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Sample records for cardiometabolic risk factors

  1. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  2. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among USadolescents with disabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah E Messiah; Denise C Vidot; Gabriel Somarriba; Kanathy Haney; Semra Aytur; Ruby A Natale; Jeffrey P Brosco; Kristopher L Arheart

    2015-01-01

    AIM To generate prevalence estimates of weightstatus and cardiometabolic disease risk factors amongadolescents with and without disabilities.METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Healthand Nutrition Examination Survey data was conductedamong 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and withoutdisabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference,fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol,triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure andmetabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) wereexamined by the following standardized body mass index(BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities;overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - 〈 95th percentile for age andsex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity(BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit witheach cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently ascontinuous outcomes to show relationships with disabilitystatus.RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%)and severely obese (12%) vs their peers withoutdisabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight,obese and severely obese children with disabilities hadabnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well asMetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% ofseverely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%,16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents withdisabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS(OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs theirpeers with no disabilities.CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents withdisabilities are disproportionately affected by obesityand poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers withno disabilities. Health care professionals shouldmonitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents withdisabilities.

  3. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction

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    Serhat Tanik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing interest in the association between erectile dysfunction (ED and cardiovascular risk factor. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is associated with insulin resistance, increased cardiometabolic risk, and coronary artery disease. Our aim was to investigate relationships between epicardial fat thickness (EFT as a cardiometabolic risk factor and erectile dysfunction. Method. We selected 30 erectile dysfunction patients without comorbidities and 30 healthy individuals. IIEF-5 score was applied to all patients, and IIEF-5 score below 22 was considered as erectile dysfunction. EFT was measured by echocardiography. Results. Body mass index (BMI was higher in ED patients than those without ED (28.19 ± 4.45 kg/m2 versus 23.84±2.36 kg/m2, P = 0.001, resp.. Waist circumstance (WC was higher in ED patients than those without ED (106.60±5.90 versus 87.86 ± 14.51, P = 0.001, resp.. EFT was higher in ED patients compared to non-ED patients (0.49 ± 0.09 cm versus 0.45 ± 0.03 cm, P = 0.016, resp.. There was positive correlation among BMI, WC, and EFT. There was negative correlation between EFT and IIEF-5 score (r : -0.632, P = 0.001. Conclusion. EAT, BMI, and WC as cardiometabolic risk factors were higher in erectile dysfunction patients.

  4. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Luan, Jian'an; Sherar, Lauren B

    2012-01-01

    Sparse data exist on the combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children.......Sparse data exist on the combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children....

  5. The Prevalence and Awareness of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Southern Chinese Population with Coronary Artery Disease

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    Xinrui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiometabolic risk factors significantly accelerate the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD; however, whether CAD patients in South China are aware of the prevalence of these risk factors is not clear yet. Methods. The study consisted of 2312 in-admission CAD patients from 2008 to 2011 in South China. Disease history including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes was relied on patients' self-reported records. Physical and clinical examinations were tested to assess the real prevalence of the cardiometabolic risk factors. Results. 57.9% of CAD patients had more than 3 cardiometabolic risk factors in terms of the metabolic syndrome. The self-known and real prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were 56.6%, 28.3%, and 25.1% and 91.3%, 40.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. The awareness rates were 64.4%, 66.3%, and 28.5% for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was significantly different among gender and among disease status. Conclusions. Most CAD patients in South China had more than three cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the awareness rate of cardiometabolic diseases was low, especially for dyslipidemia. Strategies of routine physical examination programs are needed for the early detection and treatment of cardiometabolic risk factors in order to prevent CAD progression and prognosis.

  6. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  7. The effects of whey protein on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The health consequences of obesity are more dangerous when associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components. Studies show that whey protein and its bioactive components can promote greater benefits compared to other protein sources such as egg and casein. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of whey protein on cardiometabolic risk factors. Using PubMed as the database, a review was conducted to identify current scientific literature on whey protein and the components of the metabolic syndrome published between 1970 and 2012. Consumption of whey protein seems to play an anti-obesity and muscle-protective role during dieting by increasing thermogenesis and maintaining lean mass. In addition, whey protein has been shown to improve glucose levels and insulin response, promote a reduction in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and improve lipid profile. The collective view of current scientific literature indicates that the consumption of whey protein may have beneficial effects on some symptoms of the metabolic syndrome as well as a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Diet scores and cardio-metabolic risk factors among Guatemalan young adults

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the association of four diet quality scores with multiple cardio-metabolic outcomes among Guatemalan young adults experiencing the nutrition transition. We obtained cross-sectional dietary, demographic, anthropometric and cardio-metabolic risk factor data from 1220 Guatemalan adults (mean age 32·7 (SD 5·8) years) in 2002–4, and computed a Recommended Food Score (RFS), Not Recommended Food Score (NRFS), Food Variety Score (FVS) and the Dietary Quality Index-International (DQI-I). A...

  9. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

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    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. METHOD: Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  10. Mendelian randomization suggests non-causal associations of testosterone with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, R; Teumer, A; Völker, U; Dörr, M; Nauck, M; Biffar, R; Völzke, H; Baumeister, S E; Wallaschofski, H

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies showed that low serum testosterone concentrations are associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality. However, the causal nature of these associations is controversial. We studied 1 882 men aged 20-79 years with serum testosterone concentrations and genotyping data from the longitudinal population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. Testosterone concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, including anthropometric, lipid, blood pressure and glycaemic parameters; and prospectively with all-cause mortality (277 deaths, 14.7%) during the 10-year follow-up. To overcome problems of residual confounding, reverse causation, or regression dilution bias in the investigated testosterone-outcome associations, we used two-stage least square regression models with previously identified polymorphisms at the SHBG gene (rs12150660) and X chromosome (rs5934505) as multiple genetic instruments in an instrumental variable (IV) approach, also known as Mendelian randomization. In standard regression analyses, testosterone was robustly associated with a wide range of cardiometabolic risk factors. In subsequent IV analyses, no such significant associations were observed. Similarly, prospective analyses showed a consistent association of low testosterone concentrations with increased all-cause mortality risk, which was not apparent in subsequent IV analyses. The present Mendelian randomization analyses did not detect any evidence for causal associations of testosterone concentrations with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality, suggesting that previously reported associations might largely result from residual confounding or reverse causation. Although testosterone assessment might improve risk prediction, implementation of testosterone replacement therapy requires further evidence of a direct effect on cardiometabolic outcomes from double-blinded randomized controlled trials and large-scale Mendelian

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf C; Qorbani, Mostafa;

    2016-01-01

    -metabolic risk factors in seafarers of National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 234 Iranian male seafarers of NITC in 2015. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the reports of National Committee of Obesity. Three main blood parameters...... (of elevated total cholesterol, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and general obesity were included as additional cardio-metabolic risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36.0 ± 10.3 years. The prevalence of Met......S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27) were associated with the increase...

  12. Anti-mullerian hormone is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent females.

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    Emma L Anderson

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence for associations of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH with cardiometabolic risk factors is lacking. Existing evidence comes from small studies in select adult populations, and findings are conflicting. We aimed to assess whether AMH is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a general population of adolescent females.AMH, fasting insulin, glucose, HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured at a mean age 15.5 years in 1,308 female participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations of AMH with these cardiometabolic outcomes.AMH values ranged from 0.16-35.84 ng/ml and median AMH was 3.57 ng/ml (IQR: 2.41, 5.49. For females classified as post-pubertal (n = 848 at the time of assessment median (IQR AMH was 3.81 ng/ml (2.55, 5.82 compared with 3.25 ng/ml (2.23, 5.05 in those classed as early pubertal (n = 460, P≤0.001. After adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, pubertal stage, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, adiposity and use of hormonal contraceptives, there were no associations with any of the cardiometabolic outcomes. For example fasting insulin changed by 0% per doubling of AMH (95%CI: -3%,+2% p  = 0.70, with identical results if HOMA-IR was used. Results were similar after additional adjustment for smoking, physical activity and age at menarche, after exclusion of 3% of females with the highest AMH values, after excluding those that had not started menarche and after excluding those using hormonal contraceptives.Our results suggest that in healthy adolescent females, AMH is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.

  13. A metabolic syndrome severity score: A tool to quantify cardio-metabolic risk factors.

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    Wiley, Joshua F; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and is associated with increased mortality. There is no standard, validated way to assess the severity of aggregated metabolic syndrome risk factors. Cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor data came from two studies conducted in Australia from 2006 to 2010 in adults aged 18 or above. In medication free adults, sex-specific clinical thresholds and Principal Component Analysis were used to develop a formula to calculate a metabolic syndrome severity score (MetSSS). These scores were compared to scores derived using the same process in subgroups by sex, age, medication status, and time. We also examined the MetSSS in relation to other known risk factors. In 2125 adults (57.6±14.7years of age), the MetSSS ranged from 0 to 8.7 with a mean of 2.6. There were strong correlations (.95-.99) between the MetSSS in medication free adults and the MetSSS calculated from subgroups. MetSSS predicted medication initiation for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia over six months (OR=1.31, 95% CI [1.00-1.70], per MetSSS unit, p=.043). Lower education, medication prescription, history of smoking and age were associated with higher MetSSS (all p<.05). Higher physical but not mental health quality of life was associated with lower MetSSS (p<.001). A standardized formula to measure cardio-metabolic risk factor severity was constructed and demonstrated expected relations with known risk factors. The use of the MetSSS is recommended as a measure of change within individuals in cardio-metabolic risk factors and to guide treatment and management.

  14. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

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    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Daza, Fernando; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in schoolchildren. A secondary aim was to evaluate the degree of association between overall and abdominal adiposity and CRF in a total of 1,875 children and adolescents attending public schools. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption. A CVRF ( Z score) was calculated and participants were divided into tertiles according to low and high levels of overall (sum of the skinfold thicknesses) and abdominal adiposity. Schoolchildren with a high-level of overall adiposity demonstrated significant differences in seven of the 10 variables analyzed (i.e., systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglycerides/high density lipoproteins [HDL-c] ratio, total cholesterol, glucose, C-reactive protein [usCRP], HDL-c, low density lipoproteins [LDL-c], and cardiovascular risk score). Schoolchildren with high levels of both overall and abdominal adiposity and low CRF had the least favorable CVRF score.

  16. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations.

  17. Muscle Carnosine Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Humans.

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    Barbora de Courten

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists.Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography, % body fat (bioimpedance, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging, insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry, free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04 and subcutaneous (r = 0.38, p = 0.02 but not visceral fat (r = 0.17, p = 0.33. Muscle carnosine content was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.44, p = 0.008, REE (r = -0.58, p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.048. Insulin sensitivity and physical activity were the best predictors of muscle carnosine content after adjustment for adiposity.Our data shows that higher carnosine content in human skeletal muscle is positively associated with insulin resistance and fasting metabolic preference for glucose. Moreover, it is negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and basal energy expenditure. Intervention studies targeting insulin resistance, metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors are necessary to evaluate its putative role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  19. Serum uric acid level and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraj, Bijan; Feizi, Awat; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Zare, Maryam; Amini, Masoud; Parsa, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excess serum uric acid (UA) accumulation can lead to various diseases. Increasing evidences reveal that UA may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the associations of UA levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects with family history of diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, a sample containing 643 (302 prediabetic subjects and 341 normal) of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55-years old were investigated. Samples were assessed in prediabetic and normal groups using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Body weight and height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), UA, creatinine (Cr), albumin (Alb), fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profiles were measured and compared between two groups. Results: Prediabetic persons were older and obese than normal persons. Also, prediabetic persons (5.2 ± 1.3 mg/dl) had significantly higher UA than normal persons (4.9 ± 1.4 mg/dl) (P 1, P < 0.05) associated with glucose tolerance categories. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting the effects of age and BMI. Also, the association between glucose tolerance categories and UA were positively significant in both genders. Conclusion: High UA level was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals compared with normal person. UA level was also a significant predictor for prediabetes condition. PMID:24949036

  20. Serum uric acid level and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess serum uric acid (UA accumulation can lead to various diseases. Increasing evidences reveal that UA may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the associations of UA levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects with family history of diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, a sample containing 643 (302 prediabetic subjects and 341 normal of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55-years old were investigated. Samples were assessed in prediabetic and normal groups using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined based on American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Body weight and height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, UA, creatinine (Cr, albumin (Alb, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profiles were measured and compared between two groups. Results: Prediabetic persons were older and obese than normal persons. Also, prediabetic persons (5.2 ± 1.3 mg/dl had significantly higher UA than normal persons (4.9 ± 1.4 mg/dl (P 1, P < 0.05 associated with glucose tolerance categories. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting the effects of age and BMI. Also, the association between glucose tolerance categories and UA were positively significant in both genders. Conclusion: High UA level was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals compared with normal person. UA level was also a significant predictor for prediabetes condition.

  1. Association between quality of the diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Danyelle de Almeida; Fonseca, Vânia Matos; Ramos,Eloane Gonçalves; Marinheiro,Lizanka Paola Fiqueiredo; Souza,Rita Adriana Gomes de; Chaves, Celia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques

    2014-01-01

    Background Climateric is a phase of women’s life marked by the transition from the reproductive to the non-reproductive period. In addition to overall weight gain, the menopause is also associated with the increase of abdominal fat. We used The Healthy Eating Index as a summary measure to evaluate the major components and the quality of women’s diet after the onset of the menopause. This study aims at examining the association between the quality of the diet and cardiometabolic risk factors i...

  2. Diet scores and cardio-metabolic risk factors among Guatemalan young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Cria O; McCullough, Marjorie L; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2009-06-01

    We assessed the association of four diet quality scores with multiple cardio-metabolic outcomes among Guatemalan young adults experiencing the nutrition transition. We obtained cross-sectional dietary, demographic, anthropometric and cardio-metabolic risk factor data from 1220 Guatemalan adults (mean age 32.7 (sd 5.8) years) in 2002-4, and computed a Recommended Food Score (RFS), Not Recommended Food Score (NRFS), Food Variety Score (FVS) and the Dietary Quality Index-International (DQI-I). All four scores were correlated with energy intake (r 0.23-0.49; all P metabolic syndrome or its components; rather some were positively associated with risk factors. Among both men and women the DQI-I was positively associated with BMI (kg/m2; beta = 0.10, 95 % CI 0.003, 0.21 (men); beta = 0.07, 95 % CI 0.01, 0.14 (women)) and waist circumference (cm; beta = 0.02, 95 % CI 0.01, 0.03 (men); beta = 0.02, 95 % CI = 0.01, 0.02 (women)). Among men, the RFS was positively associated with TAG (mg/l; beta = 0.11, 95 % CI 0.02, 0.21) and glucose (mg/l; beta = 0.13: 95 % CI 0.03, 0.22). We conclude that indices of diet quality are not consistently associated with chronic disease risk factor prevalence in this population of Guatemalan young adults.

  3. Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and dental caries in a population-based sample of youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelishadi Roya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors begin from early life and track onto adulthood. Oral and dental diseases share some risk factors with CVD, therefore by finding a clear relation between dental diseases and cardiometabolic risk factors; we can then predict the potential risk of one based on the presence of the other. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of dental caries between two groups of age-matched adolescents with and without CVD risk factors. Methods In this case-control study, the decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS, based on the criteria of the World Health Organization, were compared in two groups of equal number (n = 61 in each group of population-based sample of adolescents with and without CVD risk factors who were matched for sex and age group. Results The study participants had a median age 13 y 5 mo, age range 11 y 7 mo to 16 y 1 mo, with male-to-female proportion of 49/51. We found significant difference between the mean values of DMFS, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, as well as serum lipid profile in the case and control groups. Significant correlations were documented for DMFS with TC (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, LDL-C (r = 0.55, p = 0.01 and TG (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 in the case group; with LDL-C (r = 0.47, p = 0.03 in the whole study participants and with TC in control s(r = 0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusions Given the significant associations between dental caries and CVD risk factors among adolescents, more attention should be paid to oral health, as one of the topics to be taken into account in primordial/primary prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.

  4. Urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Riha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases.Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24, low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23, and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77.This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. Dietary intake and prospective changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Ekwaru, John Paul; Maximova, Katerina; Majumdar, Sumit R; Storey, Kate E; McGavock, Jonathan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Only few studies examined the effect of diet on prospective changes in cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors in children and youth despite its importance for understanding the role of diet early in life for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. To test the hypothesis that dietary intake is associated with prospective changes in CM risk factors, we analyzed longitudinal observations made over a period of 2 years among 448 students (aged 10-17 years) from 14 schools in Canada. We applied mixed effect regression to examine the associations of dietary intake at baseline with changes in body mass index, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and insulin sensitivity score between baseline and follow-up while adjusting for age, sex, and physical activity. Dietary fat at baseline was associated with increases in SBP and DBP z scores (per 10 g increase in dietary fat per day: β = 0.03; p hypertension in children and youth, and their cardiometabolic sequelae later in life.

  6. Sedentary behaviour as an emerging risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (e.g. TV viewing, seated video game playing, prolonged sitting) has recently emerged as a distinct risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth. This narrative review provides an overview of recent evidence in this area and highlights research gaps. Current evidence suggests that North American children and youth spend between 40% and 60% of their waking hours engaging in sedentary pursuits. Although data are lacking concerning temporal trends of objectively measured sedentary time, self-reported sedentary behaviours have increased over the past half century, with a rapid increase since the late 1990s. Excessive sedentary behaviour has been found to have independent and deleterious associations with markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk. These associations are especially consistent for screen-based sedentary behaviours (TV viewing, computer games, etc), with more conflicting findings observed for overall sedentary time. The above associations are possibly mediated by the influence of screen-based sedentary behaviours on energy intake. Although excessive sitting has been reported to have adverse acute and chronic metabolic impacts in adults, research on children is lacking. Research is particularly needed to investigate the impact of characteristics of sedentary behaviour (i.e. type/context, sedentary bout length, breaks in sedentary time, etc), as well as interventions that examine the health and behavioural impacts of sitting per se.

  7. Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Somers, Virend K.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Korenfeld, Yoel; Boarin, Simona; Korinek, Josef; Jensen, Michael D.; Parati, Gianfranco; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Aims We hypothesized that subjects with a normal body mass index (BMI), but high body fat (BF) content [normal weight obesity (NWO)], have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic dysregulation and are at higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Methods and results We analysed 6171 subjects >20 years of age from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES III mortality study, whose BMI was within the normal range (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), and who underwent a complete evaluation that included body composition assessment, blood measurements, and assessment of CV risk factors. Survival information was available for >99% of the subjects after a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We divided our sample using sex-specific tertiles of BF%. The highest tertile of BF (>23.1% in men and >33.3% in women) was labelled as NWO. When compared with the low BF group, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with NWO was four-fold higher (16.6 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.0001). Subjects with NWO also had higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia, hypertension (men), and CV disease (women). After adjustment, women with NWO showed a significant 2.2-fold increased risk for CV mortality (HR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.03–4.67) in comparison to the low BF group. Conclusion Normal weight obesity, defined as the combination of normal BMI and high BF content, is associated with a high prevalence of cardiometabolic dysregulation, metabolic syndrome, and CV risk factors. In women, NWO is independently associated with increased risk for CV mortality. PMID:19933515

  8. Importance of proper scaling of aerobic power when relating to cardiometabolic risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, Robert; Hosick ‎, Peter; Bugge, Anna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) and aerobic power (VO(2max)) scaled as mL O(2) per kilogram body mass is controversial because mass includes both fat and fat-free mass, and fat mass is independently associated with the CMRF. AIM: To examine common units used...... to scale VO(2max) and their relationships to mean blood pressure (MBP), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and cumulative risk score (z-score). SUBJECTS: 1784, 8-18 year-old youths, 938 girls and 886 boys. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were obtained....... VO(2max) was estimated in mL/min from cycle ergometry and scaled to body mass (kg), fat free mass (kg(FFM)), body surface area (m(2)), height (cm) and allometric (mL/kg(0.67)/min). RESULTS: Unadjusted correlations between CMRF and many of the scaled VO(2max) units were significant (p

  9. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  10. Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review

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    Vasilios G. Athyros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors, either when called metabolic syndrome (MetS or not, substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and causes mortality. One of the possible mechanisms for this clustering's adverse effect is an increase in arterial stiffness (AS, and in high central aortic blood pressure (CABP, which are significant and independent CVD risk factors. Arterial hypertension was connected to AS long ago; however, other MetS components (obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia or MetS associated abnormalities not included in MetS diagnostic criteria (renal dysfunction, hyperuricaemia, hypercoaglutability, menopause, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnea have been implicated too. We discuss the evidence connecting these cardio-metabolic risk factors, which negatively affect AS and finally increase CVD risk. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of possible lifestyle and pharmacological interventions on all these cardio-metabolic risk factors, in an effort to reduce CVD risk and identify features that should be taken into consideration when treating MetS patients with or without arterial hypertension.

  11. Assessment of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors among Young Adult Females

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    Swati Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the past two decades there has been a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome in developing countries. The current study was thus undertaken to map the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS and to assess the cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adult females (n = 1303 aged 18-26y from four girls hostel of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Approach: The anthropometric analysis showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (20.8%, abdominal obesity (12.7% among the subjects. The clinical profile revealed that 12.1% were hypertensives. The prevalence of dyslipidemia revealed that no one had hypercholesterolemia and 4.1% had hypertriglyceridemia, 12.1% had elevated LDL-C and 40.3% had low levels of HDL-C. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.4 and 4.1% according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and World Health Organization (WHO criteria respectively. Lipid profile in relation to metabolic syndrome showed that VLDL-C and Triglyceride (TG values were non-significantly higher among the young adult females and HDL-C values were significantly (pResults: The three common and predominant risk factors (>80% identified were lower intake of fruits (81.5%, vegetables (96% and physical inactivity (88.7%. The other risk factors which were present between 30-50% were hypertension, lower HDL-C, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Among the non-modifiable factor heredity component was present in 34% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study highlights that lifestyle factors had equivalent risk for overweight and metabolic syndrome. Multiple risk factor scenario calls for lifestyle management to avert later consequences.

  12. Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

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    Lin Xu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96 and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26 related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration ( Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health.

  13. Relationship between Dietary and Other Lifestyle Habits and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men

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    Katano Sayuri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of men with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF is increasing in Japan. Few studies have comprehensively examined the relation between lifestyles and CMRF. Methods We examined the baseline data from 3,498 male workers ages 19 to 69 years who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP study at 12 large-scale companies throughout Japan. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Dietary intake was surveyed by a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. We defined four CMRF in this study as follows: 1 high blood pressure (BP: systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2 dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration 2. Results Those who had 0 to 4 CMRF accounted for 1,597 (45.7%, 1,032 (29.5%, 587 (16.8%, 236 (6.7%, and 44 (1.3% participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors that contributed to the number of CMRF were age (b = 0.020, P Conclusions Alcohol intake, percent protein and total energy intake were positively associated, whereas drinking frequency and IPAQ were inversely associated, with the number of CMRF.

  14. Psoriasis is the independent factor for early atherosclerosis: A prospective study of cardiometabolic risk profile

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    Dinić Miroslav Ž.

    2016-01-01

    FIMT was the diagnosis of psoriasis (p < 0.001. Conclusion. Cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and ultrasonographic signs of early atherosclerosis are correlated with the diagnosis of psoriasis, and not to generalized eczema. Psoriasis was found to be an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  15. Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor (The 5A Study: Mexico

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    Garcia-Rubi E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas Ramos1, Roopa Mehta1, Julieta De La Luz Castro2, Rutila Castañeda Limones3, Ernesto García Rubí4, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas11Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion "Salvador Zubiran" (INCMNSZ; 2Cardiodiabetes Unit, Sanofi-Aventis de México; 3Clinical Epidemiology Research Unit, Hospital General Regional No 1 Dr Carlos Mac Gregor Sánchez Navarro; 4Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Angeles Metropolitano, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: The Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Study assesses the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women and evaluates how physicians manage these patients.Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study. Internists, cardiologists, and endocrinologists contributed patients to the study. A standardized questionnaire was completed and registered demographics, anthropometric measurements, lab results from the medical files, and any treatment utilized to manage dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.Results: A total of 1312 patients was included. The mean age was 49.3 ± 14.6 years and 834 (63.6% were female. The primary reason for the physician consultation was treatment of obesity (47.5%, followed by management of arterial hypertension (27.7%, diabetes (18.3%, dyslipidemia (14.2%, and cardiovascular disease (7.1%. The majority of patients identified excess body weight as a health problem (81.4%. However, patients had lost a mean of 4.3 ± 3.5 kg. Only 63.4% of patients with arterial hypertension were on drug therapy. Few of them had reached target values for diastolic (24.1% and systolic/diastolic (13.3% pressure. Less than half of the patients with dyslipidemia were receiving lipid-lowering medication. Only 32.2% were at their target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In patients with

  16. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

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    McQueen RB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available R Brett McQueen,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,1,2 Temitope Olufade,3 John J Sheehan,4 Kavita V Nair,1 Joseph J Saseen1,5 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, 4AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, 5Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Objective: Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs in the US. Methods: We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four, and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results: The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57 times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95

  17. Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Fresh Look at the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2010-01-01

    Dietary and policy recommendations frequently focus on reducing saturated fatty acid consumption for improving cardiometabolic health, based largely on ecologic and animal studies. Recent advances in nutritional science now allow assessment of critical questions about health effects of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We reviewed the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lipid and non-lipid risk factors, prospective cohort studies of disease endpoints, and RCTs of disease endpoints...

  18. Systematic review on the association of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents with cardio-metabolic risk factors

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adverse health effects of abdominal obesity are well documented in adults, but such association remains to be determined in the pediatric age group. This study aims to perform a systematic review on the association between abdominal obesity and cardio-metabolic factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia among children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases to May 2014. Two independent reviewers identified relevant papers in several steps. After studying the titles and texts of documents, repeated and irrelevant ones were excluded. The search was refined to the English language. We did not consider any time limitation. Studies with different measuring methods of abdominal obesity were included. Studies with abdominal obese patients secondary to other disease were excluded from the study. In final, the data of association of cardio-metabolic risk factors and abdominal obesity extracted from studies. Results: Overall, 3966 articles were reviewed, and 61 of them were studied according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio were the most common indexes used for defining abdominal obesity. The association of high blood pressure with increasing WC was seen in several studies. The association of other cardio-metabolic risk factors was seen in some studies. Conclusion: Whatever the definition used for abdominal obesity and whatever the methods used for anthropometric measurements, central body fat deposition in children and adolescents increases the risk of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Therefore, more attention should be paid to abdominal obesity of children and adolescents both in clinical practice and in epidemiological studies.

  19. Cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranians with spinal cord injury: Analysis by injury-related variables

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    Hadis Sabour, MD, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI have a high prevalence of abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These abnormalities cause adverse coronary heart disease (CHD in patients with SCI. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the level-specific cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with SCI and analyzed the association of injury level on these risk factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 162 patients with SCI, assessing the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and smoking. Fasting blood sugar (>100 was diagnosed in 27 patients (16.7%. Of the total patients, 36 (22.2% had a total cholesterol (TC level of >200. A triglyceride level of >150 was present in 56 patients (34.6%. Hypertension was present in 2.5% of the entire patient group. Body mass index (BMI, TC, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were significantly higher in the paraplegia group than the tetraplegia group (24.44 +/– 4.23 vs 22.65 +/– 4.27, p = 0.01; 185.71 +/– 40.69 vs 163.28 +/– 37.92, p < 0.001; and 102.51 +/– 28.20 vs 89.15 +/– 22.35, p = 0.01, respectively. Patients with paraplegia may have increased hypertension, higher BMI, and increasing levels of serum LDL-C and TC than those with tetraplegia. Conventional risk factors for CHD should be identified and treated in individuals with SCI.

  20. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

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    Chun-Ying Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively. Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week, long screen time (≥3 h/day and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.5–7.3, 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4, and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0 odds ratio (OR of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3; p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009. The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI

  1. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (beverage intake (>500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5–7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI explains a part of these associations. Pediatric adiposity might be

  2. Improvements in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin sensitivity with trenbolone in normogonadic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Daniel G; Beck, Belinda R; Bulmer, Andrew C; Lam, Alfred K; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-02-01

    Trenbolone (TREN) is used for anabolic growth-promotion in over 20 million cattle annually and continues to be misused for aesthetic purposes in humans. The current study investigated TREN's effects on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors; and its tissue-selective effects on the cardiovascular system, liver and prostate. Male rats (n=12) were implanted with osmotic infusion pumps delivering either cyclodextrin vehicle (CTRL) or 2mg/kg/day TREN for 6 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry assessment of body composition; organ wet weights and serum lipid profiles; and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Cardiac ultrasound examinations were performed before in vivo studies assessed myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Circulating sex hormones and liver enzyme activities; and prostate and liver histology were examined. In 6 weeks, fat mass increased by 34±7% in CTRLs (pTREN (pTREN rats. Histological examination of the prostates from TREN-treated rats indicated benign hyperplasia associated with an increased prostate mass (149% compared to CTRLs, pTREN treatment without evidence of adverse cardiovascular or hepatic effects that are commonly associated with traditional anabolic steroid misuse. Sex hormone suppression and benign prostate hyperplasia were confirmed as adverse effects of the treatment.

  3. High versus Moderate Intensity Running Exercise to Impact Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Randomized Controlled RUSH-Study

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    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise positively impacts cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases; however, the most effective exercise training strategies have yet to be identified. To determine the effect of high intensity (interval training (HI(IT versus moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE training on cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness we conducted a 16-week crossover RCT with partial blinding. Eighty-one healthy untrained middle-aged males were randomly assigned to two study arms: (1 a HI(IT-group and (2 a sedentary control/MICE-group that started their MICE protocol after their control status. HI(IT focused on interval training (90 sec to 12 min >85–97.5% HRmax intermitted by active recovery (1–3 min at 65–70% HRmax, while MICE consisted of continuous running at 65–75% HRmax. Both exercise groups progressively performed 2–4 running sessions/week of 35 to 90 min/session; however, protocols were adjusted to attain similar total work (i.e., isocaloric conditions. With respect to cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness both exercise groups demonstrated similar significant positive effects on MetS-Z-Score (HI(IT: -2.06±1.31, P=.001 versus MICE: -1.60±1.77, P=.001 and (relative VO2max (HI(IT: 15.6±9.3%, P=.001 versus MICE: 10.6 ± 9.6%, P=.001 compared with the sedentary control group. In conclusion, both exercise programs were comparably effective for improving cardiometabolic indices and cardiorespiratory fitness in untrained middle-aged males.

  4. Identification and management of cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group (executive summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations.

  5. Cardiometabolic risk factors in different clinicomorphological stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Komshilova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare clinical, laboratory and morphological parameters in patients with abdominal obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and assessing the relationship between the degree of severity, stage NAFLD and cardiometabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the content of adiponectin and rates of glucose and lipid metabolism in obese patients at different stages of NAFLD. According to the study, morphologically NAFLD was confirmed in 95.2% of patients. NAFLD was associated with various cardiometabolic disorders (dyslipidemia, disorders of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, growing in frequency and severity with the progression NAFLD; and low levels of adiponectin decreasing with a deterioration NAFLD.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies provide support that the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish and fish oils are cardioprotective, particularly in the setting of secondary prevention. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit multiple cardiometabolic risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac function, as well as having antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Omega-3 fatty acids do not associate with any adverse effects and do not adversely interact with prescriptive drugs such as lipid-lowering, antihypertensive or hypoglycaemic medications. Clinical studies suggest that doses up to 4 g daily when prescribed with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs do not associate with increased risk of major bleeding episodes. Omega-3 fatty acids have gained widespread usage by general practitioners and clinicians in clinical settings such as pregnancy and infant development, secondary prevention in coronary heart disease patients and treatment of dyslipidaemias. Health authorities currently recommend an intake of at least two oily fish meals per week for the general population which equates to approximately 500 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In patients with coronary heart disease the guidelines recommend 1 g daily supplements and in hypertriglyceridaemic patients up to 4 g per day. These doses are now achievable with readily available purified encapsulated preparations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, a more practical recommendation for increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake in the general population is to incorporate fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake.

  7. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David; Willeit, Peter; Butterworth, Adam S.; Bansal, Narinder; O'Keeffe, Linda M.; Gao, Pei; Wood, Angela M.; Burgess, Stephen; Freitag, Daniel F.; Pennells, Lisa; Peters, Sanne A.; Hart, Carole L.; Haheim, Lise Lund; Gillum, Richard F.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Nietert, Paul J.; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Simons, Leon A.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Selmer, Randi; Crespo, Carlos J.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Salomaa, Veikko; Svardsudd, Kurt; van der Harst, Pim; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Wallace, Robert B.; Brenner, Hermann; Amouyel, Philippe; Barr, Elizabeth L. M.; Iso, Hiroyasu; Onat, Altan; Trevisan, Maurizio; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Cooper, Cyrus; Kavousi, Maryam; Welin, Lennart; Roussel, Ronan; Hu, Frank B.; Sato, Shinichi; Davidson, Karina W.; Howard, Barbara V.; Leening, Maarten; Rosengren, Annika; Dorr, Marcus; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Kiechl, Stefan; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kromhout, Daan; Price, Jackie F.; Peters, Annette; Meade, Tom W.; Casiglia, Edoardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Gallacher, John; Nagel, Dorothea; Franco, Oscar H.; Assmann, Gerd; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Sundstrom, Johan; Woodward, Mark; Brunner, Eric J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Njolstad, Inger; Hedblad, Bo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Engstrom, Gunnar; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, Simon G.; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Age-and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using individu

  8. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula G. Cocate

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of dietary glycemic load (GL on cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active subjects are not completely known. Objective: This cross-sectional study assessed the association of habitual dietary GL with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men. Methods: One-hundred seventy-six subjects (Age: 50.6 ± 5.0 years, BMI: 25.5 ± 3.6 kg/m² were evaluated. Anthropometry, lifestyle features, insulin resistance, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α; 8-iso-PGF2α and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG and lipid profile were assessed. Dietary intake was estimated through a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: The dietary GL was positively associated with free fatty acid concentrations (β = 0.311, r² = 0.13, P-value = 0.034 and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (β = 0.598, r² = 0.19, P-value = 0.028 regardless of confounding factors (central obesity, red meat consumption, age and energy intake. The oxidative stress biomarker, 8-OHdG, was associated with habitual dietary GL (β = 0.432, r² = 0.11, P-value = 0.004, regardless of previous confounding factors plus excessive alcohol consumption, iron intake and current smoking status. Conclusions: The dietary GL was positively associated with lipid profile (free fatty acid concentrations and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio and oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG. These results indicate potential harmfulness of diet with higher GL to cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men, even in physically active individuals.

  9. Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2010-10-01

    Dietary and policy recommendations frequently focus on reducing saturated fatty acid consumption for improving cardiometabolic health, based largely on ecologic and animal studies. Recent advances in nutritional science now allow assessment of critical questions about health effects of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We reviewed the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lipid and non-lipid risk factors, prospective cohort studies of disease endpoints, and RCTs of disease endpoints for cardiometabolic effects of SFA consumption in humans, including whether effects vary depending on specific SFA chain-length; on the replacement nutrient; or on disease outcomes evaluated. Compared with carbohydrate, the TC:HDL-C ratio is nonsignificantly affected by consumption of myristic or palmitic acid, is nonsignificantly decreased by stearic acid, and is significantly decreased by lauric acid. However, insufficient evidence exists for different chain-length-specific effects on other risk pathways or, more importantly, disease endpoints. Based on consistent evidence from human studies, replacing SFA with polyunsaturated fat modestly lowers coronary heart disease risk, with ~10% risk reduction for a 5% energy substitution; whereas replacing SFA with carbohydrate has no benefit and replacing SFA with monounsaturated fat has uncertain effects. Evidence for the effects of SFA consumption on vascular function, insulin resistance, diabetes, and stroke is mixed, with many studies showing no clear effects, highlighting a need for further investigation of these endpoints. Public health emphasis on reducing SFA consumption without considering the replacement nutrient or, more importantly, the many other food-based risk factors for cardiometabolic disease is unlikely to produce substantial intended benefits.

  10. The association between vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Diana H; Armstrong, Sarah; Mangarelli, Caren; Kemper, Alex R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cardiometabolic risk in children and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk. We included 35 clinical trials, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, and cohort studies that evaluated the relationship between 25OHD and blood pressure, lipid levels, insulin/glucose metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial stiffness. One randomized clinical trial that randomized adolescents to 2000 or 400 IU/d of vitamin D and found improvement in arterial stiffness in the high-dose group and worsening in the low-dose group. One cross-sectional study found no relationship between 25OHD and endothelial dysfunction. Of 12 cross-sectional studies, 10 found an inverse association between 25OHD and systolic blood pressure, although 2 trials found no relationship. There was no consistent association between 25OHD and lipid levels or insulin/glucose metabolism. Insufficient evidence was available to conclude that vitamin D supplementation yields cardiometabolic benefit.

  11. Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruna Pereira Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis: Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Conclusions: Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors.

  12. The endocannabinoid system and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmitko, Paul E; Verma, Subodh

    2008-08-01

    Worldwide, the rates of obesity are rapidly rising. Abdominal obesity in particular is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors, namely increased triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and increased plasma glucose. The cluster of these obesity-related metabolic disorders identifies individuals with the cardiometabolic syndrome, who are at particular risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The accumulation of intra-abdominal fat and the subsequent development of visceral obesity rely on the body's mechanisms to store energy and to stimulate appetite. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance and has emerged as a critical target for the modulation of visceral obesity and insulin resistance. Its overactivity appears to be associated with the development of obesity. The current review examines the role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiometabolic disease and its basis as a target for modulating cardiovascular risk.

  13. Abdominal obesity, cardiometabolic risk and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittolo Bon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is of central importance in the definition of global cardiometabolic risk. Visceral adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators, which influence body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance, alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular events and of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification is the first-line approach to the management of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. However for patients at higher risk, who cannot achieve an appreciable reduction in weight and in global cardiometabolic risk with lifestyle modification alone, an adjunctive long term pharmacotherapy should be considered. The endocannabinoid system activity regulates food intake and metabolic factors through cannabinoid-1 (CB1 receptor located in multiple sites, including hypothalamus and limbic forebrain, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence suggests that CB1 receptor blockade offers a novel therapeutic strategy. Data from four phase III trials suggest that rimonabant, the first cannabinoid receptor inhibitor, modulates cardiometabolic risk factors, both through its impact on body weight and metabolic parameters such as HDL-cholesterol, tryglicerides, Hb1Ac, through direct pathways that are not related to weight loss.

  14. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, R Brett; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Olufade, Temitope; Sheehan, John J; Nair, Kavita V; Saseen, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in the US. Methods We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four), and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57) times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95% CI: $70, $763), US$2,326 (95% CI: $1,864, $2,788), and US$4,117 (95% CI: $3,428, $4,807), respectively. Those with three or four CMRFs reported employment of 60%, compared with 80% in patients with zero CMRFs. People with three or four CMFRs had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.17) times higher expected rate of days missed at work due to illness, compared with people with zero CMRFs. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a direct association between economic burden and number of CMRFs. Although this was expected, the increase in burden

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch) of Northern Québec

    OpenAIRE

    Proust, Françoise; Drescher, Olivia; Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji A.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Background. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors.Objective. To examine fatty acids (FAs) status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants.Design. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829) conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years) from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada) in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and...

  16. The Heart of New Ulm Project: using community-based cardiometabolic risk factor screenings in a rural population health improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Pereira, Raquel F; Boucher, Jackie L; Britt, Heather R; Stephens, Charles W; Thygeson, N Marcus; Graham, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    Awareness of cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk factors can improve the health of individuals and populations. Community-based risk factor screening programs may be particularly useful for quantifying the burden of cardiometabolic risk in a given population, particularly in underserved areas. This study provided a description of a screening platform and how it has been used to monitor the cardiometabolic risk profile within the broader Heart of New Ulm Project, which is based in a rural Minnesota community. A cross-sectional, descriptive examination of baseline screening data indicated that 45% of the target population participated in the program over 8 months. Overall, 13% of the sample reported a personal history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Among the subset without active cardiometabolic disease, 35% were found to be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes over the next 8-10 years. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, obesity, and low fruit/vegetable consumption were of particular concern in this community. This article describes the use of screening results to inform the design of intervention programs that target these risk factors at both the community and individual levels. In addition, design considerations for future community-based cardiometabolic risk factor screening programs are discussed, with a focus on balancing program objectives related to health surveillance, research, and the delivery of preventive health care services.

  17. Cross-Sectional Assessment of Nut Consumption and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fiol, Miquel; Wärnberg, Julia; Estruch, Ramón; Román, Pilar; Arós, Fernando; Vinyoles, Ernest; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Covas, María-Isabel; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y) recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia) by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as 3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to participants consuming 3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001), MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001), and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043). Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001). No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. Conclusions Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:23460844

  18. Cross-sectional assessment of nut consumption and obesity, metabolic syndrome and other cardiometabolic risk factors: the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Ibarrola-Jurado

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as 3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to participants consuming 3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001, MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001, and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043. Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001. No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

  19. Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y; Dulloo, A G

    2015-02-01

    Despite the poor prognosis of dieting in obesity management, which often results in repeated attempts at weight loss and hence weight cycling, the prevalence of dieting has increased continuously in the past decades in parallel to the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity. However, dieting and weight cycling are not limited to those who are obese or overweight as substantial proportions of the various population groups with normal body weight also attempt to lose weight. These include young and older adults as well as children and adolescents who perceive themselves as too fat (due to media, parental and social pressures), athletes in weight-sensitive competitive sports (i.e. mandatory weight categories, gravitational and aesthetic sports) or among performers for whom a slim image is professionally an advantage. Of particular concern is the emergence of evidence that some of the potentially negative health consequences of repeated dieting and weight cycling are more readily seen in people of normal body weight rather than in those who are overweight or obese. In particular, several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors associated with weight cycling in normal-weight individuals have been identified from cross-sectional and prospective studies as well as from studies of experimentally induced weight cycling. In addition, findings from studies of experimental weight cycling have reinforced the notion that fluctuations of cardiovascular risk variables (such as blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic activity, blood glucose, lipids and insulin) with probable repeated overshoots above normal values during periods of weight regain put an additional stress on the cardiovascular system. As the prevalence of diet-induced weight cycling is increasing due to the opposing forces of an 'obesigenic' environment and the media pressure for a slim figure (that even targets children), dieting and weight cycling is likely to become an increasingly serious public health issue.

  20. A comparison of cardiometabolic risk factors in households in rural Uganda with and without a resident with type 2 diabetes, 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    with a person with T2D may have unexpected benefits on the risk factor profile for cardio-metabolic diseases, probably because of improved health behaviors and a closer connection with the health care system. Thus, future studies should consider the household for interventions targeting primary and secondary...

  1. Does the fractionalization of daily physical activity (sporadic vs. bouts impact cardiometabolic risk factors in children and youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Holman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Children and youth accumulate their daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA in bouts (i.e., ≥ 5 consecutive minutes and in a sporadic manner (i.e., <5 consecutive minutes. The study objective was to determine, within children and youth, whether MVPA accumulated in bouts is more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors than an equivalent volume of MVPA accumulated sporadically. METHODS: Participants consisted of 2754 children and youth aged 6-19 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative cross-sectional study. Bouts and sporadic MVPA were measured objectively over 7 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Thresholds of 5 and 10 consecutive minutes were used to differentiate between bouts and sporadic MVPA. A high cardiometabolic risk factor score (CRS was created based on measures of waist circumference, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and systolic blood pressure. Associations were examined using logistic regression and controlled for covariates (sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, dietary fat and sodium, smoking, and accelerometry wear time. RESULTS: The odds of a high CRS decreased in a dose-response for both the sporadic and bout MVPA measures. Relative to quartile 1, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval for a high CRS in quartile 4 was 0.25 (0.10-0.60 for sporadic MVPA, 0.17 (0.09-0.34 for ≥ 5 minute bouts of MVPA, and 0.19 (0.11-0.34 for ≥ 10 minute bouts of MVPA. The sporadic and bout MVPA measures had a similar ability to distinguish between participants with high and normal CRS. Relative to 0 minutes of MVPA, an equivalent number of minutes of sporadic MVPA and bouts of MVPA had an almost identical odds ratio for a high CRS. The findings were consistent for 5 and 10 minute bout thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: The relations between sporadic MVPA and bouts of MVPA with cardiometabolic risk factors were remarkably similar

  2. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  3. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Erika P. S.; Cunha, Aline T. O.; Aquino, Sephora L. S.; Pedrosa, Lucia F. C.; Lima, Severina C. V. C.; Lima, Josivan G.; Almeida, Maria G.; Sena-Evangelista, Karine C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p 0.05) between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p waist circumference (r = 0.253), triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360), glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250), homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427) (all p < 0.05) in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria. PMID:28241426

  4. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  5. Imbalance in the intestinal microbiota as a risk factor of cardiometabolic diseases

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    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review shows the role of the intestinal microflora in the development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, overweight / obesity and diabetes. It is well known that consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and cholesterol (meat, egg yolk and milk products with high fat content is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, new studies show that the atherogenic properties of these products are also due to the high content of L-carnitine and its structural analog choline, which, after entering the body is metabolized by intestinal bacteria up to trimethylamine (TMA, and then converted in the liver to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO having direct atherogenic action. It was found that elevated levels of TMAO increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac failure and death, including the common causes. In the center of international attention is also the question of the role of the intestinal microbiota imbalance in the development of insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, increase of the adhesive properties of macrophages, the appearance of dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, overweight. Attention of the doctors is focused on the extremely importance of maintaining a normal balance of the intestinal microbiota to prevent cardiometabolic diseases apart from implementation of already well-known and generally accepted preventive measures.

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

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    Ting-Kuang Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance.

  7. Dietary protein intake is associated with favorable cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajifaraji, Majid; Bahadoran, Zahra; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that dietary protein content and type are related to cardiometabolic risk factors including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum fasting glucose, and blood pressure. This population-based study was conducted on 2537 subjects aged 19 to 70 years and selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Associations between intakes of total protein as well as the animal-to-plant (A/P) protein ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. Dietary protein intakes were 13.7% and 13.6% of energy, in men and women, respectively; the A/P protein ratio in women was significantly higher than in men (1.8 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.9). Body mass index was associated with total protein intake in men (β = 0.14, P = .01) and A/P protein ratio in women (β = 0.075, P = .01). Waist circumference was associated with total protein intake (β = -0.048, P = .03) and A/P protein ratio (β=0.031, P = .05) in women. Serum fasting glucose was associated with both total protein intake (β=0.061 and 0.11, P protein intake (β = 0.107 and 0.07, P protein intake (β = -0.125, P = .01). In conclusion, higher dietary protein intake was associated with enhanced HDL-C levels, WC, and diastolic BP, and a higher ratio of A/P protein intake was related with lower serum fasting glucose andWC.

  8. Relation of physical activity to cardiovascular disease mortality and the influence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddigan, Jacinta I; Ardern, Chris I; Riddell, Michael C; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2011-11-15

    Physical activity can improve several metabolic risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality. We sought to evaluate the extent to which metabolic risk factors mediate the association between physical activity and CVD mortality and whether physical activity provides protective effects against CVD mortality in healthy adults and those with metabolic risk factors. A sample of 10,261 adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with public-access mortality data linkage (follow-up 13.4 ± 3.9 years) was used. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and classified into inactive, light, and moderate/vigorous activity categories. Metabolic risk factors (dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, inflammation, and insulin resistance) were categorized using clinical thresholds. After adjusting for basic confounders, engaging in light or moderate/vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (p activity remained at lower risk of CVD mortality. In addition, physical activity provided protective effects for CVD mortality in healthy subjects and those with metabolic risk factors in isolation or in clusters. In conclusion, physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality independent of traditional and inflammatory risk factors. Taken together these results suggest that physical activity may protect against CVD mortality regardless of the presence of metabolic risk factors.

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    Background: Since Iran’s economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers’ health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio-met...

  10. Effect of cardiometabolic risk factors on hypertension management: a cross-sectional study among 28 physician practices in the United States

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    Zacker Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor clusters (CMRFCs and their effect on BP control among hypertensive patients from 28 US physician practices. Methods Each participating practice identified a random sample of 150-300 adults aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with hypertension. The primary outcome variable was BP control (BP Results Overall, 6,527 hypertensive patients were identified for study inclusion. More than half (54.3% were female, and mean age was 64.7 years. Almost half (48.7% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. About 1 in every 4 patients (25.3% had diabetes, and 60.7% had dyslipidemia. Mean blood pressure was 132.5/77.9 mmHg, and 55.0% of all patients had controlled BP; 62.4% of non-diabetic patients, and 33.3% of diabetic hypertensive patients, had BP controlled to recommended levels. Most (81.7% hypertensive patients had ≥ 1 cardiometabolic risk factor, and 12.2% had all 3 risk factors. As compared to hypertensive patients without additional risk factors, adjusted odds ratios for BP control were significantly lower for all combinations of CMRFCs (ORs 0.15-0.83, all p Conclusions Across 28 US practices, only 18% of hypertensive patients did not have any additional cardiometabolic risk factors. The high prevalence of CMRFCs presents a challenge to effective hypertension management.

  11. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

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    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  12. Thiamine and its phosphate esters in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors in Saudi Arabs

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Alokail, Majed S; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Sabico, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    Background Thiamine deficiency has suggested to be linked to several insulin-resistance complications. In this study, we aim to associate circulating thiamine levels among cardiometabolic parameters in an Arab cohort using a simple, sensitive, rapid and selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that has recently been developed. Methods A total of 236 randomly selected, consenting Saudi adult participants (166 males and 70 females) were recruited and screened for the prese...

  13. Geographic epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk factors in middle class urban residents in India: cross–sectional study

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    Rajeev Gupta

    2015-06-01

    these risk factors in both sexes (P<0.05. Conclusions Urban middle–class men and women in eastern region of India have significantly lower cardiometabolic risk factors compared to northern, western and southern regions. Low human social development index cities have lower risk factor prevalences.

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Changes Observed in Diabetes Prevention Programs in US Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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    Uma Mudaliar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP study showed that weight loss in high-risk adults lowered diabetes incidence and cardiovascular disease risk. No prior analyses have aggregated weight and cardiometabolic risk factor changes observed in studies implementing DPP interventions in nonresearch settings in the United States.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we pooled data from studies in the United States implementing DPP lifestyle modification programs (focused on modest [5%-7%] weight loss through ≥150 min of moderate physical activity per week and restriction of fat intake in clinical, community, and online settings. We reported aggregated pre- and post-intervention weight and cardiometabolic risk factor changes (fasting blood glucose [FBG], glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c], systolic or diastolic blood pressure [SBP/DBP], total [TC] or HDL-cholesterol. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases from January 1, 2003, to May 1, 2016. Two reviewers independently evaluated article eligibility and extracted data on study designs, populations enrolled, intervention program characteristics (duration, number of core and maintenance sessions, and outcomes. We used a random effects model to calculate summary estimates for each outcome and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI. To examine sources of heterogeneity, results were stratified according to the presence of maintenance sessions, risk level of participants (prediabetes or other, and intervention delivery personnel (lay or professional. Forty-four studies that enrolled 8,995 participants met eligibility criteria. Participants had an average age of 50.8 years and body mass index (BMI of 34.8 kg/m2, and 25.2% were male. On average, study follow-up was 9.3 mo (median 12.0 with a range of 1.5 to 36 months; programs offered a mean of 12.6 sessions, with mean participant attendance of 11.0 core sessions. Sixty percent of programs offered some form of

  15. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study.

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    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, changes in Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification index (NRI were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-β1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes increased the AUC to 0.803 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092-0.149] and 0.113 [0.093-0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model. The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028-0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model. Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013-0.038] compared to the basic model, 0.845 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028-0.059] compared to the basic model and 0.851 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003-0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of multiple

  16. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2015-09-08

    Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease.

  17. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

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    Rachel C. Brown

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ. The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, C-reactive protein (CRP and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044. Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014, with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023. There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001 and CRP (p = 0.045 were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease.

  18. Predicting incident fatty liver using simple cardio-metabolic risk factors at baseline

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    Sung Ki-Chul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and chronic liver disease but identifying patients who have NAFLD without resorting to expensive imaging tests is challenging. In order to help identify people for imaging investigation of the liver who are at high risk of NAFLD, our aim was to: a identify easily measured risk factors at baseline that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up, and then b to test the diagnostic performance of thresholds of these factors at baseline, to predict or to exclude incident fatty liver at follow up. Methods 2589 people with absence of fatty liver on ultrasound examination at baseline were re-examined after a mean of 4.4 years in a Korean occupational cohort study. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to identify baseline factors that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of these baseline factors to identify people with incident fatty liver at follow-up was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results 430 incident cases of fatty liver were identified. Several factors were independently associated with incident fatty liver: increased triglyceride (per mmol/l increase OR 1.378 [95%CIs 1.179, 1.611], p 9/L increase OR 1.004 [1.001, 1.006], p = 0.001; were each independently associated with incident fatty liver. Binary thresholds of the five factors were applied and the area under the ROC curve for incident fatty liver was 0.75 (95%CI 0.72–0.78 for the combination of all five factors above these thresholds. Conclusion Simple risk factors that overlap considerably with risk factors for type 2 diabetes allow identification of people at high risk of incident fatty liver at who use of hepatic imaging could be targeted.

  19. Obesity and obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk factors in indigenous Nenets women from the rural Nenets Autonomous Area and Russian women from Arkhangelsk city

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    Natalia Petrenya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions varies by population groups. Indigenous women of the circumpolar north are believed to be at high risk of obesity. Objective: We studied, first the obesity prevalence in indigenous Arctic women, Nenets, compared to urban Russian women. Second, the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in the combined group of Nenets and Russian women. Third, ethnic differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional study performed in 2008–2009. Subjects: 93 Nenets women, aged 19–77 (the indigenous village, the Nenets Autonomous Area and 132 Russian women, aged 21–72 (Arkhangelsk city. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC≥88 cm and or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR≥0.85%. We assessed associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by linear and logistic regression models that included covariates of ethnicity, age, smoking and physical activity. We also tested for interaction between obesity measurements and ethnicity. Results: Prevalence of obesity estimated through BMI, WC and WHR were 42.5, 45.3 and 41.9% in Nenets and 34.4, 46.4 and 29.5% in Russians, respectively, with no differences found. BMI, WC and WHR associated positively with triglycerides, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index. In addition, BMI and WC correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apoliporotein A–I ratio. WC explained significant variation in fasting glucose (FG level. BMI predicted type 2 diabetes history. FG level associated strongly with ethnicity and was found to be higher in Russians. Conclusions: We found no differences in prevalence of obesity between Nenets and Russian females. Obesity was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of

  20. Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.

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    Jing-Fang Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. METHODS: In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. RESULTS: L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01. The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5% and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001. L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index.

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch of Northern Québec

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    Françoise Proust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: To examine fatty acids (FAs status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants. Design: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829 conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. FAs were quantified in red blood cells (RBCs under fasting conditions. Results: A total of 89% of the participants were overweight (with 69% obesity, 33% had hypertriglyceridemia, 44% had low plasma HDL-c and 77% had fasting plasma insulin ≥90 pmol/l. Total n-3 PUFAs accounted for 6% of total FAs and were higher among older participants, while n-6 PUFAs accounted for 31% of total FAs and were higher among younger participants. According to the adjusted multiple linear regression models, n-3 LC-PUFA was associated (p<0.05 with higher total cholesterol, LDL-c and apo B-100, and was also associated (p<0.05 with lower blood glucose. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed that n-3 LC-PUFA levels measured in the RBCs of the Cree adults are relatively low and tend towards lower levels among youth. These levels might be insufficient to offset the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  2. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in children with metabolic syndrome: a triple-masked controlled trial

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this triple-masked controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: the study comprised 50 participants, aged 10 to16 years, who were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number. In this 12-week trial, one group received oral vitamin D (300,000 IU and the other group received placebo. Cardiometabolic risk factors, insulin resistance, and a continuous value of metabolic syndrome (cMetS were determined. Statistical analysis was conducted after adjustment for covariate interactions. RESULTS: overall, 21 patients in the vitamin D group and 22 in the placebo group completed the trial. No significant difference was observed in the baseline characteristics of the two groups. After the trial, in the vitamin D group, serum insulin and triglyceride concentrations, as well as HOM -IR and C-MetS decreased significantly, both when compared with the baseline and with the placebo group. No significant difference was observed when comparing total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure. CONCLUSION: the present findings support the favorable effects of vitamin D supplementation on reducing insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children.

  3. Innovation through Wearable Sensors to Collect Real-Life Data among Pediatric Patients with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

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    Kestens Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While increasing evidence links environments to health behavior, clinicians lack information about patients’ physical activity levels and lifestyle environments. We present mobile health tools to collect and use spatio-behavioural lifestyle data for personalized physical activity plans in clinical settings. Methods. The Dyn@mo lifestyle intervention was developed at the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Center to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary time among children with cardiometabolic risk factors. Mobility, physical activity, and heart rate were measured in free-living environments during seven days. Algorithms processed data to generate spatio-behavioural indicators that fed a web-based interactive mapping application for personalised counseling. Proof of concept and tools are presented using data collected among the first 37 participants recruited in 2011. Results. Valid accelerometer data was available for 5.6 (SD=1.62 days in average, heart rate data for 6.5 days, and GPS data was available for 6.1 (2.1 days. Spatio-behavioural indicators were shared between patients, parents, and practitioners to support counseling. Conclusion. Use of wearable sensors along with data treatment algorithms and visualisation tools allow to better measure and describe real-life environments, mobility, physical activity, and physiological responses. Increased specificity in lifestyle interventions opens new avenues for remote patient monitoring and intervention.

  4. Innovation through Wearable Sensors to Collect Real-Life Data among Pediatric Patients with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kestens; Tracie, Barnett; Marie-Ève, Mathieu; Mélanie, Henderson; Jean-Luc, Bigras; Benoit, Thierry; St-Onge, Maxime; Marie, Lambert

    2014-01-01

    Background. While increasing evidence links environments to health behavior, clinicians lack information about patients' physical activity levels and lifestyle environments. We present mobile health tools to collect and use spatio-behavioural lifestyle data for personalized physical activity plans in clinical settings. Methods. The Dyn@mo lifestyle intervention was developed at the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Center to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary time among children with cardiometabolic risk factors. Mobility, physical activity, and heart rate were measured in free-living environments during seven days. Algorithms processed data to generate spatio-behavioural indicators that fed a web-based interactive mapping application for personalised counseling. Proof of concept and tools are presented using data collected among the first 37 participants recruited in 2011. Results. Valid accelerometer data was available for 5.6 (SD = 1.62) days in average, heart rate data for 6.5 days, and GPS data was available for 6.1 (2.1) days. Spatio-behavioural indicators were shared between patients, parents, and practitioners to support counseling. Conclusion. Use of wearable sensors along with data treatment algorithms and visualisation tools allow to better measure and describe real-life environments, mobility, physical activity, and physiological responses. Increased specificity in lifestyle interventions opens new avenues for remote patient monitoring and intervention.

  5. Waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference for screening paediatric cardio-metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, K; Wong, M; Khalechelvam, P; Tam, W

    2016-12-01

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is superior to body mass index and waist circumference for measuring adult cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, there is no meta-analysis to evaluate its discriminatory power in children and adolescents. A meta-analysis was conducted using multiple databases, including Embase and Medline. Studies were included that utilized receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis and published area under the receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUC) for adiposity indicators with hyperglycaemia, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and other cardio-metabolic outcomes. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. AUC values were extracted and pooled using a random-effects model and were weighted using the inverse variance method. The mean AUC values for each index were greater than 0.6 for most outcomes including hypertension. The values were the highest when screening for metabolic syndrome (AUC > 0.8). WHtR did not have significantly better screening power than other two indexes in most outcomes, except for elevated triglycerides when compared with body mass index and high metabolic risk score when compared with waist circumference. Although not being superior in discriminatory power, WHtR is convenient in terms of measurement and interpretation, which is advantageous in practice and allows for the quick identification of children with cardio-metabolic risk factors at an early age.

  6. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  7. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  8. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Related to Vitamin D and Adiponectin in Obese Children and Adolescents

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    Fatih Kardas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related diseases are becoming the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several studies have suggested an association between low levels of vitamin D and obesity. In addition, plasma adiponectin levels have been found to be lower in obese subjects. We evaluated the association of metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D levels. The study consisted of 114 obese and healthy subjects. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels were positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (T-C, triglyceride (TG, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The mean 25(OHD levels in the obese and nonobese groups were and  ng/mL, respectively (. The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was lower than that in the nonobese group (. Lower vitamin D and adiponectin levels were strongly associated with metabolic risk factors and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents.

  9. Does Microalbuminuria Affect Resistin and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Hypertensive Non-Diabetic Females?

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    Sena Ulu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance and lipid levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The association of cardiovascular risk with C-reactive protein and homocysteine has been debated for decades. Resistin and microalbuminuria are presumed to be associated with diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship of microalbuminuria with antropometric and metabolic parameters, C-reactive protein, homocyteine and resistin in non-diabetic hypertensive females. Methods: We conducted a randomized study including 37 female non-diabetic hypertensives without microalbuminuria and 47 female non-diabetic hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria. We made comparisons of anthropometric and metabolic parameters, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, insulin resistance index and resistin between the groups. Results: C-reactive protein, homocysteine, resistin, insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were higher in hypertensives with microalbuminuria than in hypertensives without microalbuminuria (all p<0.05. Conclusion: We found that microalbuminuria may have an influence on C-reactive protein, homocysteine and resistin levels in non-diabetic hypertensives. We also think that insulin and insulin resistance may also be related with microalbuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive female patients. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 172-6

  10. Dietary Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in Ethnically Diverse Urban Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (Psaturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181

  11. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  12. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Heshmat; Mostafa Qorbani; Amir Eslami Shahr Babaki; Shirin Djalalinia; Asal Ataei-Jafari; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Gelayol Ardalan; Tahereh Arefirad; Fatemeh Rezaei; Hamid Asayesh; Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by sel...

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

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    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  14. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Orvar, E-mail: orvar.gunnarsson@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 16 Penn Tower, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Basaria, Shehzad [Department of Medicine, Section of Men’s Health, Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gignac, Gretchen A. [Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology and Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  15. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orvar Gunnarsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PCa is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI, vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4% patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  16. Threshold values of sagittal abdominal diameter for the detection of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Northeastern Mexico: a cross-sectional study

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    Francisco Javier Guzmán de la Garza

    Full Text Available Background: The use of sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has been proposed for screening cardio-metabolic risk factors; however, its accuracy can be influenced by the choice of thresholds values. Aim: To determine the SAD threshold values for cardio-metabolic risk factors in Mexican adults; to assess whether parallel and serial SAD testing can improve waist circumference (WC sensitivity and specificity; and to analyze the effect of considering SAD along with WC and body mass index (BMI in detecting cardio-metabolic risk. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2014 in Northeast Mexico (n = 269. Data on anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements were collected. Sex-adjusted receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC were obtained using hypertension, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance as individual outcomes and metabolic syndrome as a composite outcome. Age-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using logistic regression. Results: The threshold value for SAD with acceptable combination of sensitivity and specificity was 24.6 cm in men and 22.5 cm in women. Parallel SAD testing improved WC sensitivity and serial testing improved WC specificity. The co-occurrence of high WC/high SAD increased the risk for insulin resistance by 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.1-5.3, high BMI/high SAD by 4.3-fold (95% CI: 1.7-11.9 and SAD alone by 2.2-fold (95% CI: 1.2.-4.2. Conclusions: The use of SAD together with traditional obesity indices such as WC and BMI has advantages over using either of these indices alone. SAD may be a powerful screening tool for interventions for high-risk individuals.

  17. Associations between Dietary Acid-Base Load and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

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    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn this study we investigated the associations of dietary acid-base load, identified by potential renal acid load (PRAL and protein to potassium (Pro:K ratio, with cardiometabolic risk factors in Tehranian adults.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2009 to 2011 on 5,620 men and women aged 19 to 70 years. Dietary data were collected by a trained dietitian using a validated, 147-food item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary PRAL and Pro:K ratio were calculated. Multiple linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding variables were used to evaluate the associations of dietary acid-base load with anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, serum creatinine, and fasting blood glucose.ResultsThe mean±SD age of the participants was 39.8±12.8 years and 54% of participants were women. Mean±SD PRAL was -22.0±29.1; mean PRAL was -15.6 in men and -26.8 in women. Dietary PRAL was associated with weight (β=0.098, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.062, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.143, P<0.01, HDL-C (β=-0.11, P<0.01, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.062, P<0.01, and serum creatinine (β=0.142, P<0.001. Pro:K ratio was associated with weight (β=0.055, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.04, P<0.01, serum HDL-C (β=-0.06, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.03, P<0.05, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.026, P<0.05, and serum creatinine (β=0.07, P<0.01.ConclusionA more acidic dietary acid-base load may be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders.

  18. Effects of a Multi-Disciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

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    Bianca L Share

    Full Text Available Young women are under-represented in cardiovascular disease research, with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factor interventions generally targeting older adults. Furthermore, appropriate study designs for young women remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of a 12 week multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women with abdominal obesity.Women aged 18-30 y with abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm] were randomised to a 12 week lifestyle intervention (n = 26 of physical activity, nutrition education and cognitive behavioural therapy, or a wait-list control group (n = 17. Both groups completed anthropometric, biochemical, nutrition and fitness testing, at pre (0 weeks and post (12 weeks, with intervention participants completed follow-up testing at 24 weeks.Results from a linear mixed model showed no between-group differences, other than increased physical activity in the intervention group, at post. In the intervention group alone, positive within-group changes were observed in WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, waist-height-ratio (WHtR, resting heart rate, blood pressure, predicted VO2max, and total energy intake. Most changes were maintained at 24 weeks post-intervention. Similar within-group improvements were observed in control participants in WC, WHR, WHtR, and systolic blood pressure but no changes were detected in physical activity and nutrition.Cardiometabolic risk factors were decreased as a result of a lifestyle intervention in young women with abdominal obesity. It is difficult to describe observations in the control group without greater understanding of the behaviour of wait-list participants.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001017819.

  19. Cardiometabolic risk factors are associated with high urinary enterolactone concentration, independent of urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L

    2014-09-01

    The study objective was to evaluate independent and interactive associations of dietary fiber intake and high urinary enterolignans with cardiometabolic risk factors. The analysis included 2260 adults (≥20 y of age) from the 2003-2010 NHANES. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate obesity and clinically defined cardiometabolic risk factors in relation to dietary fiber intake and urinary enterolignan concentrations. Three sets of models were created: 1) independent associations, 2) mutually adjusted associations, and 3) interactions. Models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and energy intake. High concentrations were considered to be above the 90th percentile of urinary enterolignan concentrations. Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with high blood pressure (P = 0.02) and low serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.03). High urinary enterodiol concentration was not associated with obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. High urinary enterolactone concentration was inversely associated with obesity (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.66), abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.87), high serum C-reactive protein (CRP; OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.74), high serum triglycerides (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), low serum HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74). In mutually adjusted models, enterolactone associations observed in independent models remained similar, but associations for dietary fiber intake were attenuated, with the exception of blood pressure. In interaction models, there were 2 significant interactions: between high urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake for high serum CRP (P = 0.04) and high plasma glucose (P = 0.04). Overall, being in the highest 10% of urinary enterolactone concentration was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of dietary fiber intake and enterodiol concentration. Future studies are

  20. Fructose content of low calorie diets: effect on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Line K; Holven, Kirsten B.; Nordstrand, Njord; Mellembakken, Jan R.; Tanbo, Tom; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether a whole-grain crispbread (CB) low-fructose, low-calorie diet (LCD) might be superior to a traditional LCD based on fructose-rich liquid meal replacements (LMRs) with respect to improvement of various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Parallel-group randomised controlled clinical trial. Morbidly obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were randomised to either an 8-week CB-LCD or LMR-LCD (900–1100 kcal/day, fructose 17 g/day or 85 g...

  1. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Sonestedt, Emily; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; David E Laaksonen; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake onmetabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugarintake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose) on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovasculardisease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, bloodpressure, uric acid, inflammation markers), and on all-cause morta...

  2. Combination of diabetes risk factors and hepatic steatosis in Chinese: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC Study.

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    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available AIMS: Hepatic steatosis has been related to insulin resistance and increased diabetes risk. We assessed whether combination of diabetes risk factors, evaluated by the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, was associated with risk of hepatic steatosis in an apparently healthy Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 1,780 men and women (18-64 y were included in the final analyses. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We created combination of diabetes risk factors score on basis of age, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, physical activity at least 4 h a week, daily consumption of fruits, berries or vegetables, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose. The total risk score is a simple sum of the individual weights, and values range from 0 to 20. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was present 18% in the total population. In multivariate models, the odds ratios of hepatic steatosis were 1.20 (95%CI 1.15-1.25 in men and 1.25 (95%CI 1.14-1.37 in women by each unit increase in the combination of diabetes risk factors score, after adjustment for blood pressure, liver enzymes, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for hepatic steatosis was 0.78 (95%CI 0.76-0.80, 0.76 in men (95%CI 0.74-0.78 and 0.83 (95%CI 0.79-0.87 in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that combination of major diabetes risk factors was significantly related to risk of hepatic steatosis in Chinese adults.

  3. The endocannabinoid system--back to the scene of cardiometabolic risk factors control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C J M; Genelhu, V; Di Marzo, V; Francischetti, E A

    2014-07-01

    This review examines the impact of the endocannabinoid signaling system on metabolic and cardiovascular health and the new therapeutic strategies that selectively target dysfunctional endocannabinoid action in peripheral tissues, without causing the undesirable central nervous system effects that occurred with the first-generation of CB1 receptor blockers. We first review the components of the endocannabinoid system and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade the endocannabinoids, the critical role of the system in the homeostasis of energy balance, and its hedonic aspects related to the incentive and motivational value of food. Second, we describe the central and peripheral actions of the endocannabinoid system and its interactions with other biological modulators, such as ghrelin and leptin. Third, we summarize data from human clinical trials with the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant, showing that the drug, although effective in increasing weight loss with accompanying improvements in the metabolic profile of the participants in the RIO (Rimonabant In Obesity) trials, was withdrawn from the market because of the risk of serious adverse events. Finally, we describe: 1) the development of new selective peripheral blockers that interrupt endocannabinoid action selectively in peripheral tissues and that have been suggested as an alternative approach to treat the metabolic consequences of obesity and related diseases, without undesirable central nervous system effects, and 2) the potential for inhibition of enzymes of synthesis, as well as the possible role of endocannabinoid congeners, with opposing effects as compared to CB1 receptor agonists, in the control of metabolic disorders.

  4. Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Prevalence, Disease Related Indicators, and Associations with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Jon T; Ferrante, Antony W; Broderick, Rachel; Zartoshti, Afshin; Rose, Janine; Downer, Kendall; Zhang, Hui-Zhu; Winchester, Robert J

    2017-04-07

    Objective Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are a potent source of inflammatory cytokines with profound effects on adipose tissue function, yet their potential role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathobiology is largely unstudied. Methods Periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from 36 RA patients and 22 non-RA controls frequency matched on demographics and BMI. Samples were stained for the macrophage marker CD68 and the average proportion of ATMs, crown-like structures (CLSs: peri-adipocyte aggregates of three or more ATMs), and fibrosis were compared between groups. Results The adjusted proportion of ATMs among all nucleated cells was 76% higher in RA vs. non-RA samples (37.7 vs. 21.3%, respectively; pleflunomide, and TNF inhibitors had a significantly lower proportion of ATMs compared with non-users. CLSs were significantly higher in patients seropositive for rheumatoid factor and those with C-reactive protein levels≥10 mg/L, and significantly lower among those treated with statins. Linear ATMs were significantly associated with whole-body insulin resistance, but not with serum lipids. Conclusions ATMs and CLSs were more abundant in RA and associated with systemic inflammation, autoimmunity, and whole-body insulin resistance, suggesting possible contributions to the RA disease process. Lower levels of ATMs and CLSs associated with specific RA treatments suggest that adipose tissue inflammation may be ameliorated by immunomodulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  6. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

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    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Development of cardiometabolic risk in childhood and adolescence. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process leading to cardiovascular disease begins early in life and is influenced over time by several risk factors. Investigating determinants that contribute to an unfavourable cardiometabolic profile in childhood and adolescence is important for specifying time windows suitable

  8. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, M; Gunn, P; Gibson, S

    2012-03-01

    Our aim was to differentiate the screening potential of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) for adult cardiometabolic risk in people of different nationalities and to compare both with body mass index (BMI). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for assessing the discriminatory power of anthropometric indices in distinguishing adults with hypertension, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and general cardiovascular outcomes (CVD). Thirty one papers met the inclusion criteria. Using data on all outcomes, averaged within study group, WHtR had significantly greater discriminatory power compared with BMI. Compared with BMI, WC improved discrimination of adverse outcomes by 3% (P < 0.05) and WHtR improved discrimination by 4-5% over BMI (P < 0.01). Most importantly, statistical analysis of the within-study difference in AUC showed WHtR to be significantly better than WC for diabetes, hypertension, CVD and all outcomes (P < 0.005) in men and women. For the first time, robust statistical evidence from studies involving more than 300 000 adults in several ethnic groups, shows the superiority of WHtR over WC and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors in both sexes. Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool.

  9. Sleep and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Jonas Salling; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The evidence for a link between sleep and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents is accumulating; however, the literature has not yet been reviewed. Seventy-five studies investigating associations between sleep variables and measures of abdominal adiposity, glucose homeostasis......, blood lipids, blood pressure (BP), and inflammatory markers were included in the present review. The current evidence indicates that inadequate sleep may play a role in cardiometabolic risk at a later age for children and adolescents. Most compelling is the evidence for an association between inadequate...... weekdays and weekend days, at multiple time points over time. Meanwhile, based on the available evidence, we recommend that children and adolescents get adequate amounts of good sleep in a regular pattern....

  10. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary

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    Jermendy György

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2% or in public services (23.9%. Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years, men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p vs 13.4%; p vs 21.7%; p vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers.

  11. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  12. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

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    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  13. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  14. Cardiometabolic risk variables in overweight and obese children: a worldwide comparison

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    van Vliet Mariska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The growing prevalence rate of pediatric obesity, which is frequently accompanied by several cardiometabolic risk factors, has become a serious global health issue. To date, little is known regarding differences for cardiometabolic risk factors (prevalence and means in children from different countries. In the present review, we aimed to provide a review for the available evidence regarding cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight pediatric populations. We therefore provided information with respect to the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol and hypertension (components of the metabolic syndrome among cohorts from different countries. Moreover, we aimed to compare the means of glucose and lipid levels (triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol and systolic/diastolic blood pressure values. After careful selection of articles describing cohorts with comparable age and sex, it was shown that both prevalence rates and mean values of cardiometabolic risk factors varied largely among cohorts of overweight children. After ranking for high/low means for each cardiometabolic risk parameter, Dutch-Turkish children and children from Turkey, Hungary, Greece, Germany and Poland were in the tertile with the most unfavorable risk factor profile overall. In contrast, cohorts from Norway, Japan, Belgium, France and the Dominican Republic were in the tertile with most favorable risk profile. These results should be taken with caution, given the heterogeneity of the relatively small, mostly clinical cohorts and the lack of information concerning the influence of the values of risk parameters on true cardiometabolic outcome measures in comparable cohorts. The results of our review present a fair estimation of the true differences between cardiometabolic risk profiles among pediatric cohorts worldwide, based on available literature.

  15. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the ‘Gold Standard’ Tarnished?

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    Hands, Beth; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Mountain, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Methods and Results 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:27622523

  16. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

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    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  17. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with the Evolution of Cardiometabolic Risk over Four Years in West-African Adults: The Benin Study

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    Charles Sossa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess in adults from Benin changes in cardiometabolic risk (CMR using both the Framingham risk score (FRS and metabolic syndrome (MetS and to examine the effects of diet, and lifestyles, controlling for location and socioeconomic status. Methods. Apparently healthy subjects (n=541 aged 25–60 years and randomly selected in the largest city, a small town, and rural areas were included in the four-year longitudinal study. Along with CMR factors, socioeconomic, diet and lifestyle data were collected in individual interviews. A food score based on consumption frequency of four “sentinel” food groups (meat and poultry, dairy, eggs, and vegetables was developed. Lifestyle included physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Education and income (proxy were the socioeconomic variables. Results. Among the subjects with four-year follow-up data (n=416, 13.5% were at risk at baseline, showing MetS or FRS ≥ 10%. The incidence of MetS and FRS ≥ 10% during follow-up was 8.2% and 5%, respectively. CMR deteriorated in 21% of subjects. Diet and lifestyle mediated location and income effects on CMR evolution. Low food scores and inactivity increased the likelihood of CMR deterioration. Conclusion. Combining MetS and FRS might be appropriate for surveillance purposes in order to better capture CMR and inform preventive measures.

  18. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors

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    R. Burrows

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR, determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  19. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study.

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    Ramin Heshmat

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41 were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triglycerides (TG and high fasting blood sugar (FBG were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score, WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC.

  20. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  1. Relation among the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio, insulin resistance, and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Balbín, Eduardo; Dulbecco, Carlos A; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Marillet, Alberto G; Reaven, Gerald M

    2012-06-15

    Results of recent studies using the ratio of plasma triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration to identify insulin-resistant patients at increased cardiometabolic risk have emphasized that the cut point used for this purpose will vary with race. Because TG and HDL cholesterol concentrations vary with gender, this analysis was initiated to define gender-specific plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratios that best identified high-risk subjects among women (n = 1,102) and men (n = 464) of primarily European ancestry. Insulin resistance was defined as the 25% of the population with the highest values for fasting plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Using TG/HDL concentration ratios >2.5 in women and >3.5 in men identified subgroups of men and women that were comparable in terms of insulin resistance and associated cardiometabolic risk, with significantly higher values for fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and glucose and TG concentrations and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations than in women and men below these cut points. The sensitivity and specificity of these gender-specific cut points to identify insulin-resistant subjects were about 40% and about 80%, respectively. In conclusion, the plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratio that identifies patients who are insulin resistant and at significantly greater cardiometabolic risk varies between men and women.

  2. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

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    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  3. Hostility Modifies the Association between TV Viewing and Cardiometabolic Risk

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    Anthony Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was hypothesized that television viewing is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, people with hostile personality type may be more susceptible to TV-induced negative emotions and harmful health habits which increase occurrence of cardiometabolic risk. Purpose. The prospective association of TV viewing on cardiometabolic risk was examined along with whether hostile personality trait was a modifier. Methods. A total of 3,269 Black and White participants in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA study were assessed from age 23 to age 35. A cross-lagged panel model at exam years 5, 10, 15, and 20, covering 15 years, was used to test whether hours of daily TV viewing predicted cardiometabolic risk, controlling confounding variables. Multiple group analysis of additional cross-lagged panel models stratified by high and low levels of hostility was used to evaluate whether the association was modified by the hostile personality trait. Results. The cross-lagged association of TV viewing at years 5 and 15 on clustered cardiometabolic risk score at years 10 and 20 was significant (B=0.058 and 0.051, but not at 10 to 15 years. This association was significant for those with high hostility (B=0.068 for exam years 5 to 10 and 0.057 for exam years 15 to 20 but not low hostility. Conclusion. These findings indicate that TV viewing is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Further, they indicate that hostility might be a modifier for the association between TV viewing and cardiometabolic risk.

  4. Impact of whole body electromyostimulation on cardiometabolic risk factors in older women with sarcopenic obesity: the randomized controlled FORMOsA-sarcopenic obesity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Katharina; Sieber, Cornel; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias; Freiberger, Ellen; Jakob, Franz; Lell, Michael; Engelke, Klaus; Kemmler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is characterized by a combination of low muscle and high fat mass with an additive negative effect of both conditions on cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. Methods The study was conducted in an ambulatory university setting. Seventy-five community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were randomly allocated to either 6 months of WB-EMS application with (WB-EMS&P) or without (WB-EMS) dietary supplementation (150 kcal/day, 56% protein) or a non-training control group (CG). WB-EMS included one session of 20 min (85 Hz, 350 μs, 4 s of strain–4 s of rest) per week with moderate-to-high intensity. The primary study endpoint was the MetS Z-score with the components waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); secondary study endpoints were changes in these determining variables. Results MetS Z-score decreased in both groups; however, changes compared with the CG were significant (P=0.001) in the WB-EMS&P group only. On analyzing the components of the MetS, significant positive effects for both WB-EMS groups (P≤0.038) were identified for MAP, while the WB-EMS group significantly differed for WC (P=0.036), and the WB-EMS&P group significantly differed for HDL-C (P=0.006) from the CG. No significant differences were observed between the WB-EMS groups. Conclusion The study clearly confirms the favorable effect of WB-EMS application on the MetS in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. However, protein-enriched supplements did not increase effects of WB-EMS alone. In summary, we considered this novel technology an effective and safe method to prevent cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases in older women unable or

  5. Leisure-time physical activity and cardiometabolic risk among children and adolescents

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    Luz M. Cárdenas-Cárdenas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on cardiometabolic risk by nutritional status in Mexican children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 1,309 participants aged between 5 and 17 years. Nutritional status was classified according to the BMI Z-score by age and gender. A previously validated questionnaire was used to evaluate LTPA; a cardiometabolic risk score was calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of LTPA on cardiometabolic risk. RESULTS: After adjusting for risk factors, mild LTPA were positively associated with cardiometabolic risk score (ßMildvsIntenseLTPA: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.18 to 1.18; pfortrend = 0.007. This association became stronger when estimated for overweight (ß MildvsIntenseLTPA: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.24 to 2.24; pfortrend = 0.015 and obese participants (ß MildvsIntenseLTPA: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.97; pfortrend= 0.045 CONCLUSION: Mild LTPA was positively associated with cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Given the emerging childhood obesity epidemic in Mexico, these results may be useful in the design of strategies and programs to increase physical activity levels in order to achieve better health.

  6. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Silvia I.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Liem, Eryn T.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this associati

  7. Self-reported screen time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents.

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    Teatske M Altenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the association between sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk exists among obese adolescents. We examined the association between screen time (TV and computer time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For the current cross-sectional study, baseline data of 125 Dutch overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years participating in the Go4it study were included. Self-reported screen time (Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults and clustered and individual cardiometabolic risk (i.e. body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density (LDL-C, high-density (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, glucose and insulin were assessed in all participants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We found no significant relationship between self-reported total screen time and clustered cardiometabolic risk or individual risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents. Unexpectedly, self-reported computer time, but not TV time, was slightly but significantly inversely associated with TC (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.003;-0.000] and LDL-C (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.001;0.000]. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescents we could not confirm the hypothesised positive association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk. Future studies should consider computer use as a separate class of screen behaviour, thereby also discriminating between active video gaming and other computer activities.

  8. Preventing and Managing Cardiometabolic Risk: The Logic for Intervention

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    Rita Carreón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk (CMR, also known as metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, comprises obesity (particularly central or abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Leading to death from diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, the root cause of CMR is inadequate physical activity, a Western diet identified primarily by low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and high in saturated fat, as well as a number of yet-to-be-identified genetic factors. While the pathophysiological pathways related to CMR are complex, the universal need for adequate physical activity and a diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables and whole grains, while minimizing food high in added sugars and saturated fat suggests that these behaviors are the appropriate focus of intervention.

  9. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  10. Impact of whole body electromyostimulation on cardiometabolic risk factors in older women with sarcopenic obesity: the randomized controlled FORMOsA-sarcopenic obesity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittmann K

    2016-11-01

    for both WB-EMS groups (P≤0.038 were identified for MAP, while the WB-EMS group significantly differed for WC (P=0.036, and the WB-EMS&P group significantly differed for HDL-C (P=0.006 from the CG. No significant differences were observed between the WB-EMS groups. Conclusion: The study clearly confirms the favorable effect of WB-EMS application on the MetS in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. However, protein-enriched supplements did not increase effects of WB-EMS alone. In summary, we considered this novel technology an effective and safe method to prevent cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases in older women unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Keywords: sarcopenia, obesity, whole-body electromyostimulation, cardiovascular, metabolic risk, metabolic syndrome, community-dwelling, older people

  11. Leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline in the PREDIMED-PLUS intervention trial: A cross-sectional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosique-Esteban, Nuria; Díaz-López, Andrés; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Goday, Albert; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Romaguera, Dora; Vioque, Jesus; Arós, Fernando; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco; Estruch, Ramon; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luís; Pinto, Xavier; Tur, Josep A.; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Vidal, Josep; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Daimiel, Lidia; Vázquez, Clotilde; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design), higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95%CI: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P < .01). Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P < .05). For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P < .05). Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, T2D, and

  12. Self-reported body weight and height: an assessment tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Noel P T; Choi, Kai C; Nelson, E Anthony S; Sung, Rita Y T; Chan, Juliana C N; Kong, Alice P S

    2013-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used for assessing body fat. Self-reported body weight and height derived BMI (SRDBMI) is a simple, low cost and non-invasive assessment tool and it may be a useful self-reported assessment tool to monitor the prevalence of overweight/obesity in community settings and for epidemiological research. We assessed the agreement of BW and BH between assessor measured and child self-reported values and evaluated the diagnostic ability of SRDBMI to identify children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) clustering. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school settings using a cluster sampling method. A total of 1,614 children aged 6-18 years were included in the analysis. Children were given a questionnaire to complete at home prior to the anthropometric measurements and blood taking at the schools. There was almost perfect agreement on BW, BH and BMI between self-reported and measured values [intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 (95% CI: 0.93-0.94) to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99)]. About half of the children reported their BW and BH absolute values within 1 kg and 2 cm of measured values, respectively. The SRDBMI demonstrated good diagnostic ability for identifying children with overweight/obesity status (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged from 0.83 to 0.98) and CMRFs clustering (AUC-ROCs values of BMI between measured and self-reported values were close ranging from 0.85 to 0.89). Self-reported BW and BH demonstrated almost perfect agreement with measured values and could substantially identify children with overweight/obesity status and CMRFs clustering.

  13. The cardiometabolic benefits of flavonoids and dark chocolate intake in patients at risk

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    Andra-Iulia Suceveanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research proves that the cardiac and the metabolic functions are improved by the consumption of flavonoids, natural elements found in cocoa. The dark chocolate is the main alimentary compound rich in flavonoids, and for this reason it can be used to prevent some cardiometabolic disorders. This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between chocolate consumption and the cardiometabolic disorders risk in 85 patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Unit of Emergency Hospital “St. Apostle Andrew” of Constanta. Patients were split according to the quantity of the dark chocolate consumption into 2 groups. The study groups were matched by the demographic parameters, the BMI, the physical activity and other risk factors (fats, saturated lipids, etc. We found that the daily consumption of dark chocolate, with content of cocoa > 35% according to European recommendations, had cardiometabolic benefits. The risk of coronary heart disease was reduced with 23% by the daily dark chocolate intake. The cardiovascular disease mortality and the risk of any cardiovascular disease were decreased with 19%, respectively with 38%. The risk of incident diabetes decreased with 28% after daily dark chocolate consumption, regardless the gender of patients. The number of ischemic cerebral events was reduced with 32%. In summary, the daily consumption of dark chocolate rich in flavonoids decreases the cardiometabolic disorders in patients at risk [1].

  14. Association of overweight and obesity with health status, weight management, and exercise behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or with cardiometabolic risk factors

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    James R Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available James R Gavin, III1, Helena W Rodbard2, Kathleen M Fox3, Susan Grandy4 for the SHIELD Study Group1Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants, Rockville, MD, USA; 3Strategic Healthcare Solutions, LLC, Monkton, MD, USA; 4AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, DE, USAObjectives: This investigation evaluated the role of obesity in health status and behaviors for weight management and exercise among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM or cardiometabolic risk factors.Methods: Self-reported health status, exercise behaviors, and weight management were assessed in the SHIELD study for respondents with T2DM or high risk (HR for diabetes (ie, ≥3 of the following: abdominal obesity, body mass index [BMI] ≥28 kg/m2, self-reported diagnosis of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease. Respondents were stratified into three BMI categories: <25 kg/m2 (underweight or normal weight, 25.0−29.9 kg/m2 (overweight, and ≥30 kg/m2 (obese, with comparisons made using analysis of variance. Comparisons between T2DM and HR were made using chi-square tests.Results: T2DM (n = 3,918 and HR (n = 5,464 groups were similar for age (mean = 59 years, race (≥85% white, and obesity. Overweight (31% or obese T2DM (18% respondents were significantly less likely to report excellent health compared with overweight or obese HR respondents (42% and 30%, respectively, p < 0.001. There were no differences between T2DM and HR groups for exercise behaviors. More obese respondents (20% T2DM, 21% HR were “contemplating exercising”, and fewer (21%−23% were currently “exercising regularly” compared with overweight and normal weight respondents, p < 0.001. More obese respondents (78% T2DM, 83% HR attempted weight management than normal (28%−35% or overweight (57%−61% respondents, p < 0.001.Conclusions: Obesity was negatively associated with self-perception of current health, exercising regularly, and

  15. Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Dairy Foods and Dairy Fat on Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Because regular-fat dairy products are a major source of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFAs), current US and Canadian dietary guidelines for cardiovascular health recommend the consumption of low-fat dairy products. Yet, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported rather mixed effects of reduced- and regular-fat dairy consumption on blood lipid concentrations and on many other cardiometabolic disease risk factors, such as blood pressure and inflammation markers. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy in current dietary guidelines is being challenged, creating confusion within health professional circles and the public. This narrative review provides perspective on the research pertaining to the impact of dairy consumption and dairy fat on traditional and emerging cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function. This suggests that the purported detrimental effects of SFAs on cardiometabolic health may in fact be nullified when they are consumed as part of complex food matrices such as those in cheese and other dairy foods. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy products in current guidelines apparently is not entirely supported by the existing literature and may need to be revisited on the basis of this evidence. Future studies addressing key research gaps in this area will be extremely informative to better appreciate the impact of dairy food matrices, as well as dairy fat specifically, on cardiometabolic health.

  16. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio J; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; Buthers, Jéssica M; dos Santos, Eliziária C; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en sujetos físicamente activos no están establecidos por completo. Objetivo: Este estudio transversal evaluó la asociación entre la CG de la dieta habitual y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres brasileños de mediana edad físicamente activos. Métodos: Ciento setenta y seis sujetos (índice de masa corporal: 25,5 ± 3,6 kg/m2; edad: 50,6 ± 5,0 años) fueron evaluados. Antropometría, características del estilo de vida, la resistencia a la insulina, biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo (8-iso-prostaglandina F2, 8-iso-PGF2y 8 hidroxideoxiguanosina, 8-OHdG) y el perfil lipídico fueron evaluados. La ingesta dietética se estimó por medio de un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con las concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres (= 0,311, r2 = 0,13, P = 0,034) y la razón triglicéridos/colesterol HDL (= 0,598, r2 = 0,19, P = 0,028), independientemente de los factores de confusión (obesidad central, consumo de carne roja, edad e ingesta calórica). El biomarcador del estrés oxidativo, 8-OHdG, también se asoció con CG de la dieta habitual (= 0,432, r2 = 0,11, P = 0,004), independientemente de los factores de confusión anteriores más el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la ingesta de hierro y tabaquismo actual. Conclusiones: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con el perfil lipídico (concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres y razón triglicéridos/HDL colesterol) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo 8-OHdG. Estos resultados indican el potencial de nocividad de una dieta con mayor CG respecto a los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres de mediana edad, incluso en aquellos físicamente activos.

  17. The Decreased Growth Hormone Response to Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Obesity Is Associated to Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cordido

    2010-01-01

    Premenopausal obese women, aged 35–52 years, were studied. GH secretion, IGF-I, serum cardiovascular risk markers, insulin, leptin, mid-waist and hip circumference, total body fat, and truncal fat were measured. Subjects were classified as meeting the criteria for GH deficiency (GHD when peak GH after stimulation with GHRH was ≤3 μg/L. Mean total and LDL cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR were all higher, in subjects who would have been classified as GH-deficient compared with GH-sufficient. Peak GH secretion after stimulation was inversely associated with fasting insulin (R=−0.650, P=.012, HOMA-IR (R=−0.846, P=.001, total cholesterol (R=−0.532, P=.034, and LDL cholesterol (R=−0.692, P=.006 and positively associated with HDL cholesterol (R=0.561, P=.037. These data strongly suggest a role for insulin resistance in the decreased GH secretion of obesity and that the blunted GH secretion of central obesity could be the pituitary expression of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  19. Self-Rated Health in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, determinants and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH has been demonstrated to be an accurate reflection of a person's health and a valid predictor of incident mortality and chronic morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the distribution and factors associated with SRH and its association with biomarkers of cardio-metabolic diseases among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Methods Survey of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50 to 70 years, conducted in one urban and two rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai in 2005. SRH status was measured and categorized as good (very good and good vs. not good (fair, poor and very poor. Determinants of SRH and associations with biomarkers of cardio-metabolic diseases were evaluated using logistic regression. Results Thirty two percent of participants reported good SRH. Males and rural residents tended to report good SRH. After adjusting for potential confounders, residence, physical activity, employment status, sleep quality and presence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression were the main determinants of SRH. Those free from cardiovascular disease (OR 3.68; 95%CI 2.39; 5.66, rural residents (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.47; 2.43, non-depressed participants (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.67; 3.73 and those with good sleep quality (OR 2.95; 95% CI 2.22; 3.91 had almost twice or over the chance of reporting good SRH compared to their counterparts. There were significant associations -and trend- between SRH and levels of inflammatory markers, insulin levels and insulin resistance. Conclusion Only one third of middle-aged and elderly Chinese assessed their health status as good or very good. Although further longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings, interventions targeting social inequalities, lifestyle patterns might not only contribute to prevent chronic morbidity but as well to improve populations' perceived health.

  20. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA......The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective...... of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases...

  1. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sylvia I.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Liem, Eryn T.; Lemmink, Koen A.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundFatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this associatio

  2. Cardiometabolic risk in US Army recruits and the effects of basic combat training.

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    Stefan M Pasiakos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic disease risk in US military recruits and the effects of military training have not been determined. This study examined lifestyle factors and biomarkers associated with cardiometabolic risk in US Army recruits (209; 118 male, 91 female, 23 ± 5 yr before, during, and after basic combat training (BCT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anthropometrics; fasting total (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol; triglycerides (TG; glucose; and insulin were measured at baseline and every 3 wks during the 10 wk BCT course. At baseline, 14% of recruits were obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2, 27% were cigarette smokers, 37% were sedentary, and 34% reported a family history of cardiometabolic disease. TC was above recommended levels in 8%, LDL in 39%, TG in 5%, and glucose in 8% of recruits, and HDL was below recommended levels in 33% of recruits at baseline. By week 9, TC decreased 8%, LDL 10%, TG 13%, glucose 6% and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 40% in men (P<0.05. In women, TC, LDL, glucose and HOMA-IR were decreased from baseline at weeks 3 and 6 (P<0.05, but were not different from baseline levels at week 9. During BCT, body weight declined in men but not women, while body fat percentage declined in both men and women (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: At the start of military service, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk in US military recruits is comparable to that reported in similar, college-aged populations. Military training appears to be an effective strategy that may mitigate risk in young people through improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control.

  3. Hypertension Control and Cardiometabolic Risk: A Regional Perspective

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    Martin Thoenes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between blood pressure control and common cardiometabolic risk factors from a global and regional perspective. Methods. In the present analysis of a large cross-sectional i-SEARCH study, 17.092 outpatients receiving antihypertensive treatment were included in 26 countries. According to clinical guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, patients were classified based on the level of seated systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg for non-diabetics, and ≥130/80 mmHg for diabetics. Results. Overall, mean age was 63.1 years, 52.8% were male, and mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m2. Mean SBP/DBP was 148.9/87.0 mmHg, and 76.3% of patients had uncontrolled hypertension. Diabetes was present in 29.1% with mean HbA1c of 6.8%. Mean LDL-cholesterol was 3.2 mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 1.3 mmol/L, and triglycerides 1.8 mmol/L; 49.0% had hyperlipidemia. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension had a higher BMI (29.4 versus 28.6 kg/m2, LDL-cholesterol (3.4 versus 3.0 mmol/L, triglycerides (1.9 versus 1.7 mmol/L, and HbA1c (6.8 versus 6.7% than those with controlled blood pressure (P<0.0001 for all parameters. Conclusions. Among outpatients treated for arterial hypertension, three quarters had uncontrolled blood pressure. Elevated SBP/DBP and uncontrolled hypertension were associated with increasing BMI, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c, both globally and regionally.

  4. Principal component analysis reveals gender-specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders

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    Peterson Mark D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific pattern of pediatric cardiometabolic risk with principal component analysis, using several biological, behavioral and parental variables in a large cohort (n = 2866 of 6th grade students. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score (MetScore. Stratified risk components and MetScore were analyzed for association with age, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, physical activity (PA, and parental factors. Results In both boys and girls, BMI and CRF were associated with multiple risk components, and overall MetScore. Maternal smoking was associated with multiple risk components in girls and boys, as well as MetScore in boys, even after controlling for children’s BMI. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease (CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls. Children’s PA levels, maternal history of early CVD, and paternal BMI were also indicative for various risk components, but not MetScore. Conclusions Several biological and behavioral factors were independently associated with children’s cardiometabolic disease risk, and thus represent a unique gender-specific risk profile. These data serve to bolster the independent contribution of CRF, PA, and family-oriented healthy lifestyles for improving children’s health.

  5. Severe Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: Comparison from Two International Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Giuliana; Maffeis, Claudio; Balsamo, Antonio; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Brufani, Claudia; Grugni, Graziano; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Brambilla, Paolo; Manco, Melania

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB) in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. Results The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001). The CDC 99th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2), higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3) and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9) than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1). Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile, in particular in children ≤10 years. Conclusions Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age. PMID:24386280

  6. BMI as a mediator of the relationship between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children: a mediation analysis.

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    Ana Díez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI.Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI.Children with normal weight (NW had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW or obese (OB peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean ± SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.09 >-1.16 ± 0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01 ± 0.16 > 0.10 ± 0.09 > -1.02 ± 0.15 in girls, both p < 0.001, but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z = -11.44 for boys; z = -11.83 for girls; p < 0.001 in CMRI mediation model and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001.BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight.

  7. Dynamics in cardiometabolic risk among Turkish adults: Similarities to that in Iranians?

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    Altan Onat

    2011-01-01

    The author strongly suspects that such dynamics in the development of diabetes and CHD exist in Western adults prone to impaired glucose tolerance, and evidence is accumulating regarding general Iranian adults. These issues posing a vast threat on public cardiometabolic health will have to be recognized with the purpose of not delaying implementation of measures for the modification of cardiometabolic risk, especially in women.

  8. Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for identifying overweight individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine J E Lamb

    bioelectrical impedance analysis above a sex-specific threshold could be used in overweight people to identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, who could benefit from risk factor management.

  9. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schwab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose

  10. The Epidemiological Boehringer Ingelheim Employee Study—Part I: Impact of Overweight and Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk

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    Kerstin Kempf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity-dependent diseases cause economic burden to companies. Large-scale data for working populations are lacking. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Boehringer Ingelheim (BI Employee cohort and the relationship between body mass index (BMI and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases were estimated. Design and Methods. Employees (≥38 years, employed in Ingelheim ≥2 years; n=3151 of BI Pharma GmbH & Co. KG were invited by the medical corporate department to participate in intensive health checkups. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected through 2006–2011 was performed. Results. 90% of eligible subjects participated (n=2849. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 40% and 18% and significantly higher in men and participants ≥50 years. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels and prevalences of cardiometabolic diseases significantly increased with BMI and were higher in overweight and obese participants. Cut-points for increased risk estimated from ROC curves were ≈25 kg/m2 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertriglyceridemia and 26.7–28.0 kg/m2 for the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, increased intima media thickness, and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. This is the first large-scale occupational health care cohort from a single company. Cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases accumulate with increasing BMI. Occupational weight reduction programs seem to be reasonable strategies.

  11. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  12. Fitness and Adiposity Are Independently Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan S. Buchan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine the independent associations of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered cardiometabolic risk. Methods. A cross-sectional sample of 192 adolescents (118 boys, aged 14–16 years, was recruited from a South Lanarkshire school in the West of Scotland. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were taken. The 20 m multistage fitness test was the indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. A clustered cardiometabolic risk score was constructed from HDL-C (inverted, LDL-C, HOMA, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were also measured and examined relative to the clustered cardiometabolic risk score, CRF, and adiposity. Results. Although significant, partial correlations between BMI and waist circumference (WC and both CRF and adiponectin were negative and weak to moderate, while correlations between the BMI and WC and CRP were positive but weak to moderate. Weak to moderate negative associations were also evident for adiponectin with CRP, IL-6, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. WC was positively associated while CRF was negatively associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk. With the additional adjustment for either WC or CRF, the independent associations with cardiometabolic risk persisted. Conclusion. WC and CRF are independently associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk in Scottish adolescents.

  13. Association between relocation and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors: a longitudinal study in tsunami survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine changes in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors with and without serious disaster-related mental and socioeconomic problems represented by relocation (REL). Design A longitudinal survey. Setting Multiphasic health check-ups for the general population affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Participants A total 6528 disaster survivors in heavily tsunami-damaged municipalities were recruited. Two sequential surveys we...

  14. Associations of alcoholic beverage preference with cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors: the NQplus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Brouwer, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol, glycate

  15. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2017-01-01

    patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...... times varied greatly between groups, ranging from 7–12 mmol/L, and 35–70 min. The group with the lowest and earliest plasma glucose peak had the lowest estimated cardiovascular risk, while the group with the most delayed plasma glucose peak and the highest 2-h value had the highest estimated risk. One...

  16. New factors of cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children: influence of pubertal status Nuevos factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en niños con obesidad severa: influencia del estado puberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Codoñer-Franch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the utility of new biochemical markers to assess cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children and adolescents. A total of 107 subjects aged 7 to 14 years, were clinically assessed and anthropometric measures and percentage of fat mass by single frequency bioimpedance analysis were recorded. Of these, 44 were non-overweight and 63 severely obese (body mass index Z-score >2.5 which were stratified by Tanner stages. To estimate the metabolic risk the following variables were considered for analysis: Waist circumference/height >0.5, fasting glucose >100 mg/dL, triglycerides >110 mg/dL, HDL-C 95th percentile for age and gender. Fasting insulinemia, apoprotein A1 and B, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, homocysteine, and folic and uric acids were determined. In severely obese children, metabolic risk was present more frequently in mid puberty. The normalized anthropometric parameters with respect to 50th percentile for age and gender did not differ in the presence of metabolic risk. Insulin resistance was an independent determinant of metabolic risk, adjusted by Tanner stages. Elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein was noted without any effect of metabolic risk or pubertal stage. Homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase values increased with metabolic risk and were not influenced by puberty. Although insulin resistance remains the main factor influencing metabolic risk, biochemical markers as homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase, may be useful for identifying severe obese pubertal subjects particularly prone to comorbidities.El objetivo de este estudio prospectivo ha sido evaluar la utilidad de nuevos marcadores bioquímicos para evaluar el riesgo cardiometabólico en niños y adolescentes extremadamente obesos. Un total de 107 sujetos de entre 7 a 14 años, se valoraron clínicamente registrando sus medidas antropométricas y el

  17. The role of physical training in lowering the cardio-metabolic risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz Timea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cardio-metabolic risk represents the overall risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and / or cardiovascular disease(including heart atack or stroke due to a complex risk factors. The aim of the current prospective study is to evaluate thelifestyle intervention group in a special benefit (overweight young students with cardio-metabolic risk. Material andMethods: Subjects considered for the study: young obese, sedentary, a number of 43 patients (mean age 21.3 ± 3.1years, 93% female. There were made two evaluations on an interval of 6 months, during which patients haveperformed physical training at least 3 times a week (individually according to the individual test, supervised by aphysical therapist. The remission rate was high (37%, from the initial of 43 patients only 27 remained at the second test.Results: After 6 months of lifestyle intervention, we noticed a significant decrease of weight (from 83.61 ± 21.04 to 79.7 ±20.13, body mass index (from 30.93 ± 6.67 to 29.55 ± 6.74, FindRisc score (2.7 to 2 waist circumference (from 98.98 ±10.14 to 89.54 ± 12.32, waist to hip ratio (from 0.87 to 0.85, visceral fat area (98.6 to 88. Conclusion: The activeintervention and closely monitoring of changing lifestyles leads to a significant improvement of cardiovascular risk factors atyoung obese patients. This type of intervention is effective both in terms of benefits in medium term, and relatively increaseddue compliance of young patients to programs involving physical activity.

  18. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  19. The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on questionnaires was determine too the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus type II. Analysis of the results revealed the strong correlations between lifestyle and cardio-metabolic risk in these students.

  20. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-05-11

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation.

  1. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6. As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35–65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST (p < 0.05 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (p < 0.01, one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation.

  2. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Juscelino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD. Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active diet (AD with a control diet (CD devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313. Results Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P P P P = 0.0056, LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P P 1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013, hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497 and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123. The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P P Conclusion The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD.

  3. The effects of lifestyle interventions on (long-term) weight management, cardiometabolic risk and depressive symptoms in people with psychotic disorders : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Jojanneke; Jörg, Frederike; Bruggeman, Richard; Slooff, C. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Pijnenborg, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of lifestyle interventions on bodyweight and other cardiometabolic risk factors in people with psychotic disorders. Additionally, the long-term effects on body weight and the effects on depressive symptoms were examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: W

  4. Cardiometabolic and vascular risks in young and adolescent girls with Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Mavinkurve

    2015-06-01

    General significance: From a clinical perspective, this review highlights the importance of regular screening and pro-active management of cardiometabolic risk from childhood in TS cohorts and that future research should aim to address whether modification of these variables at a young age can alter the disease process and atherosclerotic outcomes in adulthood.

  5. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight w

  6. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lu (Yingchang); F.R. Day (Felix); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); Na, J. (Jianbo); V. Bataille (Veronique); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); Z. Dastani (Zari); A. Drong (Alexander); T. Esko (Tõnu); D.M. Evans (David); M. Falchi (Mario); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A.K. Hedman (Asa); R. Haring (Robin); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); M.M. Iles (Mark M.); A.E. Justice (Anne); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); R. Li (Rui); X. Li (Xin); A. Locke (Adam); C. Lu (Chao); R. Mägi (Reedik); J.R.B. Perry (John); T.H. Pers (Tune); Q. Qi; Sanna, M. (Marianna); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); W.R. Scott (William R.); D. Shungin (Dmitry); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); M. Zhang (Mingfeng); W. Zhang (Weihua); J.H. Zhao; Z. Zhu; U. Afzal (Uzma); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); C. Bellis (Claire); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); K. Borodulin (Katja); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); T. Cederholm (Tommy); A.C. Choh (Audrey); Choi, H.J. (Hyung Jin); J.E. Curran (Joanne); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); P.L. de Jager (Philip); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); A.W. Enneman (Anke); E. Eury (Elodie); D.S. Evans (Daniel); T. Forsen (Tom); N. Friedrich (Nele); Fumeron, F. (Frédéric); M. Garcia (Melissa); Gärtner, S. (Simone); B.-G. Han; A.S. Havulinna (Aki); C. Hayward (Caroline); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); T. Ittermann (Till); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); I. Kolcic (Ivana); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lee, C.G. (Christine G.); J.-Y. Lee (Jong-Young); T. Liu (Tian); Liu, Y. (Youfang); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); Loh, M. (Marie); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K. Michaëlsson; M.A. Nalls (Michael); C. Nielson (Carrie); L. Oozageer (Laticia); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Ripatti (Samuli); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); Shin, C.S. (Chan Soo); Naranäiä, N.S. (Nina Smolej); Spira, D. (Dominik); P. Srikanth (Priya); Steinhagen-Thiessen, E. (Elisabeth); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); K.M.A. Swart (Karin); Taittonen, L. (Leena); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); E. Tikkanen (Emmi); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); N. Verweij (Niek); A.F. Wright (Alan); L. Yu (Lei); J. Zmuda (Joseph); N. Eklund (Niina); T. Forrester (Terrence); N. Grarup (Niels); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K. Kristiansson (Kati); T. Kuulasmaa (Teemu); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); P. Lichtner (Peter); J. Luan (Jian'An); A. Mahajan (Anubha); S. Männistö (Satu); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Ried (Janina); R.A. Scott (Robert); A. Stancáková (Alena); P.J. Wagner (Peter); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A. Döring (Angela); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); C. Menni (Cristina); O'Connell, J.R. (Jeffrey R.); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); K. Song (Kijoung); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P. Vollenweider (Peter); C.C. White (Charles); M. Boehnke (Michael); Boettcher, Y. (Yvonne); Cooper, R.S. (Richard S.); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grallert (Harald); A. Hingorani (Aroon); T. Jorgensen (Torben); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Laakso (Markku); C. Langenberg (Claudia); A. Linneberg (Allan); Luke, A. (Amy); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); A. Palotie (Aarno); O. Pedersen (Oluf); A. Peters (Annette); K. Strauch (Konstantin); B. Tayo (Bamidele); N.J. Wareham (Nick); D.A. Bennett (David A.); L. Bertram (Lars); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); C. Bouchard (Claude); H. Campbell (Harry); Cho, N.H. (Nam H.); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); S.A. Czerwinski (Stefan); I. Demuth (Ilja); Eckardt, R. (Rahel); K. Hagen (Knut); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); O.H. Franco (Oscar); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); N. Hastie (Nick); M. Heliovaara (Markku); Hofman, A. (Albert); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); P. Knekt; Koskinen, S. (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); Y. Liu (Yongmei); E.S. Orwoll (Eric); C. Osmond (Clive); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); Rao, D.C.; Rice, T.K. (Treva K.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); B. Towne (Bradford); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. van der Harst (Pim); Vartiainen, E. (Erkki); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); H. Völzke (Henry); Walker, M. (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); S.H. Wild (Sarah); J.F. Wilson (James F.); L. Yengo (Loic); D.T. Bishop (David Timothy); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); J.C. Chambers (John C.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A. Dehghan (Abbas); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); C.S. Fox (Caroline); Furey, T.S. (Terrence S.); L. Franke (Lude); J. Han; D. Hunter (David); J. Karjalainen (Juha); F. Karpe (Fredrik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); J. Murabito (Joanne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); Bishop, J.A.N. (Julia A. N.); K.E. North (Kari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); K.K. Ong (Ken); I. Prokopenko (Inga); Richards, J.B. (J. Brent); E.E. Schadt (Eric); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E. Widen (Elisabeth); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Yang (Joanna); Ingelsson, E. (Erik); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); J.A. Pospisilik (Andrew); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (Po5108), of which e

  7. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  8. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight

  9. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation with Associated Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Depression in an Urbanizing Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Bhowmik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] in an urbanizing rural population of Bangladesh and associated cardiometabolic risk indicators and depression.MethodsA total of 2,293 subjects aged ≥20 years in an urbanizing rural Bangladeshi community were investigated. Socio-demographic and anthropometric details, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2 hours after 75 g plasma glucose (2hPG, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting serum insulin and lipid profiles were studied. Presence of depressive symptoms using Montogomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale was also assessed.ResultsThe prevalence of IFG, IGT, IFG+IGT, and T2DM were 3.4%, 4.0%, 1.2%, and 7.9%, respectively. The prevalence of T2DM and impaired glucose regulation differed between males and females, but, both increased with age in both sexes. FPG and 2hPG had positive correlation. Employing logistic regression, it was found that increased age, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and depression were independent risk indicators for diabetes. Both insulin resistance and β-cell deficiency were significantly related for causation of diabetes. Among the study population, 26.2% had general obesity, 39.8% central obesity, 15.5% hypertension, 28.7% dyslipidemia, 17.6% family history of diabetes, and 15.3% had depression. Physical inactivity and smoking habits were significantly higher in male.ConclusionRising prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in this urbanizing rural population exist as a significant but hidden public health problem. Depression and other cardiometabolic risk indicators including obesity, hypertension, and dyslipdemia were also prevalent in this population.

  10. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Khazneh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to identify the content compounds of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii and to evaluate its hypoglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic activity and effect on inflammatory mediators. The extracts and fractions of A. wilhelmsii were thoroughly analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the total content of phenols and flavonoids was determined. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The effect upon inflammatory mediators was evaluated in vitro using the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1. The anti-hypercholesterolemic activity was evaluated in vitro using the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase assay kit. The water extract (WE-treated group showed the highest reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL. The chloroform fraction (CF and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF both showed a significant ability to reduce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. The EAF, however, also attenuated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. The CF showed the most significant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR inhibition activity. The five main compounds in the CF were isolated and identified. Out of the five compounds in the CF, 1β,10β-epoxydesacetoxymatricarin (CP1 and leucodin (CP2 showed the highest anti-hypercholesterolemic potential. A molecular docking study provided corresponding results.

  11. Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children: The HAPPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel P; Charman, Sarah J; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2016-11-28

    This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.

  12. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...

  13. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity. This effect appears to be partially independent of childhood BMI. Earlier pubertal development appears to also be inversely correlated with risk of other cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular mortality. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and the level at which interventions may be targeted.

  14. Cardiometabolic risk in psoriasis: differential effects of biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana J Kaplan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana J KaplanDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV complications. Overall, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in premature CV complications in psoriasis appear to be complex and multifactorial, with traditional and nontraditional risk factors possibly contributing to the increased risk. Based on what is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasis and extrapolating the current knowledge on CV complications in other inflammatory diseases, studies are needed to investigate if appropriate control of the inflammatory, immunologic and metabolic disturbances present in psoriasis can prevent the development of this potentially lethal complication. It is clear that there is a great need for heightened awareness of the increased risk for vascular damage in patients with psoriasis. It is also crucial to closely monitor patients with psoriasis for CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Whether treatment regimens that effectively manage systemic inflammation will lead to prevention of CV complications in psoriasis needs to be investigated. Clearly, studies should focus on establishing the exact mechanisms that determine CV risk in psoriasis so that appropriate preventive strategies and treatment guidelines can be established.Keywords: psoriasis, atherosclerosis, inflammation, vascular

  15. Genetic risk scores link body fat distribution with specific cardiometabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Sandholt, Camilla H; Andersson Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Forty-nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (WHRadjBMI) were recently suggested to cluster into three groups with different associations to cardiometabolic traits. Genetic risk scores of the clusters......, including fasting serum triglyceride (β = 0.98% mmol/L, P = 3.33 × 10(-) (8) ) and Matsuda index (β = -0.74%, P = 1.29 × 10(-) (4) ). No similar associations for Clusters 2 and 3 were found. The three clusters showed different patterns of association with waist circumference, hip circumference, and height...... on the risk of incident diabetes and associations with detailed cardiometabolic phenotypes were tested. METHODS: In a prospective study of 6,121 Inter99 individuals, the risk of incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards regression was evaluated. Using linear regession, the associations between genetic...

  16. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (PCRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  17. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P... were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger...... effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk....

  18. The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN; Avram, Claudiu; Stela IURCIUC; Petru MERGHEȘ; Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on qu...

  19. Moderate Activity and Fitness, Not Sedentary Time, Are Independently Associated with Cardio-Metabolic Risk in U.S. Adults Aged 18–49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen H. P. M. van der Velde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study is one of the first to examine and compare the independent associations of objectively measured sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied 543 men and women (aged 18–49 years from the NHANES 2003–2004 survey. Sedentary time and MVPA were measured by accelerometry. Fitness was assessed with a submaximal treadmill test. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included: waist circumference (WC, BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL- and non HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Sedentary time, MVPA and fitness were used as predictors for the cardio-metabolic outcomes in a multiple regression analysis. Standardized regression coefficients were computed. Results show that sedentary time was associated with HDL-cholesterol (β = −0.080, p = 0.05 and TG (β = 0.080, p = 0.03. These results became non-significant after adjustment for MVPA and fitness. MVPA was associated with WC (β = −0.226, BMI (β = −0.239, TG (β = −0.108 and HDL-cholesterol (β = 0.144 (all p < 0.05. These results remained significant after adjustment for sedentary time and fitness. Fitness was associated with WC (β = −0.287, BMI (β = −0.266, systolic blood pressure (β = −0.159, TG (β = −0.092, and CRP (β = −0.130 (all p < 0.05. After adjustment for sedentary time and MVPA these results remained significant. These differences in relative importance of sedentary time, MVPA and fitness on cardio-metabolic-risk are important in the design of prevention programs. In this population, the strength of the associations between MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic markers appeared to be similar; both MVPA and fitness showed independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. In contrast, sedentary time showed no independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk after correction for fitness and MVPA.

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiometabolic Risks: A Juxtaposition of Arab Adolescents and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M Al-Daghri

    Full Text Available The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and girls, remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 2225 apparently healthy Saudi adolescents (1187 boys and 1038 girls, aged 13-17 years old and 830 adults (368 men and 462 women, aged 18-50 years old were respectively recruited from different public schools and medical practices within Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were taken and fasting blood samples withdrawn to examine serum glucose and lipid profile by routine analysis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by ELISA. Almost half of the girls (47.0% had vitamin D deficiency as compared to only 19.4% of the boys (p<0.001, 36.8% of the adult women and 17.7% of the adult men (p<0.001. Furthermore, in boys there were more significant inverse associations between serum 25(OHvitamin D levels and cardiometabolic indices than girls, while in contrast women had more significant associations than men. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 [OR 3.47 (CI1.26-5.55; p<0.05] and pre-DM [OR 2.47 (CI 1.48-4.12; p<0.01] in boys. Furthermore, vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in boys [OR 2.75 (CI 1.1-7.1; p<0.05]. These associations for DMT2 and abdominal obesity were not observed in adult males, girls and adult women. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and hyperglycemia is high among Arab adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is mostly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent Arab boys. This indicates a sex- and age-related disadvantage for boys with low vitamin D status and challenges the extra-skeletal protection of vitamin D correction in adolescent females.

  1. Handgrip strength cutoff for cardiometabolic risk index among Colombian children and adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan Camilo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Lobelo, Felipe; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Evidence shows an association between muscular strength (MS) and health among young people, however low muscular strength cut points for the detection of high metabolic risk in Latin-American populations are scarce. The aim of this study was twofold: to explore potential age- and sex-specific thresholds of MS, for optimal cardiometabolic risk categorization among Colombian children and adolescents; and to investigate whether cardiometabolic risk differed by MS group by applying the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) cut point. MS was estimated by using a handle dynamometer on 1,950 children and adolescents from Colombia, using MS relative to weight (handgrip strength/body mass). A metabolic risk score was computed from the following components: waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL-c, glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. ROC analysis showed a significant discriminatory accuracy of MS in identifying the low/high metabolic risk in children and adolescents and in both genders. In children, the handgrip strength/body mass levels for a low metabolic risk were 0.359 and 0.376 in girls and boys, respectively. In adolescents, these points were 0.440 and 0.447 in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, the results suggest an MS level relative to weight for having a low metabolic risk, which could be used to identify youths at risk. PMID:28195167

  2. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  3. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

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    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, PNutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population.

  4. Antioxidants deficiency: a sensitive indicator of cardiometabolic risk in chronic renal failure?

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    Pooja S.K. Rai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antioxidant depletion occurring in chronic renal failure patients is an important cause of associated morbidity & mortality, which in turn imposes a great socioeconomic burden of health care. Early diagnosis & targeted management of this preventable deficiency may have a positive impact on the management of co morbidities associated with chronic renal failure. Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the status of antioxidants as an early indicator of cardiometabolic risk in chronic renal failure patients. Settings & Design: This was a randomised case Control study including 10 controls of either sex with normal renal function between age group 20-60 years and 15 patients of chronic renal failure on dialysis between the age group of 16 - 60 years. Methods: 12 hour fasting venous blood samples were collected from all the participants and were assayed for various antioxidants. Statistical analysis: Results were analyzed by unpaired t test, p value was determined & Correlation coefficient was calculated amongst various parameters. Results: In the present study, significantly low levels of vitamin C ( Cases: 0.367 ± 0.13 mg/dl controls: 1.324 ± 0.61 mg/dl; p < 0.01 & vitamin E (cases: 0.235 ± 0.102 mg/dl, controls (0.854 ± 0.28 mg/dl; p < 0.01 were observed in chronic renal failure patients as compared to controls. Conclusion: Diminished levels of Vitamin C & E in our study may be an indicator of increased oxidative stress which can be a responsible factor for increased incidence of cardiovascular complications. Supplementing these patients with recommended dosage of these vitamins may provide an essential tool to reduce the burden of suffering. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 87-92

  5. Primary dyslipidemia and cardiometabolic risk: potential of pitavastatin

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    Berezin A.E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The review is de­voted to the most important aspects of primary mixed dyslipidemia treatment in patients at high risk with concomitant metabolic comorbidities. Evidences for novel modern approaches regarding primary prevention of cardiovascular events among dyslipidemic patients are considered. The potential role of lipid-lowering treatment with statins and their role in reducing the cardiovascular risk are discussed. Information about modern methods of minimization of residual cardiovascular risk using a combined lipid-lowering strategies and new representatives of the statins are provided. It has been discussed various strategies of statin administering to patients with dyslipidemia of different age with exiting comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome. Objective findings and treatment approaches obtained from the patient with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and asymptomatic atherosclerosis are provided. The role of pitavastatin in primary prevention program of cardiovascular events is discussed.

  6. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study

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    Nilsson Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have been associated with a lower risk of age related cognitive decline, and to beneficially affect cardiometabolic risk factors. A relation exists between metabolic disorders such as diabetes type 2 and cognitive decline. Results regarding the potential effects of n-3 PUFA on risk factors in healthy subjects are divergent, and studies regarding the possible relation between cardiometabolic parameters and cognitive performance are scarce. The objective was to evaluate the effects of five weeks intake of long chain n-3 PUFA on cognitive performance in healthy individuals, and to exploit the possible relation between outcomes in cognitive tests to cardiometabolic risk parameters. Methods Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects. Cognitive performance was determined by tests measuring working memory (WM and selective attention. Results Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p p p p = 0.05, and s-TNF-α (p = 0.05, were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests. Conclusions Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline.

  7. Management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk – role of phentermine/extended release topiramate

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    Sweeting AN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arianne N Sweeting,1 Eddy Tabet,1 Ian D Caterson,1,2 Tania P Markovic1,2 1Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA recently approved lorcaserin and the combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate (phentermine/topiramate ER for the treatment of obesity in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention, expanding the therapeutic options for long-term obesity pharmacotherapy, which was previously limited to orlistat. Combination phentermine/topiramate ER is associated with greater weight loss compared to its constituent monotherapy, with a more favorable adverse effect profile. Phentermine/topiramate ER also appears to have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk, although longer-term cardiovascular safety data are required. While there are no head-to-head studies among the currently available obesity pharmacotherapy agents, phentermine/topiramate ER appears to have a superior weight loss profile. This review will discuss the epidemiology, natural history, and cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity, provide an overview on current obesity pharmacotherapy, and summarize the recent clinical efficacy and safety data underpinning the FDA's approval of both phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin as pharmacotherapy for a long-term obesity intervention. Keywords: obesity, phentermine/topiramate extended release, safety and efficacy, review

  8. Fructose-containing sugars, blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk: a critical review.

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    Ha, Vanessa; Jayalath, Viranda H; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; de Souza, Russell J; Sievenpiper, John L

    2013-08-01

    Excessive fructose intake from high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sucrose has been implicated as a driving force behind the increasing prevalence of obesity and its downstream cardiometabolic complications including hypertension, gout, dyslidpidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most of the evidence to support these relationships draws heavily on ecological studies, animal models, and select human trials of fructose overfeeding. There are a number of biological mechanisms derived from animal models to explain these relationships, including increases in de novo lipogenesis and uric acid-mediated hypertension. Differences between animal and human physiology, along with the supraphysiologic level at which fructose is fed in these models, limit their translation to humans. Although higher level evidence from large prospective cohorts studies has shown significant positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest levels of intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), these associations do not hold true at moderate levels of intake or when modeling total sugars and are subject to collinearity effects from related dietary and lifestyle factors. The highest level of evidence from controlled feeding trials has shown a lack of cardiometabolic harm of fructose and SSBs under energy-matched conditions at moderate levels of intake. It is only when fructose-containing sugars or SSBs are consumed at high doses or supplement diets with excess energy that a consistent signal for harm is seen. The available evidence suggests that confounding by excess energy is an important consideration in assessing the role of fructose-containing sugars and SSBs in the epidemics of hypertension and other cardiometabolic diseases.

  9. Inpatient and outpatient cardiac rehabilitation programmes improve cardiometabolic risk in revascularized coronary patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Avram; Adina Avram; L.aura Crăciun; Stela Iurciuc; Lucian Hoble; Alexandra Rusu; Bogdan Almăjan-Guţă; Silvia Mancaş

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cardiometabolic risk reduction of diabetic patients following coronary revascularizationprocedures after participation in outpatients or inpatients cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Materials and methods: weperformed a retrospective analytical study which included a group of 103 revascularized coronary patients with diabetesmellitus. Depending on participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program we have defined the following subgroups of patients:Grou...

  10. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

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    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  11. The microvasculature: a target for nutritional programming and later risk of cardio-metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, M G; Torrens, C; Clough, G F

    2014-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that microvascular deficits affecting multiple tissues and organs play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of cardio-metabolic disease. Furthermore, both in humans and animal models, deficits in small vessel structure and function can be detected early, often before the onset of macrovascular disease and the development of end-organ damage that is common to hypertension and obesity-associated clinical disorders. This article considers the growing evidence for the negative impact of an adverse maternal diet on the long-term health of her child, and how this can result in a disadvantageous vascular phenotype that extends to the microvascular bed. We describe how structural and functional modifications in the offspring microcirculation during development may represent an important and additional risk determinant to increase susceptibility to the development of cardio-metabolic disease in adult life and consider the cell-signalling pathways associated with endothelial dysfunction that may be 'primed' by the maternal environment. Published studies were identified that reported outcomes related to the microcirculation, endothelium, maternal diet and vascular programming using NCBI PubMed.gov, MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases from 1980 until April 2013 using pre-specified search terms. Information extracted from over 230 original reports and review articles was critically evaluated by the authors for inclusion in this review.

  12. Should the sympathetic nervous system be a target to improve cardiometabolic risk in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Elisabeth A; Straznicky, Nora E; Dixon, John B; Lambert, Gavin W

    2015-07-15

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays a key role in both cardiovascular and metabolic regulation; hence, disturbances in SNS regulation are likely to impact on both cardiovascular and metabolic health. With excess adiposity, in particular when visceral fat accumulation is present, sympathetic activation commonly occurs. Experimental investigations have shown that adipose tissue releases a large number of adipokines, cytokines, and bioactive mediators capable of stimulating the SNS. Activation of the SNS and its interaction with adipose tissue may lead to the development of hypertension and end-organ damage including vascular, cardiac, and renal impairment and in addition lead to metabolic abnormalities, especially insulin resistance. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss and exercise programs considerably improve the cardiovascular and metabolic profile of subjects with obesity and decrease their cardiovascular risk, but unfortunately weight loss is often difficult to achieve and sustain. Pharmacological and device-based approaches to directly or indirectly target the activation of the SNS may offer some benefit in reducing the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity. Preliminary evidence is encouraging, but more trials are needed to investigate whether sympathetic inhibition could be used in obesity to reverse or prevent cardiometabolic disease development. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the current knowledge of the role that SNS plays in obesity and its associated metabolic disorders and to review the potential benefits of sympathoinhibition on metabolic and cardiovascular functions.

  13. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study

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    Xu Jihua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values. Methods Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male, 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile. The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR ( Results 9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5 and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR Conclusion WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.

  14. Cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian children: comparison with UK Indian and white European children.

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    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available UK Indian adults have higher risks of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes than Indian and UK European adults. With growing evidence that these diseases originate in early life, we compared cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian, UK Indian and white European children.Comparisons were based on the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort Study (MPBCS, India and the Child Heart Health Study in England (CHASE, which studied 9-10 year-old children (538 Indian, 483 UK Indian, 1375 white European using similar methods. Analyses adjusted for study differences in age and sex.Compared with Mysore Indians, UK Indians had markedly higher BMI (% difference 21%, 95%CI 18 to 24%, skinfold thickness (% difference 34%, 95%CI 26 to 42%, LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.48, 95%CI 0.38 to 0.57 mmol/L, systolic BP (mean difference 10.3, 95% CI 8.9 to 11.8 mmHg and fasting insulin (% difference 145%, 95%CI 124 to 168%. These differences (similar in both sexes and little affected by adiposity adjustment were larger than those between UK Indians and white Europeans. Compared with white Europeans, UK Indians had higher skinfold thickness (% difference 6.0%, 95%CI 1.5 to 10.7%, fasting insulin (% difference 31%, 95%CI 22 to 40%, triglyceride (% difference 13%, 95%CI 8 to 18% and LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.12 mmol/L, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.19 mmol/L.UK Indian children have an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile, especially compared to Indian children. These differences, not simply reflecting greater adiposity, emphasize the need for prevention strategies starting in childhood or earlier.

  15. The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

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    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-07-14

    Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0-18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1%, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene-diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them.

  16. Cardiometabolic risk loci share downstream cis- and trans-gene regulation across tissues and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Oscar; Ermel, Raili; Cohain, Ariella; Akers, Nicholas K; Di Narzo, Antonio; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi-Asl, Hassan; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Fullard, John F; Sukhavasi, Katyayani; Köks, Sulev; Gan, Li-Ming; Giannarelli, Chiara; Kovacic, Jason C; Betsholtz, Christer; Losic, Bojan; Michoel, Tom; Hao, Ke; Roussos, Panos; Skogsberg, Josefin; Ruusalepp, Arno; Schadt, Eric E; Björkegren, Johan L M

    2016-08-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk loci. However, they contribute little to genetic variance, and most downstream gene-regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We genotyped and RNA-sequenced vascular and metabolic tissues from 600 coronary artery disease patients in the Stockholm-Tartu Atherosclerosis Reverse Networks Engineering Task study (STARNET). Gene expression traits associated with CMD risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) identified by GWAS were more extensively found in STARNET than in tissue- and disease-unspecific gene-tissue expression studies, indicating sharing of downstream cis-/trans-gene regulation across tissues and CMDs. In contrast, the regulatory effects of other GWAS risk SNPs were tissue-specific; abdominal fat emerged as an important gene-regulatory site for blood lipids, such as for the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk gene PCSK9 STARNET provides insights into gene-regulatory mechanisms for CMD risk loci, facilitating their translation into opportunities for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention.

  17. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

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    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  18. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory markers of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children and adolescents

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    Heloísa Marcelina da Cunha Palhares

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the frequency of cardiometabolic risk markers and metabolic syndrome occurrence in overweight and obese children and adolescents. METHODS: The participants included 161 overweight (n=65 and obese (n=96 individuals aged between 5 and 19 years. Clinical markers were assessed (body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, acanthosis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, laboratory parameters [glucose, insulin, cholesterol (total and fractions and triglyceride levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index] and leptin and adiponectin levels. The frequency of changes, odds ratios and correlations among markers were determined. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. RESULTS: A high frequency of acanthosis (51.6%; increased waist circumference (45.4%, systolic blood pressure / diastolic blood pressure (8.1% / 9.3%, glucose (10%, insulin (36.9% and HOMA-IR (44.3% values; and reduced high-density lipoprotein levels (47.2% were observed. Leptin levels were increased in 95% of obese and in 66% of overweight subjects. Adiponectin was decreased in 29.5% of obese and in 34% of overweight subjects. An odd ratio analysis revealed a greater probability of increased waist circumference (9.0, systolic blood pressure (4.1, triglyceride (2.3 and insulin (2.9 levels and HOMA-IR (3.0 in the obese group than in the overweight group. The clinical and laboratory parameters and leptin levels exhibited significant correlations, whereas adiponectin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. The occurrence rate of metabolic syndrome was 13.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of changes in clinical, laboratory and adipokine markers indicates the need for early interventions aimed at preventing cardiometabolic complications in adulthood.

  19. Welcoming low testosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor

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    Maggio, M; Basaria, S

    2009-01-01

    Male hypogonadism now has a new spectrum of complications. They are mainly cardiometabolic in nature. Low serum testosterone levels are a risk factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and dyslipidemia. These metabolic and inflammatory complications are not without consequences. Recent studies have shown low serum testosterone levels to be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It is time to welcome low serum testosterone levels as a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:19536127

  20. A behavioral intervention in a cohort of Japanese-Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk

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    Bianca de Almeida-Pititto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a health promotion program on cardiometabolic risk profile in Japanese-Brazilians. METHODS: A total of 466 subjects from a study on diabetes prevalence conducted in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, in 2000 completed a 1-year intervention program (2005-2006 based on healthy diet counseling and physical activity. Changes in blood pressure and metabolic parameters in the 2005-2006 period were compared with annual changes in these same variables in the 2000-2005 period. RESULTS: During the intervention, there were greater annual reductions in mean (SD waist circumference [-0.5(3.8 vs. 1.2(1.2 cm per year, p<0.001], systolic blood pressure [-4.6(17.9 vs. 1.8(4.3 mmHg per year, p<0.001], 2-hour plasma glucose [-1.2(2.1 vs. -0.2(0.6 mmol/L per year, p<0.001], LDL-cholesterol [-0.3(0.9 vs. -0.1(0.2 mmol/L per year, p<0.001] and Framingham coronary heart disease risk score [-0.25(3.03 vs. 0.11(0.66 per year, p=0.02] but not in triglycerides [0.2(1.6 vs. 0.1(0.42 mmol/L per year, p<0.001], and fasting insulin level [1.2(5.8 vs. -0.7(2.2 IU/mL per year, p<0.001] compared with the pre-intervention period. Significant reductions in the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes were seen during the intervention (from 58.4% to 35.4%, p<0.001; and from 30.1% to 21.7%, p= 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A one-year community-based health promotion program brings cardiometabolic benefits in a high-risk population of Japanese-Brazilians.

  1. Chronic administration of grape-seed polyphenols attenuates the development of hypertension and improves other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in cafeteria diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Bravo, Francisca I; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard (STD) or CAF diets for 12 weeks. The CAF diet-fed rats were administered different doses of a low-molecular-weight grape-seed polyphenol extract (LM-GSPE) (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg per d) or vehicle daily, and the STD diet-fed rats were administered LM-GSPE (100 mg/kg per d) or vehicle using ten animals per group. Body weight (BW), waist perimeter (WP) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) by the tail-cuff method were recorded weekly. The animals were housed in metabolic chambers every 2 weeks to estimate daily food and liquid intakes and to collect faeces and urine samples. The plasma lipid profile was analysed at time 0 and on the 4th, 7th, 10th and 12th weeks of the experiment. Moreover, plasma leptin was measured at the end of the experiment. Results demonstrated that LM-GSPE, when administered with the CAF diet, attenuated the increase in BP, BW, WP and improved lipid metabolism in these animals. However, although the 25- and 100-mg/kg per d doses were sufficient to produce beneficial effects on BP and lipid metabolism, a 200-mg/kg per d dose was necessary to have an effect on BW and WP. The present findings suggest that LM-GSPE is a good candidate for a BP-lowering agent that can also ameliorate other conditions associated with the MetS.

  2. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  3. Evaluation of lifestyle interventions to treat elevated cardiometabolic risk in primary care (E-LITE: a randomized controlled trial

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    Wilson Sandra R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacy research has shown that intensive individual lifestyle intervention lowers the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Translational research is needed to test real-world models of lifestyle interventions in primary care settings. Design E-LITE is a three-arm randomized controlled clinical trial aimed at testing the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two lifestyle interventions: information technology-assisted self-management, either alone or in combination with care management by a dietitian and exercise counselor, in comparison to usual care. Overweight or obese adults with pre-diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (n = 240 recruited from a community-based primary care clinic are randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions. Treatment will last 15 months and involves a three-month intensive treatment phase followed by a 12-month maintenance phase. Follow-up assessment occurs at three, six, and 15 months. The primary outcome is change in body mass index. The target sample size will provide 80% power for detecting a net difference of half a standard deviation in body mass index at 15 months between either of the self-management or care management interventions and usual care at a two-sided α level of 0.05, assuming up to a 20% rate of loss to 15-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include glycemic control, additional cardiovascular risk factors, and health-related quality of life. Potential mediators (e.g., treatment adherence, caloric intake, physical activity level and moderators (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, baseline mental status of the intervention's effect on weight change also will be examined. Discussion This study will provide objective evidence on the extent of reductions in body mass index and related cardiometabolic risk factors from two lifestyle intervention programs of varying intensity that could be implemented as part of routine health care

  4. The effects of oestrogens and their receptors on cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Santos, Roberta S; Criollo, Alfredo; Nelson, Michael D; Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2017-03-17

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in developed countries. The incidence of CVD is sexually dimorphic, and research has focused on the contribution of sex steroids to the development and progression of the cardiometabolic syndrome, which is defined as a clustering of interrelated risk factors that promote the development of atherosclerosis (which can lead to CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data are inconclusive as to how sex steroids and their respective receptors increase or suppress the risk of developing the cardiometabolic syndrome and thus CVD. In this Review, we discuss the potential role, or roles, of sex hormones in cardiometabolic health by first focusing on the influence of oestrogens and their receptors on the risk of developing cardiometabolic syndrome and CVD. We also highlight what is known about testosterone and its potential role in protecting against the development of the cardiometabolic syndrome and CVD. Given the inconclusive nature of the data regarding the direct effects of each sex hormone, we advocate and highlight the importance of studying the relative levels and the ratio of sex hormones to each other, as well as the use of cross sex hormone therapy and its effect on cardiometabolic health.

  5. The complement system in human cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, E; Stehouwer, C D A; van Greevenbroek, M M J

    2014-10-01

    The complement system has been implicated in obesity, fatty liver, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complement factors are produced in adipose tissue and appear to be involved in adipose tissue metabolism and local inflammation. Thereby complement links adipose tissue inflammation to systemic metabolic derangements, such as low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, complement has been implicated in pathophysiological mechanisms of diet- and alcohol induced liver damage, hyperglycaemia, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and fibrinolysis. In this review, we summarize current evidence on the role of the complement system in several processes of human cardiometabolic disease. C3 is the central component in complement activation, and has most widely been studied in humans. C3 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, liver dysfunction, risk of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CVD. C3 can be activated by the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathway of complement activation; and downstream activation of C3 activates the terminal pathway. Complement may also be activated via extrinsic proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolysis and the kinin systems. Studies on the different complement activation pathways in human cardiometabolic disease are limited, but available evidence suggests that they may have distinct roles in processes underlying cardiometabolic disease. The lectin pathway appeared beneficial in some studies on type 2 diabetes and CVD, while factors of the classical and the alternative pathway were related to unfavourable cardiometabolic traits. The terminal complement pathway was also implicated in insulin resistance and liver disease, and appears to have a prominent role in acute and advanced CVD. The available human data suggest a complex and potentially causal role for the complement system in human cardiometabolic disease. Further, preferably longitudinal studies are needed to

  6. Histone Deacetylases and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yiew, Kan Hui; Chatterjee, Tapan K.; Hui, David Y.; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiometabolic disease, emerging as a worldwide epidemic, is a combination of metabolic derangements leading to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors are linked through epigenetic mechanisms to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. Post-translational modifications of histone tails, including acetylation and deacetylation, epigenetically alter chromatin structure and dictate cell-specific gene expression patterns. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) f...

  7. Cardiometabolic aspects of polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei Cho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Li Wei Cho1, Harpal S Randeva2, Stephen L Atkin11Department of Medicine, University of Hull; 2Metabolic Unit, University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust, UKAbstract: It is estimated that 6%–7% of women of reproductive age have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Women with this condition exhibit an adverse cardiovascular risk profile, characteristic of the cardiometabolic syndrome and given the high prevalence of PCOS in the female population, this condition may contribute towards the acceleration of cardiovascular disease among young women. This article summarizes the recent development and findings in the cardiometabolic abnormalities in patients with PCOS. Patients with PCOS have the clinical features of oligomenorrhoea, hirsutism and infertility; however, they also exhibit hyperinsulinemia, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and an increased pro-thrombotic state. They have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, and sleep apnea is also found more commonly in this population. However, despite the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and increased surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease it is unclear if they have accelerated atherosclerosis. End point studies are currently lacking and the available evidence are conflicting. Adipose tissue has emerged as an important endocrine organ over the last decade and gained recognition in having an important role in the cardiometabolic syndrome. Adiponectin that is secreted exclusively by adipocytes has recently been recognized as an important marker of cardiometabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Other adipocytokines like leptin and resistin have also recently been recognized. This article will address the current evidence for the adverse cardiovascular risk in PCOS and the other factors that may be implicated. Finally the therapeutic options for treatment will be discussed.Keywords: cardiometabolic syndrome

  8. Welcoming low testosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, M; Basaria, S.

    2009-01-01

    Male hypogonadism now has a new spectrum of complications. They are mainly cardiometabolic in nature. Low serum testosterone levels are a risk factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and dyslipidemia. These metabolic and inflammatory complications are not without consequences. Recent studies have shown low serum testosterone levels to be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It is time to welcome low serum testosterone levels as a cardiovascular r...

  9. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.;

    2014-01-01

    Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Obj...

  10. Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchenak, Malika; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem

    2013-03-01

    of the nutritional quality of legumes and their potential contribution in cardiometabolic risk prevention.

  11. A cross-sectional investigation of regional patterns of diet and cardio-metabolic risk in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy KS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of diet in India's rapidly progressing chronic disease epidemic is unclear; moreover, diet may vary considerably across North-South regions. Methods The India Health Study was a multicenter study of men and women aged 35-69, who provided diet, lifestyle, and medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood, urine, and anthropometric measurements. In each region (Delhi, n = 824; Mumbai, n = 743; Trivandrum, n = 2,247, we identified two dietary patterns with factor analysis. In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education, income, marital status, religion, physical activity, tobacco, alcohol, and total energy intake, we investigated associations between regional dietary patterns and abdominal adiposity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Across the regions, more than 80% of the participants met the criteria for abdominal adiposity and 10 to 28% of participants were considered diabetic. In Delhi, the "fruit and dairy" dietary pattern was positively associated with abdominal adiposity [highest versus lowest tertile, multivariate-adjusted OR and 95% CI: 2.32 (1.03-5.23; Ptrend = 0.008] and hypertension [2.20 (1.47-3.31; Ptrend trend = 0.03] and the "snacks and sweets" pattern was positively associated with abdominal adiposity [2.05 (1.34-3.14; Ptrend = 0.03]. In Mumbai, the "fruit and vegetable" pattern was inversely associated with hypertension [0.63 (0.40-0.99; Ptrend = 0.05] and the "snack and meat" pattern appeared to be positively associated with abdominal adiposity. Conclusions Cardio-metabolic risk factors were highly prevalent in this population. Across all regions, we found little evidence of a Westernized diet; however, dietary patterns characterized by animal products, fried snacks, or sweets appeared to be positively associated with abdominal adiposity. Conversely, more traditional diets in the Southern regions were inversely related to diabetes and

  12. Evaluation of a multispectral diffuse optical spectroscopy device for assessment of cardiometabolic risk related alterations of body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkevics, Z.; Volceka, K.; Ozolina-Moll, L.; Zaharans, J.

    2013-11-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases encompass a combination of conditions which lead to an increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the increasing percentage of the population becoming overweight, it is important to diagnose when the excess adipose tissue becomes malign. The development of a safe, mobile, non-invasive method that would be easy to perform, and low-cost, but also would offer an accurate assessment of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) both in lean and in obese persons is required. A prototype device using an optical method for measurement of the SAT in vivo has been developed, it contains multiple LEDs with four wavelengths (660nm, 780nm, 870nm, 940nm) distributed at various distances from the photodetector which allow different light penetration depths into the subcutaneous tissue. Five young healthy female students participated in the study; the measurements were performed on three body sites: calf, upper and lower abdomen. The backscattered light acquired with the prototype was compared to SAT measured with high resolution ultrasound imaging. The coefficient of variation indicated high reliability of the measurements. Statistically significant (from r=0.81 to r=0.95; p<0.05) correlation between intensity of backscattered light and SAT thicknesses for all four wavelength was observed, especially at source-detector distance 25mm. The novel device prototype has a potential to be a good alternative for conventional SAT measurement and assessment of cardiometabolic risk. Amultispectral approach can potentially increase precision and spatial resolution of SAT determination.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  14. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (pwaist circumference (p...BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health...... in postmenopausal women is debated as the menopausal transition is also associated with increased age and fat mass. Furthermore, indications of reduced cardio-metabolic adaptations to exercise in postmenopausal women add to the adverse health profile. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes...

  15. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  16. Prevalence and predictors of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk among construction workers in Ireland: the Construction Workers Health Trust screening study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2013-07-01

    Construction workers (CW) are at increased risk for a range of chronic diseases. We screened 983 CW for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk. The age range was 18-64 years, with mean age of 36.3 years. Self-reported questionnaires, Finnish diabetes risk score and fasting blood tests were collected at the workplace. The unadjusted prevalence of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus were 3.6% and 1.2%, respectively; 21% of CW had the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The majority were either overweight (48.3%) or obese (21.8%). In a regression model, age remained the strongest predictor of fasting glucose (p < 0.001). Pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with presence of the MetS [odds ratio (OR) 5.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8-11.5, p < 0.001 and OR 5.5; 95% CI: 1.6-18.7, p = 0.006, respectively]. Subjects engaged in greater physical activity outside of work had lower body mass index (26.9 vs. 28.8 kg\\/m(2), p = 0.03), waist circumference (95.8 vs. 98.1 cm, p = 0.03) and fasting serum triglycerides (1.1 vs. 1.4 mmol\\/L, p = 0.03) compared to those who were sedentary. Despite their youth and a physically demanding occupation, CW are at risk of cardiometabolic diseases. This risk increases with age and the MetS. Screening tools may be useful to identify those who are at risk.

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.;

    2014-01-01

    ) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7...

  18. Potential role of the endocannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant in the management of cardiometabolic risk: a narrative review of available data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A Bronander

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirk A Bronander1, Michael J Bloch21Division of General Internal Medicine, 2Divisions of Cardiology and General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The endocannabinoid system (ECS is an endogenous physiological system composed of two cannabinoid receptors and several endogenous ligands. The ECS is intimately involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis, which makes it an intriguing target for pharmacological treatment of obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Rimonabant is the first cannabinoid receptor (CB-1 antagonist being studied and utilized to treat obesity (it is approved in Europe but is currently under review in the United States. Large randomized trials with rimonabant have demonstrated efficacy in treatment of overweight and obese individuals with weight loss significantly greater than a reduced calorie diet alone. In addition, multiple other cardiometabolic parameters were improved in the treatment groups including increased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduced triglycerides, reduced waist circumference, improved insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin levels, and in diabetic patients improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin percentage. There was an increase in the adverse effects of depression, anxiety, irritability, and nausea in rimonabant-treated groups. This novel medication may become an important therapeutic option in the fight to reduce cardiovascular disease worldwide through its unique action on cardiometabolic risk.Keywords: rimonabant, endocannabinoid, metabolic syndrome, obesity

  19. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K;

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has i...

  20. [Muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors among Colombian young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Meneses-Echavez, José F; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre el fitness muscular (FM) con marcadores de riesgo cardio-metabólico en adultos jóvenes de Colombia. Métodos: Un total de 172 hombres (edad 19,7±2,4 años; peso 65,5±10,7 kg; IMC 22,6±2,8 kg•m-1) sin enfermedad cardiovascular previa fueron invitados a participar en el estudio. El FM se determinó mediante el test de dinamometría prensil y los resultados fueron divididos en cuartiles según los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal. Se calculó el índice lipídico-metabólico según las concentraciones de triglicéridos, c-LDL, c-HDL y glucosa. La circunferencia de cintura (CC), porcentaje de grasa, índice de adiposidad corporal (IAC) e índice de masa corporal (IMC) fueron usados como indicadores de adiposidad. Resultados: Después de ajustar por edad, IMC y CC, se observaron relaciones inversas entre el porcentaje de grasa, la CC, los niveles colesterol, HDL-c y LDL-c, con los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal (p.

  1. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E

    2012-09-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarray technologies evaluate the ways in which minor, bioactive compounds in plant oils (including olive, thyme, lemongrass, clove, eucalyptus, and others) alter gene expression to mediate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results from a range of diverse technologies and approaches are coalescing to improve understanding of the role of the genome in shaping our responses to plant oils, and to clarify the genetic mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective benefits we derive from a wide range of plant oil constituents.

  2. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caren E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarr...

  3. Inpatient and outpatient cardiac rehabilitation programmes improve cardiometabolic risk in revascularized coronary patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cardiometabolic risk reduction of diabetic patients following coronary revascularizationprocedures after participation in outpatients or inpatients cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Materials and methods: weperformed a retrospective analytical study which included a group of 103 revascularized coronary patients with diabetesmellitus. Depending on participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program we have defined the following subgroups of patients:Group O (N=37 - attended the outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program; Group H (N=37 - attended the inpatient cardiacrehabilitation program; Group C (N=34 - did not participate in any cardiac rehabilitation program. Between those two momentsof assessment: T0 - revascularization / early post-revascularization and T1 - time of the interview (16±2.3 months afterrevascularization, patients in groups A and S participated in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (12 weeks, 3sessions/week of exercise training, with clinical and paraclinical evaluation scheduled at 1, 6, 12 months afterrevascularization, or inpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (3 weeks, intensive sessions, scheduled at 1, 3, 6 and 12months after revascularization. Results: at the end of the study, we found significant differences among the three groups forthe following parameters: body mass index (p=0.01, systolic blood pressure (p=0.002, total cholesterol (p<0.001, LDLcholesterol(p<0.001 and non-HDL cholesterol (p=0.004 in favor of groups A and S, that have participated in comprehensivecardiac rehabilitation programs. Conclusions: comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programmes, performed outpatient orinpatient, are effective methods of reducing the high cardiometabolic risk, specific in revascularized coronary patients withdiabetes.

  4. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1). We used multivariable linear regression and marginal structural models to estimate associations under 2 causal structures for life-course exposures and timing of methylation measurement. We also examined whether methylation was associated with adult cardiometabolic phenotype. Higher maternal education was consistently associated with higher HSD11B2 methylation (e.g., 0.5%-point higher in 9-12 years vs. ≤8 years, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8). Higher HSD11B2 methylation was also associated with lower adult weight and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found that associations with early life socioeconomic position measures were insensitive to different causal assumption; however, exploratory analysis did not find evidence for a mediating role of methylation in socioeconomic position-cardiometabolic risk associations.

  5. Cardiometabolic disease risk and HIV status in rural South Africa : establishing a baseline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Samuel J.; Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier; Houle, Brian; Thorogood, Margaret; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Angotti, Nicole; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Williams, Jill; Menken, Jane; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: To inform health care and training, resource and research priorities, it is essential to establish how non-communicable disease risk factors vary by HIV-status in high HIV burden areas; and whether long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) plays a modifying role. Methods: As part of a coho

  6. Yogurt consumption and impact on health: focus on children and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marette, André; Picard-Deland, Eliane

    2014-05-01

    An accumulating body of epidemiologic data, clinical trials, and mechanistic studies suggests that yogurt consumption as part of a healthy diet may be beneficial to cardiometabolic health. This brief review focuses on children and adolescents, introducing new concepts underlying the effect of yogurt consumption on body weight maintenance and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Specific properties of yogurt are discussed, which highlight that yogurt is an easy-to-digest, nutrient-dense, and satiating food that contains high-quality protein and specific amino acids. Moreover, the role of yogurt as a modulator of the gut microbiota in infancy is explored. We also propose the idea that the specific matrix of yogurt has bioavailability and metabolic properties that can be exploited to increase the functionality of this dairy product.

  7. Dairy products, yogurt consumption, and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba; Bueno, Gloria

    2015-08-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in children is a global health issue. Obesity in children and adolescents can result in hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia, increasing the risk of death, as children grow into adulthood, and raising public health concerns. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Dairy consumption may have a protective effect against the development of CVD, but there is scarce evidence of this in children and adolescents. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between dairy consumption and CVD risk factors in a sample of adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities. Overall, dairy products emerged as the food group that best identified adolescents at low CVD risk. Higher consumption of milk and yogurt and of milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for CVD, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness.

  8. Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomised cross-over intervention in mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Juscelino; Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2014-02-01

    The usefulness of dietary strategies against cardiometabolic risk is increasingly being acknowledged. Legumes and whole grains can modulate risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but their possible additive/synergistic actions are unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess, in healthy subjects, the effect of a diet including specific whole-grain barley products and legumes with prior favourable outcomes on cardiometabolic risk parameters in semi-acute studies. A total of forty-six overweight women (50-72 years, BMI 25-33 kg/m² and normal fasting glycaemia) participated in a randomised cross-over intervention comparing a diet rich in kernel-based barley products, brown beans and chickpeas (D1, diet 1 (functional diet)) with a control diet (D2, diet 2 (control diet)) of similar macronutrient composition but lacking legumes and barley. D1 included 86 g (as eaten)/d brown beans, 82 g/d chickpeas, 58 g/d whole-grain barley kernels and 216 g/d barley kernel bread. Both diets followed the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, providing similar amounts of dietary fibre (D1: 46·9 g/d; D2: 43·5 g/d), with wheat-based products as the main fibre supplier in D2. Each diet was consumed for 4 weeks under weight-maintenance conditions. Both diets decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but D1 had a greater effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels (Plegume diet improves cardiometabolic risk-associated biomarkers in a healthy cohort, showing potential preventive value beyond that of a nutritionally well-designed regimen.

  9. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  10. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The American Diabetes Association (ADA recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  11. Molecular Analysis of a Genetic Variants Panel Related to Nutrients and Metabolism: Association with Susceptibility to Gestational Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Risk in Affected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Antonio; Celentano, Claudio; Liberati, Marco; Stuppia, Liborio

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most frequent metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Women with a GDM history are at increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between several genes involved in the metabolic pathway of insulin and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical parameters in GDM and variants in genes involved with nutrients and metabolism. Several variants PPARG2 rs1801282 (C>G); PPARGC1A rs8192678 (C>T); TCF7L2 rs7903146 (C>T); LDLR rs2228671 (C>T); MTHFR rs1801133 (C>T); APOA5 rs662799 (T>C); GCKR rs1260326 (C>T); FTO rs9939609 (T>A); MC4R rs17782313 (T>C) were genotyped in 168 pregnant Caucasian women with or without GDM by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis. A significant correlation was observed between TT genotype of TCF7L2 gene and increased risk of GDM (OR 5.4 [95% CI 1.5–19.3]). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between lipid parameters and genetic variations in additional genes, namely, PPARG2 [p = 0,02], APOA5 [p = 0,02], MC4R [p = 0,03], LDLR [p = 0,01], and FTO [p = 0,02]. Our findings support the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant and an increased GDM risk. Results about the investigated genetic variants provide important information about cardiometabolic risk in GDM and help to plan future prevention studies. PMID:28133617

  12. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaëlle M. A. van Gijssel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS. These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042, and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003, but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.

    2014-01-01

    ) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7......n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1...

  14. Dairy food products: good or bad for cardiometabolic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2016-12-01

    Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. The present review critically evaluates the current evidence on the association between milk and dairy products and risk of CVD, T2DM and the metabolic syndrome (collectively, cardiometabolic disease). The effects of total and individual dairy foods on cardiometabolic risk factors and new information on the effects of the food matrix on reducing fat digestion are also reviewed. It is concluded that a policy to lower SFA intake by reducing dairy food consumption to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk is likely to have limited or possibly negative effects. There remain many uncertainties, including differential effects of different dairy products and those of differing fat content. Focused and suitably designed and powered studies are needed to provide clearer evidence not only of the mechanisms involved, but how they may be beneficially influenced during milk production and processing.

  15. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C de Oliveira Otto

    Full Text Available Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil.Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Brazil in 2010. Information on national diets and metabolic risks were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, the Food and Agriculture Organization database, and large observational studies including Brazilian adults. Relative risks for each risk factor were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials or prospective cohort studies; and disease-specific mortality from the GBD 2010 database. We quantified uncertainty using probabilistic simulation analyses, incorporating uncertainty in dietary and metabolic data and relative risks by age and sex. Robustness of findings was evaluated by sensitivity to varying feasible optimal levels of each risk factor.In 2010, high systolic blood pressure (SBP and suboptimal diet were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths in Brazil, responsible for 214,263 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 195,073 to 233,936 and 202,949 deaths (95% UI: 194,322 to 211,747, respectively. Among individual dietary factors, low intakes of fruits and whole grains and high intakes of sodium were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths. For premature cardiometabolic deaths (before age 70 years, representing 40% of cardiometabolic deaths, the leading risk factors were suboptimal diet (104,169 deaths; 95% UI: 99,964 to 108,002, high SBP (98,923 deaths; 95%UI: 92,912 to 104,609 and high body-mass index (BMI (42,643 deaths; 95%UI: 40,161 to 45,111.suboptimal diet, high SBP, and high BMI are major causes of

  16. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CARDIOMETABOLIC MARKERS IN ADOLESCENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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    Valter Paulo Neves Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The accumulation of body fat is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Obesity can be considered a chronic systemic inflammatory disease in adults and younger people. The control of subclinical inflammation process through the practice of physical activity (PA can mitigate the effects of risk factors that trigger atherosclerosis that worsens with advancing age. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the influence of physical activity and/or exercise on cardiometabolic markers and othrer risk factors of cardiovascular disease in adolescents. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases Scopus, Pubmed, Conchrane Collection and SciELO. The terms used in the search were "cardiovascular diseases AND inflammation AND adolescents AND physical activity OR exercise". A total of 24 original articles were evaluated, being 14 longitudinal and 10 cross-sectional studies. Overall, 16 articles (66.66% showed that PA, exercise and/or sedentary behavior may have influenced or have been related to the concentration of cardiometabolic markers. All studies that examined lifestyle changes showed reduction of cardiometabolic markers. Some limitations were observed: reduced samples, lack of dietary prescription, evaluation and control of volume and intensity of exercise. Most of the studies analyzed showed that the physical activity could influence and decrease the concentrations of cardiometabolic markers in adolescents. However, studies with representative sample size and precise control in assessing the level of physical activity and/or exercise are required to determine accurately the changes that the more active lifestyle can bring on inflammatory process, as well as other risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in adolescents.

  17. The relationship between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cardiometabolic indices in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Tay, Yi Hang; Lee, Jimmy

    2014-08-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, has been recently shown to be involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. This study seeks to examine the relationship between BDNF, metabolic indices and cardiovascular (CVD) risk in patients with schizophrenia. Medical histories, demographic information and anthropometric measurements were collected and analyzed from 61 participants with schizophrenia. Fasting glucose and lipids were measured in a central laboratory, and serum BDNF was analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 10-year CVD risk for each participant was computed using the Framingham risk score (FRS). Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationships between serum BDNF with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose. To examine the relationship between serum BDNF and FRS, serum BDNF was categorized into quartiles, and a multiple regression was performed. After adjusting for age, gender and current smoking status, diastolic BP (dBP) (p=0.045) and TG (p=0.015) were found to be significantly associated with serum BDNF. Participants in the highest quartile of serum BDNF had a 3.3 times increase in FRS over those in the lowest quartile. Our findings support the possible regulatory role of BDNF in metabolism and cardiovascular homeostasis among patients with schizophrenia similar to that observed among the non-mentally ill. Serum BDNF not only present itself as a candidate biomarker of schizophrenia but also might be a viable marker of metabolic co-morbidities associated with schizophrenia.

  18. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  19. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2014-01-01

    index (fat mass/height(2)) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were......Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood...

  20. Family history of myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes and cardiometabolic markers in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Koppelman, Gerard H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Bo; Gehring, Ulrike; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Despite the overlap in occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes and their risk factors, family history of these diseases has not yet been investigated simultaneously in relation to cardiometabolic markers in offspring. We examined how a family history of CVD and

  1. Risk Factors for Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2002-01-01

    @@ Thrombotic disease is a multifactorial disease, multiple interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.This review summarized some risk factors reported for arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis in recent few years.

  2. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.

  3. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo, E-mail: goliveira@cardiol.br; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP.

  4. Low physical activity level and short sleep duration are associated with an increased cardio-metabolic risk: a longitudinal study in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M.; Chaput, J.; Damsgaard, C.

    2014-01-01

    Graph GT3X/GT3X+). The continuous MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, HOMA-IR, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was measured by DEXA. All measurements were taken at two time points separated by 200 days and used......-hour; 95% CI (−0.87;−0.04)], but not sedentary time, were prospectively associated with the MetS-score (P ≤ 0.03). Adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (P ≥ 0.17). Conclusions: Independent......Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity [PA], sedentary time and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid to prevent metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Aim...

  5. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toxqui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW, on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01, oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073, and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006 and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011. Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body.

  6. The effect of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on cardiometabolic health: Rationale, design, and methods of a controlled feeding efficacy trial in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie M; Davy, Brenda M; Halliday, Tanya M; Hulver, Mathew W; Neilson, Andrew P; Ponder, Monica A; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Prediabetes is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). An elevated lipopolysaccharide concentration, associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in the development of both T2D and CVD. Selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics reduces intestinal permeability and endotoxin concentrations, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in rodents. The effect of prebiotic supplementation on cardio-metabolic function in humans at risk for T2D is not known. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility in adults at risk for T2D. We hypothesize that prebiotic supplementation with inulin will improve insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. We will randomize 48 adults (40-75 yrs) with prediabetes or a score ≥ 5 on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk screener to 6 weeks of prebiotic supplementation with inulin (10 g/day) or placebo. Subjects will be provided with all food for the duration of the study, to avoid potential confounding through differences in dietary intake between individuals. Intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and fecal bacterial composition will be measured at baseline and following treatment. The identification of prebiotic supplementation with inulin as an efficacious strategy for reducing cardio-metabolic risk in individuals at risk of T2D could impact clinical practice by informing dietary recommendations and increasing acceptance of prebiotics by the scientific and medical community.

  7. Recently Discovered Adipokines and Cardio-Metabolic Comorbidities in Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Barraco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available White adipose tissue (WAT asset, in terms of cell number, fat storage capacity and endocrine function, is largely determined in early stages of life and is pivotal for shaping the WAT pro-inflammatory behavior. WAT derived adipokines have been shown to play a main role in several cardio-metabolic abnormalities of obesity. This review focuses on the most recently identified adipokines, namely adipocyte-fatty acid-binding protein, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor-21, lipocalin-2, omentin-1 and vaspin; their role in the pathogenesis of obesity and associated cardio-metabolic abnormalities; and on their adaptive response to body weight change. Evidence consistently suggests a pathogenic role for A-FABP, chemerin and FGF-21. Nevertheless, large population studies are needed to verify whether they can be useful to predict the risk of cardio-metabolic abnormalities in adulthood and/or monitor the clinical response to therapeutic interventions.

  8. Evaluation of the implementation of an integrated primary care network for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk in Montréal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provost Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this project is to evaluate the implementation of an integrated and interdisciplinary program for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk (PCMR. The intervention is based on the Chronic Care Model. The study will evaluate the implementation of the PCMR in 6 of the 12 health and social services centres (CSSS in Montréal, and the effects of the PCMR on patients and the practice of their primary care physicians up to 40 months following implementation, as well as the sustainability of the program. Objectives are: 1-to evaluate the effects of the PCMR and their persistence on patients registered in the program and the practice of their primary care physicians, by implementation site and degree of exposure to the program; 2-to assess the degree of implementation of PCMR in each CSSS territory and identify related contextual factors; 3-to establish the relationships between the effects observed, the degree of PCMR implementation and the related contextual factors; 4-to assess the impact of the PCMR on strengthening local services networks. Methods/Design The evaluation will use a mixed design that includes two complementary research strategies. The first strategy is similar to a quasi-experimental "before-after" design, based on a quantitative approach; it will look at the program's effects and their variations among the six territories. The effects analysis will use data from a clinical database and from questionnaires completed by participating patients and physicians. Over 3000 patients will be recruited. The second strategy corresponds to a multiple case study approach, where each of the six CSSS constitutes a case. With this strategy, qualitative methods will set out the context of implementation using data from semi-structured interviews with program managers. The quantitative data will be analyzed using linear or multilevel models complemented with an interpretive approach to qualitative data analysis

  9. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Xiong, Shiqiang; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-04-25

    Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction.

  10. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1. TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction.

  11. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Xiong, Shiqiang; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction. PMID:27120617

  12. Cardiovascular and thrombogenic risk of decidual vasculopathy in preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, D.U.; Al-Nasiry, S.; Fajta, M.M.; Bulten, J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of preeclampsia (PE) have an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic, cardiovascular, and prothrombotic risk factors. Remotely, these women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular and thrombotic disease. Decidual vasculopathy (DV) describes vascular lesions

  13. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

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    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  14. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

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    Luisa Gilardini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods: Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents using a questionnaire. Results: Frequency of glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia was 0.7%, 13% and 27.2%, respectively. Plausible reporters consumed more animal protein and sodium and less legumes than recommended in nutritional recommendations and adequate amounts of fiber mainly derived from whole grains. Subjects skipping breakfast had unhealthy diets and greater body fatness. After adjustment for confounders, waist/height and fasting glucose were associated with sodium intake (r =0.149 and r = 0.142, respectively; p Conclusions: The cardiometabolic health of obese children improves with vegetable protein and whole grain intake, whereas dysglycemia and adiposity increase with sodium intake.

  15. Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the poor prognosis of dieting in obesity management, which often results in repeated attempts at weight loss and hence weight cycling, the prevalence of dieting has increased continuously in the past decades in parallel to the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity. However, dieting and weight cycling are not limited to those who are obese or overweight as substantial proportions of the various population groups with normal body weight also attempt to lose weight. These include you...

  16. Breast cancer risk factors

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    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  17. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David;

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using...... was associated with 12 years of reduced life expectancy and a history of all 3 of these conditions was associated with 15 years of reduced life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Mortality associated with a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI was similar for each condition. Because any combination...... of these conditions was associated with multiplicative mortality risk, life expectancy was substantially lower in people with multimorbidity....

  18. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.;

    2014-01-01

    . Objective: To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design: Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass......Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood...... taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results: 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis...

  19. Cintura hipertrigliceridêmica e risco cardiometabólico em mulheres hipertensas Hypertriglyceridemic waist and cardiometabolic risk in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Anielly Lima Cabral

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre cintura hipertrigliceridêmica (CH e fatores de risco cardiometabólicos em mulheres portadoras de hipertensão arterial. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 218 pacientes acompanhadas pelo Programa do Sistema de Cadastramento e Acompanhamento de Hipertensos e Diabéticos (HiperDia, em duas unidades de saúde de São Luís, MA, Brasil. A variável dependente foi CH e as variáveis independentes foram sociodemográficas, estilo de vida, antropométricas e agravos à saúde. RESULTADOS: A CH esteve presente em 33% da amostra e foi predominante na idade > 60 anos (56,4%, não brancas (81,7%, com oito anos ou menos de estudo (57,3% e pertencentes à classe C (49%. Observaram-se excesso de peso (68,8% e hipercolesterolemia (68,8%. A CH associou-se a: tabagismo (RP: 2,08; p = 0,017, sobrepeso (RP: 2,46; p = 0,010, obesidade (RP: 4,13; p 100 mg/dL ou ser diabética (RP: 1,86; p = 0,006. Após ajustamento, permaneceram associados o colesterol total (RP = 1,78; p = 0,012, HDL colesterol (RP: 3,03; p 25 a 30 kg/m² (RP = 3,61; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with hypertension. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 218 patients monitored by HiperDia (Enrollment and Monitoring Program for Hypertensive and Diabetic Individuals in two health units in São Luis, MA, Brazil. The dependent variable was HW and the independent variables were sociodemographics, lifestyle, anthropometrics, and health problems. RESULTS: HW was present in 33% of the sample and was predominant in women aged > 60 years (56.4%, non-whites (81.7%, those with eight or fewer years of schooling (57.3%, and those belonging to socioeconomic class C (49%. Excess weight (68.8% and hypercholesterolemia (68.8% were observed. HW was associated with: smoking (PR: 2.08; p = 0.017, overweight (PR: 2.46; p = 0.010, obesity (PR: 4.13; p 100 mg/dL or

  20. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  1. The association between obesity, cardiometabolic disease biomarkers, and innate immunity-related inflammation in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Costa LA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Da Costa,1,2,*Paul Arora,2,3,* Bibiana García-Bailo,1,2 Mohamed Karmali,1,2 Ahmed El-Sohemy,1 Alaa Badawi2 1Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto; 2Office of Biotechnology and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada; 3Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this article Introduction: Obesity is associated with a state of chronic inflammation, and increased cardiometabolic disease risk. The present study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI and cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers among normal weight, overweight, and obese Canadian adults.Methods: Subjects (n = 1805, aged 18 to 79 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS were examined for associations between BMI, cardiometabolic markers (apolipoprotein [Apo] A1, ApoB, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], total cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio [total:HDL-C ratio], triglycerides, and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c], inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, and homocysteine, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD]. Bootstrap weights for variance and sampling weights for point estimates were applied to account for the complex survey design. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, smoking status, and ethnicity (in addition to season of clinic visit, for vitamin D analyses only were used to examine the association between cardiometabolic markers, inflammatory factors, and BMI in Canadian adults.Results: All biomarkers were significantly associated with BMI (P ≤ 0.001. ApoA1 (β = −0.31, P < 0.0001, HDL-C (β = −0.61, P < 0.0001, and 25(OHD (β = −0.25, P < 0.0001 were inversely associated with BMI, while all other biomarkers showed positive linear associations. Distinct patterns of association were noted among normal weight, overweight

  2. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carughi, Arianna; Feeney, Mary Jo; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Fulgoni, Victor; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bulló, Mònica; Webb, Densie

    2016-03-05

    Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9 % of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee identified a gap between recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and the amount the population consumes. Even fewer Americans consume tree nuts, which are a nutrient-dense food, rich in bioactive compounds and healthy fatty acids. Consumption of fruits and nuts has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. An estimated 5.5 to 8.4 % of U.S. adults consume tree nuts and/or tree nut butter. This review examines the potential of pairing nuts and dried fruit to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors and focuses on emerging data on raisins and pistachios as representative of each food category. Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of both could help improve Americans' nutritional status and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

  3. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  4. Comparison of Predictive Value of Cardiometabolic Indices for Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Chinese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Xu; Fang-fang Zeng; Li-ping He; Wen-hua Ling; Wei-qing Chen; Yu-ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Metabolic disturbances are well-known risk factors for atherosclerosis, but it remains unclear which cardiometabolic components are the predominant determinants. This study aimed to compare and identify the key determinants of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study including 3,162 apparently healthy residents aged 37–75 years was performed from July 2008 to June 2010 in Guangzhou, China. Carotid arter...

  5. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  6. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  7. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  8. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...

  9. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  10. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sokup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P=0.04. The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR.

  11. Cardiometabolic interventions – focus on transcriptional regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the largest healthcare burden in the Western world; and the increasing prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus, at least partially driven by a trend in lifestyle changes associated with global economic development, is likely to fuel this CVD burden worldwide. Over the past two decades, there has been an increased awareness of the convergence of risk factors contributing to both cardiovascular disease and diabetes leading to the concept of the metabolic syndrome, and the realisation of the opportunity to intervene at this intersection to simultaneously target CVD and metabolic dysfunction. This brings together the fields of cardiovascular medicine, diabetology, and increasingly clinical immunology for a unified and concerted effort to reduce risk for both conditions simultaneously. The discovery of the targeted pathways of drugs already in clinical use such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZD has led to accelerated basic and clinicalresearch into selective and dual PPAR-α and PPAR-γ agonists, which can theoretically target glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, as well as potentially exerting inhibitoryeffects in vascular inflammation, all of which might be predicted to reduce atherosclerosis. In this article, we will discuss the basic science as well as recent clinical development in the pursuit of optimal cardiometabolic intervention along with insight into strategies for future drug development.

  12. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of other cancers (or other health problems). Examples of genetic syndromes that can cause exocrine pancreatic cancer include: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome , caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes Familial atypical ...

  14. A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Matti; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Rosqvist, Fredrik;

    2014-01-01

    compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil......Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination...... of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance...

  15. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  16. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... classes or programs, or things like meditation or yoga. Limiting how much alcohol you drink to 1 drink a day for women and 2 a day for men. Good nutrition is important to your heart health and will help control some of your risk ...

  17. Parental history of type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic biomarkers in offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Spijkerman, Annemieke; van der A, Daphne L.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (9): 974982 Abstract Background Parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with cardiometabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the associations of parental history of T2D with cardiometabolic biomarkers and to subsequently investigate to what extent these putat

  18. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  19. Endocrine disruptive compounds and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Naila; Chen, Aimin; Lee, Miryoung

    2014-12-01

    The endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are exogenous chemicals that can disrupt hormonal signaling system. EDCs are ubiquitous in our environment and many EDC are detectable in humans. With the increasing obesity prevalence in children it is imperative to explore the role of EDC as obesogens. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence regarding impact of these EDC on weight gain and metabolic outcomes in children. The EDCs include pharmaceuticals, pesticides, industrial by-products, and cigarette smoke. Current evidence suggests a link between early life exposure to some industrial by-products, synthetic hormones and cigarette smoke with weight gain. However, there is inconclusive evidence of an association between exposure to fungicides, dioxin, phytoestrogens, flame retardants, heavy metals and childhood obesity.

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women.

  1. Association of ghrelin with cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Qorbani, Mostafa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ahadi, Zeinab; Safari, Omid; Safiri, Saeid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current evidence suggests that ghrelin could contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but limited experience exists in adolescents. This study aims to explore the association of ghrelin levels with the MetS components among Iranian adolescents. Methods: In this case-control study, 32 adolescents with MetS and 148 healthy controls were selected randomly from the childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for children and adolescents. Anthropometric measures (including body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] and waist to height ratio [WHtR]), blood pressure (BP) and biochemical data (including fasting blood sugar [FBS], triglyceride [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC] and gerlin) were measured. Results: Total ghrelin level was significantly higher in students without MetS compared to those with MetS (748.89 ± 85.04 vs. 728.72 ± 90.36 [pg/mL]; P < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were seen between ghrelin levels and BMI, WC, WHtR, TG, and TC. Ghrelin had also relatively strong inverse correlations with FBS (r = −0.59, P< 0.001), LDL-C (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and positive correlation with HDL-C (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). Compared with the children with MetS, in those without MetS, ghrelin was significantly associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. A decreasing trend was observed in the mean ghrelin level across increasing number of MetS components (P for trend <0.001). Conclusion: We observed a relationship between ghrelin concentration and MetS components in adolescents. PMID:27777695

  2. Maternal Vitamin D Status at Week 30 of Gestation and Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Health at 20 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study over Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Grandström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women and since the fetus relies exclusively on maternal supply, deficiency could potentially interfere with fetal development. Vitamin D blood concentrations during pregnancy have been associated with offspring cardio-metabolic health in a few previous studies but the evidence is still inconsistent and only one previous study has followed the offspring into adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal serum concentration of vitamin D (25(OH)D) in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at 20 years. Subjects/Methods A follow up study of a Danish birth cohort from 1988–89 (n = 965) was conducted. A blood sample was drawn from the women in week 30 of gestation. In 2008–2009, 95% of the original mother and child dyads could be identified in the central registration registry and were alive and living in Denmark. The offspring were followed up with self-reported anthropometrics (N = 629, 69%) and a clinical examination (N = 410, 45%). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between maternal 25(OH)D and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors adjusting for potential confounders. Results No overall association was observed between maternal 25(OH)D in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, the analyses did suggest a possible inverse association with blood pressure in females. Conclusions No clear association between maternal 25(OH)D concentration in week 30 of gestation and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the 20 year old offspring was found. PMID:27764169

  3. The effect of communicating the genetic risk of cardiometabolic disorders on motivation and actual engagement in preventative lifestyle modification and clinical outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherly X; Ye, Zheng; Whelan, Kevin; Truby, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Genetic risk prediction of chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes and CVD currently has limited predictive power but its potential to engage healthy behaviour change has been of immense research interest. We aimed to understand whether the latter is indeed true by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating whether genetic risk communication affects motivation and actual behaviour change towards preventative lifestyle modification. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCT) since 2003 investigating the impact of genetic risk communication on health behaviour to prevent cardiometabolic disease, without restrictions on age, duration of intervention or language. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses for perceived motivation for behaviour change and clinical changes (weight loss) and a narrative analysis for other outcomes. Within the thirteen studies reviewed, five were vignette studies (hypothetical RCT) and seven were clinical RCT. There was no consistent effect of genetic risk on actual motivation for weight loss, perceived motivation for dietary change (control v. genetic risk group standardised mean difference (smd) -0·15; 95 % CI -1·03, 0·73, P=0·74) or actual change in dietary behaviour. Similar results were observed for actual weight loss (control v. high genetic risk SMD 0·29 kg; 95 % CI -0·74, 1·31, P=0·58). This review found no clear or consistent evidence that genetic risk communication alone either raises motivation or translates into actual change in dietary intake or physical activity to reduce the risk of cardiometabolic disorders in adults. Of thirteen studies, eight were at high or unclear risk of bias. Additional larger-scale, high-quality clinical RCT are warranted.

  4. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5.3. Short-term (ST) HIIT (HIIT (≥12 weeks) significantly improved waist circumference (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.01; pHIIT demonstrated no effect on insulin, lipid profile, C reactive protein or interleukin 6 in overweight/obese populations. In normal weight populations, ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT significantly improved VO2 max, but no other significant effects were observed. Current evidence suggests that ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT can increase VO2 max and improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese populations.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  6. Risk factors of placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected co...

  7. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  8. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  9. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghattu V Krishnaveni

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability.Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-9.5 and 9.5-13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages.Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5-9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]. Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5-9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40] and HOMA-IR (5-9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5-13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]. Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function.This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

  10. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  11. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  12. Risk factors for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Y E; Fagin, J A

    1997-01-01

    The potential risk factors for thyroid carcinoma development include genetic predisposition, exposure to therapeutic or environmental ionizing radiation, residence in areas of iodine deficiency or excess, history of preexisting benign thyroid disease, as well as hormonal and reproductive factors. In this review, we analyze some of the epidemiological data, as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which certain environmental and genetic factors might predispose to thyroid tumorigenesis. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:20-25).

  13. [Preventive and curative value of yoga in cardiometabolic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter

    2016-02-28

    Yoga and other body-mind techniques enjoy an increasing popularity in many fields of health maintaining practices, in prevention of some illnesses and in curative medicine in spite of our incomplete knowledge about its applicability and effects. There are large differences among the various yoga-schools and the heterogeneity of indications etc. In this article a bucket of recent information is offered for the inquirers on the potential advantages of yoga (diet, mind-exercises, asanas, pranayamas) for decreasing cardio-metabolic risk factors, stabilizing mental health, and its addictive use in curative medicine. Few adverse side-effects may occur only in the case of misapplication. Its advantages are low costs, availability for broad population, and very few contraindications. Disadvantages include differences in the ability of yoga instructors and in yoga practices.

  14. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  15. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.

  17. Risk and protective factors for inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries Robbé , M. de; Vogel, V. de; Wever, E.C.; Douglas, K.S.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic risk and protective factors serve to assess the violence risk level of (forensic) psychiatric patients and offer guidance to clinical interventions. Risk assessment scores on Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) risk factors and Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for viol

  18. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  19. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. ...

  20. Risk factors of placental abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson ′ s Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR. Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1% was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83 and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41 were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01. Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency.

  1. Risk factors of placental abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Feizi, Awat; Mousavi, Maryam; Sohrabi, Davood; Mesghari, Leila; Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case – control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR). Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1%) was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83) and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41) were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency. PMID:24174950

  2. 青少年心血管代谢性健康风险与身体活动的剂量效应%Dose-effect relations between cardiometabolic health risks and physical activities of teenagers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关尚一; 朱为模

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify dose-effect relations between medium and high intensity physical activities and obe-sity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome of teenagers, so as to determine medium and high intensity physical activity doses recommended for preventing cardiometabolic health risks of teenagers, the authors selected 3162 aged 12~17 teenagers in US Health and Nutrition Survey in 200-2004 and 2005-2006 as their research sub-jects, measured the height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood fat, food intake and physical activity levels of the testees, used the fractional polynomial model to respectively analyze the relations be-tween medium and high intensity physical activity times and cardiometabolic health risks (obesity risk, hypertension risk, dyslipidemia risk and metabolic syndrome risk), worked out their dose-effect curves by fitting, and revealed the following findings:there were dose-effect relations between medium and high intensity physical activity times and obesity risk, hypertension risk, low and high density lipoprotein risks, high triglyceride risk and metabolic syndrome risk of teenagers;these cardiometabolic health risks tended to decrease in a curvilinear manner as daily medium and high intensity physical activity times increased.%为阐明中高强度身体活动与青少年肥胖、高血压、血脂异常和代谢综合征之间的剂量效应,以确定预防青少年心血管代谢性健康风险的中高强度身体活动推荐量。选取2003-2004、2005-2006年美国健康营养调查中3162名6~17岁的青少年作为研究对象,测量受试者的身高、体重、腰围、血压、血糖、血脂、膳食摄入情况以及身体活动水平,采用分数多项式模型分别分析中高强度身体活动时间与心血管代谢性健康风险(肥胖风险、高血压风险、血脂异常风险和代谢综合征风险)之间的关系,并拟合出它们之间的剂量效应曲线。结果显

  3. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David; Willeit, Peter; Butterworth, Adam S; Bansal, Narinder; O'Keeffe, Linda M; Gao, Pei; Wood, Angela M; Burgess, Stephen; Freitag, Daniel F; Pennells, Lisa; Peters, Sanne A; Hart, Carole L; Håheim, Lise Lund; Gillum, Richard F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Psaty, Bruce M; Yeap, Bu B; Knuiman, Matthew W; Nietert, Paul J; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Kuller, Lewis H; Simons, Leon A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Selmer, Randi; Crespo, Carlos J; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Verschuren, W M Monique; Salomaa, Veikko; Svärdsudd, Kurt; van der Harst, Pim; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Wallace, Robert B; Brenner, Hermann; Amouyel, Philippe; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Iso, Hiroyasu; Onat, Altan; Trevisan, Maurizio; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Cooper, Cyrus; Kavousi, Maryam; Welin, Lennart; Roussel, Ronan; Hu, Frank B; Sato, Shinichi; Davidson, Karina W; Howard, Barbara V; Leening, Maarten J G; Leening, Maarten; Rosengren, Annika; Dörr, Marcus; Deeg, Dorly J H; Kiechl, Stefan; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kromhout, Daan; Price, Jackie F; Peters, Annette; Meade, Tom W; Casiglia, Edoardo; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Nagel, Dorothea; Franco, Oscar H; Assmann, Gerd; Dagenais, Gilles R; Jukema, J Wouter; Sundström, Johan; Woodward, Mark; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitsel, Eric A; Njølstad, Inger; Hedblad, Bo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Engström, Gunnar; Rosamond, Wayne D; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, Simon G; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using indi

  4. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  5. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  6. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  7. Consumption of Energy-Dense Diets in Relation to Cardiometabolic Abnormalities among Tehranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Khayatzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the association between dietary energy density and prevalence of the cardiometabolic risk factors among Te-hranian adult women. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study we assessed habitual dietary intakes of 486 Tehranian adult women by the use of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary en-ergy density (DED was calculated as each individual’s reported daily energy intake (kcal/d into total weight of foods (excluding beverages consumed (g/d. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured. Diabetes (FPG? 126 mg/dL, dyslip-idemia (based on Adult Treatment Panel III and hypertension (based on Joint National Committee VI were defined. The presence of “at least one risk factor” and "at least two risk factors" of the three major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes were also evaluated. To explore the associations between DED and cardio-metabolic risk factors, we obtained prevalence ratios in different models accounting for con-founders. Results: Mean dietary energy density was 1.77±0.35 kcal/g. Consumption of energy-dense diets was associated with higher intakes of energy, dietary fat, cholesterol, vegetable oils, refined grains and high-fat dairy products and lower intakes of dietary carbohydrates, fruits, vegetables , meat and fish. Adherence to an energy-dense diet was associated with elevated levels of serum triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol and lower levels of serum HDL-cholesterol. Women in the top quartile of DED were more likely to have dyslipidemia (61% vs. 31%, P<0.05, at least one (68% vs. 35%, P<0.05 and at least two (29% vs. 10%, P<0.05 cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with those in the bottom quartile. Addi-tional control for BMI slightly attenuated the associations. No overall significant associations were found between consumption of energy

  8. Familial risk factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael; Xue Ming; Parikh, Amisha

    2007-05-01

    Familial history risk factors in relation to autism were examined in a cohort of 164 autistic children referred to The Autism Center at New Jersey Medical School-University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, over a 2-year period (2001-2003). Information related to familial history was obtained from each family and reviewed by a clinician. It is shown that these families carry a higher overall burden of psychiatric and developmental illnesses compared to reported national levels. These families also carry a relatively high incidence of medical disorders, independently of developmental and psychiatric disorders. This work supports the underlying presence of genetic factors in the etiology of autism.

  9. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  10. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  11. Rationale and methods of the cardiometabolic valencian study (escarval-risk for validation of risk scales in mediterranean patients with hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trillo Jose L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Escarval-Risk study aims to validate cardiovascular risk scales in patients with hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia living in the Valencia Community, a European Mediterranean region, based on data from an electronic health recording system comparing predicted events with observed during 5 years follow-up study. Methods/Design A cohort prospective 5 years follow-up study has been designed including 25000 patients with hypertension, diabetes and/or dyslipidemia attended in usual clinical practice. All information is registered in a unique electronic health recording system (ABUCASIS that is the usual way to register clinical practice in the Valencian Health System (primary and secondary care. The system covers about 95% of population (near 5 million people. The system is linked with database of mortality register, hospital withdrawals, prescriptions and assurance databases in which each individual have a unique identification number. Diagnoses in clinical practice are always registered based on IDC-9. Occurrence of CV disease was the main outcomes of interest. Risk survival analysis methods will be applied to estimate the cumulative incidence of developing CV events over time. Discussion The Escarval-Risk study will provide information to validate different cardiovascular risk scales in patients with hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia from a low risk Mediterranean Region, the Valencia Community.

  12. A Comparison between BMI, Waist Circumference, and Waist-To-Height Ratio for Identifying Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luís B; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence on the associations between anthropometric measures with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in pediatric ages. We aimed to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHt...

  13. Circulating Endocannabinoids and the Polymorphism 385C>A in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Gene May Identify the Obesity Phenotype Related to Cardiometabolic Risk: A Study Conducted in a Brazilian Population of Complex Interethnic Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cyro José de Moraes; Genelhu, Virginia; Pimentel, Marcia Mattos Gonçalves; Celoria, Bruno Miguel Jorge; Mangia, Rogerio Fabris; Aveta, Teresa; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Francischetti, Emilio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with cardiometabolic complications of obesity. Allelic variants in coding genes for this system components may contribute to differences in the susceptibility to obesity and related health hazards. These data have mostly been shown in Caucasian populations and in severely obese individuals. We investigated a multiethnic Brazilian population to study the relationships among the polymorphism 385C>A in an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme gene (FAAH), endocannabinoid levels and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Fasting plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-oleoylethanolamide and N-palmitoylethanolamide) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 200 apparently healthy individuals of both genders with body mass indices from 22.5 ± 1.8 to 35.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 (mean ± 1 SD) and ages between 18 and 60 years. All were evaluated for anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic variables, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and genotyping. The endocannabinoid levels increased as a function of obesity and insulin resistance. The homozygous genotype AA was associated with higher levels of anandamide and lower levels of adiponectin versus wild homozygous CC and heterozygotes combined. The levels of anandamide were independent and positively associated with the genotype AA position 385 of FAAH, C-reactive protein levels and body mass index. Our findings provide evidence for an endocannabinoid-related phenotype that may be identified by the combination of circulating anandamide levels with genotyping of the FAAH 385C>A; this phenotype is not exclusive to mono-ethnoracial populations nor to individuals with severe obesity.

  14. Circulating Endocannabinoids and the Polymorphism 385C>A in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH Gene May Identify the Obesity Phenotype Related to Cardiometabolic Risk: A Study Conducted in a Brazilian Population of Complex Interethnic Admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro José de Moraes Martins

    Full Text Available The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with cardiometabolic complications of obesity. Allelic variants in coding genes for this system components may contribute to differences in the susceptibility to obesity and related health hazards. These data have mostly been shown in Caucasian populations and in severely obese individuals. We investigated a multiethnic Brazilian population to study the relationships among the polymorphism 385C>A in an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme gene (FAAH, endocannabinoid levels and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Fasting plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-oleoylethanolamide and N-palmitoylethanolamide were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 200 apparently healthy individuals of both genders with body mass indices from 22.5 ± 1.8 to 35.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 (mean ± 1 SD and ages between 18 and 60 years. All were evaluated for anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic variables, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and genotyping. The endocannabinoid levels increased as a function of obesity and insulin resistance. The homozygous genotype AA was associated with higher levels of anandamide and lower levels of adiponectin versus wild homozygous CC and heterozygotes combined. The levels of anandamide were independent and positively associated with the genotype AA position 385 of FAAH, C-reactive protein levels and body mass index. Our findings provide evidence for an endocannabinoid-related phenotype that may be identified by the combination of circulating anandamide levels with genotyping of the FAAH 385C>A; this phenotype is not exclusive to mono-ethnoracial populations nor to individuals with severe obesity.

  15. Milk fat biomarkers and cardiometabolic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risérus, Ulf; Marklund, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Dairy is a major food group with potential impact on cardiometabolic health. Self-reported dairy intake has limitations that can partly be avoided by using biomarkers. This review aims to summarize the evidence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids (OCFAs), that is, pentadecanoic acid (C15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0), as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. In addition, the associations of OCFA biomarkers with cardiometabolic disease will be overviewed. Recent findings Adipose tissue 15 : 0 is the preferred biomarker but also circulating 15 : 0, and to a weaker extent 17 : 0, reflects both habitual and changes in dairy intake. Whereas results from studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes are inconsistent, OCFA biomarkers are overall associated with lower diabetes risk. Residual confounding should however be considered until interventional data and mechanisms are available. Although OCFA biomarkers mainly reflect dairy fat intake, recently proposed endogenous synthesis and metabolism do motivate further research. Summary Taking into account the study population diet and limitations of OCFA biomarkers, both adipose and circulating levels of 15 : 0, in particular, are useful for estimating total dairy fat intake. OCFA biomarkers are overall not linked to cardiovascular disease risk, but a possible beneficial role of dairy foods in diabetes prevention warrant further study. PMID:27906713

  16. Disclosure Risk from Factor Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drechsler Jörg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote access can be a powerful tool for providing data access for external researchers. Since the microdata never leave the secure environment of the data-providing agency, alterations of the microdata can be kept to a minimum. Nevertheless, remote access is not free from risk. Many statistical analyses that do not seem to provide disclosive information at first sight can be used by sophisticated intruders to reveal sensitive information. For this reason the list of allowed queries is usually restricted in a remote setting. However, it is not always easy to identify problematic queries. We therefore strongly support the argument that has been made by other authors: that all queries should be monitored carefully and that any microlevel information should always be withheld. As an illustrative example, we use factor score analysis, for which the output of interest - the factor loading of the variables - seems to be unproblematic. However, as we show in the article, the individual factor scores that are usually returned as part of the output can be used to reveal sensitive information. Our empirical evaluations based on a German establishment survey emphasize that this risk is far from a purely theoretical problem.

  17. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs. Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index. We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis.

  18. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  19. Chubby children; weighing the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, M. van

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, (which are predictive for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease) among overweight/obese children with or without type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Also, we aimed to assess the prevalence of the

  20. Risk-Factor Portfolios and Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Garita, Gus

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines a risk-stability index (RSI) that takes into account the extreme dependence structure and the conditional probability of joint failure (CPJF) among risk factors in a portfolio. In combination, both the RSI and CPJF provide a valuable tool for analyzing risk from complementary perspectives; thereby allowing the measurement of (i) common distress of risk factors in a portfolio, (ii) distress between specific risk factors, and (iii) distress to a portfolio related to a specifi...

  1. Low muscle strength is associated with metabolic risk factors in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dylan Cohen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In youth, poor cardiorespiratory and muscular strength are associated with elevated metabolic risk factors. However, studies examining associations between strength and risk factors have been done exclusively in high income countries, and largely in Caucasian cohorts. The aim of this study was to assess these interactions in schoolchildren in Colombia, a middle income Latin American country. METHODS: We measured body mass index, body composition, handgrip strength (HG, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and metabolic risk factors in 669 low-middle socioeconomic status Colombian schoolchildren (mean age 11.52±1.13, 47% female. Associations between HG, CRF and metabolic risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: HG and CRF were inversely associated with blood pressure, HOMA index and a composite metabolic risk score (p = 0.001, HOMA (β = -0.164; p = 0.005, triglycerides (β = -0.583; p = 0.026 and CRP (β = -0.183; p = 0.037 but not glucose (p = 0.698 or HDL cholesterol (p = 0.132. The odds ratios for having clustered risk in the weakest quartile compared with the strongest quartile were 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.81-4.95. CONCLUSIONS: In Colombian schoolchildren both poorer handgrip strength/kg body mass and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with a worse metabolic risk profile. Associations were stronger and more consistent between handgrip and risk factors than between cardiorespiratory fitness and these risk factors. Our findings indicate the addition of handgrip dynamometry to non-invasive youth health surveillance programs would improve the accuracy of the assessment of cardio-metabolic health.

  2. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can control the following risk factors by making lifestyle changes. Your doctor might also suggest medicine to help control some risk factors, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. Poor blood cholesterol (koh-LESS-tur-ol) and triglyceride ( ...

  3. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  4. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  5. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  6. Population genomics of cardiometabolic traits: design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Shah

    Full Text Available Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array (Metabochip incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1 fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2 precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3 investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4 use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies.

  7. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  8. [Risk factors of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, L P; Liou, S H; Shen, C Y; Kao, S J; Chen, K T

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between various risk factors and lung cancer was evaluated in a case-control study. One hundred and forty-one cancer patients newly cytologically or pathologically diagnosed from May 1990 to July 1991 at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) were recruited as cases. Two control groups were also studied: 282 hospital controls two-to-one matched with cases on sex, age, hospital of admission and insurance status were selected from the TSGH Ophthalmologic Department, and 282 neighborhood controls two-to-one matched on sex, age, and residence were randomly selected from eligible neighbors. A comparison of interview data between cases and hospital controls based on multiple conditional logistic regression revealed that cigarette smoking, keeping doves as pet, occupational exposure to cotton dust and working as a cook were risk factors for lung cancer. An inverse association between incense burning and lung cancer was noted. The comparison between cases and neighborhood controls showed lung cancer was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, keeping doves, prior chronic bronchitis, occupational exposure to cotton dust, asbestos and radiation, low frequency of burning incense, and low intake of vitamin A derived from vegetables and fruits. There was no association between lung cancer and working as a cook when cases were compared with neighborhood controls.

  9. Posttransplant Erythrocytosis and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ERDEM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of posttransplant erythrocytosis (PTE. MATERIAL and METHODS: The study included 96 patients who received a renal allograft between 2005-2009 years. PTE was defined as an elevated hematocrit level greater than 51% after renal transplantation in patients receiving an allograft. RESULTS: Of the 96 adult kidney recipients, 15 (15,6% developed PTE. The mean time from transplantation to diagnosis was 7,3 ± 2,8 months ( range, 4,5-13 months . Mean serum creatinine was 1,12 ±0,3 mg/dl (0,8-1,99 mg/dl at the diagnosis of PTE. PTE was more frequent in male patients (p<0.05 and the patients with a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in patient age, donor source, donor age and immunosuppressive therapy on comparing the PTE group and non PTE groups. None of the patients with erythrocytosis experienced thromboembolic events during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PTE developed in the first year after transplantation. Male gender and a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation are risk factors of PTE.

  10. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  11. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.

  12. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  13. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  14. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  15. Depression treatment in individuals with cancer: a comparative analysis with cardio-metabolic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi B. Rane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the current state of nationwide depression treatment practices in individuals with cancer and depression does not exist in the United States (US. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine rates of any depression treatment among individuals with cancer and depression in the US. To better understand the relationship between any treatment for depression and presence of cancer, we used a comparison group of individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions owing to the similar challenges faced in management of depression in individuals with these conditions. We used a retrospective cross-sectional design and data from multiple years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative household-survey on healthcare utilization and expenditures. Study sample consisted of adults aged 21 or older with self-reported depression and cancer (n=528 or self-reported depression and diabetes, heart disease or hypertension (n=1643. Depression treatment comprised of any use of antidepres- sants and/or any use of mental health counseling services. Treatment rates for depression were 78.0% and 81.7% among individuals with cancer and cardio-metabolic conditions respectively. After controlling for socio-demographic, access-to-care, number of physician-visits, health-status, and lifestyle risk-factors related variables; individuals with cancer were less likely to report any treatment for depression (Adjusted Odds Ratio=0.67; 95% Confidence Interval=0.49, 0.92 compared to individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions (P≤0.01. Our findings highlight the possibility that competing demands may crowd out treatment for depression and that cancer diagnosis may be a barrier to depression treatment.

  16. Cocoa, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling: cardiometabolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mai, Francesca; Martella, Letizia; De Feo, Martina; Soddu, Daniele; Fellini, Emanuela; Veneri, Mariangela; Stamerra, Cosimo A; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-11-18

    Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states. Glucose and insulin actions in the skeletal muscle are improved by insulin-dependent production of nitric oxide, favoring capillary recruitment, vasodilatation, and increased blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction, with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance has been described, at least in part, to negatively affect endothelial function. Consistent with this, conditions of insulin resistance are usually linked to endothelial dysfunction, and the exposure of the endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and cocoa flavonoids may positively affect the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction with possible benefits in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  17. Risk factors for vascular disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breteler, M M; Bots, M L; Ott, A; Hofman, A

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that risk factors for vascular disease and stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. This paper reviews current knowledge on the relationship between risk factors for stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The focus will be on 'classical' risk factors, including age and gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, cholesterol, prior cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, cigarette smoking and alcohol use; as well as on factors that more recently have been recognized as putative risk factors, including APOE genotype, serum homocysteine concentration, relative abnormalities in the hemostatic and thrombotic systems, and inflammation.

  18. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  19. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruţa Florina; Tarcea Monica; Stere Victoria; Abram Zoltan; Avram Călin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  20. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist.......6 cm for waist circumference, 2.9 mm Hg for SBP, 1.4 mm Hg for DBP, 0.02 mmol/L for triglycerides, 0.10 mmol/L for total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/L for HDL cholesterol, 0.11 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 0.07 mmol/L for glycaemia. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted...... to studies collecting fasting blood samples. Similar seasonal variations were found for most CVRFs in the Southern Hemisphere, with the exception of waist circumference, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: CVRFs show a seasonal pattern characterised by higher levels in winter, and lower levels in summer...

  1. The implications of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity on cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2015-07-01

    The important changes in body composition associated with aging are a decline in skeletal muscle mass and an increase in body fat. Body fat distribution also changes with age; subcutaneous fat decreases and visceral abdominal fat increase, which contributes to numerous cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sarcopenia often accompanied by an increase in body fat and vice versa, a scenario termed sarcopenic obesity (SO), which might lead to the cumulative risk of both sarcopenia and obesity. However, there is still no consensus regarding the definition and consequences of SO. The lack of a unified definition for SO might contribute to inconsistent findings about the association of SO with CMD. Complex etiologies are associated with development of SO. A vicious cycle between the loss of muscle and the accumulation of ectopic fat might be associated with CMD via an intricate interplay of factors including proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, dietary energy, physical activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other factors that have yet to be identified. Moreover, recent epidemiological studies suggest that SO is related to CVD and mortality. This review focuses on the current literature with regard to the association between sarcopenia, dynapenia, and obesity, as well as their implications for CMD. The ultimate goal of this Prospects is to encourage conduct of well-designed future studies that elucidate the relationship among sarcopenia, SO, and CMD.

  2. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  3. Hepatic function and the cardiometabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas WiernspergerINSERM French Institute of Health and Medical Research, U1060, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, University of Lyon, Villeurbanne, FranceAbstract: Despite skeletal muscle being considered by many as the source of insulin resistance, physiology tells us that the liver is a central and cardinal regulator of glucose homeostasis. This is sometimes underestimated because, in contrast with muscle, investigations of liver function are technically very difficult. Nevertheless, recent experimental and clinical research has demonstrated clearly that, due in part to its anatomic position, the liver is exquisitely sensitive to insulin and other hormonal and neural factors, either by direct intrahepatic mechanisms or indirectly by organ cross-talk with muscle or adipose tissue. Because the liver receives absorbed nutrients, these have a direct impact on liver function, whether via a caloric excess or via the nature of food components (eg, fructose, many lipids, and trans fatty acids. An emerging observation with a possibly great future is the increase in intestinal permeability observed as a consequence of high fat intake or bacterial modifications in microbiota, whereby substances normally not crossing the gut gain access to the liver, where inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation leads to fatty liver, a situation observed very early in the development of diabetes. The visceral adipose tissue located nearby is another main source of inflammatory substances and oxidative stress, and also acts on hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, resulting in stimulation of macrophages. Liberation of these substances, in particular triglycerides and inflammation factors, into the circulation leads to ectopic fat deposition and vascular damage. Therefore, the liver is directly involved in the development of the prediabetic cardiometabolic syndrome. Treatments are mainly metformin, and possibly statins and vitamin D. A very promising

  4. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this issue; describes the cascade method for minimizing risks in decision making under information asymmetry.

  5. Identification of matrix metalloproteinase-12 as a candidate molecule for prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Melina; Moreno-Viedma, Veronica; Sarabi, Alisina; Grün, Nicole G; Itariu, Bianca; Leitner, Lukas; Steiner, Irene; Bilban, Martin; Kodama, Keiichi; Butte, Atul J; Staffler, Guenther; Zeyda, Maximilian; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2016-06-30

    Obesity is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors that predispose to the development of the cardiometabolic diseases: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prevention of metabolic syndrome requires novel interventions to address this health challenge. The objective of this study was the identification of candidate molecules for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, conditions that underlie type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, respectively. We used an unbiased bioinformatics approach to identify molecules that are upregulated in both conditions by combining murine and human data from a microarray experiment and meta-analyses. We obtained a pool of eight genes that were upregulated in all the databases analysed. These included well known and novel molecules involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Notably, matrix metalloproteinase 12 (Mmp12) was highly ranked in all analyses and was therefore chosen for further investigation. Analyses of visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue from obese compared to lean mice and humans convincingly confirmed the up-regulation of Mmp12 in obesity at mRNA, protein and activity levels. In conclusion, using this unbiased approach an interesting pool of candidate molecules was identified, all of which have potential as targets in the treatment and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  6. Genetics of kidney disease and related cardiometabolic phenotypes in Zuni Indians: The Zuni Kidney Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Laston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify genetic factors associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD and related cardiometabolic phenotypes among participants of the Genetics of Kidney Disease in Zuni Indians study. The study was conducted as a community-based participatory research project in the Zuni Indians, a small endogamous tribe in rural New Mexico. We recruited 998 members from 28 extended multigenerational families, ascertained through probands with CKD who had at least one sibling with CKD. We used the Illumina Infinium Human1M-Duo v3.0 BeadChips to type 1.1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Prevalence estimates for CKD, hyperuricemia, diabetes and hypertension were 24%, 30%, 17% and 34%, respectively. We found a significant (p<1.58 × 10-7 association for a SNP in a novel gene for serum creatinine (PTPLAD2. We replicated significant associations for genes with serum uric acid (SLC2A9, triglyceride levels (APOA1, BUD13, ZNF259, and total cholesterol (PVRL2. We found novel suggestive associations (p<1.58 × 10-6 for SNPs in genes with systolic (OLFML2B, and diastolic blood pressure (NFIA. We identified a series of genes associated with CKD and related cardiometabolic phenotypes among Zuni Indians, a population with a high prevalence of kidney disease. Illuminating genetic variations that modulate the risk for these disorders may ultimately provide a basis for novel preventive strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  7. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary - impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozan Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascular mortality rates, as a main cause of death and the increase in cardio-metabolic prescriptions and possible changes in lifestyle behavior. Methods Analyses were conducted on national data concerning cardiovascular mortality and the number of cardio-metabolic drug prescription per capita. The association between yearly rates of cardiovascular events and changes in antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic prescription rates was analyzed. The changes in other cardiovascular risk factors, like lifestyle were also considered. Results We observed a remarkable decline of mortality due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The fall was significantly associated with all prescription rates. The proportion of each treatment type responsible for suppression of specific mortality rates is different. All treatment types comparably improved stroke mortality, while antilipidemic therapy improved AMI outcome. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive strategy that maximizes the population coverage of effective treatments. Hungary appears to be at the beginning of the fourth stage of epidemiologic transition, i.e. it has entered the stage of delayed chronic noninfectious diseases.

  8. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.

  9. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelantonio, Di Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David; Willeit, Peter; Butterworth, Adam S.; Bansal, Narinder; O’Keeffe, Linda M.; Gao, Pei; Wood, Angela M.; Burgess, Stephen; Freitag, Daniel F.; Pennells, Lisa; Peters, Sanne A.; Hart, Carole L.; Håheim, Lise Lund; Gillum, Richard F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Nietert, Paul J.; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Simons, Leon A.; Schouw, van der Yvonne T.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Selmer, Randi; Crespo, Carlos J.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Verschuren, Monique W.M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Harst, Van Der Pim; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Wallace, Robert B.; Brenner, Hermann; Amouyel, Philippe; Barr, Elizabeth L.M.; Iso, Hiroyasu; Onat, Altan; Trevisan, Maurizio; agostino, D' Ralph B.; Cooper, Cyrus; Kavousi, Maryam; Welin, Lennart; Roussel, Ronan; Hu, Frank B.; Sato, Shinichi; Davidson, Karina W.; Howard, Barbara V.; Leening, Maarten J.G.; Rosengren, Annika; Dörr, Marcus; Deeg, Dorly J.H.; Kiechl, Stefan; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kromhout, Daan; Price, Jackie F.; Peters, Annette; Meade, Tom W.; Casiglia, Edoardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Gallacher, John; Nagel, Dorothea; Franco, Oscar H.; Assmann, Gerd; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Jukema, Wouter J.; Sundström, Johan; Woodward, Mark; Brunner, Eric J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Njølstad, Inger; Hedblad, Bo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Engström, Gunnar; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, Simon G.; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    Importance The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing.

    Objective To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity.

    Design, Setting, and Participants Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calcul

  10. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy a

  11. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress and your health fact sheet ... Research also suggests that depression itself is a risk factor for heart disease. Depression, stress, and other negative emotions may affect the ...

  12. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  13. 'Check it out!' Decision-making of vulnerable groups about participation in a two-stage cardiometabolic health check: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, I.; Crone, M.R.; Dijk, S. van; Gebhardt, W.A.; Meftah, J. Ben; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Assendelft, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exploring determinants influencing vulnerable groups regarding (non-) participation in the Dutch two-stage cardiometabolic health check, comprising a health risk assessment (HRA) and prevention consultations (PCs) for high-risk individuals. METHODS: Qualitative study comprising 21 focus g

  14. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  15. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  16. Research Article Innovation through Wearable Sensors to Collect Real-Life Data among Pediatric Patients with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors : Innovation through Wearable Sensors to Collect Real-Life Dataamong Pediatric Patients with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Kestens; Tracie, Barnett; Marie-Ève, Mathieu; Mélanie, Henderson; Jean-Luc, Bigras; Benoit, Thierry; St-Onge, Maxime; Marie, Lambert

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Background. While increasing evidence links environments to health behavior, clinicians lack information about patients' physical activity levels and lifestyle environments. We present mobile health tools to collect and use spatio-behavioural lifestyle data for personalized physical activity plans in clinical settings. Methods. The Dyn@mo lifestyle intervention was developed at the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Center to promote physical activity and reduce sedent...

  17. [risk Factors For Urinary Incontinence In Women].

    OpenAIRE

    Higa,Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; dos Reis, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct a review of the main papers published between 1983 and 2003 on the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in women. Thirty-eight publications in English and Portuguese were analyzed using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases as well as through research in libraries. There is evidence that the main risk factors are age, pelvic floor trauma, hereditary factors, race, menopausal status, obesity, chronic diseases, use of some sympathomimetics and parasym...

  18. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascularrisk factors in adults and their children from the 3 majorgroups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study 11 andto compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants andGerman participants.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometricdata, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children,363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and Germanimmigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were comparedwith age- and gender adjusted German (GER residents (3253 children,2491 adults.Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regardingspecificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was asfollows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; inTUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46%and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%.About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were currentsmokers and one third of women and half of men from these twocountries were overweight.Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for theprevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and itshould consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles

  19. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114 009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental

  20. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  1. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Four Age Groups of Female Individuals: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  2. Elevation of sE-Selectin Levels 2–24 Months following Gestational Diabetes Is Associated with Early Cardiometabolic Risk in Nondiabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sokup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We hypothesised that the endothelial dysfunction is associated with early glucose dysregulation and/or atherosclerosis risk factors in nondiabetic women with a previous history of gestational diabetes (pGDM. Material/Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA, lipids, biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 85 women with pGDM and in 40 controls 2–24 months postpartum. Results. The pGDM group consisted of 67% normoglycemic women (pGDM-N and 33% with prediabetic state (pGDM-P. The BMI, waist circumference, fasting and 2 h glucose (OGTT, soluble adhesion molecules, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, total-, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio were higher in the pGDM women compared with the controls. After adjustment for BMI and fasting glucose, only higher triglycerides, higher TG/HDL and lower HDL-cholesterol were associated with pGDM. The pGDM-P differed from pGDM-N for only higher triglycerides and TG/HDL. The plasma level of sE-selectin was not independently associated with glucose concentration in pGDM group. sE-selectin level correlated with triglycerides, TG/HDL, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, and sICAM-1. Conclusions. sE-selectin level correlated with components of metabolic syndrome, but only the atherogenic lipid profile was independently associated with a previous history of GDM in nondiabetic women 2–24 months postpartum.

  3. Estresse oxidativo como fator de risco cardiometabólico emergente = Oxidative stress as an emergent cardiometabolic risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela Valle

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: a associação do estresse oxidativo com adiposidade e resistência insulínica sugere sua influência na manifestação da síndrome metabólica. Sedentarismo e hábitos alimentares inadequados parecem contribuir com o aumento do estresse oxidativo e consequente risco para surgimento de doenças cardiovasculares

  4. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgari E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Evgenia Gourgari,1 Elias Spanakis,2 Adrian Sandra Dobs3 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR, obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have. Keywords: IR, OGTT, obesity, hyperandrogenism, anovulation, BMI, insulin resistance, PCOS

  5. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on Wes

  6. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  7. Modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Gianoulakis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death after cardiac disease and cancer in the developed countries. In patients older than 65 years old, ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of disability. They are also responsible for approximately 4.5 million deaths each year globally.The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.The method οf this study included bibliographic research from both reviews and researches from literature, mainly of the last 8 years. The words used in pub med data base, referred to the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.Results: In the majority of research studies, responsible risk factors for ischemic stroke are classified according to their ability of modification, in modifiable and non–modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors have been fully documented whereas some others need further research. The main modifiable risk factor is hypertension because on the one hand it promotes atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, leads to deteriorative changes and constrictions of small brain vessels. Atrial fibrillation is the most significant risk factor for ischemic stroke, since it is responsible for more than 50% of thromboembolic cases. Also, patients with diabetes mellitus are in higher risk for developing ischemic stroke compared to healthy population, whereas the danger is increasing in insuline-depented individuals. Increase of lipids in blood and disorders of cholesterol are responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary vessels and carotid. More in detail, carotid stenosis >50% in individuals over than 65 years old consist a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke. Though, the relation of smoking to ischemic stroke is still not fully understood, however smokers are in high risk for developing ischemic stroke for the reason that smoking is significantly related to

  8. Technology for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Cardiometabolic Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Safraj Shahul; Rawal, Ishita; Soni, Deepa; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Goenka, Shifalika; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) are a major cause of mortality, morbidity and disability worldwide. Among Indians, CMD onset is at a much younger age and is prevalent in all sections of the society. Prevention, control and management of CMD and its risk factors is a major public health challenge, and alternative approaches need to be explored and integrated into public health programs. Advancements in the fields of computers, electronics, telecommunication and medicine have resulted in the rapid development of health-related technology. In this paper we provide an overview of the major technological advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention within the field of CMD in the last few decades. This non-exhaustive review focuses on the most promising technologies that the authors feel might be of relevance in the Indian context. Some of the techniques detailed include advances in imaging and mobile phone technology, surgical techniques, electronic health records, Nano medicine, telemedicine and decision support systems.

  9. Periodontal dysbiosis linked to periodontitis is associated with cardiometabolic adaptation to high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchereau, Maxime; Reichardt, François; Loubieres, Pascale; Marck, Pauline; Waget, Aurélie; Azalbert, Vincent; Colom, André; Padmanabhan, Roshan; Iacovoni, Jason S; Giry, Anaïs; Tercé, François; Heymes, Christophe; Burcelin, Remy; Serino, Matteo; Blasco-Baque, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes are connected pandemic diseases, and both are risk factors for cardiovascular complications. Nevertheless, the molecular factors relating these two chronic pathologies are poorly understood. We have shown that, in response to a long-term fat-enriched diet, mice present particular gut microbiota profiles related to three metabolic phenotypes: diabetic-resistant (DR), intermediate (Inter), and diabetic-sensitive (DS). Moreover, many studies suggest that a dysbiosis of periodontal microbiota could be associated with the incidence of metabolic and cardiac diseases. We investigated whether periodontitis together with the periodontal microbiota may also be associated with these different cardiometabolic phenotypes. We report that the severity of glucose intolerance is related to the severity of periodontitis and cardiac disorders. In detail, alveolar bone loss was more accentuated in DS than Inter, DR, and normal chow-fed mice. Molecular markers of periodontal inflammation, such as TNF-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA levels, correlated positively with both alveolar bone loss and glycemic index. Furthermore, the periodontal microbiota of DR mice was dominated by the Streptococcaceae family of the phylum Firmicutes, whereas the periodontal microbiota of DS mice was characterized by increased Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Moreover, in DS mice the periodontal microbiota was indicated by an abundance of the genera Prevotella and Tannerella, which are major periodontal pathogens. PICRUSt analysis of the periodontal microbiome highlighted that prenyltransferase pathways follow the cardiometabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet. Finally, DS mice displayed a worse cardiac phenotype, percentage of fractional shortening, heart rhythm, and left ventricle weight-to-tibia length ratio than Inter and DR mice. Together, our data show that periodontitis combined with particular periodontal microbiota and microbiome is

  10. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464 pa...

  11. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to dr

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  13. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  14. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  15. A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy Nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Matti; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landberg, Rikard; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hukkanen, Janne; Savolainen, Markku J; Dragsted, Lars O; Schwab, Ursula; Paananen, Jussi; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Thorsdottir, Inga; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil (serum phospholipid α-linolenic acid), fatty fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], vegetables (plasma β-carotene), and whole grains (plasma alkylresorcinols). High-fat dairy intake (expectedly low in the ND) was reflected by serum pentadecanoic acid. All participants with biomarker data (n = 154) were included in the analyses. Biomarkers were combined by using a biomarker rank score (DB score) and principal component analysis (PCA). The DB score was then used to assess compliance. During the intervention, median concentrations of alkylresorcinols, α-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were >25% higher in the ND individuals than in the controls (P < 0.05), whereas median concentrations of pentadecanoic acid were 14% higher in controls (P < 0.05). Median DB score was 57% higher in the ND than in controls (P < 0.001) during the intervention, and participants were ranked similarly by DB score and PCA score. Overall, estimates of group difference in cardiometabolic effects generally appeared to be greater among compliant participants than in the whole study

  16. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  17. [Risk factors and prevention of genitourinary prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, E; Lousquy, R; Costa, P; Delmas, V; Haab, F

    2009-12-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies in recent years have involved the search for the principal risk factors of genitourinary prolapse. Although it has been agreed for a long time that vaginal delivery increases the risk of prolapse (proof level 1), on the other hand, the Cesarian section cannot be considered a completely effective preventative method (proof level 2). The pregnancy itself is a risk factor for prolapse (proof level 2). Certain obstetrical conditions contribute to the alterations of the perineal floor muscle: a foetus weighing more than four kilos, the use of instruments at birth (proof level 3). If the risk of prolapse increases with age, intrication with hormonal factors is important (proof level 2). The role of hormonal replacement therapy remains controversial. Antecedent pelvic surgery has also been identified as a risk factor (proof level 2). Other varying acquired factors have been documented. Obesity (BMI and abdominal perimeter), professional activity and intense physical activity (proof level 3), as well as constipation, increase the risk of prolapse. More thorough research into these varying factors is necessary in order to be able to argue for measures of prevention, obstetrical techniques having already evolved to ensure minimal damage to the perineal structure.

  18. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  19. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  20. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  1. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  2. Osteonecrosis. Part 1. Risk factors and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valeriyevna Ilyinykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different risk factors for osteonecrosis (ON and some aspects of its pathogenesis: impairments in the differentiation of stromal cells, the vascular provision of intraand extravasal genesis, the quality of proper bone tissue due to generalized or local osteoporosis, intravascular coagulation factors contributing to microthrombogenesis. The basic types of ON are identified.

  3. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...

  4. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on studyi

  5. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  6. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Katarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those  against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  8. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  9. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor chang

  10. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, occurs at an annual incidence of about 1 per 1000 adults. Rates increase sharply after around age 45 years, and are slightly higher in men than women in older age. Major risk factors for thrombosis, other than age, include exogenous factors such as surgery, hospitalization, immobility, trauma, pregnancy and the puerperium and hormone use, and endogenous factors such as cancer, obesity, and inherited and acquired disorde...

  11. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gourgari E; Spanakis E; Dobs AS

    2016-01-01

    Evgenia Gourgari,1 Elias Spanakis,2 Adrian Sandra Dobs3 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a des...

  12. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  13. Pathophysiological, genetic and gene expression features of a novel rodent model of the cardio-metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Wallis

    strain reported here provides a novel and sustainable model for investigating the pathogenesis and genetic basis of risks factors for the cardio-metabolic syndrome.

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  16. Comparison of atherosclerotic calcification burden in persons with the cardiometabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nathan D; Gransar, Heidi; Shaw, Leslee J; Polk, Donna; Berman, Daniel S

    2006-01-01

    The cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and diabetes are associated with higher cardiovascular risk. The authors compared the association of CMS risk factors and diabetes with coronary and aortic calcium. A total of 4468 adults (42% female) underwent computed tomography for determination of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and were classified according to the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and number of CMS risk factors. The prevalence of CAC ranged from 51% in men and 35% in women with neither DM nor CMS to 75% in men and 58% in women with both DM and CMS, whereas TAC ranged from 29% to 44% in men and 36% to 55% in women. Women with four or five CMS risk factors more often had CAC (53%) and TAC (51%) than those with DM without CMS (40% and 35%, respectively) (pCAC for those with three CMS risk factors, four CMS risk factors, DM without CMS, and DM with CMS vs. those without CMS were 1.14 (0.93-1.39), 1.46 (1.12-1.90), 1.59 (1.06-2.38), and 2.10 (1.52-2.90) for CAC and 1.14 (0.91-1.42), 1.03 (0.77-1.37), 1.03 (0.68-1.54), and 1.41 (1.03-1.92) for TAC. Multiple CMS risk factors are associated with increased CAC, but not TAC; DM with CMS has the highest prevalence of CAC and TAC.

  17. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

  18. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD...

  19. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the laboratory...... factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  20. Effects of early exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on cardiometabolic outcomes in pregnancy and childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, E.M. (Elise M.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Trasande, L. (Leonardo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative revie

  1. Pro-active Management of Women’s Health after Cardiometabolic Complicated Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Berks (Durk)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractWomen with a history of cardiometabolic complicated pregnancy are at increased risk for future disease. The experience of having had a complicated pregnancy might open up a window of opportunity to guide these women to a healthier future. The general aim of the thesis is to develop a

  2. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei;

    2016-01-01

    was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...

  3. Risk factors of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Apraez-Villamarin, Genny Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show a review of specialized literature concerning risk factors ofchild sexual abuse. Initially, the definitions of sexual abuse suggested by various authors are presented. Source and types of publications: Publications were obtained from libraries, periodicals and websites; the review includes articles, essays, books, chapters and laws. Point of view: Emphasis on risk contexts highlighting social, family and environmental characteristics, as well as personal features, whose prese...

  4. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  5. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  6. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...... of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. RESULTS: Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer...

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  8. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.;

    2014-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1......-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and inflammatory...

  9. RISK FACTORS OF MORTALITY IN NEONATAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infant Mortality Rate (IMR is high in India. Identification of risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness is essential to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR and ultimately the IMR. AIM To identify the risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. SETTING AND DESIGN It was a nested case control study done at the sick neonatal unit of urban tertiary referral centre. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining ethical committee approval, retrospective analysis of 150 out born neonatal case records of babies admitted during the period from October 2015 to December 2015 was done. Data such as demographic features, maternal details, referral details, perinatal events, clinical features, laboratory reports and outcome were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS These risk factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and P value calculated for the same to find out significant risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. RESULTS Neonatal mortality rate was 22%. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1, death occurred more commonly in female neonates (23.1%. Home deliveries carried more risk of mortality. Birth order 4 and above had 25% mortality. Neonates of mother who had primary education and below had higher mortality. Perinatal asphyxia and sepsis were the most common causes of neonatal mortality. By univariate analysis, preterms had 4.9 times increased risk of mortality than term babies. Apnoeic spells, chest retractions and shock had 8 times, 3 times and 3.6 times increased risk of mortality respectively. By multivariate analysis, birth weight below 2 kilograms (kg carried 11.8 times more risk of mortality with a p value 0.00 (95% C.I 3.2, 30.4 and poor maternal intake of iron and folic acid tablets was 3.9 times more risk p value 0.003 (95% C.I 1.6, 9.6, apnoeic spells were 5.8 times more risk of mortality with p value 0.02 (95% C.I 1.3, 26.2. CONCLUSION Birth weight below 2 kg, poor maternal intake of iron and folic

  10. Risk Factors for Wound Complications Following Abdominoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K. Jabaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient’s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately

  11. Pretreatment Cardiometabolic Status in Youth With Early-Onset Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten G; Correll, Christoph U; Rudå, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe pretreatment cardiometabolic constitution in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Baseline cardiometabolic assessment was performed in youths aged 12-17 years with FEP entering the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial...

  12. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...

  13. SEAFARER FATIGUE: A REVIEW OF RISK FACTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; Tu, Mingshan;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The widespread occurrence of fatigue in the maritime industry and the consequences for the health and safety of seafarers have caused concern, and indicates the importance of research into risk factors at sea. This review gives an overview of the currently recognized key determinants...... of seafarer fatigue. Methods: A literature study was conducted aiming to collect publications that address work-related risk factors for fatigue. Due to the limited number of publications that deals with seafarers, experiences from other populations sharing the same exposures (e.g. shift work) were also...

  14. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  15. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  16. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  17. Exercise interventions and peripheral arterial function: implications for cardio-metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shane A; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Brown, Michael D; Haus, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for the development of obesity and other cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of CVD and is associated with a sedentary lifestyle in otherwise healthy adults. In addition, vascular endothelial dysfunction may be exacerbated in sedentary individuals who are obese and insulin resistant, since excess body fat is associated with elevated levels of pro-atherogenic inflammatory adipokines and cytokines that reduce the nitric oxide (NO) and other upstream paracrine signaling substances which reduces vascular health. Since blood flow-related shear stress is a major stimulus to NO release from the endothelium, disturbed flow or low shear stress is the likely mechanism by which vascular endothelial function is altered with inactivity. Evidence shows that regular physical exercise has beneficial effects on CVD and the risk factors that promote peripheral arterial function and health. Both aerobic and resistance exercise training are generally believed to improve endothelial function and are commonly recommended for CV health, including the management of obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance. However, many factors including age, disease status, and race appear to influence these outcomes. Although evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is compelling, the optimum prescription (volume and intensity) and the exact mechanism underlying the effects of exercise training on arterial function and cardiometabolic risk has yet to be identified. The focus of this review will be on the evidence supporting exercise interventions for peripheral arterial function.

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  19. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  20. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  1. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleep become more severe, so does suicidal ideation. Treatment Implications Insomnia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for suicide, ... of suicide ideation (McCall, 2011). Other, non- pharmacological treatment ... of whether treating insomnia has a positive effect on suicide behavior and ...

  2. Risk Factors of γ-Hydroxybutyrate Overdosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Korf; T. Nabben; A. Benschop; K. Ribbink; J.G.C. van Amsterdam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat

  3. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  4. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  5. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  6. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  7. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...

  8. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  9. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  10. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing v

  11. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...

  12. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-12-31

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = -0.08, p sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups. Consequently, this

  13. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT.

  14. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  15. Epidemiology and risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Côme; Drouillard, Antoine; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Faivre, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma will soon cease to be a rare form of cancer for people born after 1940. In many Western countries, its incidence has increased more rapidly than other digestive cancers. Incidence started increasing in the Seventies in England and USA, 15 years later in Western Europe and Australia. The cumulative risk between the ages of 15 and 74 is particularly striking in the UK, with a tenfold increase in men and fivefold increase in women in little more than a single generation. Prognosis is poor with a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 10%. The main known risk factors are gastro-oesophageal reflux, obesity (predominantly mediated by intra-abdominal adipose tissues) and smoking. Barrett's oesophagus is a precancerous lesion, however, the risk of degeneration has been overestimated. In population-based studies the annual risk of adenocarcinoma varied between 0.12% and 0.14% and its incidence between 1.2 and 1.4 per 1000 person-years. Only 5% of subjects with Barrett's oesophagus die of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. On the basis of recent epidemiological data, new surveillance strategies should be developed. The purpose of this review is to focus on the epidemiology and risk factors of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  16. Risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by obstruction and vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries following pulmonary embolism. Risk factors that predispose patients to CTEPH include the size of the initial thrombus and numerous associated host or medical conditions. Haemostatic risk factors include elevated levels of factor VIII and phospholipid antibodies or intrinsic abnormalities in fibrinogen. Medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of CTEPH include a history of splenectomy, cancer, ventriculoatrial shunt, chronic inflammatory disease, antiphospholipid antibodies and hypothyroidism. Although CTEPH is potentially curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA, up to 40% of patients evaluated for PEA may be denied surgery depending on the level of surgical experience and disease accessibility after pre-operative assessment. Furthermore, an estimated 10–15% of patients are at risk for residual pulmonary hypertension following PEA surgery, due to significant concomitant small-vessel disease. However, pre-operative identification of small-vessel involvement remains a challenge. The current medications effective in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension have not demonstrated efficacy in CTEPH. Accordingly, identification of CTEPH, followed by early referral for evaluation and treatment by an experienced PEA centre, is recommended.

  17. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  18. The risk factors for labor onset hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Terauchi, Mikio; Tamakoshi, Koji; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to clarify the perinatal outcomes of and risk factors for hypertension that is first detected after labor onset (labor onset hypertension, LOH), which may be a risk factor for eclampsia and stroke during labor. A total of 1349 parturient women who did not exhibit preeclampsia or gestational hypertension prior to labor were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: the normotensive (n=1023) (whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained below 140 mm Hg throughout labor), mild LOH (n=241) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg), severe LOH (n=66) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 160 to 179 mm Hg) and emergent LOH groups (n=19) (whose maximum SBP during labor was greater than 180 mm Hg). The perinatal outcomes and patient characteristics of the four groups were compared. Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy developed hypertension during labor. One of the patients in the emergent LOH group developed eclampsia. The blood pressure at delivery and frequencies of hypotensor use, interventional delivery and low Apgar scores differed significantly among the four groups. The following risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were extracted: being over 35 years old, a body mass index at delivery of >30, an SBP at 36 weeks' gestation of 130-134 mm Hg, an SBP at admission of 130-139 mm Hg, proteinuria (a score of 2+ on the dipstick test) and severe edema. The risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were identified in this study. In high risk cases, repeatedly measuring maternal blood pressure during delivery might help detect critical hypertension early.

  19. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  20. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  1. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingre C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Ingre,1 Per M Roos,2 Fredrik Piehl,1 Freya Kamel,3 Fang Fang4 1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, risk factors, genetics, lifestyle, environment

  2. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  3. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Peach MSN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.

  4. Comparative cardiometabolic effects of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hwan; Oh, Pyung Chun; Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2013-09-10

    Even with the aggressive reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by statin therapy, a high residual risk of cardiovascular events remains substantially and attracts attention to the need for additional preventive therapies. Therefore, effective reductions of residual risk of cardiovascular disease have emerged as therapeutic targets. Fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids have been introduced to reduce triglycerides and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and have shown anti-atherosclerotic, vascular and metabolic effects. However, some effects are controversial and very recent randomized clinical trials report different results from the earlier ones. In this review, we address the vascular and metabolic effects and the results of recent clinical trials of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. We also compared their effects under modern guideline therapy regarding potential drugs to reduce a residual cardiometabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences......Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...

  6. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...

  7. Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

    2002-04-01

    Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.

  8. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  9. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  10. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and risk factors for its progression: A cross-sectional comparison of Indians living in Indian versus U.S. cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Shuchi; Kondal, Dimple; Montez-Rath, Maria; Zheng, Yuanchao; Shivashankar, Roopa; Singh, Kalpana; Gupta, Priti; Gupta, Ruby; Ajay, Vamadevan S.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Tandon, Nikhil; Ali, Mohammed K.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kandula, Namratha; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2017-01-01

    Background While data from the latter part of the twentieth century consistently showed that immigrants to high-income countries faced higher cardio-metabolic risk than their counterparts in low- and middle-income countries, urbanization and associated lifestyle changes may be changing these patterns, even for conditions considered to be advanced manifestations of cardio-metabolic disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease [CKD]). Methods and findings Using cross-sectional data from the Center for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS, n = 5294) and Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n = 748) studies, we investigated whether prevalence of CKD is similar among Indians living in Indian and U.S. cities. We compared crude, age-, waist-to-height ratio-, and diabetes- adjusted CKD prevalence difference. Among participants identified to have CKD, we compared management of risk factors for its progression. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was similar in MASALA (14.0% [95% CI 11.8–16.3]) compared with CARRS (10.8% [95% CI 10.0–11.6]). Among men the prevalence difference was low (prevalence difference 1.8 [95% CI -1.6,5.3]) and remained low after adjustment for age, waist-to-height ratio, and diabetes status (-0.4 [-3.2,2.5]). Adjusted prevalence difference was higher among women (prevalence difference 8.9 [4.8,12.9]), but driven entirely by a higher prevalence of albuminuria among women in MASALA. Severity of CKD—-i.e., degree of albuminuria and proportion of participants with reduced glomerular filtration fraction-—was higher in CARRS for both men and women. Fewer participants with CKD in CARRS were effectively treated. 4% of CARRS versus 51% of MASALA participants with CKD had A1c < 7%; and 7% of CARRS versus 59% of MASALA participants blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg. Our analysis applies only to urban populations. Demographic—-particularly educational attainment—-differences among participants in the two

  11. Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death : Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Niemeijer (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSCD is a common cause of death, with around four to five million cases annually worldwide. Determining which persons are at high risk for SCD remains difficult, due to lack of knowledge on individual risk factors and because in the majority of cases, SCD is the first manifestation of

  12. Psychological Risk Factors in Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouva M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.

  13. Hypermetabolism as a Risk Factor for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    hypermetabolism related to loss of TDP-43, an essential RNA binding protein implicated in ALS and Frontotemporal dementia ( FTD ), may contribute to disease...with Paget’s disease of bone and FTD (IBMPFD), it will also be interesting to test whether hypermetabolism may also be a risk factor in these...mouse strain confers leanness and protects from diet-induced obesity. Nat Genet 40(11):1354-1359, 2008. 3. Stone S, et al: TBC1D1 is a candidate

  14. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  15. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  16. Social risk factors in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are social risk factors that can rebound negatively in the functional capacity of elder people thus they associate to an enchancement of the vulnerability to have them develop a state of fragility and necessity. A descriptive investigation was done with the objective of determinig the social risk factors of elder people in the dispensaries 28 of policlinic ll from Jatibonico municipality from january 1 st to december 31 st, 2009 .The sample was conformed by 103 older people. Different variables were used like: age, sex, marital status, associated desease and basic components of the family functions disminished or null. It prevailed the 60-64 and 70-74 year old group (24.3%, female sex (60.2%, the elder widow women (20,3 %, the hypertension (60,2% and family comprehension about conduct and elderly points of view (50,4%. There was a high incidence of the social risk factors associated to the presence of old women, alone and widows, the lessen of economic resources, the retirement, the incomprehension of elder people by their families and the presence of non transmisible chronic desease.

  17. Risk factors associated with facial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Margareth Batista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a < 0.05, univariate and multivariate Poisson distributions and the logistic regression analysis (p < 0.20. Maxillofacial trauma was recorded in 790 charts (70.5%, with 393 (35.1% charts reporting facial fractures. Motorcycle accidents were found to be the main risk factor for mandibular fractures (PR = 1.576, CI = 1.402-1.772 and simultaneous fractures of more than one facial bone (OR = 4.625, CI = 1.888-11.329 as well as the only risk factor for maxillary bone fractures (OR = 11.032, CI = 5.294-22.989. Fractures of the zygomatic and nasal bones were mainly associated with accidents involving animals (PR = 1.206, CI = 1.104-1.317 and sports (OR = 8.710, CI = 4.006-18.936, respectively. The determinant for the majority of facial fractures was motorcycle accidents, followed by accidents involving animals and sports.

  18. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  19. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live birthssuffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period.At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing lossshould be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention canbe done before the age of 6 months.Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss inneonates.Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100neonates with and without hearing loss who were born atSanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearingloss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (controlgroup of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender andbirth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearingloss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis,history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilationby Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratioand its corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had historyof aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed thataminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant riskfactor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040.There were no statistically significant associations betweenhearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis,or mechanical ventilation.Conclusion as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates. [

  20. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01

    The increase in frequency of cesareans that has been noted through 70's, not diminished--like it was expected--perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most important indications to cesarean are distocias, previous cesarean and fetal stress. In 1998 frequency of cesarean deliveries in our hospital was 35% of the pregnancy attended. The claim of this study was to determine risks factors to cesarean in our hospital. A case-control study was performed, selecting 165 cases (cesareans) and 328 controls (via vaginal). It was determined OR of the risks factors and atribuible fraction. Data were analyzed by X2. The most important indications to cesarean delivery were: distocias (39%, n = 64); previous cesarean (23%, n = 41) and fetal stress (11%, n = 21). There was not significative differences in age, height and rupture membrane time in both groups. History of cesarean delivery gave major risk to another surgical intervention (OR = 12.7, p = < 0.0001, atribuible fraction 92%). Nuliparous (OR = 6.6, p < 0.00000, atribuible fraction 85%), second gestation (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002) or history of abortion (OR = 1.8, p = 0.04) were factors mainly associated to cesarean delivery. We concluded that the precise 'medications of this surgical intervention specially in nuliparous or previous cesarean delivery cases must be replanteated to diminish its elevated frequency.

  1. Cardiometabolic Risk in Hyperlipidemic Men and Women

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    Michael Leutner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex specific differences of metabolic and clinical characteristics of treated hyperlipidemic men and women (HL-men and HL-women. Methods. In this study vascular and metabolic characteristics of 35 HL-women and 64 HL-men were assessed. In addition a sex specific analysis of metabolic and nutritional habits of HL-patients with prediabetes (HL-IGR was done. Results. HL-women were older and had favourable concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-ratio but were also shown to have higher concentrations of lipoprotein-a compared to HL-men. HL-men were characterized as having higher levels of liver-specific parameters and body weight as well as being more physically active compared to HL-women. Brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP was higher in HL-women than HL-men, while no differences in metabolic syndrome and glycemic parameters were shown. HL-IGR-women were also older and still had a better profile of sex specific lipid parameters, as well as a lower body weight compared to HL-IGR-men. No differences were seen in vascular parameters such as the intima media thickness (IMT. Conclusion. HL-women were older and had overall more favourable concentrations of lipid parameters and liver enzymes but did not differ regarding vascular morphology and insulin sensitivity compared to HL-men of comparable body mass index (BMI.

  2. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.

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    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-12-14

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1.00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 0.8) mmHg (P= 0.04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0.05 (95% CI 0.02, 0.08) mmol/l (P= 0.001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.04) mmol/l (both PWaist circumference increased 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.7) cm (Pwaist circumference and HDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  3. SSA 04-3 LEPTIN/ADIPONECTIN IN CARDIOMETABOLIC DISEASE.

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    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Attention has focused on the visceral adipose tissue production of cytokines (adipokines) in metabolic syndrome and DM2, as the levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin are decreased, while proinflammatory cytokines are elevated, creating a proinflammatory state associated with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. We have give special attention to the role of the leptin/adiponectin ratio and we have demonstrated that in individuals with severe coronary artery disease, abdominal obesity (AO) was uniquely related to decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin and increased leptin levels. Leptin/adiponectin imbalance was associated with increased waist circumference and a decreased vascular response to acetylcholine and increased vasoconstriction due to angiotensin II. Leptin and adiponectin have opposite effects on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance. Leptin upregulates proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-I and interleukin-6; these are associated with insulin resistance, DM2, and CVD. In contrast, adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties and downregulates the expression and release of a number of proinflammatory immune mediators. Its concentrations are negatively regulated by the accumulation of visceral fat, and clinical studies implicate hypoadiponectinemia in the pathogenesis of DM

  4. Risk factors of childhood epilepsy in Kerala

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    Thomas Varghese Attumalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to identify the risk factors for epilepsy in children. Materials and Methods: This case-control retrospective study was carried out in the pediatric neurology outpatient service of the Trivandrum Medical College. All children (1-12 years with epilepsy satisfying the selection criteria were included, after obtaining consent from parents. Those with single seizures or febrile seizures were excluded. Controls were children without epilepsy attending the same hospital. Parents were interviewed and clinical data were obtained from medical records. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, odds ratio (OR, and logistic regression. Results: There were 82 cases and 160 controls whose mean age was 6.9 + 3.6 and 5.2 + 3.1, years respectively. On univariate analysis, family history of epilepsy, prolonged labor, cyanosis at birth, delayed cry after birth, admission to newborn intensive care unit, presence of congenital malformations, neurocutaneous markers, incessant cry in the first week, delayed developmental milestones, meningitis, encephalitis, and head trauma were found to be significant. On logistic regression, family history of epilepsy (OR 4.7, newborn distress (OR 8.6, delayed developmental milestones (OR 12.6, and head trauma (OR 5.8 were found to be significant predictors. Infants who had history of newborn distress are likely to manifest epilepsy before 1 year if they are eventually going to have epilepsy (OR 3.4. Conclusion: Modifiable factors such as newborn distress and significant head trauma are significant risk factors for childhood epilepsy. Newborn distress is a risk factor for early-onset (<1 year age epilepsy.

  5. Risk factors for idiopathic optic neuritis recurrence.

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    Yi Du

    Full Text Available Approximately 30-50% of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION patients experience one or multiple episodes of recurrence. The aim of this study was to search for risk factors for ION recurrence.Clinical data on hospitalized patients diagnosed with ION between January 2003 and January 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on factors that might cause ION recurrence. In total, 115 ION cases (32 recurrent and 83 non-recurrent cases with complete data were analyzed. The length of the follow-up period ranged from 12 to 108 months (median: 42 months.The univariate analysis showed that the recurrence rate for unilateral ION was higher than that for bilateral ION (40% vs. 12%, p=0.001. Underlying diseases had a significant impact on recurrence (p<0.001: the recurrence rates due to neuromyelitis optica (NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS, demyelinating lesions alone of the central nervous system, and unknown causes were 89%, 70%, 41%, and 8.7%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the factors causing relatively high recurrence rates included NMO (odds ratio [OR], 73.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 740.9, MS (OR, 33.9; 95% CI, 5.2 to 222.2, and demyelinating lesions alone (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.4, unilateral involvement (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 21.3, relatively low initial glucocorticoid dosage (equivalent to ≤ 100 mg prednisone/day (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 17.9.Underlying diseases, laterality (unilateral or bilateral, and initial glucocorticoid dosage are important risk factors of ION recurrence. Clinical physicians are advised to treat ION patients with a sufficient dose of glucocorticoid in the initial treatment stage to reduce the recurrence risk.

  6. Soy and cardio-metabolic abnormalities: an update

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    Leila Azadbakht

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • Soy protein contains beneficial components like complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, vegetable protein, soluble fiber, oligosaccharides, vitamins, minerals, inositol-derived substances and phytoestrogens, particularly the isoflavones  genistein, diadzein, and glycitein, which might affect different cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Soy consumption has been reported to beneficially affect features of the metabolic syndrome in animal models and also in humans to some extent. There are inconsistent reports regarding the hypothesis of the effectiveness of soy protein on obesity. While some studies have shown that soy consumption can improve the features of the metabolic syndrome without affecting body weight, others showed that soy consumption has beneficial role in weight management and might improve the metabolic syndrome by affecting body weight control. Several studies have consistently reported the effects of soy on cardiovascular risks. Beneficial role of soy intake on diabetes is another aspect of soy inclusion in the diet. The present study discusses the effects of soy consumption on different cardio-metabolic abnormalities and provides information regarding the possible mechanisms by which soy protein might exert its beneficial roles.
    • KEY WORDS: Soy, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome.

  7. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability.

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    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery.

  8. Risk factors of dyslexia in allergic diseases

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    Mateusz Warchał

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk estimation of dyslexia is the first diagnostic stage accompanying the psychological and pedagogical observation of the