence on the impacts of casein and whey protein in relation to metabolic function. Evidence from short-term clinical studies assessing postprandial responses to milk protein ingestion suggests benefits on vascular function independent of BP, as well as improvement in glycaemic homeostasis. Long-term interventions have been less conclusive, with some showing benefits and others indicating a lack of improvement in vascular function. During chronic consumption BP appears to be lowered and both dyslipidaemia and hyperglacaemia seem to be controlled. Limited number of trials investigated the effects of dairy proteins on oxidative stress and inflammation. Although the underlying mechanisms of milk proteins on cardiometabolic homeostasis remains to be elucidated, the most likely mechanism is to improve insulin resistance. The incorporation of meals enriched with dairy protein in the habitual diet may result in the beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Nevertheless, future well-designed, controlled studies are needed to investigate the relative effects of both casein and whey protein on BP, vascular function, glucose homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:27150497

  9. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-02-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  10. The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu,1 Leiming Luo,1 Ping Ye,1 Yuan Liu,1 Bing Zhu,1 Yongyi Bai,1 Jie Bai2 1Department of Geriatric Cardiology, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Objective: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods: The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results: Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion: Overweight is common for both sexes in the People's Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice. Keywords: anthropometric indices, residence area, lifestyle, cardiometabolic abnormalities, Chinese community-dwelling population

  11. 75 FR 20615 - Risk Profile: Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Request for Comments and for Scientific Data and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Profile: Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Request for... plans to conduct a risk profile for pathogens and filth in spices. The purpose of the risk profile is to ascertain the current state of knowledge about spices contaminated with microbiological pathogens and/...

  12. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has committed large investments to energy infrastructure assets-power plants, refineries, energy ports, pipelines, roads, railways, etc. The coastal infrastructure being developed to meet the rising energy imports is vulnerable to climate extremes. This paper provides an overview of climate risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies – a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8.5 scenarios. Our analysis shows that risk management through adaptation is likely to be very expensive. The system risks can be even greater and might adversely affect energy security and access objectives. Aligning sustainable development and climate adaptation measures can deliver substantial co-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters and implementation of adaptation measures, and iv) sustainability actions along energy infrastructures that enhance climate resilience and simultaneously deliver co-benefits to local agents. -- Highlights: •Climate risks to energy infrastructures adversely impact energy security. •Case studies of a port and a railway show their future climate change vulnerability. •Managing climate-induced risks through preventive adaptation policies

  13. Literacy Profiles of At-Risk Young Adults Enrolled in Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A latent profile analysis of 323 economically and academically at-risk adolescent and young adult learners yielded two classes: an average literacy class (92%) and a low literacy class (8%). The class profiles significantly differed in their word reading and math skills, and in their processing speeds and self-reported learning disabilities. The…

  14. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with atherosclerosis-promoting risk factor clustering but not vascular damage in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheraghi, Nikoo; Dai, Hongying; Raghuveer, Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D has been associated with multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in children but there is a paucity of studies examining its correlation to vascular function and structure. Our objective was to determine whether there is a correlation between vitamin D, cardiometabolic risk, vascular distensibility and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in high-risk children. Material/Methods This was a cross-sectional, cohort study that compared vitamin D to cardiometabol...

  15. Cocoa, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling: cardiometabolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mai, Francesca; Martella, Letizia; De Feo, Martina; Soddu, Daniele; Fellini, Emanuela; Veneri, Mariangela; Stamerra, Cosimo A; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-11-18

    Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states. Glucose and insulin actions in the skeletal muscle are improved by insulin-dependent production of nitric oxide, favoring capillary recruitment, vasodilatation, and increased blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction, with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance has been described, at least in part, to negatively affect endothelial function. Consistent with this, conditions of insulin resistance are usually linked to endothelial dysfunction, and the exposure of the endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and cocoa flavonoids may positively affect the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction with possible benefits in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  16. Profiling risk and sustainability in coastal deltas of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Z. D.; Vörösmarty, C. J.; Grossberg, M.; Gladkova, I.; Aizenman, H.; Syvitski, J. P. M.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2015-08-01

    Deltas are highly sensitive to increasing risks arising from local human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. We quantified changing flood risk due to extreme events using an integrated set of global environmental, geophysical, and social indicators. Although risks are distributed across all levels of economic development, wealthy countries effectively limit their present-day threat by gross domestic product-enabled infrastructure and coastal defense investments. In an energy-constrained future, such protections will probably prove to be unsustainable, raising relative risks by four to eight times in the Mississippi and Rhine deltas and by one-and-a-half to four times in the Chao Phraya and Yangtze deltas. The current emphasis on short-term solutions for the world’s deltas will greatly constrain options for designing sustainable solutions in the long term.

  17. Profiling Sectoral Risks of Foreign Direct Investment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Zahné

    2014-01-01

    Attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) is of utmost importance for African countries in order to create employment opportunities, reduce poverty and to ensure sustainable economic growth. Despite Africa’s exceptional FDI performance during the past decade, the majority of FDI inflows have been directed to a few selected countries. As investors face many risks when investing in developing countries it is argued that risk perception plays a vital role in the FDI inflows into Africa. This ...

  18. HIV risk profile and prostitution among female street youths

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Amy E.; Boivin, Jean-François; Blais, Lucie; Haley, Nancy; Roy, Élise

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors among female street youths involved in prostitution and those with no history of prostitution. Youths aged 14 to 25 years were recruited into the Montreal Street Youth Cohort. Semiannually, youths completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses comparing characteristics and HIV risk factors for girls involved in prostitution and those never involved were carried out using param...

  19. RISK FACTOR PROFILES OF ADVERSE NEUROMOTOR OUTCOME IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin SOLEIMANI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAssessment of risk predictors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year of age in term and near-term infants.Material & MethodsThis case-control study was a representative sample of infants from different health-care centers of north and east of Tehran. The association betweenrisk factors and delayed motor development (developmental quotient below 70 indicating a significant delay was analyzed using correlating risk factors;including the perinatal and neonatal data to the developmental status. The case group consisted of 143 infants whose DQ score was less than 70 and thecontrol group consisted of 140 infants who had a DQ score of more than 70.ResultsNeonatal seizures, Apgar score less than 3 after 5 minutes of birth (OR = 2.87 [95% CI; 1.68, 4.92], low birth weight (OR = 5.86 [95% CI; 3.07, 11.18], pretermdelivery (OR =6.17 [95% CI; 3.04, 12.52], Premature rupture of membranes (PROM>24 hours (OR = 6.18[95% CI; 2.07, 18.51] and hyperbilirubinemialeading to phototherapy or exchange transfusion (OR =3.75 [95% CI; 2.12, 6.65] were associated with an increased risk for neuromotor delay on developmentalexamination at 1 year.ConclusionThis study identified distinct risk factors for an adverse outcome in infants. In this environment, perinatal risk predictors are most important.Keywords: Neurodevelopmental outcome, perinatal period, infant, risk factor.

  20. Proteases in cardiometabolic diseases: Pathophysiology, molecular mechanisms and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Yinan; Nair, Sreejayan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. and other developed country. Metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes/insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia is major threat for public health in the modern society. It is well established that metabolic syndrome contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease collective called as cardiometabolic disease. Despite documented studies in the research field of cardiometabolic disease, the underlying mechan...

  1. A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL OF THE FETAL BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE VERSUS MODIFIED BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HIGH RISK PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe original biophysical profile is time consuming and costly. This study was performed to compare diagnostic value of the original fetal biophysical profile to the modified biophysical profile. Patients were selected from high risk pregnancies referred for fetal assessment and were randomly assigned to two groups. The measures of outcomes were perinatal mortality, Cesarean section for abnormal test, meconium-stained amniotic fluid and 5-minute Apgar score < 7. Diagnostic values of tests were assessed in terms of the incidence of abnormal outcome. In addition comparisons between the positive and negative predictive values of each of these tests as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the tests were reviewed. A total of 200 patients were entered into the study; 104 pregnancies were managed by the original biophysical profile and 96 pregnancies by the modified biophysical profile. There were 30 abnormal (31.3% in modified biophysical profile and 24 (23.1% abnormal tests in original one. There was significant difference in the incidence of meconium passage between two groups. Cesarean section for abnormal tests was 27 of 30 abnormal test (90% in modified and 22 of 24 (91.6% in original profile that was similar in both groups. There was not significant difference in Apgar score < 7 between two groups. We did not find significant difference with comparison of the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of two tests for all measures of outcome except the positive predictive value of meconium passage. Original biophysical profile is more costly and time consuming than modified one.

  2. A Comprehensive Profile of Health Risk Behaviors Among Students at a Small Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer P.; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Herbert, Rosemary J.; Smith, Philip B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent attention to health promotion and illness prevention, young people continue to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, which may negatively influence current and future health status. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive profile of health risk behaviors among undergraduate students at the University of Prince…

  3. Profile of the software industry emergence, ascendance, risks, and rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Slaughter, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    Software plays a critical role in today's global informationeconomy. It runs the computers, networks, and devicesthat enable countless products and services. Softwarevaries in size from vast enterprise and communicationssystems like the enormous enterprise resource planningsystem from SAP to the tiny app Angry Birds.This book offers a profile of the software industry and thecompanies in the industry. It describes the primary productsand services produced; reviews its history; explainshow the industry is structured; discusses its economics andcompetitive environment; and examines important tren

  4. RISK FACTOR PROFILES OF ADVERSE NEUROMOTOR OUTCOME IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani MD

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAssessment of risk predictors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year of age in term and near-term infants.Material & MethodsThis case-control study was a representative sample of infants from different health-care centers of north and east of Tehran. The association betweenrisk factors and delayed motor development (developmental quotient below 70 indicating a significant delay was analyzed using correlating risk factors;including the perinatal and neonatal data to the developmental status. The case group consisted of 143 infants whose DQ score was less than 70 and thecontrol group consisted of 140 infants who had a DQ score of more than 70.ResultsNeonatal seizures, Apgar score less than 3 after 5 minutes of birth (OR = 2.87 [95% CI; 1.68, 4.92], low birth weight (OR = 5.86 [95% CI; 3.07, 11.18], pretermdelivery (OR =6.17 [95% CI; 3.04, 12.52], Premature rupture of membranes (PROM>24 hours (OR = 6.18[95% CI; 2.07, 18.51] and hyperbilirubinemialeading to phototherapy or exchange transfusion (OR =3.75 [95% CI; 2.12, 6.65] were associated with an increased risk for neuromotor delay on developmentalexamination at 1 year.ConclusionThis study identified distinct risk factors for an adverse outcome in infants. In this environment, perinatal risk predictors are most important.

  5. A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Matti; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Rosqvist, Fredrik;

    2014-01-01

    compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil......Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination...... of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance...

  6. Hepatic function and the cardiometabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas WiernspergerINSERM French Institute of Health and Medical Research, U1060, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, University of Lyon, Villeurbanne, FranceAbstract: Despite skeletal muscle being considered by many as the source of insulin resistance, physiology tells us that the liver is a central and cardinal regulator of glucose homeostasis. This is sometimes underestimated because, in contrast with muscle, investigations of liver function are technically very difficult. Nevertheless, recent experimental and clinical research has demonstrated clearly that, due in part to its anatomic position, the liver is exquisitely sensitive to insulin and other hormonal and neural factors, either by direct intrahepatic mechanisms or indirectly by organ cross-talk with muscle or adipose tissue. Because the liver receives absorbed nutrients, these have a direct impact on liver function, whether via a caloric excess or via the nature of food components (eg, fructose, many lipids, and trans fatty acids. An emerging observation with a possibly great future is the increase in intestinal permeability observed as a consequence of high fat intake or bacterial modifications in microbiota, whereby substances normally not crossing the gut gain access to the liver, where inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation leads to fatty liver, a situation observed very early in the development of diabetes. The visceral adipose tissue located nearby is another main source of inflammatory substances and oxidative stress, and also acts on hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, resulting in stimulation of macrophages. Liberation of these substances, in particular triglycerides and inflammation factors, into the circulation leads to ectopic fat deposition and vascular damage. Therefore, the liver is directly involved in the development of the prediabetic cardiometabolic syndrome. Treatments are mainly metformin, and possibly statins and vitamin D. A very promising

  7. The implications of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity on cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2015-07-01

    The important changes in body composition associated with aging are a decline in skeletal muscle mass and an increase in body fat. Body fat distribution also changes with age; subcutaneous fat decreases and visceral abdominal fat increase, which contributes to numerous cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sarcopenia often accompanied by an increase in body fat and vice versa, a scenario termed sarcopenic obesity (SO), which might lead to the cumulative risk of both sarcopenia and obesity. However, there is still no consensus regarding the definition and consequences of SO. The lack of a unified definition for SO might contribute to inconsistent findings about the association of SO with CMD. Complex etiologies are associated with development of SO. A vicious cycle between the loss of muscle and the accumulation of ectopic fat might be associated with CMD via an intricate interplay of factors including proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, dietary energy, physical activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other factors that have yet to be identified. Moreover, recent epidemiological studies suggest that SO is related to CVD and mortality. This review focuses on the current literature with regard to the association between sarcopenia, dynapenia, and obesity, as well as their implications for CMD. The ultimate goal of this Prospects is to encourage conduct of well-designed future studies that elucidate the relationship among sarcopenia, SO, and CMD.

  8. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Seulki; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present ...

  9. A behavioral intervention in a cohort of Japanese-Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk Intervención conductual en nipo-brasileños con alto riesgo cardiometabólico Intervenção comportamental em nipo-brasileiros com alto risco cardiometabólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Almeida-Pititto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a health promotion program on cardiometabolic risk profile in Japanese-Brazilians. METHODS: A total of 466 subjects from a study on diabetes prevalence conducted in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, in 2000 completed a 1-year intervention program (2005-2006 based on healthy diet counseling and physical activity. Changes in blood pressure and metabolic parameters in the 2005-2006 period were compared with annual changes in these same variables in the 2000-2005 period. RESULTS: During the intervention, there were greater annual reductions in mean (SD waist circumference [-0.5(3.8 vs. 1.2(1.2 cm per year, pOBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de programa de promoción de salud en el perfil de riesgo cardiometabólico de nipón-brasileños. MÉTODOS: Un total de 466 participantes en estudio de prevalencia de diabetes en Bauru, Sudeste de Brasil, en el año 2000 completaron un programa de intervención de un año (2005-2006 basado en consejos sobre dieta saludable y práctica de actividad física. Alteraciones en presión arterial y parámetros metabólicos entre 2005 y 2006 se compararon con alteraciones anuales en esas mismas variables entre 2000 y 2005. RESULTADOS: Durante la intervención, se observaron mayores reducciones anuales promedio (dp en la circunferencia de la cintura [-0,5(3,8 vs. 1,2(1,2 cm/año, pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do programa de promoção de saúde no perfil de risco cardiometabólico de nipobrasileiros. MÉTODOS: Um total de 466 participantes de estudo de prevalência de diabetes em Bauru, SP, no ano de 2000 completou um programa de intervenção de um ano (2005-2006 baseado em aconselhamento sobre dieta saudável e prática de atividade física. Alterações em pressão arterial e parâmetros metabólicos entre 2005 e 2006 foram comparados com alterações anuais nessas mesmas variáveis entre 2000 e 2005. RESULTADOS: Durante a intervenção, foram observadas maiores reduções anuais m

  10. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  11. Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, David G; Gurdasani, Deepti; Riha, Johanna;

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations.......Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations....

  12. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghattu V Krishnaveni

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability.Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-9.5 and 9.5-13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages.Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5-9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]. Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5-9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40] and HOMA-IR (5-9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5-13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]. Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function.This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

  13. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Naswa, Prakriti; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    India has committed large investments to energy infrastructure assets-power plants, refineries, energy ports, pipelines, roads, railways, etc. The coastal infrastructure being developed to meet the rising energy imports is vulnerable to climate extremes. This paper provides an overview of climate...... and implementation of adaptation measures, and iv) sustainability actions along energy infrastructures that enhance climate resilience and simultaneously deliver co-benefits to local agents....... risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies - a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8...

  14. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funghetto SS

    2015-01-01

    .546; P=0.007 proved to be predictors of reaching the eutrophic state.Conclusion: Accurate identification of obesity, systemic inflammation, and atherogenic lipid profile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women. Keywords: lipids, aging, body fat, women, body mass index, health profile

  15. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  16. Maternal Vitamin D Status at Week 30 of Gestation and Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Health at 20 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study over Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Grandström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women and since the fetus relies exclusively on maternal supply, deficiency could potentially interfere with fetal development. Vitamin D blood concentrations during pregnancy have been associated with offspring cardio-metabolic health in a few previous studies but the evidence is still inconsistent and only one previous study has followed the offspring into adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal serum concentration of vitamin D (25(OH)D) in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at 20 years. Subjects/Methods A follow up study of a Danish birth cohort from 1988–89 (n = 965) was conducted. A blood sample was drawn from the women in week 30 of gestation. In 2008–2009, 95% of the original mother and child dyads could be identified in the central registration registry and were alive and living in Denmark. The offspring were followed up with self-reported anthropometrics (N = 629, 69%) and a clinical examination (N = 410, 45%). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between maternal 25(OH)D and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors adjusting for potential confounders. Results No overall association was observed between maternal 25(OH)D in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, the analyses did suggest a possible inverse association with blood pressure in females. Conclusions No clear association between maternal 25(OH)D concentration in week 30 of gestation and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the 20 year old offspring was found. PMID:27764169

  17. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria; Papagiannouli, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors. Methods: The study group consisted of 814 preschool children. A questionnaire on family, demographic and socioeconomic factors, general health, oral hygiene and dietary behavior was completed by the parents. Children were examined for cavitated and white-spot lesions (WSL). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and buffer capacit...

  18. BENEFICIAL IMPACT ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK PROFILE OF WATER BUFFALO MEAT CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Giordano, Gabriele; Guarini, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizio; Schiavone, Beniamino; Giordano, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES : Meat is a good source of proteins and irons, yet its consumption has been associated with unfavorable cardiovascular effects. Whether this applies to all types of meat is unclear. We thus aimed to appraise the impact of water buffalo meat consumption on car?diovascular risk profile with an observational longitudinal study. METHODS: Several key cardiovascular risk features were appraised at baseline and at 12-month follow-up in 300 adult subjects ...

  19. Depression treatment in individuals with cancer: a comparative analysis with cardio-metabolic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi B. Rane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the current state of nationwide depression treatment practices in individuals with cancer and depression does not exist in the United States (US. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine rates of any depression treatment among individuals with cancer and depression in the US. To better understand the relationship between any treatment for depression and presence of cancer, we used a comparison group of individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions owing to the similar challenges faced in management of depression in individuals with these conditions. We used a retrospective cross-sectional design and data from multiple years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative household-survey on healthcare utilization and expenditures. Study sample consisted of adults aged 21 or older with self-reported depression and cancer (n=528 or self-reported depression and diabetes, heart disease or hypertension (n=1643. Depression treatment comprised of any use of antidepres- sants and/or any use of mental health counseling services. Treatment rates for depression were 78.0% and 81.7% among individuals with cancer and cardio-metabolic conditions respectively. After controlling for socio-demographic, access-to-care, number of physician-visits, health-status, and lifestyle risk-factors related variables; individuals with cancer were less likely to report any treatment for depression (Adjusted Odds Ratio=0.67; 95% Confidence Interval=0.49, 0.92 compared to individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions (P≤0.01. Our findings highlight the possibility that competing demands may crowd out treatment for depression and that cancer diagnosis may be a barrier to depression treatment.

  20. Cardiovascular and thrombogenic risk of decidual vasculopathy in preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, D.U.; Al-Nasiry, S.; Fajta, M.M.; Bulten, J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of preeclampsia (PE) have an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic, cardiovascular, and prothrombotic risk factors. Remotely, these women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular and thrombotic disease. Decidual vasculopathy (DV) describes vascular lesions

  1. Lipid profile of nutrition students and its association with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Mara Fisberg

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the lipid profile and to verify its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors in students at a public university in São Paulo. METHODS: After obtaining clinical, anthropomorphic, and lipid profile data from 118 students, variables of the lipid profile were related to other risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 20.3 years (SD=1.5. The risk of cardiovascular disease was characterized by a positive family history of ischemic heart disease in 38.9%; sedentariness in 35.6%; limiting and increased total and LDL-C cholesterol levels in 17.7% and 10.2%, respectively; decreased HDL-C levels in 11.1%; increased triglyceride levels in 11.1%; body mass index >25 in 8.5%, and smoking in 6.7% of the subjects. Students' diet was found to be inadequate regarding protein, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and fiber contents. A statistically significant association between cholesterol and contraceptive use, between HDL-C and contraceptive use, age and percent body fat, and triglycerides and percent lean weight was observed. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of some risk factors of cardiovascular disease as well as the association between these factors with altered lipid profiles was observed in the young population studied.

  2. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  3. Cariogram caries risk profiles in adolescent orthodontic patients with and without some salivary variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsi, Georgia; Gizani, Sotiria; Twetman, Svante;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Cariogram caries risk profiles with and without salivary buffer capacity and mutans streptococci (MS) counts in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 90 healthy Greek adolescents who were undergoing orthodontic...... to the medium risk category when MS counts were excluded. The difference between the nine-item Cariogram and the MS-reduced version, however, was not statistically significant (P  =  .07). CONCLUSIONS: The Cariogram model may be used both with and without salivary tests for risk grouping in orthodontic practice....

  4. Risk Profile in a Sample of Patients with Breast Cancer from the Public Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina IRIMIE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer represents a major public health and economical burden in developed countries and has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, matching its effect in industrialized nations. Although there have been recent declines in breast cancer mortality rates in some European Union countries, breast cancer remains of key importance to public health in Europe. Now days there is increasing recognition of the causative role of lifestyle factors, as smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, or lake of physical activity. The present study aimed to appreciate the presence and magnitude of modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in a sample of patients diagnosed with the disease, and to outline a risk profile liable to be changed in the intention of reducing the global risk. Risk factors have been investigated in 65 patients diagnosed with breast cancer using a questionnaire for breast cancer risk factors evaluation. The high risk profile was identified as taking shape for urban environment, modulated by the impact of overweight-obesity, smoking, reproductive factors and environmental exposure to different chemical substances. From the public health perspective, the control of overweight and obesity comes out in the foreground of preventive activities. Public health approaches emphasize on inexpensive, practical methods and in this perspective the approach of obesity should focus on the alteration of environmental context, promoting healthy eating and increased physical activity which could have a positive, independent impact on breast cancer risk

  5. Demonstration of Risk Profiling for promoting safety in SME´s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the risks and potential risks that may lead to accidents. It aims to look at how to improve risk assessment within SMEs for the benefit of all staff. Design/methodology/approach – The research included results from a Dutch project which...... identifies accident risks and safety barriers that are presented in a huge database and risk calculator. The method was first to develop a simple way of accessing this enormous amount of data, second, to develop a tool to observe risks and safety barriers in SMEs and to investigate the usefulness...... of the developed tools in real life, third, to collect data on risks and safety barriers in SMEs for two occupations by following 20 people for three days each and to create a risk profile for each occupations. Findings – The result is a simple way to go through all types of risks for accidents – a tool for risk...

  6. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk.

  7. THE INTERNAL CAPITAL ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT PROCESS – ICAAP (regulation, assessment of risk profile and specific risk positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjin Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal capital adequacyassessment process - ICAAP, describes whether thebank's risk profile and capital are consistent withthe requirements of regulators and the bankinternal estimates. ICAAP unifies business strategyand risk management strategy by ensuring that thebank can at any time identify inherent risks, whilecomparing them with the internally set limits andlevels of capital for its coverage, all in order tomaintain profitability and solvency of the bank. Therole of supervisors in the ICAAP process is toevaluate the capital adequacy and the quality of therisk management in banks starting from the specificrisk profile of the bank and the principle ofproportionality and to draw conclusions about theadequacy of the bank’s capital after review of itsbusiness. Implementation and use of the ICAAP is acomplex process and executive officers in banks,especially the top management, should be in chargeof its implementation. ICAAP implementation inBosnia and Herzegovina (BiH will be based onstandard models of Basel 2 and the basic models ofestimates of capital needed to cover other riskareas, while the largest amounts of allocatedcapital will be related to coverage of the credit riskand the concentration risk.

  8. Cardio-metabolic and immunological impacts of extra virgin olive oil consumption in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rozati, M; Marcos, Ascensión; Meydani, S N

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Rozati et al. Background: Both aging and obesity are related to dysregulated immune function, which may be responsible for increased risk of infection and also chronic non-infectious diseases. Dietary lipids have been shown to impact immune and inflammatory responses and cardio-metabolic risk factors. No information on the impact of olive oil on immune responses of overweight and obese older adults is available. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of replacing oils used in a ty...

  9. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  10. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  11. How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program

    OpenAIRE

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan; Roya Kelishadi; Mansour Siavash; Gholamhossein Sadri; Hossein Malekafzali; Masoud Pourmoghaddas; Shahin Shirani; Maryam Boshtam; Sedigheh Asgary; Noushin Mohammadifard; Ahmad Bahonar; Babak Eshrati; Farhad Ghamsari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program. Design: Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area. Setting: The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Naja...

  12. Genetics of kidney disease and related cardiometabolic phenotypes in Zuni Indians: The Zuni Kidney Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Laston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify genetic factors associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD and related cardiometabolic phenotypes among participants of the Genetics of Kidney Disease in Zuni Indians study. The study was conducted as a community-based participatory research project in the Zuni Indians, a small endogamous tribe in rural New Mexico. We recruited 998 members from 28 extended multigenerational families, ascertained through probands with CKD who had at least one sibling with CKD. We used the Illumina Infinium Human1M-Duo v3.0 BeadChips to type 1.1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Prevalence estimates for CKD, hyperuricemia, diabetes and hypertension were 24%, 30%, 17% and 34%, respectively. We found a significant (p<1.58 × 10-7 association for a SNP in a novel gene for serum creatinine (PTPLAD2. We replicated significant associations for genes with serum uric acid (SLC2A9, triglyceride levels (APOA1, BUD13, ZNF259, and total cholesterol (PVRL2. We found novel suggestive associations (p<1.58 × 10-6 for SNPs in genes with systolic (OLFML2B, and diastolic blood pressure (NFIA. We identified a series of genes associated with CKD and related cardiometabolic phenotypes among Zuni Indians, a population with a high prevalence of kidney disease. Illuminating genetic variations that modulate the risk for these disorders may ultimately provide a basis for novel preventive strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  13. Update on cardiometabolic health effects of w-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Goede, de J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The fish fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may promote cardiometabolic health. This review summarizes the results of recent meta-analyses of prospective studies on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes type 2 and markers of atherosclerosis and thro

  14. GWAS as a Driver of Gene Discovery in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanasovska, Biljana; Kumar, Vinod; Fu, Jingyuan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hofker, Marten H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases represent a common complex disorder with a strong genetic component. Currently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded some 755 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing 366 independent loci that may help to decipher the molecular basis of cardiometabo

  15. Adapting to aging out: profiles of risk and resilience among emancipated foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tuppett M; Grey, Izabela K

    2012-05-01

    This investigation employed latent profile analysis to identify distinct patterns of multiform competence among 164 emancipated foster youth (Mage = 19.67 years, SD = 1.12; 64% female). Fit indices and conceptual interpretation converged on a four-profile solution. A subset of emancipated youth evidenced a maladaptive profile (16.5%; n = 27), which was characterized by low educational competence, low occupational competence, low civic engagement, problematic interpersonal relationships, low self-esteem, and high depressive symptoms. However, the largest group of emancipated youth exhibited a resilient profile in which they were faring reasonably well in all domains despite marked adversity (47%; n = 77). Two additional groups evidenced discordant adjustment patterns wherein they exhibited high levels of psychological competence despite behavioral difficulties (i.e., internally resilient; 30%; n = 49) or significant emotional difficulties despite manifest competence (i.e., externally resilient; 6.5%; n = 11). The obtained profiles were validated against independent measures of behavioral and socioemotional adjustment. Exploratory analyses examined etiological differences across profiles with respect to child welfare variables, such as age at entry into care, placement disruption, reason for placement, and severity of child maltreatment. The findings highlight the need for multidimensional models of risk and resilience and illustrate the importance of heretofore underappreciated heterogeneity in the adaptive outcomes of emancipated foster youth. PMID:22559125

  16. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  17. Emerging Drugs and Indications for Cardio-Metabolic Disorders in People with Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidrat, Youssef; Amad, Ali; De Hert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Patients with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. All of these comorbidities increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Different approaches, including diet and lifestyle modifications, behavioral therapy and switching antipsychotic agents, have been proposed to manage these metabolic abnormalities. However, these interventions may be insufficient, impractical or fail to counteract the metabolic dysregulation. Consequently, a variety of pharmacological agents such as antidiabetic drugs, have been studied in an attempt to reverse the weight gain and metabolic abnormalities evident in these patients. Despite a significant effect, many of these treatments are used off-label. This qualitative review focuses on pharmacological agents that could offer significant benefits in the management of cardio-metabolic disorders associated with serious mental illness. PMID:26088113

  18. Neurocognitive, Neuroprotective, and Cardiometabolic Effects of Raloxifene: Potential for Improving Therapeutic Outcomes in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been approved for treating osteoporosis and breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. However, recent evidence suggests that raloxifene adjunct therapy improves cognition and reduces symptom severity in men and women with schizophrenia. In animal models, raloxifene increases forebrain neurogenesis and enhances working memory and synaptic plasticity. It may consequently repair the neuronal and synaptic connectivity that is disrupted in schizophrenia. It also reduces oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which are potent etiological factors in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, in postmenopausal women, raloxifene reduces the risks for atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and weight gain, which are serious adverse effects associated with long-term antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia; therefore, it may improve the safety and efficacy of antipsychotic drugs. In this review, recent insights into the neurocognitive, neuroprotective, and cardiometabolic effects of raloxifene in relation to therapeutic outcomes in schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:27193386

  19. Relation of Body Circumferences to Cardiometabolic Disease in Overweight-Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaloni, Ernesto; Cavallari, Ilaria; De Pascalis, Mariangela; Keenan, Hillary; Park, Kyoungmin; Manfrini, Silvia; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Patti, Giuseppe; Di Sciascio, Germano; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2016-09-15

    Body circumferences have been proposed as potential anthropometric measures for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk as they are independently associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to validate neck and wrist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as practical markers of metabolic dysfunction and atherosclerosis; 120 subjects who underwent coronary angiography and carotid Doppler ultrasound were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria were history of diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, body mass index (BMI) media thickness: β = 0.104, R(2) = 0.118, p = 0.003. Carotid intima-media thickness and MS, but not body circumferences, were associated with advanced atherosclerosis. In conclusion, these data indicate that anthropometric measurements, in particular wrist circumference, can be used as practical tools for assessment of metabolic risk in overweight-obese subjects but not as markers of advanced atherosclerosis. PMID:27457430

  20. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  1. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL...... improved by weight reduction....

  2. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  3. Exome sequencing of ion channel genes reveals complex variant profiles confounding personal risk assessment in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Tara; Davis, Caleb; Goldman, Alica; Burgess, Dan; Chen, Tim; Wheeler, David; McPherson, John; Bourquin, Traci; Lewis, Lora; Villasana, Donna; Morgan, Margaret; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard; Noebels, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Ion channel mutations are an important cause of rare Mendelian disorders affecting brain, heart, and other tissues. We performed parallel exome sequencing of 237 channel genes in a well characterized human sample, comparing variant profiles of unaffected individuals to those with the most common neuronal excitability disorder, sporadic idiopathic epilepsy. Rare missense variation in known Mendelian disease genes is prevalent in both groups at similar complexity, revealing that even deleterious ion channel mutations confer uncertain risk to an individual depending on the other variants with which they are combined. Our findings indicate that variant discovery via large scale sequencing efforts is only a first step in illuminating the complex allelic architecture underlying personal disease risk. We propose that in silico modeling of channel variation in realistic cell and network models will be crucial to future strategies assessing mutation profile pathogenicity and drug response in individuals with a broad spectrum of excitability disorders. PMID:21703448

  4. Risk Factors and Plasma Glucose Profile of Gestational Diabetes in Omani Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitme, Havagiray R; Al Shibli, Sumaiya Abdallah Said; Al-Shamiry, Raya Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to conduct a detailed study on the risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Omani women to determine the actual and applicable risk factors and glucose profile in this population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study using pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Pregnant women without GDM were used as a control group. We collected information related to age, family history, prior history of pregnancy complications, age of marriage, age of first pregnancy, fasting glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results from three hospitals in Oman through face-to-face interviews and hospital records. Results The median age of women with GDM was 33 years old (p 3 deliveries, height marriage at age family history, anthropometric profile, and age of first pregnancy and marriage should be considered while screening for GDM and determining the care needs of Omani women with GDM. PMID:27602192

  5. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors.

  6. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. PMID:27216025

  7. How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program. Design: Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001 and after (2007 a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA and reference area (RA by gender and living area. Setting: The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA. Participants: Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase. Interventions: Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress. Main Outcomes: Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study. Results: In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05. In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01. In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001 and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01, while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01. Conclusions: This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.

  8. The diabetic foot risks profile in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Tshitenge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed: (1 to evaluate the proportion of each diabetic foot (DF risk category, according to the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF consensus, in patients attending the diabetic clinic in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital (SPGH and (2 to examine some of the factors that may be associated with the progression to higher risk categories such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile.Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional chart review of patients who had attended the diabetic clinic in SPGH from January 2013 to December 2013 was performed. Patients were included if they had undergone a foot examination. Patients with amputation due to accident were excluded. The DF risk category was assessed by determining the proportion of patients in each of four risk categories, as described by the IWGDF consensus.Results: The study encompassed 144 records from patients reviewed for foot examination from January to December 2013. Patients’ ages were between 16 and 85 years, 46 (40% were male and 98 (60% were female. The majority (122, [85%] of patients were in DF risk category 0, whilst a limited number of patients were classified in risk category 1 (10, [6.9%], risk category 2 (7, [4.9%] and risk category 3 (5, [3.5%]. Most of the patients had the type 2 diabetes mellitus (139, [97%; 95% CI 92% − 99%]. Patients’ ages were associated with the progressively higher DF risk categories. The adjusted odd ratio was 1.1 (95% CI 1.03−1.14; p = 0.004.Conclusion: The present study revealed that about 15% of patients attending the SPGH diabetic clinic were categorised in higher risk groups for diabetic foot; patients’ ages were linked to the higher DF risk categories.

  9. Risk profiling of schistosomiasis using remote sensing: approaches, challenges and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that affects an estimated 250 million people, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The transmission of schistosomiasis is spatially and temporally restricted to freshwater bodies that contain schistosome cercariae released from specific snails that act as intermediate hosts. Our objective was to assess the contribution of remote sensing applications and to identify remaining challenges in its optimal application for schistosomiasis risk profiling i...

  10. Racial Disparities between the Sex Steroid Milieu and the Metabolic Risk Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto Jackson; Ronald Goldberg; Robert Ross; Arlette Perry; Xuewen Wang

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Method. The present study examined the relationship between the metabolic risk profile (MRP) and total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone using the free androgen index (FAI) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 36 Caucasian American (CA) and 30 African-American (AA) women volunteering for a weight loss study. Results. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between TT and diastolic blood pressure (P = .004 and P = .015 in CA and AA women, resp.). Ad...

  11. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  12. Risk of Credit Cooperatives: An analysis based on the profile of the cooperated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto de Souza Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has as purpose to analyze among the credit operations, those that generate larger breach of contract risk for the cooperative, with base in the profile of the cooperated, and to identify which the strategies can be pointed to avoid possible flaws in the next credit analyses. The work was divided in three stages. The first stage refers to the National Financial System, with the objective of demonstrating as in him the Cooperatives of Credit are inserted. The second stage approaches the System of Cooperative Credit, it presents that form is structured and his/her hierarchical level. The third stage treats of the System of Risk of Credit, in the which the risk, administration and the models of credit evaluation will be analyzed. It was verified that the most appropriate models for analysis of the Cooperatives of Credit are Credit Scoring Models and Credit Bureau, us which, through statistical techniques as the analysis discriminante and regression logistics, the characteristics of considered credits of larger breach of contract risk were demonstrated. The analysis based on identifying the "worse customer", because this generates larger breach of contract risk and it influences in the financial administration. It was ended that the most relevant variables to identify the breach of contract risk were the rude monthly income and the value liberated in the credit concession, because the largest concentration of breach of contract risk.

  13. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  14. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution. PMID:26904402

  15. The Effects of Fructose-Containing Sugars on Weight, Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors When Consumed at up to the 90th Percentile Population Consumption Level for Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA and World Health Organization (WHO have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010. Sucrose (SUC and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20–60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01, a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05 and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001. However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05, LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05, SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05 and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05 were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05. These data suggest that: (1 when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO; (2 changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest.

  16. Clinical profile of high-risk febrile neutropenia in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan V Bhojaraja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection in the immunocompromised host has been a reason of concern in the clinical setting and a topic of debate for decades. In this study, the aim was to analyse the clinical profile of high-risk febrile neutropenic patients. Aims To study the clinical profile of high risk febrile neutropenia patients with the objective of identifying the most common associated malignancy, most common associated pathogen, the source of infection, to correlate the treatment and management with that of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA 2010 guidelines and to assess the clinical outcome. Methods A cross-sectional time bound study was carried out and a total of 80 episodes of high-risk febrile neutropenia were recorded among patients with malignancies from September 2011 to July 2013 with each episode being taken as a new case. Results Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (30 per cent was the most common malignancy associated, commonest source of infection was due to central venous catheters, the commonest pathogens were gram negative (52 per cent the treatment and management of each episode of high risk febrile neutropenia correlated with that of IDSA 2010 guidelines and the mortality rate was 13.75 per cent. Conclusion Febrile neutropenia is one of the major complications and cause of mortality in patients with malignancy and hence understanding its entire spectrum can help us reduce morbidity and mortality.

  17. Benchmark dose profiles for joint-action continuous data in quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland C; Piegorsch, Walter W

    2013-09-01

    Benchmark analysis is a widely used tool in biomedical and environmental risk assessment. Therein, estimation of minimum exposure levels, called benchmark doses (BMDs), that induce a prespecified benchmark response (BMR) is well understood for the case of an adverse response to a single stimulus. For cases where two agents are studied in tandem, however, the benchmark approach is far less developed. This paper demonstrates how the benchmark modeling paradigm can be expanded from the single-agent setting to joint-action, two-agent studies. Focus is on continuous response outcomes. Extending the single-exposure setting, representations of risk are based on a joint-action dose-response model involving both agents. Based on such a model, the concept of a benchmark profile-a two-dimensional analog of the single-dose BMD at which both agents achieve the specified BMR-is defined for use in quantitative risk characterization and assessment.

  18. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  19. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Damsgaard, Camilla T

    2015-11-28

    Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical activity behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile, as well as the impact of fat mass and physical activity in Danish 8-11-year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. We assessed vitamin D status as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and measured blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, plasma lipids, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity by 7 d accelerometry during August-November. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Each 10 mmol/l 25(OH)D increase was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (-0·3 mmHg, 95 % CI -0·6, -0·0) (P=0·02), total cholesterol (-0·07 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·05), LDL-cholesterol (-0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·08, -0·03), TAG (-0·02 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·03, -0·01) (P≤0·001 for all lipids) and lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) score (P=0·01). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations, but the association with blood pressure became borderline significant after adjustment for physical activity (P=0·06). In conclusion, vitamin D status was negatively associated with blood pressure, plasma lipids and a MetS score in Danish school children with low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and apart from blood pressure the associations were independent of body fat and physical activity. The potential underlying cause-effect relationship and possible long-term implications should be investigated in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26382732

  20. Technology for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Cardiometabolic Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Safraj Shahul; Rawal, Ishita; Soni, Deepa; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Goenka, Shifalika; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) are a major cause of mortality, morbidity and disability worldwide. Among Indians, CMD onset is at a much younger age and is prevalent in all sections of the society. Prevention, control and management of CMD and its risk factors is a major public health challenge, and alternative approaches need to be explored and integrated into public health programs. Advancements in the fields of computers, electronics, telecommunication and medicine have resulted in the rapid development of health-related technology. In this paper we provide an overview of the major technological advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention within the field of CMD in the last few decades. This non-exhaustive review focuses on the most promising technologies that the authors feel might be of relevance in the Indian context. Some of the techniques detailed include advances in imaging and mobile phone technology, surgical techniques, electronic health records, Nano medicine, telemedicine and decision support systems.

  1. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Sørensen, B; Feilberg-Jørgensen, N;

    2000-01-01

    To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes....

  2. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  3. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Leutner, Benjamin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d'Ivoire using high- and moderate-resolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixel-based modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  4. Emotional profile and risk behaviours among tattooed and non-tattooed students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Zrno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine differences in emotional profile and frequencies of certain risk behaviours between tattooed and non-tattooed students. Methods One hundred students fulfilled personality assessment (trust, timid, depressive, distrust, aggressive, gregarious, controlled, uncontrolled and questionnaire of socio-demographic data that also included some questions about possession of tattoo (time, place, motive and about certain risk behaviours (court punishment, consummation of alcohol, psychoactive substances and cigarettes. Results The total number of 35 (out of 100 students had a tattoo, and 67 wished to have a tattoo. There was no statistically significant difference in emotional profile between tattooed and nontattooed individuals, yet the differences were detected when the group of subjects who wanted a tattoo and those who did not want a tattoo were compared. Higher result on the aggression scale of and lower on control scale was gained by those with the wish for tattooing. Students with bigger tattoos (23 showed higher score on depression scale. Students in the tattooed group more frequently abused drugs and committed traffic offences compared to the students in non-tattooed group. Conclusion Results of this research as well as previous research show that the presence of a tattoo could be a rough indicator for possible emotional problems and risk behaviour, which could have significant implications in preventing these behaviours. Future studies are required on a larger and more representative sample as well as to clarify why young people decide to be tattooed.

  5. Developing an Adaptive Exposure Model to Support the Generation of Country Disaster Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Rashmin; Ishizawa, Oscar; Aubrecht, Christoph; Pita, Gonzalo; Pomonis, Antonios; Fane, Kayoum; Murray, Siobhan; Blankespoor, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic disaster risk profiles provide estimates of potential damage to property and life caused by adverse natural hazards. A Country Disaster Risk Profile (CDRP), which is a coarse level analysis, presents an estimate of risk at the national level. We define the exposure model in that context as a geo-referenced database of assets at risk at a 1-km grid level, capturing important attributes such as geographical location, urban/rural classification, type of occupancy (e.g. residential and non-residential), building typology (e.g. wood, steel, masonry), and aggregated asset value. We present here a sensitivity analysis of key parameters of the exposure model developed in relation to CDRPs. Specifically, we analyse the sensitivity in characterisation of built up areas, and associated disaggregation of assets. We evaluate this by comparing datasets such as Modis 500m (2010), Landscan (2012), BuREF (2012), and GUF (2013). We also present a method to integrate exterior wall and roof type typologies to assess vulnerability of buildings to both earthquakes and hurricanes. Finally, developments in determining replacement value of buildings from national and sub national datasets are presented. Integration of all these developments together produces an exposure model. The sensitivity of such a model output is even more crucial in risk analysis of Small Island States (SIS), and we highlight this with case studies from the Caribbean region. This resultant gridded exposure database could be convolved with hazard and vulnerability components to create CDRPs for multiple hazards that include earthquake, flood and windstorms. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS & LIPID PROFILE IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is now a global epidemic called as “globesity”. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension is the important cardiovascular disease risk factors that are associated with obesity. Cardiovascular risk is counted partly by metabolic alterations associated with abdominal obesity, disturbances in plasma glucose homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism. AIM: To determine the level risk of coronary artery disease (CAD in the study group depending on waist circumference (WC & Body mass index (BMI. Secondly, to compare the anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in the three groups. MATERIALS & METHODS: Study comprised of three groups: group I (n=30 type II diabetes mellitus, group II (n=30 primary essential hypertension, group III (n=30 hypertensive diabetics. WC, Weight & Height were measured. Lipid profile was estimated. Blood pressure was recorded. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. RESULTS: The Mean & Standard Deviations (SD values for WC & BMI in Group I were seen to be highest in group II 88.1±15.06 & 28.69±4.7 respectively. Statistically significant difference seen in systolic blood pressure between three groups with F value of 18.29 & p value of <0.001. Diastolic blood pressure also showed statistically significant difference in the three groups with F value 21.92 of & p value of < 0.001. statistically significant difference in HDL levels with p value of <0.05, serum cholesterol/ HDL ratio with p value of <0.05 and highly significant difference in triglyceride levels between three groups with p value of <0.001. Conclusion: Waist circumference is a better anthropometric marker as compared to BMI to assess the CAD risk. All the three groups had risk of CAD, but Hypertensive diabetics had highest predisposition for CAD

  7. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health. PMID:27523646

  8. Dietary inflammatory index, cardiometabolic conditions and depression in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ruíz-Canela, Miguel; de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Gea, Alfredo; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2015-11-14

    Only one prospective study has analysed the relationship between the inflammatory properties of diet and risk of depression thus far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the incidence of depression. In a cohort study of 15 093 university graduates, participants completed a validated FFQ at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. The DII was calculated based on the FFQ. Each of the twenty-eight nutrients or foods received a score based on findings from the peer-reviewed literature reporting on the relationships between diet and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and C-reactive protein). Participants were classified as having depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician, antidepressant drugs, or both. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to quintiles of the DII. After a median 8·5 years of follow-up, we observed 1051 incident cases of depression. The HR for participants in the highest quintile of DII (strongly pro-inflammatory) was 1·47 (95% CI 1·17, 1·85) compared with those in the bottom quintile, with a significant dose-response relationship (P trend=0·01). In the subgroup analyses, the association between DII and depression was stronger among participants >55 years and among those with cardiometabolic comorbidities (HR 2·70; 95% CI 1·22, 5·97 and HR 1·80; 95% CI 1·27, 2·57, respectively). A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a significantly higher risk of depression in a Mediterranean population. This association was stronger among older subjects and subjects with cardiometabolic diseases.

  9. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  10. Pre-college matriculation risk profiles and alcohol consumption patterns during the first semesters of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Ray, Anne E; Lu, Shou-En

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses, and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation, and alcohol use was measured with five assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled "Anti-Drinking," "Unfavorable," "Mixed," and "Risky." Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs.

  11. Pre-college matriculation risk profiles and alcohol consumption patterns during the first semesters of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Ray, Anne E; Lu, Shou-En

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses, and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation, and alcohol use was measured with five assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled "Anti-Drinking," "Unfavorable," "Mixed," and "Risky." Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs. PMID:23928750

  12. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali; Danaei, Goodarz; Sichieri, Rosely; Carlos A. Monteiro; Maria L C Louzada; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods: Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases...

  13. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Ashkan Afshin; Renata Micha; Shahab Khatibzadeh; Saman Fahimi; Gitanjali Singh; Goodarz Danaei; Rosely Sichieri; Carlos A. Monteiro; Maria L C Louzada; Majid Ezzati; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2016-01-01

    Background Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases a...

  14. Is an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile a risk factor for vasomotor menopausal symptoms? Results of a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, M. J.; Herber-Gast, G. C M; Van Der Schouw, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests an association between vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMSs), i.e. hot flushes and night sweats, and cardiovascular disease. However, the causal pathway is unclear. We investigated whether an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile is a risk factor for VMS later in life.

  15. Complement C3: an emerging risk factor in cardiometabolic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hertle, E.; van Greevenbroek, M.M.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2012-01-01

    C3 is the central component of the complement system and activation of C3 via any of the three major activation pathways—the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathways—results in initiation of the terminal complement pathway and release of the anaphylatoxin C3a. Both terminal pathway activation and signalling of C3a and its inactivation product C3a-desarg via the C3a receptor and C5a-like receptor 2, respectively, can induce inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic responses. C3 h...

  16. [Muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors among Colombian young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Meneses-Echavez, José F; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre el fitness muscular (FM) con marcadores de riesgo cardio-metabólico en adultos jóvenes de Colombia. Métodos: Un total de 172 hombres (edad 19,7±2,4 años; peso 65,5±10,7 kg; IMC 22,6±2,8 kg•m-1) sin enfermedad cardiovascular previa fueron invitados a participar en el estudio. El FM se determinó mediante el test de dinamometría prensil y los resultados fueron divididos en cuartiles según los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal. Se calculó el índice lipídico-metabólico según las concentraciones de triglicéridos, c-LDL, c-HDL y glucosa. La circunferencia de cintura (CC), porcentaje de grasa, índice de adiposidad corporal (IAC) e índice de masa corporal (IMC) fueron usados como indicadores de adiposidad. Resultados: Después de ajustar por edad, IMC y CC, se observaron relaciones inversas entre el porcentaje de grasa, la CC, los niveles colesterol, HDL-c y LDL-c, con los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal (p.

  17. Muscle carnosine is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora de Courten; Timea Kurdiova; de Courten, Maximilian P.J.; Vitazoslav Belan; Inge Everaert; Marek Vician; Helena Teede; Daniela Gasperikova; Giancarlo Aldini; Wim Derave; Jozef Ukropec; Barbara Ukropcova

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography), % body ...

  18. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E

    2012-09-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarray technologies evaluate the ways in which minor, bioactive compounds in plant oils (including olive, thyme, lemongrass, clove, eucalyptus, and others) alter gene expression to mediate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results from a range of diverse technologies and approaches are coalescing to improve understanding of the role of the genome in shaping our responses to plant oils, and to clarify the genetic mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective benefits we derive from a wide range of plant oil constituents. PMID:23001455

  19. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caren E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarr...

  20. Running for your life: A review of physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Claire; Karelis, Antony D; Stip, Emmanuel; Abdel-Baki, Amal

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have a greater risk for cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g. central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia), cardiovascular diseases and mortality. This risky profile may be explained by the adverse effects of antipsychotic medications and an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. smoking, poor nutrition and low physical activity). In the general population, physical activity has been shown to be the optimal strategy to improve both cardiometabolic parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Accordingly, an emerging literature of non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, diet and physical activity) has been studied in individuals with schizophrenia. Therefore, the purpose of this review was 1) to conduct a critical literature review of non-pharmacological interventions that included some kind of physical activity (including supervised and unsupervised exercise training) and target cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with schizophrenia. 2) To describe the contribution of physical activity alone by reviewing trials of supervised exercise training programmes only. A literature review via systematic keyword search for publications in Medline, PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO was performed. Many non-pharmacological interventions are efficient in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors when combined with physical activity. Supervised physical activity has been successful in decreasing cardiovascular disease risk, and aerobic interval training appears to provide more benefits by specifically targeting cardiorespiratory fitness levels. In conclusion, physical activity is an effective strategy for addressing cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with schizophrenia. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of exercise training programmes in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:26630458

  1. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk profiles of patients attending an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou DT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Danai Tavonga Zhou,1,2 Vitaris Kodogo,1 Kudzai Fortunate Vongai Chokuona,1 Exnevia Gomo,1 Olav Oektedalen,3 Babill Stray-Pedersen21Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale, Zimbabwe; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: The chronic inflammation induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV contributes to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in HIV-infected individuals. HIV-infected patients generally benefit from being treated with antiretroviral drugs, but some antiretroviral agents have side effects, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. There is general consensus that antiretroviral drugs induce a long-term risk of CHD, although the levels of that risk are somewhat controversial. The intention of this cross-sectional study was to describe the lipid profile and the long-term risk of CHD among HIV-positive outpatients at an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Two hundred and fifteen patients were investigated (females n=165, mean age 39.8 years; males n=50; mean age 42.0 years. Thirty of the individuals were antiretroviral-naïve and 185 had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART for a mean 3.9±3.4 years. All participants had average lipid and glucose values within normal ranges, but there was a small difference between the ART and ART- for total cholesterol (TC and high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Those on a combination of D4T or ZDV/NVP/3TC and PI-based ART were on average oldest and had the highest TC levels. Framingham risk showed 1.4% prevalence of high CHD risk within the next ten years. After univariate analysis age, sex, TC/HDL ratio, HDL, economic earnings and systolic BP were associated with medium to high risk of CHD. After multivariate regression analysis and adjusting for age or sex only age, sex and economic earnings

  2. Benchmark dose profiles for joint-action quantal data in quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland C; Piegorsch, Walter W

    2012-12-01

    Benchmark analysis is a widely used tool in public health risk analysis. Therein, estimation of minimum exposure levels, called Benchmark Doses (BMDs), that induce a prespecified Benchmark Response (BMR) is well understood for the case of an adverse response to a single stimulus. For cases where two agents are studied in tandem, however, the benchmark approach is far less developed. This article demonstrates how the benchmark modeling paradigm can be expanded from the single-dose setting to joint-action, two-agent studies. Focus is on response outcomes expressed as proportions. Extending the single-exposure setting, representations of risk are based on a joint-action dose-response model involving both agents. Based on such a model, the concept of a benchmark profile (BMP) - a two-dimensional analog of the single-dose BMD at which both agents achieve the specified BMR - is defined for use in quantitative risk characterization and assessment. The resulting, joint, low-dose guidelines can improve public health planning and risk regulation when dealing with low-level exposures to combinations of hazardous agents.

  3. [Adverse outcomes in maternity care for women with a low risk profile in The Netherlands: a case series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, L.M.; Jacobs, A.; Amelink-Verburg, M.P.; Wentzel, R.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Wensing, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to perform a structural analysis of determinants of risk of critical incidents in care for women with a low risk profile at the start of pregnancy with a view on improving patient safety. METHODS: We included 71 critical incidents in primary midwifery care and subsequent

  4. Adverse outcomes in maternity care for women with a low risk profile in The Netherlands: a case series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, L.; Jacobs, A.; Amelink-Verburg, M.; Wentzel, R.; Buitendijk, S.; Wensing, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to perform a structural analysis of determinants of risk of critical incidents in care for women with a low risk profile at the start of pregnancy with a view on improving patient safety. METHODS: We included 71 critical incidents in primary midwifery care and subsequent

  5. Changes in Coronary Heart Disease Risk Profile of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities following a Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is one of the modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). With an increasing age profile and similar patterns of morbidity to the general population, persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their caregivers would benefit from data that indicate CHD risk factors. Knowledge of the CHD risk…

  6. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…

  7. Degrees of difference among minority female juvenile offenders' psychological functioning, risk behavior engagement, and health status: a latent profile investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Barbara J; Cooper, Shauna M; Brown, Charity; Metzger, Isha

    2012-02-01

    Given the increase in the number of female youth who come in contact with the juvenile justice system, particularly those from ethnic minority backgrounds, concerns have been raised about the health status of this population. Using a latent profile analysis, we identified health profiles using indicators of psychological well-being, health risk behaviors, and health status. Participants included 153 minority adolescent females (M=15.13, SD=1.70) who were currently in a juvenile diversion program. Results indicated that a three-class solution fit the data optimally. Profiles included girls with low to moderate health risks (n=35; 22.9%), higher mental health symptoms (n=68; 44.4%), and a combination of multiple health risks (n=50; 32.7%). Additionally, demographic, contextual and offense-related variation existed across health profiles. Treatment and policy implications are discussed.

  8. Maternal autoantibody profiles at risk for autoimmune congenital heart block: a prospective study in high-risk patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Marta; Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Tison, Tiziana; del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Hoxha, Ariela; Mattia, Elena; Punzi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study aimed to identify antibody profiles characterising mothers with fetuses developing congenital heart block (CHB) by comparing their antibody frequencies and levels with those in unaffected mothers. Methods Eighty-one consecutive pregnant patients positive to anti-Ro±anti-La antibodies, at high risk of developing fetal CHB were prospectively studied. The 16 patients with fetal CHB outcome were considered the study population and the 65 patients with normal pregnancy outcomes were considered the control cohort. Anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60, anti-p200 and anti-La antibodies were assayed using home-made ELISA assays. Results The prevalence of anti-p200 antibodies was significantly higher in the fetal CHB affected patients than in the controls (p=0.03). Combinations of anti-p200 with anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies were significantly more frequent in the women with fetuses developing CHB than in the controls (p=0.03 for all combinations). The women with fetal CHB had significantly higher mean anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-p200 levels than the controls (p=0.003, p=0.0001 and p=0.04, respectively); mean anti-La/SSB level was not significantly different in the two cohorts (p=0.25). Conclusions Since anti-p200, anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies, especially at high level, seem to identify patients at increased risk of developing fetal CHB, their detection could recognise anti-Ro/La positive women at risk for having an infant with this rare, potentially dangerous disorder. PMID:27026811

  9. A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy Nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Matti; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landberg, Rikard; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hukkanen, Janne; Savolainen, Markku J; Dragsted, Lars O; Schwab, Ursula; Paananen, Jussi; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Thorsdottir, Inga; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil (serum phospholipid α-linolenic acid), fatty fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], vegetables (plasma β-carotene), and whole grains (plasma alkylresorcinols). High-fat dairy intake (expectedly low in the ND) was reflected by serum pentadecanoic acid. All participants with biomarker data (n = 154) were included in the analyses. Biomarkers were combined by using a biomarker rank score (DB score) and principal component analysis (PCA). The DB score was then used to assess compliance. During the intervention, median concentrations of alkylresorcinols, α-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were >25% higher in the ND individuals than in the controls (P < 0.05), whereas median concentrations of pentadecanoic acid were 14% higher in controls (P < 0.05). Median DB score was 57% higher in the ND than in controls (P < 0.001) during the intervention, and participants were ranked similarly by DB score and PCA score. Overall, estimates of group difference in cardiometabolic effects generally appeared to be greater among compliant participants than in the whole study

  10. Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial

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    Bernard Gutin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n=242 and (ii that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly (P<0.05 associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P<0.05 associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths.

  11. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

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    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  12. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

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    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  13. Role of Vitamin D in Cardiometabolic Diseases

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    Chaoxun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition. Low vitamin D levels have long been associated with bone diseases, such as rickets in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. However, it has become apparent in recent years that adequate vitamin D levels are also important for optimal functioning of many organs and tissues throughout the body, including the cardiovascular system. Evolving data indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Studies have shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, and chronic vascular inflammation, all of which are risk factors for CVD. This paper reviews the definition and pathophysiology of vitamin D deficiency, clinical evidence linking vitamin D and CVD risk, diabetes and its complications, and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

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    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  15. Income, cumulative risk, and longitudinal profiles of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in preschool-age children.

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    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Thompson, Stephanie F; Kiff, Cara J

    2016-05-01

    Environmental risk predicts disrupted basal cortisol levels in preschool children. However, little is known about the stability or variability of diurnal cortisol morning levels or slope patterns over time in young children. This study used latent profile analysis to identify patterns of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity during the preschool period. Using a community sample (N = 306), this study measured income, cumulative risk, and children's diurnal cortisol (morning level and slope) four times across 2.5 years, starting when children were 36 months old. Latent profile analysis profiles indicated that there were predominantly stable patterns of diurnal cortisol level and slope over time and that these patterns were predicted by income and cumulative risk. In addition, there were curvilinear relations of income and cumulative risk to profiles of low morning cortisol level and flattened diurnal slope across time, suggesting that both lower and higher levels of income and cumulative risk were associated with a stress-sensitive physiological system. Overall, this study provides initial evidence for the role of environmental risk in predicting lower, flattened basal cortisol patterns that remain stable over time. PMID:26040201

  16. Risk profiling of cattle farms as a potential tool in risk-based surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis infection among cattle in tuberculosis-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Lima, Joao; Schwabenlander, Stacey; Oakes, Michael; Thompson, Beth; Wells, Scott J

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To develop a cattle herd risk-profiling system that could potentially inform risk-based surveillance strategies for Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and provide information that could be used to help direct resource allocation by a state agency for this purpose. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Records for any size movement (importation) of cattle into Minnesota from other US states during 2009 (n = 7,185) and 2011 (8,107). PROCEDURES Data from certificates of veterinary inspection were entered into a spreadsheet. Movement data were summarized at premises and county levels, and for each level, the distribution of cattle moved and number of movements were evaluated. Risk profiling (assessment and categorization of risk for disease introduction) for each import movement was performed on the basis of known risk factors. Latent class analysis was used to assign movements to risk classifications with adjustment on the basis of expert opinions from personnel knowledgeable about bovine tuberculosis; these data were used to classify premises as very high, high, medium, or low risk for disease introduction. RESULTS In each year, approximately 1,500 premises imported cattle, typically beef and feeder types, with the peak of import movements during the fall season. The risk model identified 4 risk classes for cattle movements. Approximately 500 of the estimated 27,406 (2%) cattle premises in Minnesota were in the very high or high risk groups for either year; greatest density of these premises was in the southeast and southwest regions of the state. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A risk-profiling approach was developed that can be applied in targeted surveillance efforts for bovine tuberculosis, particularly in disease-free areas. PMID:27270064

  17. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles at school age.

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    Helle R Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. METHODS: Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed. Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. RESULTS: Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele.

  18. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  19. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus. PMID

  20. Genomic risk profiling of ischemic stroke: results of an international genome-wide association meta-analysis.

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    James F Meschia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Familial aggregation of ischemic stroke derives from shared genetic and environmental factors. We present a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans (GWAS from 3 cohorts to identify the contribution of common variants to ischemic stroke risk. METHODS: This study involved 1464 ischemic stroke cases and 1932 controls. Cases were genotyped using the Illumina 610 or 660 genotyping arrays; controls, with Illumina HumanHap 550Kv1 or 550Kv3 genotyping arrays. Imputation was performed with the 1000 Genomes European ancestry haplotypes (August 2010 release as a reference. A total of 5,156,597 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were incorporated into the fixed effects meta-analysis. All SNPs associated with ischemic stroke (P<1×10(-5 were incorporated into a multivariate risk profile model. RESULTS: No SNP reached genome-wide significance for ischemic stroke (P<5×10(-8. Secondary analysis identified a significant cumulative effect for age at onset of stroke (first versus fifth quintile of cumulative profiles based on SNPs associated with late onset, ß = 14.77 [10.85,18.68], P = 5.5×10(-12, as well as a strong effect showing increased risk across samples with a high propensity for stroke among samples with enriched counts of suggestive risk alleles (P<5×10(-6. Risk profile scores based only on genomic information offered little incremental prediction. DISCUSSION: There is little evidence of a common genetic variant contributing to moderate risk of ischemic stroke. Quintiles based on genetic loading of alleles associated with a younger age at onset of ischemic stroke revealed a significant difference in age at onset between those in the upper and lower quintiles. Using common variants from GWAS and imputation, genomic profiling remains inferior to family history of stroke for defining risk. Inclusion of genomic (rare variant information may be required to improve clinical risk profiling.

  1. Effect of Physical Activity on Anxiety and Depression Among Women: Risk Profiles

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    Aurelio Olmedilla-Zafra**

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature indicates that there is a positive relationship between exercise and various psychological aspects such as anxiety and depression. Some sociodemographic variables also seem to be involved in this relationship, and socio-cultural factors can be important. The objectives of the present study were to find out the influence of the practice of physical activity on anxiety and depression and to determine the profiles at greater risk with regard to certain sociodemographic variables (age, level of studies, occupation, and children. The sample was composed of 200 women from the city of Cartagena, Spain, between 18 and 65 years of age. Results show that the most vulnerable groups of women for suffering greater levels of anxiety and depression are characterized by the following profiles: anxiety (sedentary women, between 18-24 years of age or older than 54 years, who have not completed studies or those with secondary studies, housewives or those who work outside the home, and those without children and depression (sedentary women, older than 54 years of age or between 18-24 years, those with secondary studies, and housewives.

  2. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaire S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surya Gaire, Rafael Castro Delgado, Pedro Arcos González Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Campus del Cristo, Oviedo, Asturias, SpainAbstract: Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM. There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to

  3. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea treatment by continuous positive airway pressure on cardiometabolic biomarkers: a systematic review from sham CPAP randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullian-Desayes, Ingrid; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Tamisier, Renaud; Launois, Sandrine; Borel, Anne-Laure; Levy, Patrick; Pepin, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-01

    Reducing cardiometabolic risk may represent an important target for effective obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the first line therapy of OSA, on metabolic or inflammatory markers is still debated. A systematic literature search using several databases was performed. We provide a systematic analysis of randomized studies comparing therapeutic versus sham CPAP intervention and also include studies using a CPAP withdrawal design. We addressed the impact of CPAP on the following cardiometabolic biomarkers: 1) plasma and urine catecholamines and their metabolites that reflect sympathetic activity; 2) insulin resistance and lipid metabolism biomarkers; 3) oxidative stress, systemic and vascular inflammation biomarkers; 4) liver enzymes highlighting the association between OSA and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); 5) coagulation biomarkers. The impact of CPAP on sympathetic activity is robust across studies and occurs rapidly. In contrast to sympathetic activity, the well-designed studies included in this review failed to demonstrate that CPAP alters metabolic or inflammatory markers in OSA. CPAP did not change glucose, lipids, insulin resistance levels or the ratio of patients with metabolic syndrome. In unselected OSA patients, it is not realistic to expect a clinically relevant decrease in cardiometabolic biomarkers with CPAP therapy.

  4. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

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    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  5. Exercise interventions and peripheral arterial function: implications for cardio-metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shane A; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Brown, Michael D; Haus, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for the development of obesity and other cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of CVD and is associated with a sedentary lifestyle in otherwise healthy adults. In addition, vascular endothelial dysfunction may be exacerbated in sedentary individuals who are obese and insulin resistant, since excess body fat is associated with elevated levels of pro-atherogenic inflammatory adipokines and cytokines that reduce the nitric oxide (NO) and other upstream paracrine signaling substances which reduces vascular health. Since blood flow-related shear stress is a major stimulus to NO release from the endothelium, disturbed flow or low shear stress is the likely mechanism by which vascular endothelial function is altered with inactivity. Evidence shows that regular physical exercise has beneficial effects on CVD and the risk factors that promote peripheral arterial function and health. Both aerobic and resistance exercise training are generally believed to improve endothelial function and are commonly recommended for CV health, including the management of obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance. However, many factors including age, disease status, and race appear to influence these outcomes. Although evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is compelling, the optimum prescription (volume and intensity) and the exact mechanism underlying the effects of exercise training on arterial function and cardiometabolic risk has yet to be identified. The focus of this review will be on the evidence supporting exercise interventions for peripheral arterial function.

  6. The risk factors profile of coronary heart disease in dyslipidemic patients : Results from a survey in 13 cities in Indonesia

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    Harmani Kalim

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD has significantly increased and has been associated to the high mortality rate in Indonesia. One important CHD risk is the abnormal lipid profile or dyslipidemia, but there are other risk factors that has been associated with CHD in Western population. In Indonesia, data on CHD risk factors are very limited and usually only available as hospital-based data. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHD risk profile in the private clinical practice setting and to determine the factors affecting CHD in  dyslipidemic patients in Indonesia. This study is a cross-sectional survey which targeted physicians in 13 cities in Indonesia who regularly treat patients with dyslipidemia. The majority of dyslipidemic patients in clinical practice setting was the CHD high-risk group. Age, Iow HDL-C and hypertension were the most common risk factors. The prevalence of the risk factors and the proportion of dyslipidemic patients which belongs to the high risk group were comparable to the result of US (L-TAP study. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 42-7Keywords : Coronary Heart Disease, risk factors, dyslipidemia, clinical practice

  7. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

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    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  8. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  9. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified. PMID:26892361

  10. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

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    Heath G. Gasier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  11. Serum lipidomics meets cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: profiling of subjects at risk of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koikkalainen, Juha; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Kaartinen, Maija; Kuusisto, Johanna; Peuhkurinen, Keijo; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Antila, Margareta; Lauerma, Kirsi; Reissell, Eeva; Jurkko, Raija; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Heliö, Tiina; Orešič, Matej

    2011-01-20

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction, constitutes a significant cause for heart failure, sudden cardiac death or need for heart transplantation. Lamin A/C gene (LMNA) on chromosome 1p12 is the most significant disease gene causing DCM and has been reported to cause 7-9% of DCM leading to cardiac transplantation. We have previously performed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to LMNA carriers to describe the early phenotype. Clinically, early recognition of subjects at risk of developing DCM would be important but is often difficult. Thus we have earlier used the MRI findings of these LMNA carriers for creating a model by which LMNA carriers could be identified from the controls at an asymptomatic stage. Some LMNA mutations may cause lipodystrophy. To characterize possible effects of LMNA mutations on lipid profile, we set out to apply global serum lipidomics using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in the same LMNA carriers, DCM patients without LMNA mutation and controls. All DCM patients, with or without LMNA mutation, differed from controls in regard to distinct serum lipidomic profile dominated by diminished odd-chain triglycerides and lipid ratios related to desaturation. Furthermore, we introduce a novel approach to identify associations between the molecular lipids from serum and the MR images from the LMNA carriers. The association analysis using dependency network and regression approaches also helped us to obtain novel insights into how the affected lipids might relate to cardiac shape and volume changes. Our study provides a framework for linking serum derived molecular markers not only with clinical endpoints, but also with the more subtle intermediate phenotypes, as derived from medical imaging, of potential pathophysiological relevance.

  12. Serum lipidomics meets cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: profiling of subjects at risk of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Sysi-Aho

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, characterized by left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction, constitutes a significant cause for heart failure, sudden cardiac death or need for heart transplantation. Lamin A/C gene (LMNA on chromosome 1p12 is the most significant disease gene causing DCM and has been reported to cause 7-9% of DCM leading to cardiac transplantation. We have previously performed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to LMNA carriers to describe the early phenotype. Clinically, early recognition of subjects at risk of developing DCM would be important but is often difficult. Thus we have earlier used the MRI findings of these LMNA carriers for creating a model by which LMNA carriers could be identified from the controls at an asymptomatic stage. Some LMNA mutations may cause lipodystrophy. To characterize possible effects of LMNA mutations on lipid profile, we set out to apply global serum lipidomics using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in the same LMNA carriers, DCM patients without LMNA mutation and controls. All DCM patients, with or without LMNA mutation, differed from controls in regard to distinct serum lipidomic profile dominated by diminished odd-chain triglycerides and lipid ratios related to desaturation. Furthermore, we introduce a novel approach to identify associations between the molecular lipids from serum and the MR images from the LMNA carriers. The association analysis using dependency network and regression approaches also helped us to obtain novel insights into how the affected lipids might relate to cardiac shape and volume changes. Our study provides a framework for linking serum derived molecular markers not only with clinical endpoints, but also with the more subtle intermediate phenotypes, as derived from medical imaging, of potential pathophysiological relevance.

  13. Profile and risk factors for congenital heart defects: A study in a tertiary care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abqari, Shaad; Gupta, Akash; Shahab, Tabassum; Rabbani, MU; Ali, S Manazir; Firdaus, Uzma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children representing a major global health burden. It is thus important to determine their prevalence and spectrum and identify risk factors associated with the development of heart defects. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Center of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, from February 2014 to August 2015. All patients referred with complaints or clinical examination suggestive of CHDs were further evaluated with echocardiography. On Echocardiography, patients having CHDs were included as cases and those having a normal echocardiographic study were included as controls. Healthy controls were also included. 400 cases and 400 controls were thus identified; preterms having patent ductus arteriosus and patent foramen ovale and those with acquired heart defects were excluded. Risk factors among cases and controls were further studied. Results: Acyanotic heart defects were 290 (72.50%) of the total heart defects, whereas the contribution of cyanotic heart defects was 110 (27.50%). Out of all CHDs, ventricular septal defect was the most common lesion with contribution of 152 (38%) cases, whereas among the cyanotic heart defects, Tetralogy of Fallot was the most common lesion (18% of total cases). Out of the total 400 cases, 261 were males (65.25%). On univariate analysis, paternal age (odds ratio, OR, 2.01), bad obstetric history (OR, 2.65), antenatal febrile illness (OR, 4.12), and advanced maternal age (OR, 3.28) were found to increase the risk of CHD whereas intake of multivitamin (OR, 3.02) was found to be protective. The risk factors were further analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis and all the above factors were found to be significantly associated. Conclusion: We noted that the profile of CHD in our population was similar

  14. Lipid profiles reflecting high and low risk for coronary heart disease : Contribution of apolipoprotein E polymorphism and lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.M.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of modifiable factors and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in explaining lipid profiles reflecting low, average and high risk for coronary heart disease, we selected subjects from a large population-based study. Subjects with low total cholesterol (TC) (< 15th percentile) and

  15. 78 FR 76628 - Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Availability; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... appeared in the Federal Register of November 4, 2013 (78 FR 66010). In the notice, FDA requested comments...-2927. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of November 4, 2013 (78 FR 66010... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in...

  16. Lipid profiles reflecting high and low risk for coronary heart disease: contribution of apolipoprotein E polymorphism and lifestyle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.M.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of modifiable factors and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in explaining lipid profiles reflecting low, average and high risk for coronary heart disease, we selected subjects from a large population-based study. Subjects with low total cholesterol (TC) (<15th percentile) and h

  17. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves quality-of-life indices, renal graft function and cardiovascular risk profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artz, MA; Boots, JMM; Ligtenberg, G; Roodnat, JI; Christiaans, MHL; Vos, PF; Moons, P; Borm, G; Hilbrands, LB

    2004-01-01

    Long-term use of cyclosporine after renal transplantation results in nephrotoxicity and an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Tacrolimus may be more favorable in this respect. In this randomized controlled study in 124 renal transplant patients, the effects of conversion from cyclosporine to tac

  18. The profile of physical activity and coronary risk factors in Monica Jakarta survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Kusmana

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A population study was done to know the profile of daily physical activity including sports, and its influence on major coronary risk factors in three districts of Jakarta using questionnaire, physicaL and laboratory examination, and 12 leads ECC. The questionnaire gave the data about physical activity (work load and sport, and smoking habit. Work load was divided into light, moderate and heavy. Sport activity was divided into regular (≥ twice a week, 20 minutes or more, irregular (≤ once or occasional, and no sport activity. In addition, blood pressure  (hypertension was grouped according to WHO criteria, total cholesterol (regarded as hypercholesterolemia when > 200 mg%, and ECG were measured. ECG interpretation was done using Minnesota Code. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Out of 2400 people there were  2073(86.4%  respondents that consist of 1086 females and 987 males. The profile of physical activity as a whole showed 33.4% light, 50.7% moderate and 15.8% heavy activity. OnLy 22.5% of respondents had sport regularly, while 30.3% had sport irregularly, and 47.2% had no sport activity. The type of sport was walking (45.0%, callisthenic (22.0% jogging/running (15.6%, badminton (6.5%, volley ball/soccer (4.1%, tennis (3.8%, and golf (0.1%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension between people with heavy (12.0%, moderate (44.8% and light work load (43.2% (P<0.003, in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (13.2%: 50.8%: 36% (P<0.0003, and smoking (19.7%; 44.1%: 36.2% (P<0.00001, respectively. The difference also occurred in the prevalence of abnormal ECG (Q/QS, ST and T  abnormalities between people having regular sport (19.0%, irregular (22.7%, and no sport activity (58.3% (P<0.05. The number of respondents having enough physical activity (including regular sport was relatively low. Therefore, promotion should be done as a preventive method to overcome cardiovascular risk factors. (Med J Indones

  19. Lipid profiles and obesity as potential risk factors of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

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    Joong Seob Lee

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to establish whether increased lipid profiles and obesity affect the prevalence and prognosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL.This was a case-controlled study with a longitudinal design. According to our criteria, 324 patients with SSNHL were included in this study. To manage potential covariates, 972 subjects with normal hearing from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were matched as control group according to their propensity scores. Age, level of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and body mass index (BMI were obtained from the clinical data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between SSNHL and lipid profiles or obesity in the 1296 subjects. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine whether lipid profiles and obesity are prognostic factors in patients with SSNHL.Mean body weight, BMI, TC, and TG were significantly higher in patients with SSNHL compared with control subjects (p<0.05. However, LDL-C values did not differ significantly between the two groups. Subjects with elevated TC and TG levels had a 2.20- (95% CI 1.50-3.24 and 1.50-fold (95% CI 1.08-2.08 increased odds, respectively, of SSNHL compared with subjects with normal TC and TG levels. Subjects with grade III BMI had a 1.59-fold (95% CI 1.17-2.16 increased odds of SSNHL. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that BMI was an independent risk factor of treatment outcome, as patients with BMI ≥27.5 were less likely to achieve complete recovery than those with BMI <27.5 (p<0.05.The results of this study revealed that elevated TC and TG levels and increased BMI are significantly associated with the prevalence of SSNHL and its prognosis, indicating that vascular compromise may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SSNHL.

  20. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pacheco H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor González-Pacheco,1 Jesús Vargas-Barrón,2 Maite Vallejo,2 Yigal Piña-Reyna,3 Alfredo Altamirano-Castillo,1 Pedro Sánchez-Tapia,1 Carlos Martínez-Sánchez1 1Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50% determined through coronary angiography is not well described. Methods: We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown on angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.Results: Most patients (81.7% were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%, dyslipidemia (47.5%, and diabetes (37.7%. In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that

  1. Hematological and Biochemistry Profile and Risk Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Guyana

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    Rajini Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the hematological and biochemistry profile of patients with or without HIV-TB at the Georgetown Chest Clinic, Guyana. Methods. An observational, laboratory based study was designed to assess the relationship of PTB and HIV with patients routine biochemical and hematological values. The study was conducted during the period January 2013 to December 2014; a total sample size of 316 patients was enrolled following exclusion and inclusion criteria. Results. Mean age of study population was 40.1 ± 13.8 (95% CI 38.6–41.7 and most were between 40 and 49 age group (27.8%, 95% CI 23.2–33.0. More males were in the study 74.4% (95% CI 69.3–78.8 than females 81% (95% CI 21.1–30.7. 30% (95% CI 25.3–35.3 had a sputum smear grade of 3+ and 62.5% (95% CI 47.0–75.7 showed a CD4 count <200. The study demonstrated significantly low hemoglobin (Hb 91.7% (95% CI 78.2–97.1, low WBC 27.8% (95% CI 15.8–44.0, high indirect bilirubin 7.4% (95% CI 2.1–23.3, ALT 41.8% (95% CI 28.4–56.7, and AST 72.2% (95% CI 57.3–83.3 among TB-HIV patients. Homelessness RR (relative risk 2.2 (95% CI 0.48–12.3, smoking RR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.19, and gender (male RR 1.2 (95% CI 0.61–2.26 were main associated risk factors. Conclusions. There is slight variation among PTB and PTB-HIV coinfected patients in some hematological and biochemistry parameters.

  2. Approach to the treatment of atrial fibrillation in patients with cardiovascular risk profile: Multicentric international study

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    Pavlović Siniša U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF, the most common arrhythmia that requires treatment, does not come out of the focus of researchers. Monitoring its prevalence and effects of therapy is a good guideline approach to the growing population of patients in which this arrhythmia occurs. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of AF and cardiovascular profiles in the observed population. Methods. In this observational, cross-sectional, multicenter, international study, 584 patients in 30 centers in Serbia and Slovenia, older than 18 years and with AF or in sinus rhythm with a history of AF, were included. The assessment of the efficacy of treatment of AF was performed by analyzing the frequency of adequate therapeutic effect of medication in rhythm or frequency control in patients with AF. Results. The results confirmed that the highest incidence of AF duration is more than seven days, and is accompanied by symptoms. Inadequate frequency regulation was registered at 8.9% of patients. Hypertension was registered in two-thirds of all patients, while other cardiovascular risk factors were registered in about one-third of patients. An echocardiographic finding in the group of patients with AF confirms generally adequate left ventricular function with a slightly enlarged left atrium (4.6±0.8 cm. Increasing age and time from the first episode of AF decreases the probability of maintaining sinus rhythm, while symptomatic AF had a positive impact on the presence of sinus rhythm. Propafenone, sotalol and amiodarone showed a statistically significant connection with a positive therapeutic response, while β-blockers had a negative impact on the probability of establishing and maintaining sinus rhythm. Conclusion. Characteristics of therapeutic approaches, risks, comorbidity of patient populations in Slovenia and Serbia correspond to the fullest extent with the recommendations for good clinical practice, which further

  3. The risk profile of childhood leukaemia in Greece: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, E; Trichopoulos, D; Kalapothaki, V; Pourtsidis, A; Kogevinas, M; Kalmanti, M; Koliouskas, D; Kosmidis, H; Panagiotou, J P; Piperopoulou, F; Tzortzatou, F

    1997-01-01

    The risk profile of childhood leukaemia in Greece was studied through a case-control investigation that included all 153 incident cases of the disease, ascertained throughout the country during 1993 and 1994, and two hospital controls for every case matched for gender, age and place of residence. The data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and the associations are expressed in terms of adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Cases were born to mothers of a higher standard education, the OR for an increment of four schooling years being 1.48 (1.17-1.87) and had higher birth weight, the OR for an increment of 500g being 1.36 (1.04-1.77). Pet ownership and birth after a pregnancy with anaemia were associated with increased risk, the ORs being 2.18 (1.14-4.16) and 2.60 (1.39-4.86) respectively. From the frequency analyses, indicative inverse associations were found with birth order, household crowding and previous hospitalization with allergic diseases, whereas indicative positive associations were found with diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and with neonatal jaundice. Substantial or significant elevations were not found with respect to maternal smoking and coffee drinking during pregnancy, diagnostic radiography and ultrasonographic examinations or blood transfusions. A significant inverse association with maternal consumption of alcohol could be due to multiple comparisons, but a detrimental effect can probably be excluded. A non-significant positive association with total shots of viral vaccinations and a weak non-significant inverse association with breast feeding were also found. We interpret the findings of this study as being compatible with acute childhood leukaemia being linked with delayed development of herd immunity to fairly common infectious agents, in conjunction with accelerated perinatal and early post-natal growth. PMID:9365177

  4. Androgen levels in women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction : Associations with cardiometabolic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N. M P; Jaspers, L.; Koster, M. P H; Broekmans, F. J M; De Rijke, Y. B.; Franco, O. H.; Laven, J. S E; Kavousi, M.; Fauser, B. C J M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are differences in androgen levels among women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities? SUMMARY ANSWER Androgen levels differed substantially between women with and without ovarian dysfunction, and increased androgen levels were associat

  5. Associations of alcoholic beverage preference with cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors: the NQplus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Brouwer, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol, glycate

  6. Correlation of Lipid Profile</