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Sample records for cardiology munich germany

  1. The Sustainable Food and Agricultural Movement in Munich, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    The sustainable food and agriculture movement in Munich, Germany is one of the strongest in all of Germany. Germany as a whole is the leading consumer of organic food in Europe and is one of the founders of the organic agriculture philosophy and practice. But in the case of Munich, where does this activism come from in particular? Why is Munich so strong in this movement? This paper discusses the methodology of mapping the actors involved in the sustainable food and agriculture movements foll...

  2. Munich

    OpenAIRE

    MONCIAUD, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Thriller politique et psychologique, ce film de Spielberg aborde un sujet particulièrement sensible. Suite à la sanglante et médiatique prise d’otage d’athlètes israéliens lors des Jeux Olympiques de Munich en septembre 1972, Golda Meir, la Première Ministre israélienne, décide de lancer une opération secrète de représailles contre les responsables de cette attaque. Un groupe d’agent du Mossad est constitué et chargé de tuer à travers le monde les personnes ayant eu à des degrés divers un rap...

  3. European Association of Urology--31st Annual Congress (March 11-15, 2016--Munich, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulsat, C

    2016-04-01

    The 31st Annual European Association of Urology (EAU) Congress held in Munich, Germany, was a platform for expert urological specialists from all over the world to find a unique space to share their evidence-based knowledge during state-of-the art lectures, presentations and courses. This report covers selected presentations covering cancer-related presentations. PMID:27252990

  4. Economic Und Fiscal Effects of the FIFA World Cup in Germany - the Case of Munich

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Alina Mihaela; Friedrich, Peter; Wonnemann, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    The authors determine the income effects, employment effects, production effects, migration effects as well as the budget effects and effects concerning social insurances. These effects concern the city of Munich, the hinterland, other municipalities, Bavaria, other states and the federation. The so-called “Taxonomic Localization Approach for Public Offices“ is applied. The model for identifying the effects considers the characteristics of the games and of the Munich region. Direct effect...

  5. Munich`s Baufest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-03-01

    The article previews some of the latest developments in mining machinery to be exhibited at `Bauma `98` in Munich (30 March - 4 April 1998). They include excavation, drilling earthmoving and conveying equipment. 1 fig., 10 photos.

  6. The Role of Vegetation in Mitigating Urban Land Surface Temperatures: A Case Study of Munich, Germany during the Warm Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadroddin Alavipanah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI is the phenomenon of altered increased temperatures in urban areas compared to their rural surroundings. UHIs grow and intensify under extreme hot periods, such as during heat waves, which can affect human health and also increase the demand for energy for cooling. This study applies remote sensing and land use/land cover (LULC data to assess the cooling effect of varying urban vegetation cover, especially during extreme warm periods, in the city of Munich, Germany. To compute the relationship between Land Surface Temperature (LST and Land Use Land Cover (LULC, MODIS eight-day interval LST data for the months of June, July and August from 2002 to 2012 and the Corine Land Cover (CLC database were used. Due to similarities in the behavior of surface temperature of different CLCs, some classes were reclassified and combined to form two major, rather simplified, homogenized classes: one of built-up area and one of urban vegetation. The homogenized map was merged with the MODIS eight-day interval LST data to compute the relationship between them. The results revealed that (i the cooling effect accrued from urban vegetation tended to be non-linear; and (ii a remarkable and stronger cooling effect in terms of LST was identified in regions where the proportion of vegetation cover was between seventy and almost eighty percent per square kilometer. The results also demonstrated that LST within urban vegetation was affected by the temperature of the surrounding built-up and that during the well-known European 2003 heat wave, suburb areas were cooler from the core of the urbanized region. This study concluded that the optimum green space for obtaining the lowest temperature is a non-linear trend. This could support urban planning strategies to facilitate appropriate applications to mitigate heat-stress in urban area.

  7. Paediatrics: messages from Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Midulla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology are presented in the context of the current literature.

  8. REFSANS. A novel reflectometer for analyses of liquid and soft surfaces at the new research reactor FRM-II in Munich/Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The new reflectometer REFSANS is designed for investigating surfaces and phase boundaries of liquid and soft samples and offers new perspectives for analysing lateral inhomogeneities. A time-of-flight operation modus together with a sophisticated beam guiding system allow for complete analyses without any sample movement. The neutron flux on the sample can be adjusted to the required resolution by means of a multi-disk chopper (2%<Δλ/λ<15%). Off-specular scattering is efficiently detected by means of a large position sensitive area detector (active area about 500 mm x 400 mm) with a high spatial resolution. A novel beam guiding system allows for analysing evanescent small-angle scattering resulting from rather small lateral inhomogeneities. REFSANS is expected to be put into operation at the new research reactor FRM-II in Munich/Germany in 2001. (author)

  9. Munich conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Standard Model has survived impact for another year', declared Don Perkins of Oxford, summarizing the 24th International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Munich from 4-10 August. 'But is this a triumph or a frustration for physics?' he added. The twin pillars of the Standard Model, the electroweak unification of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force, and the field theory (quantum chromodynamics) of the quark-gluon interactions responsible for the strong nuclear force, have not trembled since the electroweak unification went to the textbooks in 1983, but from time to time small cracks have appeared which might have gone on to shake the theory severely, if not undermine it. Major conference summarizers have got used to singing the praises of the Standard Model, but this year at Munich even detailed examination failed to reveal any serious cracks, while looking deeper into physics even some anomalous results hinting at gaps in understanding have either gone away or have diminished credibility

  10. Geothermal models on different scales - understanding and geothermal characterization of a fault zone before simulating - a case study from the Munich region (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussel, Michael; Ortiz, Adrián; Thomas, Rüdiger; Schulz, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    A challenging task for geothermal exploration is the geothermal characterization of fault zones, which seems to play an important role for the exploration of the geothermal Malm Aquifer in the Munich region. The results of an actualized regional thermo-hydraulic model of the Munich region as well as flow-, temperature- and stress analysis for a more detailed local THM-model in the realm of a geothermal power plant are presented. Whereas the main focus of the actualized regional model lies in the forecast of potential temperature or hydraulic pressure interferences of geothermal doublet or triplet systems, the more detailed local model contributes to the understanding of flow, temperature distribution and induced microseismicity, which might occur during production or injection. The flow regime was described with the diagnostic plot derived from the analysis of pump tests. The temperature distribution in a well was modeled (Comsol). Joints and faults in a well were investigated to their reactivation potential in the recent stress field (slip-tendency analysis, GMI-software). Unfortunately only scarce data for geomechanical analysis are registered in the standard exploration scheme for geothermal wells in the Munich region, especially for determining the minimum horizontal stress. It is therefore highly recommended to extend the well measuring and logging program in the future.

  11. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciences (FH) Zittau/Goerlitz; -The Association for Research and Lecturing in Nuclear Engineering in Southwest Germany (2007), consisting of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Materials Testing Laboratory (MPA) Stuttgart, and the Universities of Karlsruhe, Stuttgart and Heidelberg as well as the Universities of Applied Sciences in Ulm and Furtwangen; -The Nuclear Engineering Forum West (2009), consisting of the Juelich Research Centre (FZJ), the RWTH Aachen University, and the Aachen/Juelich University of Applied Sciences; - The subject-oriented Final Disposal Research Group, consisting of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld; - The interregional Alliance of Competence in Radiation Research (2007), consisting of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Salzgitter (BfS), the Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (ZSR) in Hanover, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health (GSF) in Munich, the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-Halle, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt, and the research centres in Juelich, Dresden/Rossendorf, and Karlsruhe. International activities were geared to two initiatives for the promotion of young nuclear scientists, in particular to the: - ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network); -WNU (World Nucl ear University). In both organizations, the Technical University of Munich is involved as the German representative of the Alliance of Competence. By the end of January 2010, the ENELA (European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy) with its headquarters in Munich also joined

  12. Clinical highlights: messages from Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Vogiatzis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews a selection of presentations in the area of clinical problems that were presented at the 2014 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Munich, Germany. We review the most recent and relevant topics of interest in the area of clinical respiratory medicine, encompassing novel reports and studies that are of particular interest to healthcare professionals. Topics ranging from basic science to translation research are presented and discussed in the context of the most up-to-date literature. In particular, the reviewed topics deal with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (pathogenesis and therapy, advances in functional chest imaging, interventional pulmonology, pulmonary rehabilitation, and chronic care.

  13. Expansion of district heating in Munich; Fernwaermeausbau in Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prein, Thomas [SWM Services GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For some time the population of Munich (Federal Republic of Germany) is growing. However, the residential areas within the existing boundaries of the city is limited. The demand for living area is very high and results in a compact building construction. In the western region of Munich the new district Freiham is developed for about 20,000 people, commerce and trade. The public utility Munich have decided to realize the heat supply of this new district by means of district heating. This requires not only a new district heating network, but also a new power plant.

  14. Cardiology Mannequin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Education of medical students in cardiology requires access to patients having a variety of different forms of heart disease. But bringing together student, instructor and patient is a difficult and expensive process that does not benefit the patient. An alternate approach is substitution of a lifelike mannequin capable of simulating many conditions of heart disease. The mannequin pictured below, together with a related information display, is an advanced medical training system whose development benefited from NASA visual display technology and consultative input from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The mannequin system represents more than 10 years of development effort by Dr. Michael S. Gordon, professor of cardiology at the University of Miami (Florida) School of Medicine.

  15. The Munich Agreement of 1938 and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rybcova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in this article is the Munich Agreement of 30 September 1938, as well as other directly related documents that characterize the international relations of the pre-war period, in order to clarify the role of this event in the history of Europe and the world. The Munich Agreement is considered a classic example of the manifestation of appeasement policy, which in the late 30-ies of XX century led to an increase in the aggressiveness of Germany and was one of the prerequisites for the start of the Second World War. Precedent has given the leadership of Germany (and personally to Hitler serious reason to hope that England and France in the future will not respond to the aggressive actions of Germany. This agreement, concluded without the participation of the Czechoslovak leadership, actually led to its section between Germany, Hungary and Poland. Munich Agreement explicitly infringed the interests of the state, did not participate in the negotiations. According to some military historians, the Czechoslovak army would be the one to resist the Wehrmacht could with his arms at that time.

  16. Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Döbrich, Peter; Kodron, Christoph

    1992-01-01

    After summing up the competencies of the Federal Government and the States regarding the area of teacher education and the teaching profession in Germany, the author describes the two phases of teacher training and research as well as the "research and inservice education of teachers" (INSET). Furthermore, he analyses the institutional backgrounds of educational research in Germany and the influence of educational research on political parties and parliaments. Finally, "priorities and new tre...

  17. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures

  18. Development of a geothermal reservoir for Munich; Erschliessung der Geothermie fuer Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletl, Christian; Frank, Nadine; Henle, Markus; Angerer, Julia [SWM Services GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Munich, the Bavarian capital, is located favourably in the central Bavarian molasse, which is a privileged situation for the utilisation of hydrothermal geothermal energy. The geothermal energy will be distributed via one of Germany's biggest district heating grids. After successful operation of a pilot grid in the new housing area of Munich-Riem, the Munich municipal utility is now working on the systematic development of this energy sources. Apart from the many technical challenges of this innovative technology, its integration in a technically, economically and ecologically optimized power supply concept is the key problem. The next few projects are already in the planning stage.

  19. Tele-cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molefi, M; Fortuin, J; Wynchank, S

    2006-01-01

    After defining tele-medicine, we describe its situation in the public health service of South Africa and its application to cardiology. Methods of communication relevant to tele-cardiology are outlined, together with their bearing on primary healthcare. The range of tele-cardiological applications to electrocardiology, echocardiology, auscultation, imaging and pathology are indicated. Tele-cardiology's contributions to a range of cardiological problems and types of management are described briefly. Finally, a mention is made of the relevance of tele-medicine to education and the costs related to cardiology, with an indication of some future needs for tele-cardiology. PMID:16547558

  20. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Germany for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  1. IGORR 8 - world research reactor conference held in Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eight World Conference of Planners, Builders and Operators of Research Reactors, IGORR 8 (International Group on Research Reactors), was held in Munich on April 17-20, 2001. Prof. Dr. Klaus Boening, the president of the conference, welcomed more than one hundred experts from all continents to the event hosted by the Munich Technical University. Eight Technical Sessions and three Poster Sessions presented and discussed current and promising results of research and application, work on reactors and neutron sources currently under development, and plans for future facilities. New neutron sources are being planned in Australia, Taiwan, Thailand, China, and France. Construction of some of these plants is likely to begin in the near future. Prof. Wolfgang Glaeser, Munich Technical University, in his keynote address discussed the future role of research reactors and neutron sources, which comprised not only the classical areas of basic research and application-oriented research, but also many applications in technology and in the life sciences, e.g. in medicine. The long period for which existing plants had been operated, and the need for powerful sources, urgently necessitated decisions to build new facilities. The current status of work on the Munich II research reactor (FRM-II), which will play an important role in neutron research in Germany, as presented by H.-J. Didier (Framatome ANP GmbH). (orig.)

  2. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with two topics in nuclear cardiology. In the first, left ventricular wall motion assessment using Fourier transform of local left ventricular time-activity curves in gated blood pool studies is evaluated. In the second, the interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigrams is assessed which are obtained with thallium-201 or with another radiopharmaceutical with different physical, but identical biological properties. In all these investigations data acquisition and analysis by computer played an essential role. In chapter 1 the desirable properties of a nuclear medicine computer system are given and the computer system used for this work is described. Wall motion analysis of the left ventricle using Fourier transform of local time-activity curves in the left ventricular region in gated blood pool studies is described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 detection of non-perfused lesions in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201 is described. Detection of partly perfused lesions and the influence of scatter and photon energy on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is described in chapter 4. (Auth.)

  3. Quality control in nuclear medicine. Addendum to 'Quality assurance in nuclear medicine', World Health Organization, 1982. Following a training workshop in Neuherberg, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, November 23-30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the results of a workshop, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) and the World Health Organization (WHO), held in Neuherberg, Munich, 1983, a revised concept of quality control (QC) in nuclear medicine is proposed. In a previous document published by the WHO in 1982, a set of rigorous daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and half-quarterly QC protocols was recommended. The revised concept suggested by the 1983 workshop participants is that of a simple, total system, QC test that can be applied on a frequent, probably daily, basis. Any deviation of the results of such a test from the accepted norm will require further investigation and decision trees can then be applied to localize faults

  4. Scenarios for the development of electromobility in Munich; Szenarien zur Entwicklung der Elektromobilitaet in Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, Stefan [Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf (Germany). Studiengang ' ' Management Erneuerbare Energien' '

    2011-07-01

    The change of the individual mobility on environmentally friendly and sustainable approach is not only in Germany an important concern, but also a global challenge. The main reasons for an involvement are dwindling crude oil reserves and the greenhouse effect. Due to the road traffic as one of the largest emitters of CO{sub 2} possibilities are discussed to make mobility more environmentally friendly and energy-politically sustainable. In this context, the electric car is seen as a possible component of the vision for the future of the environment and mobility. The contribution under consideration reports on the possible development of electric vehicles in Munich in 2030 based on three scenarios. The results are based on a fundamental study of the Institute fortiss GmbH (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) and a recent study by the Research center for Energy Economics (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) for electric vehicles.

  5. Internal and external dynamics of the Munich film and TV industry cluster, and limitations to future growth

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Bathelt; Armin Gräf

    2008-01-01

    This analysis uses the case of a seemingly successful industry cluster (ie the film and TV industry in Munich) to demonstrate that deficits in the structure of social relations can impact a cluster’s growth potential. In the period after World War II, Munich grew into a national centre of media industries in Germany due to the introduction of private/commercial TV, national entry barriers, and a supportive institutional infrastructure. The recent advertising crisis and the dissolution of the ...

  6. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a brief summary of the Nuclear Cardiology history in Cuba, mentioning the current main mortality causes, the usefulness and results of nuclear tests among the imaging techniques nowadays used in Cardiology, including gated-SPECT, PET and hybrid imaging combining anatomical and functional information. This paper also reviews our present worldwide performance in Nuclear Cardiology, with emphasis on our development and future trends, and proposes some recommendations. (author)

  7. GERDA test facilities in Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA (Germanium Detector Array) experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge will be submerged in pure liquid argon. The cryogenic liquid is used as cooling liquid for the detectors and as shielding against gamma radiation. Several test facilities are currently under construction at the MPI Munich. Prototype Germanium detectors are tested in conditions close to the experimental setup of GERDA. Detector parameters are determined in a specialized vacuum teststand as well as directly in liquid argon. A new vacuum teststand named Galatea is under construction. It will be used to expose germanium detectors to α- and β-particles and study their response to surface events. This yields information about dead layers and the response to surface contaminations. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cardiology methods have had less impact upon pediatric cardiology than upon adult cardiology. Most pediatric heart disease results from congenital malformations of the heart and great vessels, which is usually discovered in infancy, and is most often treated definitively in infancy or early childhood. Unfortunately, nuclear medicine techniques are limited in their spatial resolution - structures that overlie each other are separated with difficulty. As a result, nuclear cardiology is usually of limited value in the anatomic characterization of the congenital heart abnormalities. Nevertheless, it has been useful in the detection and quantification of the pathophysiologic consequences of many congenital cardiac malformations. The authors review application of nuclear medicine in pediatric cardiology, and attempt to assess each in terms of its clinical utility

  9. Reporting nuclear cardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Hesse, Birger; Knuuti, Juhani;

    2015-01-01

    available; therefore, an European position statement on how to report nuclear cardiology might be useful. The current paper combines the limited existing evidence with expert consensus, previously published recommendations as well as current clinical practices. For all the applications discussed in this......, and conclusion of the report. The statement also discusses recommended terminology in nuclear cardiology, image display, and preliminary reports. It is hoped that this statement may lead to more attention to create well-written and standardized nuclear cardiology reports and eventually lead to...

  10. Nuclear cardiology in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the most active branches of nuclear medicine and plays important role in diagnosis in treatment of CAD patients. Few nuclear cardiology surveys were published in the literature, mostly from developed countries. A nuclear cardiology survey in Iran and analysis of the findings in comparison with other countries may lead to better decision making and improve practice in our country. A questionnaire was sent by mail or e-mail to all nuclear medicine centers in Iran asking for details of nuclear cardiology practice. Also ownership of the centers, number of gamma cameras and number of cardiac studies in each week were recorded. Some centers were studied using telephone interview. From 79 nuclear medicine centers in Iran, 55 centers (69.6%) filled the questionnaire including 28 centers in Tehran and 27 centers in other cities. There was 69 Gamma cameras in these centers, 62.3% with SPECT capability. It is estimated that we may have 100 gamma cameras in Iran. This study showed that about 68287 cardiac studies were done in Iran each year with Myocardial perfusion scan accounting for about 99 2% of the studies. Considering population of the country nuclear cardiology activity will be about 1.05 study/1000/year. Regarding radiotracers used, about 13.5% of studies were done with T I-201, with some centers using only Tc-99m-M I B I

  11. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements and Joint Society Statements Member Login Enter Forgot your password? Meetings & ...

  12. Cardiology without borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Wolk

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.

  13. MAFF - the Munich accelerator for fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the new high flux reactor FRM-II in Munich the accelerator MAFF (Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments) is under design. In the high neutron flux of 1014 n/cm2 s up to 1014 neutron-rich fission fragments per second are produced in the 1 g 235 U target. Ions with an energy of 30 keV are extracted from the ion source. In the mass separator two isotopes can be selected. One of the beams is used for low energy experiments, the other one is injected into an ECRIS (or EBIS) for charge breeding to a q/A ≥ 0.16. A gas filled RFQ cooler is used for emittance improvement. The subsequent LINAC delivers beams with an energy ranging from 3.7 MeV/u to 5.9 MeV/u. New IH structures are being developed at the Munich tandem laboratory. A small storage ring is planned in a further stage to recycle the fission fragments. A thin target foil can be placed into this ring, e.g., for synthesis of super-heavy elements. The through-going beam tube has been installed in the heavy water tank of the reactor. Tests of the target ion source in a special oven to test long term stability and safety tests were in progress. (author)

  14. Computers in cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present abstract book contains the abstracts of 90 lectures and 29 posters presented at the conference. They are dealing with the following themes: Echocardiography, databases, ECG interpretation, wall motion, arrhythmia processing systems, electrophysiological models, ECG-mapping, intensive care and hemodynamic monitoring, digital subtraction angiography, clinical electrophysiology, mechanical properties of the cardiovascular system, coronary artery measurements, arrythmia analysis, arrhytmia monitoring techniques, ECG waveform recognition and nuclear cardiology. (MG)

  15. Recent advances in nuclear cardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, H.; Petersen, C. Leth; Kjaer, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is an essential part of functional, non-invasive, cardiac imaging. Significant advances have been made in nuclear cardiology since planar (201)thallium ((201)TI) scintigraphy was introduced for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) perfusion nearly 40 years ago. The use......-coronary cardiac diseases. The advances in nuclear cardiology are discussed under the four headlines of: 1) myocardial perfusion, 2) cardiac performance including LV and right ventricular (RV) function, 3) myocardial metabolism, and 4) experimental nuclear cardiology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  16. Dynamic analysis of the BMW tower in Munich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indacochea-Beltran, Joaquin; Elgindy, Pearl; Lee, Elaine; Vignesh, Thiviya; Ansourian, Peter; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Marroquín, Fernando Alonso

    2016-08-01

    In the 1970s, world famous Austrian architect Karl Schwanzer designed an avant-garde suspended skyscraper for the new BMW headquarters. The BMW Tower was envisioned to resemble a four-cylinder motor and become a symbol for the recent flourishing success of BMW. Throughout its four decades, the BMW Tower has become the main architectural feature of modern Munich and a pride for one of the World leading car manufacturers. The structural design of the BMW Tower represented a major challenge to Germany's finest engineers because the suspended 99.5m-high structure had to whitstand not only static loading but large wind dynamic loading while having deflections within appropriate serviceability limits. Strand7 has been used to determine the stresses and deflections the structure is subjected to in order to analyse its behavior under static and dynamic loadings. Ultimately, this analysis helps to understand the nature of suspended structures in relation to the Eurocode building standards. Finally, thermal resistance has also been analysed using Strand7 to simulate a fire scenario and analyse the behaviour of the cable structure, which is the most critical building component.

  17. Computer diagnosis in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Wilfred Ewing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports upon the emergence of a novel cognitive, computer-based technology which may lead to significantly improved methods of cardiological diagnosis and a rapid and inexpensive method of cardiological screening.The technology ‘Virtual Scanning’ illustrates how, in blood, the reaction of proteins and their reactive substrates releases light; that the colour and intensity of this bioluminescence is unique to each reaction and it’s rate; and that the development of pathologies influence cognition and visual perception. This illustrates that the function of the autonomic nervous system is linked to that of the physiological systems and that the rate of biochemical reactions, and the progression of disease, can be measured by a cognitive test procedure and used as an indication of the disease(s affecting heart function.The article discusses the limitations of the conventional biomarker technique, and the potential value of non-invasive cognitive techniques, such as Virtual Scanning, to the medical practitioner. Finally, it discusses how the ability of Virtual Scanning to diagnose disease from its presymptomatic origins may lead to improved diagnostic accuracy and significantly reduced costs.

  18. Nuclear medicine in cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizuka, K.; Ishii, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Tamaki, N. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-02-01

    Nuclear medicine in cardiology was reviewed. Electrocardiogram is obtained from the ..gamma..-ray measurement of a tracer by a single detector, which enables a bedsidemonitoring. Resolution and sensitivity are high and nuclear stethoscope with a computer is applicable for a background treatment. Myocardium is imaged by /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy. Relative difference of the perfusion indicates the ischemia which gaives roughly the size and portion of myocardial infarction. For transient ischemia stress myocardial perfusion imaging (SMPI) is also used. sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate provides a clear image for myocardial infarction. Angiocardiogram is obtained repeatedly, by a single administration, using an equilibrium method. An attempt of three-dimensional display by 7 pin hole collimator and positron CT are also discussed.

  19. Nuclear medicine in cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine in cardiology was reviewed. Electrocardiogram is obtained from the γ-ray measurement of a tracer by a single detector, which enables a bedsidemonitoring. Resolution and sensitivity are high and nuclear stethoscope with a computer is applicable for a background treatment. Myocardium is imaged by 201Tl scintigraphy. Relative difference of the perfusion indicates the ischemia which gaives roughly the size and portion of myocardial infarction. For transient ischemia stress myocardial perfusion imaging (SMPI) is also used. sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate provides a clear image for myocardial infarction. Angiocardiogram is obtained repeatedly, by a single administration, using an equilibrium method. An attempt of three-dimensional display by 7 pin hole collimator and positron CT are also discussed. (Nakanishi, T.)

  20. Scientometric analysis of radiation cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main bibliometric results in specific field of radiobiology - radiation cardiology - were discussed. This results indicate that cardiac morphogenesis and diseases in pollutant environment (radionuclides, smoking, hypo kinetic syndrome, etc.) is needed in additional investigations. (authors)

  1. The Munich ion microprobe: Characteristics and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly developed ion microprobe SNAKE (superconducting nanoscope for applied nuclear (Kern-) physics experiments) has gone into routine operation at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. It focuses ion beams, from protons to uranium, with energies that are about 10 times larger than they are available at standard nuclear microprobes. Lateral resolutions of Δx=1.6 μm and Δy=1.2 μm for x- and y-direction at full aperture and as low as Δx=600 nm and Δy=150 nm for a pencil beam have been achieved so far. The latter values are limited by positional drifts and 50 Hz oscillating fields which have become obvious in time resolved measurements. SNAKE opens new possibilities for analysis of microstructured materials as well as materials modifications. The highlights are three dimensional hydrogen analysis using proton proton scattering, high resolution transmission energy loss measurements utilizing a magnetic spectrograph and materials modification with available high energy proton and heavy ion beams. Standard techniques like particle induced X-ray emission, elastic and inelastic scattering are also used for imaging. The paper summarizes some of the prospects using the enlarged range of available ion beams and ion energies

  2. An overview of Smorn V-Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the recent fifth Symposium on Reactor Noise (SMORN V), over half the participants represented power utilities, and thirteen out of ninety papers covered practical experience of plant monitoring by noise analysis. In 1986 the Nuclear Energy Agency published a State of the Art Report on Reactor Noise Analysis providing an assessment of the applicability of noise techniques to power reactor operations, which was drawn up by a working group of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics in the aftermath of the 1984 SMORN IV symposium in Dijon. Since that time, the practical applications of noise analysis techniques to plant surveillance have become more widespread, in particular in the areas of loose part detection and vibration monitoring. Theoretical understanding of the methods has continued to improve. These advances were presented at the SMORN V symposium, held in Munich from 12th - 16th October 1987. The meeting also recommended that the 1986 State of the Art report should be updated, and the present overview is intended, like its predecessor, for a wide audience including national safety authorities and managers in the nuclear industry. The full proceedings of the symposium, to be published in 1988 by Pergamon Press, will include all the papers presented at the meeting. This document was assembled and edited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from the summaries of each session provided by the session chairmen. Topics which were divided into multiple sessions for the purpose of the conference have been regrouped into single chapters. A complete list of the papers presented at the conference is included in the appendix

  3. OECD Global Science Forum's Astronomy Workshop to take place in Munich

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    On December 1 to 3, the city of Munich (Bavaria, Germany) will be the venue for a "Workshop on Large Scale Programmes and Projects in Astronomy and Astrophysics" organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum in co-operation with the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The Workshop will be chaired by Ian Corbett (ESO). The Global Science Forum brings together science policy officials from the OECD countries. The delegates, who meet twice a year, look at a range of generic issues in science funding and seek to identify and maximise opportunities for international co-operation in basic scientific research. This Workshop was proposed by Germany and agreed by the delegates to the Global Science Forum in June. Government officials and scientists will be able to review in detail the information and the observational and technological advances needed for major progress in the field during the next 15- 20 years. The research subjects reviewed will cover the full range from planets, solar systems, life in the Universe, stars, galaxies, extreme objects to cosmology. Related technological challenges, virtual observatories and other data handling issues will also be considered. The primary objective is to specify the policy issues relating to priority-setting, planning, funding and, above all, international co-ordination and co-operation. The Workshop will focus on issues relevant to the process through which astronomy advances, and will highlight means to enhance that process in light of longer-term scientific and political trends. There will probably be a follow-up meeting early in 2004, from which a policy level report will be prepared for consideration by the Global Science Forum and so transmitted to governments. Eighteen delegations, from non-OECD as well as OECD countries, will attend, each consisting of senior programme managers from the national ministry, funding agency or research council, and one or more senior

  4. Assessing Competence in Pediatric Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Apul E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In response to the need to assure physician competence, a rating scale was developed at the University of Minnesota Medical School for use in evaluating clinical competence in pediatric cardiology. It was tested on first- and second-year specialists. Development and testing procedures are described. (JT)

  5. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  6. Diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishing the accurate diagnosis and the adequate treatment of choice in ischemic heart disease (IHD) has become an emergency issue, with increasing the number of IHD patients in Japan. It is therefore important to determine myocardial viability and its related pathophysiology such as stunning and hibernation, which is a prerequisite for widely performed coronary revascularization. From these points of view, cardiovascular nuclear medicine, involving thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and cardiac radionuclide angiography, has become a well-established method for diagnosing IHD. However, no diagnostic standards are available in the routine practice. The Japanese Circulation Society has started a committee for preparing 'diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology' in April 1989. Out of 8,947 facilities nationwide, 1,126 (12.5%) possess gamma cameras. Of these facilities, 799(70.9%) perform nuclear cardiologic examination. A questinnaire was sent to the 799 facilities, and 410 (51.3%) responded. Based on the 1989's questionnaire results, 'diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology' was discussed through one year in 1990, and was completed in 1991. This is a report dealing with the present 'diagnostic standards in nuclear cardiology', focusing on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, cardiac radionuclide angiography, Tc-99m acute infarct imaging, and new radionuclides and PET. Items are included as follows: (1) equipment and techniques, (2) diagnostic standards, (3) stress test, (4) candidates for the examination, and (5) diagnostic cautions. (N.K.) 71 refs

  7. Recent Advances in Nuclear Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Woo

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine. PMID:27540423

  8. Sanatorio para la infancia, en Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haind, Friedrich F.

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objects to be met in the design this Children's Building were to provide suitable control and protection of the children, adequate working conditions for the nurses, and develop a pleasant family environment. This clinic is an extension of that run by the Sisters of Saint Benedict in Lechnerstrasse, Munich. It consists of two blocks, of 4 and 5 floor levels. It has a semibasement, housing the services, and some spare rooms and other facilities, described in the enclosed plans. The ground floor provides room for 25 beds, for the older boys. On the second floor there are 30 beds for those recently born, whilst the third floor has space for 30 beds for prematurely born babies. The nurses live in the attic, where there are 15 bedrooms, each with two beds, a kitchen and suitable auxiliary facilities. Much thought has been given to the design of details, the general distribution and circulation system has been planned with much care, and the overall functional efficiency of the building as a children's clinic has been kept a paramount factor. All this makes this building an outstanding one among those of this type.Los objetivos principales perseguidos aquí son: conseguir una eficaz vigilancia y protección de los niños; organizar los puestos de trabajo de las enfermeras para que resulten prácticos y agradables, y crear un ambiente familiar La clínica construida —como ampliación de las instalaciones que las Hermanas de San Benito poseen en la calle Lachner, en Munich— comprende dos cuerpos de edificio unidos, de 4 y 5 plantas de altura, respectivamente, y está distribuida del siguiente modo: el semisótano aloja, además de la zona de servicios, una serie de dependencias, que vienen descritas en la respectiva documentación gráfica. La planta baja alberga 25 camas; está destinada a los niños mayores y colegiales; la planta primera, con 30 camas, a los recién nacidos, y la planta segunda, con 30 camas, a la sección de prematuros

  9. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita; Luana de Decco Marchese; Danielle Warol Dias; Andressa Brasil Barbeito; Jonathan Costa Gomes; Maria Clara Soares Muradas; Pedro Gemal Lanzieri; Ronaldo Altenburg Gismondi

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiolo...

  10. Ihr Ticket fur Munchen (Your Ticket to Munich).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Debbie

    Texts accompanied by photographs and drawings introduce students to four means of public transportation and to major tourist attractions in Munich, German Federal Republic. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin, and texts are followed by questions and exercises. Some suggestions for additional activities are given in English. An appendix includes…

  11. Mobile Apps in Cardiology: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Herreros-González, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the deadliest diseases worldwide, with 17.3 million deaths in 2008 alone. Among them, heart-related deaths are of the utmost relevance; a fact easily proven by the 7.25 million deaths caused by ischemic heart disease alone in that year. The latest advances in smartphones and mHealth have been used in the creation of thousands of medical apps related to cardiology, which can help to reduce these mortality rates. Objective The aim of this paper is to study...

  12. Patient doses in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death in Spain. The most usual procedures in interventional cardiology are coronariography and PTCA. The first is a diagnostic technique, and the second one is interventional. Our goal has been to study procedures made during the first six months in the Interventional Cardiology Unit of the Juan Ramon Jimenez Hospital (Huelva-Spain), taking into account radiation protection issues. We have studied 178 patients; 145 of them underwent coronariography, and 33 of the patients had PTCA too. Every case was analyzed taking into account technical and dosimetric parameters. We show parameters values gathered: Diagnostic techniques (valvular and non-valvular patients), and interventional techniques (coronariography and PTCA in different or in the same intervention). Higher doses were obtained with valvular patients, although the number of frames was similar. Attending to therapeutic procedures, the highest values were gotten with the 'double' interventions. Interventional procedures exceed in 60% doses gotten in diagnostic studies: this is because of the number of series and number of frames per series. Similar values obtained by other authors have been gotten. (author)

  13. [Radiation protection in interventional cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    INTERVENTIONAL: cardiology progress makes each year a greater number of procedures and increasing complexity with a very good success rate. The problem is that this progress brings greater dose of radiation not only for the patient but to occupationally exposed workers as well. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability and use of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. PMID:26169040

  14. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male

  15. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15% studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16% laureates, and two (6% were women. Fourteen (42% were American, 15 (45% Europeans and four (13% were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  16. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15% studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16% laureates, and two (6% were women. Fourteen (42% were American, 15 (45% Europeans and four (13% were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  17. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg, E-mail: ronaldo@floralia.com.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  18. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  19. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  20. Instituto de bioquímica Munich - Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckert, -

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available This building, situated in Martinsried, Munich, was awarded the first prize in an international contest. It consists of 15 departments, basically meant for education and research. The complex occupies a large ground, with extensive green zones and covered passages that connect the different blocks, all of them very low: class rooms, testing rooms, electronic microscopy, library, social centre, restaurant auditorium, housing, etc.Este edificio, situado en Martinsried, Munich, fue seleccionado, con el primer premio, en un concurso internacional convocado al efecto. Comprende 15 departamentos destinados, fundamentalmente, a la enseñanza e investigación. El conjunto ocupa una amplia parcela, con profusión de zonas verdes y pasos cubiertos que enlazan los diferentes bloques, todos ellos de poca altura: clases, salas de ensayos, microscopía electrónica, biblioteca, centro social, restaurante, salón de actos, viviendas, etcétera.

  1. MAFF – The Munich accelerator for fission fragments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Beck; D Habs; P Reiter; P Thirolf; T Seiber; H Bongers; S Emhofer; H Maier

    2002-12-01

    At the new high flux reactor FRM-II in Munich the accelerator MAFF (Munich accelerator for fission fragments) is under design. In the high neutron flux of 1014 n/cm2 s up to 1014 neutron-rich fission fragments per second are produced in the 1 g U-235 target. Ions with an energy of 30 keV are extracted from the ion source. In the mass seperator two isotopes can be selected. One of the beams is used for low energy experiments, the other one is injected into an ECRIS (or EBIS) for charge breeding to a / ≥ 0.16. A gas filled RFQ cooler is used for emittance improvement. The subsequent LINAC delivers beams with an energy ranging from 3.7 MeV/u to 5.9 MeV/u. New IH structures are being developed at the Munich tandem laboratory. A small storage ring is planned in a further stage to recycle the fission fragments. A thin target foil can be placed into this ring, e.g., for synthesis of super-heavy elements. The through-going beam tube has been installed in the heavy water tank of the reactor. Tests of the target ion source in a special oven to test long term stability and safety tests were in progress.

  2. Summary of the 4th Annual Scientific Session of Cardiology in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伊丽

    2002-01-01

    @@ The 4th Annual Scientific Session of South China was held from April 5 ~ 8, 2002 in Guangzhou. More than one thousand cardiologists came from Guangzhou,Guangxi, Hunan and Hainan Province participated in the meeting and 143 abstracts were presented. A distinguished faculty from the United States, Canada,Germany, Britain, Honkong, Beijing and Shanghai were invited to join this conference and gave a series of special lectures about the newest advances in cardiology.

  3. [Over diagnostic imaging in cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpeggiani, Clara

    2014-03-01

    Medical imaging is one of the major cause of rising health care costs. Diagnostic imaging has increased more rapidly than any other component of medical care. About 5 billion imaging tests are performed worldwide each year. According to recent estimates, at least one-third of all examinations are partially or totally inappropriate. Two out of 3 imaging tests employ ionizing radiations with radiology or nuclear medicine. The medical use of radiation is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Medical X-rays and γ-rays are a proven human carcinogen. The attributable long-term extra-risk of cancer due to diagnostic testing is around 10% in industrialized countries. Cardiologists prescribe and/or directly perform >50% of all imaging examinations, accounting for about two-thirds of the total effective dose given to patients. The dose of common cardiological examinations may be significant: 500 chest X-rays= a stress scintigraphy with sestamibi, 750 chest X-rays= a Multislice Computed Tomography, 1,000 chest X-rays= a coronary angiography and stenting. Unfortunately, few doctors are aware of the level of radiation their patients are exposed to during radiological tests and more intensive use of ionizing testing was not associated with greater awareness. Also as a consequence of unawareness, the rate of inappropriate examinations is unacceptably high in cardiology, even for procedures with high radiation load. Higher exposure doses correspond to higher long-term risks; there are no safe doses, and all doses add up in determining the cumulative risks over a lifetime. Doctors should make every effort so that «each patient should get the right imaging exam, at the right time, with the right radiation dose», as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration in the 2010 initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. This is best obtained through a systematic implementation of the "3 A's strategy" proposed by the International Atomic Energy

  4. CSNI/NEA RASPLAV Seminar 2000, 14-15 November 2000, Munich, Germany - Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the RASPLAV Project was to provide data on the behaviour of molten core materials on the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions, and to assess the possible physicochemical interactions between molten corium and the vessel wall. Data were also obtained to confirm heat transfer modelling for a large convective corium pool within the lower head. The project consisted of the following components: - To provide data from large-scale integral experiments on the behaviour and interactions of prototypic core-melt materials within the lower head; - To perform small-scale corium experiments to measure the thermo-physical properties (density, electrical and thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc.) required for performing and interpreting the integral (large-scale) tests; - To determine the uncertainties introduced by using non-prototypic conditions and materials by means of the small-scale corium experiments; - To carry out the molten-salt experiments with the following objectives: - To study heat transfer processes in the melt; - To justify the choice of procedures for large-scale experiments, such as the heating method; To develop an understanding of relevant phenomena, such as crust formation, and non-eutectic materials behaviour; - To develop computer tools and models for analysis of results from the large-scale integral tests and the supporting small-scale experiments. During the first phase of the RASPLAV Project (1994-97) the large-scale experiments demonstrated clearly that behaviour of corium melts differed from that of simulant materials. Under certain conditions, the corium would separate into two layers that were enriched in zirconium or in uranium. The second phase of the RASPLAV Project started in July 1997 and concentrated on exploring the physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a convective molten pool. The effect of different corium compositions, the potential for and the effects of material stratification and the influence of various boundary conditions were investigated. The work involved a combination of integral and separate effect tests including molten-salt tests to investigate non-eutectic mixtures and the effects of stratification, extension of the material property database to allow interpretation and modelling of the experimental data. The CSNI decided to hold a seminar where the major outcome of the RASPLAV Project could be presented and discussed also in the context of other experienced activities on Severe Accidents. The objectives of the seminar are: - to review the experimental results of the RASPLAV Project; - to exchange information on complementary research; - to discuss the progress made on understanding severe accident progression; - to discuss the applicability to nuclear power plants and use of the results. The Seminar was intended to provide an in-depth review of the RASPLAV Project in terms of the technical capabilities, results and analyses produced during the project execution. The application of the results and their significance for power plant applications were addressed. Relevant results of the complementary research carried out at various laboratories were also presented. The seminar consisted of five sessions. The abstracts of the presentations are given in the appendix, as well as the list of participants and the conference program

  5. Thermohydraulic and mechanical analysis of the research reactor Munich II Compact-Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new research reactor Munich II (Forschungsreaktor Muenchen II, FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University of Munich, Germany, contains a compact reactor core consisting of one single fuel element, assembled by two concentric tubes between which 113 involutely bent fuel plates are located rotationally symmetric. In order to perform the hydraulic and mechanical testing of the FRM-II fuel element, two test facilities have been built at the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr University Bochum. The first mocks up the central region of the reactor coolant system of the FRM-II in a 1:1 scale with emphasis on the fuel element and the inflow and discharge section in order to enable the analysis of the FRM-II core. In the course of the testing the vibration behaviour and the flow resistance of the core were investigated. Likewise start-up and shut down tests of the main pump unit were simulated and the flow profile at the outlet of the element as well as the flow division inside the core were determined. Furthermore an endurance test lasting 60 days (equivalent to 12 operating cycles) was performed, too. Tests including blockages of parts of the reactor cooling system cross section at the core entrance sieve proved the efficiency of the cooling capacity. No major resonances occurred during operation and an endurance test neither showed any incidents nor irregularities. In order to investigate the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II a second test facility was built. This facility simulates the thermohydraulic conditions in one cooling channel of the FRM-II by means of an electrically heated test section, which enables different operating conditions of the decay heat removal system as well as enhanced safety investigations. In the FRM-II the decay heat, which is produced after a shutdown, is removed by means of decay heat removal pumps, which maintain a downward flow in the fuel element for at least three hours

  6. Nuclear cardiology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of nuclear medicine in developing countries must be oriented to the local needs for clinical practice, the health care of large populations and the demands for research with sometimes extremely limited resources. To help define the locally differing needs, it is stressed that nuclear medicine provides the unique opportunity to observe the body at the molecular level of organization and thus makes the body biochemically transparent. Depending on the particular diagnostic demands, complex imaging with gamma scintigraphy or emission tomography may be the only method to choose in some instances, but for others it may be an unnecessary luxury. Nuclear cardiology, with the purpose of non-invasively assessing cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and myocardial metabolism, is a particular challenge in both respects for developing countries. Given such requirements, single-probe devices with multipurpose application are less expensive than gamma cameras and promise advanced diagnostic uses. In one examination, left ventricular function, global cardio-pulmonary circulation and the general circulatory adaptation to exercise can be investigated by non-gated simultaneous blood pool measurements over four lung regions, the heart and the liver. In addition, such devices have the advantages of compactness, robustness and electronic stability. Despite enormous difficulties regarding funding, infrastructure, equipment and maintenance, developing countries should be encouraged to participate in the evolution of nuclear medicine by responding and adapting to defined needs and perhaps by maintaining at least one national centre of excellence with capacities for research and training. Funds are best secured by providing an indispensable service in co-operation with the various clinical disciplines. (author)

  7. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart Diseases represent the first cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2011); 80% of these deaths in developing countries (WHO, 2011); Coronary Heart Disease is responsible of 69% of all cardiovascular deaths. In Cuba, National programs have been developed to control the most important associated coronary risk factors; Research projects have been also carried out as part of the Ministry of Public Health’s program on non-transmissible chronic diseases; Strengthening of Nuclear Cardiology in Cuba, as well as its adequate integration in a diagnosis algorithm, focusing on improving the quality of medical care, in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recommendations: Extend Nuclear Cardiology throughout the country; Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology; Develop coronary flow and metabolic studies with PET; Introducing studying adrenergic innervation; Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology; Set up committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in cardiology in accordance with the possibilities and resources of Cuba, aimed at the implementation of a medicine individualized for patients. (author)

  8. Assessing and Reducing Exposures to Cardiology Staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology and interventional cardiology practices represent the highest radiological workload in hospitals and have the potential for high exposures to staff operating near patients. The IAEA has promoted the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR) project where the working group on interventional cardiology assessed levels of exposure and methods applied for individual monitoring, and designed an international database of occupational exposures. Worldwide surveys of interventional cardiologists from 32 countries and 81 regulatory bodies from 55 countries provided information on dosimetry practice: only 57% of regulatory bodies define the number and/or position of dosimeters for staff monitoring and less than 40% could provide doses. The survey results proved poor compliance with staff monitoring recommendations in a large fraction of hospitals and the need for staff monitoring harmonization and monitoring technology advancements. Given the new occupational dose limit for the lens of the eye, the existence of high eye doses in interventional cardiology practice and the general lack of knowledge of actual eye doses in interventional cardiology (and other similar interventional practices), ISEMIR recommends improving training in occupational radiation protection and monitoring methods for assessing eye lens doses, and urging hospital management to utilize the international database under development for benchmarking occupational doses in interventional cardiology and, hence, improve optimization of protection. (author)

  9. Safe sedation in modern cardiological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Stephen S; Sneyd, J Robert

    2015-10-01

    Safe sedation is fundamental to many modern cardiological procedures, and following the publication of the report on safe sedation by the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, this report discusses sedation specifically in cardiological practice. The major areas within cardiology that use sedation are cardioversion, catheter ablation particularly of atrial fibrillation, transoesophageal echocardiography, implantable device (cardiovascular implantable electronic device) procedures and other procedures such as transcatheter aortic valve replacement. There is increasing demand for cardiological sedation but there is wide geographical variation in its use and there are also growing data to support non-anaesthetists giving sedation. The use of benzodiazepines, particularly for short procedures, is common, but even here good record-keeping and audit together with an understanding of the continuum of sedation and having appropriately trained staff and the necessary facilities are vital. Nurse administration of propofol may be appropriate for some procedures in cardiology that require at least moderate sedation. Appropriate training is essential and the use of capnography and target controlled infusion pumps for propofol administration is recommended. PMID:26085525

  10. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  11. New MWPCs for the Munich Q3D spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A position sensitive detector - for light particles - of about 150 cm length and a resolution of proportional0.5 mm is needed for the Munich Q3D spectrograph. For high resolution this detector must follow the curvature ofthe Q3Dsup(s) focal surface. As a substitute for the MWPC of Glaessel two new detectors, a short one (proportional28 cm) and a long one (2 m) of the same type were constructed. The main features are: wire-spacing 0.5 mm, wire thickness 8 μm, particle detection from each position separately, total energy measurement in a subsequent plastic scintillator and thus ΔE/E particle discrimination. The design of the detectors, the associated electronics and their performance in measurements since spring 1981 (short detector) and spring 1982 (long detector) respectively are reported. (orig.)

  12. Major maintenance of the Munich MP-tandem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenzer, H.; Carli, W.; Hartung, P.; Jakob, H.; Nocker, H.; Rohrer, L.; Schnitter, H.; Assmann, W.; Maier, H.J.; Machlitt, N.

    1988-05-20

    Several measures have been taken to restore the voltage performance of the Munich tandem. 1. All accelerator tubes were reconditioned by sandblasting, new electrodes and diaphragms were inserted and preassembled groups of tubes were baked in high vacuum. 2. All other vacuum components were cleaned, baked in high vacuum and partly pressure leak tested outside the tandem. 3. High voltage tests were performed with tubes. Without portico voltages up to 16 MV were obtained, with portico up to 17.5 MV. 4. Some modifications (e.g. infrared light links) were introduced. The shutdown lasted 6 months. In March 1987 beam operation was resumed at moderate terminal voltages, interrupted by intervals of soft conditioning.

  13. Major maintenance of the Munich MP-tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, H.; Carli, W.; Hartung, P.; Jakob, H.; Nocker, H.; Rohrer, L.; Schnitter, H.; Assmann, W.; Maier, H. J.; Machlitt, N.; Steffens, H.

    1988-05-01

    Several measures have been taken to restore the voltage performance of the Munich tandem. 1. All accelerator tubes were reconditioned by sandblasting, new electrodes and diaphragms were inserted and preassembled groups of tubes were baked in high vacuum. 2. All other vacuum components were cleaned, baked in high vacuum and partly pressure leak tested outside the tandem. 3. High voltage tests were performed with tubes. Without portico voltages up to 16 MV were obtained, with portico up to 17.5 MV. 4. Some modifications (e.g. infrared light links) were introduced. The shutdown lasted 6 months. In March 1987 beam operation was resumed at moderate terminal voltages, interrupted by intervals of soft conditioning.

  14. Cologne Consensus Conference, Management of Conflict of Interest, 12 and 13 September 2014, Cologne, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Simper, Julie

    2015-01-01

    On 12–13 September 2014 the third annual Cologne Consensus Conference (CCC) was held in Cologne, Germany. The two-day educational event was organised by the European Cardiology Section Foundation (ECSF) and the European Board for Accreditation in Cardiology (EBAC), a specialty CME-CPD accreditation board of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The conference was planned in cooperation with an impressive group of international organisations and faculty members representing leading...

  15. Cardiac magnetic resonance in clinical cardiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas; Kumar; Rodrigo; Bagur

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, cardiac magnetic resonance(CMR) has transformed from a research tool to a widely used diagnostic method in clinical cardiology. This method can now make useful, unique contributions to the work-up of patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease. Advantages of CMR, compared to other imaging methods, include very high resolution imaging with a spatial resolution up to 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm in plane, a large array of different imaging sequences to provide in vivo tissue characterization, and radiationfree imaging. The present manuscript highlights the relevance of CMR in the current clinical practice and new perspectives in cardiology.

  16. Evaluation of Cardiology Training and Manpower Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Forrest H., Ed.; Mendenhall, Robert C., Ed.

    Begun in June, 1971 and completed in October 1973, the study had the following specific goals: to define the cardiologist's role; to determine cardiology training program objectives; to determine manpower needs for cardiologists; and to determine the educational needs of cardiologists. The major information was sought from all active cardiologists…

  17. An Evaluation of a Clerkship In Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, John N.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Evaluation of the clinical clerkship in Cardiology for general practitioners proves there is an urgent need for continuing post graduate medical education for general practitioners. Clerkship was offered jointly by the Long Island College Hospital and the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York. (IR)

  18. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

  19. 36Cl measurements in Hiroshima granite samples as part of an international intercomparison study. Results from the Munich group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, T; Rühm, W; Hoshi, M; Egbert, S D; Nolte, E

    2003-04-01

    Within the effort to resolve the so-called Hiroshima neutron discrepancy, an international intercomparison study has been carried out on granite samples from Hiroshima, with participating institutions from Japan, the US, and Germany. (36)Cl and (152)Eu produced in these samples by thermal neutrons from the A-bomb explosion were assessed independently by means of different techniques. At the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory near Munich, Germany, (36)Cl concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios ranged from 1,670 x 10(-13) (at a distance of 146 m from the hypocenter) to 2.2 x 10(-13) (at a distance of 1,163 m from the hypocenter). One granite sample not exposed to A-bomb neutrons was measured as a control, and a (36)Cl/Cl ratio of 2.6 x 10(-13) was obtained. On average, our experimental results are 20-30% lower than those provided by model calculations based on the dosimetry system DS86. The results presented here do not support previous assessments of (36)Cl, (60)Co, and (152)Eu which had suggested much larger thermal neutron fluences than those calculated on the basis of DS86 for distances from the hypocenter of more than 1,000 m. PMID:12684827

  20. Latest version of the Munich pulsed low energy positron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further improvements of the Munich pulsed low energy positron system have been performed. A new chopper, configured as a double plate deflection system with an external resonator and a new buncher working like a classical double gap buncher, are implemented. The complete rf-power electronic was redesigned and operates now at an overall master-frequency of 50 MHz for all bunching and chopping components. A new target station with an enlarged Faraday cage is installed. The sample temperature is variable between 30 K and 600 K. Up to ten samples can be stored in a magazine and transferred under vacuum conditions to the measuring position. With a primary source of 30 mCi 22Na a count rate of up to 4 kHz can be achieved with a peak-to-background ratio of 3000:1. This ratio can be further improved by the use of a Wien filter. A beam diameter of about 2 mm was determined. The total time resolution (pulsing plus detector system) is 250 ps (FWHM). (orig.)

  1. The Munich Compact Light Source: initial performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Dierolf, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Jud, Christoph; Günther, Benedikt; Braig, Eva; Gleich, Bernhard; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-09-01

    While large-scale synchrotron sources provide a highly brilliant monochromatic X-ray beam, these X-ray sources are expensive in terms of installation and maintenance, and require large amounts of space due to the size of storage rings for GeV electrons. On the other hand, laboratory X-ray tube sources can easily be implemented in laboratories or hospitals with comparatively little cost, but their performance features a lower brilliance and a polychromatic spectrum creates problems with beam hardening artifacts for imaging experiments. Over the last decade, compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering have evolved as one of the most promising types of laboratory-scale X-ray sources: they provide a performance and brilliance that lie in between those of large-scale synchrotron sources and X-ray tube sources, with significantly reduced financial and spatial requirements. These sources produce X-rays through the collision of relativistic electrons with infrared laser photons. In this study, an analysis of the performance, such as X-ray flux, source size and spectra, of the first commercially sold compact light source, the Munich Compact Light Source, is presented. PMID:27577768

  2. Kak povlijajet prognoz Munich Re na vtoroi shag pensionnoi reformõ?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Maailma suurima kindlustusfirma Munich Re prognoos, et praegused kindlustajad elavad üle 90 aasta vanaks, selle mõjust meie pensionikindlustusele. Arvamust avaldavad Peeter Kreitzberg, Eret Võsa, Jaan Marks, Paavo Põld ja Olari Taal

  3. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  4. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... dissolution of open access and that the political system needs the capacity of efficiently creating legitimacy in order to sustain openness. The failure of Weimar Germany also indicates that the international political system might work as a destabilizing factor of open access and that the nation...

  5. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed...

  6. Onco-cardiology: Present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueta, Daisuke; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2016-07-15

    "Onco-cardiology" is a term that indicates cardiotoxicity during treatment of malignant diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that chemotherapy agents induce cardiotoxicity in certain ratios. In clinical settings, active malignant diseases or a history thereof are often encountered in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD); it is not uncommon for a patient to struggle with a prior treatment. We have previously demonstrated a close association between malignant diseases and coronary calcifications in coronary artery disease. The concurrence of arteriosclerotic diseases, including CVD, with malignant diseases should be carefully considered in clinical settings, particularly with regard to scheduled surgical procedures. Moreover, it is essential that all medical professionals associated with cancer care understand these associations. Our advocacy will provide new insight into onco-cardiology. PMID:27107544

  7. Use of smartphone technology in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang H; Silva, Jennifer N A

    2016-05-01

    Smartphone-based technologies along with broadband connectivity are changing the way modern cardiology is practiced. The ever broadening connectivity and increasing capabilities of smartphone-based technologies can better monitor, diagnose, and prevent cardiovascular diseases. Researchers can leverage the ubiquitous use of smartphone-based technologies and their constant stream of biometric data to establish large community-based clinical research studies. Patient engagement is enhanced with constant and on-demand access to physicians, daily self-monitoring, and expanding social networks. On the other hand, the exponential growth of smartphone-based technologies invariably disrupts the traditional healthcare model and leaves a vacuum in the infrastructure, medico-legal apparatus, and reimbursement systems that need to be addressed. In this review, we present a comprehensive discussion of the various applications utilizing smartphone-based technologies in cardiology. PMID:26686266

  8. Screening for mental disorders in cardiology outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, M.; Rasmussen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the frequency of mental disorders in cardiology outpatients to the number of patients with psychological problems identified by cardiologists. In a cardiology outpatient service, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these 86...... were included and screened for mental disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) psychosis screening, the Clock Drawing Test, and the WHO-5 Well-being Index. The cardiologists were asked to rate the severity of somatic and...... mental problems in each patient on visual analogue scales (VAS-som and VAS-men). The current treatments, including psychiatric and psychological treatments, were noted, and the survival was followed for 3 years. Of the 86 patients included, 34 (40%) had a diagnosis of mental disorder. Eleven (12.8%) had...

  9. Evaluating the benefits of nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the role of nuclear cardiology in the context of health care evaluation and resource utilisation. Nuclear cardiology procedures are used to detect disease, to define the extent of disease, to predict the outcome of therapy and to monitor the response to treatment. The evaluation of effectiveness will depend on the role for which the tests are being used. The evaluation of diagnostic tests most commonly follows the five level Fineberg classification. I) Technical capacity; II) diagnostic accuracy; III) diagnostic impact; IV) therapeutic impact; V) patient outcome. Tests may succeed or fail at each of these hierarchical levels. In addition to the clinical impact which is evaluated, the appropriate use of health care resources has to be considered , i.e. the cost effectiveness of the investigation. For this the costs of diagnosis and treatment in the resources used, together with the direct cost on the patient and patient carers needs to be considered. In addition to these direct costs to the community and to the patient and the carers the secondary downstream costs and opportunity costs have to be taken into account. The common methods for assessing the costs and benefits include cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cost utility, and cost benefit studies. The advantage and appropriate use of these methods are reviewed. There are seven clinical methods for evaluating diagnostics tests in nuclear cardiology which are: I) Case reports; II) consensus studies; III) databases; IV) management impact studies; V)modeling techniques; VI) management impact studies; VII) randomized control trial. Each of these has a role with advantages and disadvantages which are reviewed. It is no long sufficient to investigate the usefulness of a diagnostic test used in nuclear cardiology in isolation but it as to be within the context of the health care system and the resource used

  10. ICRP PUBLICATION 120: Radiological Protection in Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomography (CT), interventional cardiology procedures, and electrophysiology procedures are increasing in number and account for an important share of patient radiation exposure in medicine. Complex percutaneous coronary interventions and cardiac electrophysiology procedures are associated with high radiation doses. These procedures can result in patient skin doses that are high enough to cause radiation injury and an increased risk of cancer. Treatment of congenital heart disease in children is of particular concern. Additionally, staff in cardiac catheterisation laboratories may receive high doses of radiation if radiological protection tools are not used properly. The Commission provided recommendations for radiological protection during fluoroscopically guided interventions in Publication 85, for radiological protection in CT in Publications 87 and 102, and for training in radiological protection in Publication 113 (ICRP, 2000b,c, 2007a, 2009). This report is focused specifically on cardiology, and brings together information relevant to cardiology from the Commission’s published documents. There is emphasis on those imaging procedures and interventions specific to cardiology. The material and recommendations in the current document have been updated to reflect the most recent recommendations of the Commission. This report provides guidance to assist the cardiologist with justification procedures and optimisation of protection in cardiac CT studies, cardiac nuclear medicine studies, and fluoroscopically guided cardiac interventions. It includes discussions of the biological effects of radiation, principles of radiological protection, protection of staff during fluoroscopically guided interventions, radiological protection training, and establishment of a quality assurance programme for cardiac imaging and intervention. As tissue injury, principally skin injury, is a risk for fluoroscopically guided interventions

  11. Patient cumulative radiation exposure in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional cardiology procedures can involve potentially high doses of radiation to the patients. Stochastic effects of ionising radiation - radiation-induced cancers in the long term - may occur. We analysed clinical characteristics and dosimetric data in a population of patients undergoing interventional cardiology. In all, 1 591 patients who had undergone coronarography and/or angioplasty in the course of a year at the Saint-Gatien Clinic in Tours (France) were included. Information on patients' individual clinical characteristics and Dose-Area Product values were collected. Organ doses to the lung, oesophagus, bone marrow and breast were mathematically evaluated. The median age of patients was 70 years. Their median cumulative dose-area product value was 48.4 Gy.cm2 for the whole year and the median effective dose was 9.7 mSv. The median organ doses were 41 mGy for the lung, 31 mGy for the oesophagus, 10 mGy for the bone marrow and 4 mGy for the breast. Levels of doses close to the heart appear to be rather high in the case of repeated interventional cardiology procedures. Clinical characteristics should be taken into account when planning epidemiological studies on potential radiation-induced cancers. (authors)

  12. Acceptance testing and QA in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology has seen rapid growth in the field of cardiology over the past decade. This growth has been facilitated by advances in imaging technology and the development of increasingly sophisticated dedicated radiological equipment. Interventional cardiology (IC) procedures are complex and may involve prolonged irradiations, which may subject patients and operators to higher levels of risk than those, which normally prevail. Currently interventional cardiology contributes over 10% to annual collective dose in the UK in spite of contributing to a total annual frequency of 0.68%. The EU Medical Exposures Directive, 97/43/Euratom, identifies interventional radiology as an area of special concern. Acceptance testing and routine quality assurance (QA) programmes are particularly important in the field of interventional cardiology given the above. The requirements for acceptance testing and QA are underpinned in the EU Medical Exposures Directive and consequent national legislation. A QA survey of 16 interventional cardiology systems in Ireland was carried out by the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St. James's Hospital, Dublin. This is the continuation of a recently published survey and represents over half of the interventional cardiology systems in Ireland including new technology digital flat panel systems and dedicated mobile equipment in trailors. Acceptance testing and QA protocols were developed and reviewed in accordance with current international and national guidelines, standards and literature. Testing included assessing the performance of the X ray tube and generator, the automatic exposure control (AEC) device in fluoroscopy and digital acquisition modes and a subjective assessment of image quality using the Leeds test objects. Radiation shielding calculations and measurements were performed to determine the structural shielding required by new installations and electrical, mechanical and general radiation safety was also

  13. Vaccination: Developing and implementing a competency-based-curriculum at the Medical Faculty of LMU Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, B.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Germany medical students should gain proficiency and specific skills in the vaccination field. Especially important is the efficient communication of scientific results about vaccinations to the community, in order to give professional counseling with a complete overview about therapeutic options.Aim of the project: The aim of this project is to set up a vaccination-related curriculum in the Medical Faculty at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. The structure of the curriculum is based on the National catalogue for competency-based learning objectives in the field of vaccination (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielekatalog Medizin NKLM. Through this curriculum, the students will not only acquire the classical educational skills concerning vaccination in theory and practice, but they will also learn how to become independent in the decision-making process and counseling. Moreover, the students will become aware of consequences of action related to this specific topic.Methods: According to defined guidelines, an analysis was performed on courses, which are currently offered by the university. A separate analysis of the NKLM was carried out. Both analyses identified the active courses related to the topic of vaccination as well as the NKLM learning objectives. The match between the topics taught in current courses and the NKLM learning objectives identified gaps concerning the teaching of specific content. Courses were modified in order to implement the missing NKLM learning objectives.Results: These analyses identified 24 vaccination-related courses, which are currently taught at the University. Meanwhile, 35 learning objectives on vaccination were identified in the NKLM catalogue. Four of which were identified as not yet part of the teaching program. In summary, this interdisciplinary work enabled the development of a new vaccination-related curriculum, including 35 learning objectives, which are now implemented in

  14. The impact of the social environment on children's mental health in a prosperous city: an analysis with data from the city of Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spies Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with a low socioeconomic position are more affected by mental difficulties as compared to children with a higher socioeconomic position. This paper explores whether this socioeconomic pattern persists in the prosperous German city of Munich which features high quality of life and coverage of children mental health specialists that lies well above the national average and is among the highest in Europe. Methods 1,265 parents of preschool children participated in a cross-sectional health survey. They were given a self-administered questionnaire (including socioeconomic variables and the 'Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ', a well-established method to identify mental difficulties among children and adolescents. Prevalence estimates for the 'SDQ-Total Difficulties Score' were calculated, with a special focus on differences by parental (resp. household socioeconomic position. The association between parental education, household income, single parenthood, nationality, and parental working status on one hand, and their children's mental health on the other, was explored using multivariable logistic regression models. The coverage of mental health specialists per 100,000 children aged 14 or younger in the city of Munich was also calculated. Results In Munich, the distribution of mental health difficulties among children follows the same socioeconomic pattern as described previously at the national level, but the overall prevalence is about 30% lower. Comparing different indicators of socioeconomic position, low parental education and household income are the strongest independent variables associated with mental difficulties among children (OR = 2.7; CI = 1.6 - 4.4 and OR = 2.8; CI = 1.4 - 5.6, respectively. Conclusions Socioeconomic differences in the prevalence of childhood mental difficulties are very stable. Even in a city such as Munich, which is characterized by high quality of life, high availability of

  15. A case study of technology transfer: Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, G.

    1974-01-01

    Research advancements in cardiology instrumentation and techniques are summarized. Emphasis is placed upon the following techniques: (1) development of electrodes which show good skin compatibility and wearer comfort; (2) contourography - a real time display system for showing the results of EKGs; (3) detection of arteriosclerosis by digital computer processing of X-ray photos; (4) automated, noninvasive systems for blood pressure measurement; (5) ultrasonoscope - a noninvasive device for use in diagnosis of aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve disease; and (6) rechargable cardiac pacemakers. The formation of a biomedical applications team which is an interdisciplinary team to bridge the gap between the developers and users of technology is described.

  16. Experiences with publicly promoted solar plants in Munich, the capital of Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare, execute, and evaluate a poll among all the operators of solar heating plants promoted by the 'Foerderprogramm Energieeinsparung der Landeshauptstadt Muenchen' (Energy Conservation Promotion Programme for Munich). In the period from 1989 to April 1992 grants of upto 30% of investment costs were accorded by the city administration of Munich for solar heating plants and the technical energy conserving measures, notably high-efficiency boilers and some photovoltaic plants. The principal upper limit for grants was 25,000 DM per one or two-family house plus another 4.000 DM in certain borderline cases. Until early 1992 more than 350 households had made use of the grants offered by the Munich administration through this programme to finance thir solar heating plant. (orig.)

  17. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  18. Cardiological telemonitoring in rehabilitation and sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainoras, Alfonsas; Marozas, Vaidotas; Korsakas, Stasys; Gargasas, Liudas; Siupsinskas, Laimonas; Miskinis, Vytenis

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the development results of teleconsultative cardiology systems and their application in rehabilitation and sport medicine. The first teleconsultative cardiology (TELECARD) system was developed for outpatient departments in the city of Kaunas, using Internet links. It was based on the CompCardioSignal terminal. One branch of the TELECARD system with a mobile CompCardioSignal terminal was used for functional state evaluation of Lithuanian sportsmen during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. The examined results have shown that every sportsman responded differently to acclimatization and the TELECARD system provided support to physicians and coaches for making optimal decisions regarding the sportsmen's adaptation and other situations. The final telemetry system was used for rower monitoring. It was based on the new CompCardioSignal terminal with three EASI ECG leads and synchronously recorded motion signals for evaluation of human reaction to physical load. The developed telemonitoring systems were a useful tool for evaluation of human reaction to physical load in rehabilitation and sports activities. PMID:15718601

  19. The use of MR in cardiological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image diagnostics is playing an important role in cardiology, and magnetic resonance tomography (MR) is one of many methods used in examinations of the heart. Based on studies of the literature and his own experience the author surveys the potential of MR in today's and tomorrow's diagnostics of heart diseases. Among the image diagnostic methods MR is the one that can give the most extensive information about the heart's anatomy and function. In a non-invasive way and without the use of ionizing radiation, MR can represent the anatomy in selectable planes, visualize and quantify the heart's pumping function and functioning of the cardiac valves, and give detailed information about the regional contractility, blood flow and viability of myocard. MR is capable of giving important and to some extent unique contributions to heart diseases, both congenital and contracted heart disease. Because of failing availability and competence MR is still little used in cardiological diagnostics, but the method undoubtedly has the potential to play a very important role in the future

  20. Cegelec Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  1. Innovative heating supply for Munich-Freiham; Innovative Waermeversorgung fuer Muenchen-Freiham

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieger, Christian; Gruber, Anna; Koell, Lorenz [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Mauch, Wolfgang [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Pletl, Christian [SWM Services GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Konzeption Erzeugungsanlagen

    2009-07-01

    On the western outskirts of Munich the development of the new centre of settlement Freiham is planned. On approximately 350 hectares a completely new district will be created, making a balance between space for living, working and relaxation. The article compares the heating supply from a low-temperature geothermal system with a decentralized heating supply. (orig.)

  2. The place of imagery in cardiology: some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present five cases to illustrate the diagnostic procedure that can be used in cardiology and the importance of imagery techniques. For each case the article shows the reason for the choice of technique and the limits to diagnosis

  3. Columbus VIII - Symposium on Space Station Utilization, 8th, Munich, Germany, Mar. 30-Apr. 4, 1992, Selected Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The symposium includes topics on the Columbus Programme and Precursor missions, the user support and ground infrastructure, the scientific requirements for the Columbus payloads, the payload operations, and the Mir missions. Papers are presented on Columbus Precursor Spacelab missions, the role of the APM Centre in the support of Columbus Precursor flights, the refined decentralized concept and development support, the Microgravity Advanced Research and Support (MARS) Center update, and the Columbus payload requirements in human physiology. Attention is also given to the fluid science users requirements, European space science and Space Station Freedom, payload operations for the Precursor Mission E1, and the strategic role of automation and robotics for Columbus utilization. Other papers are on a joint Austro-Soviet space project AUSTROMIR-91; a study of cognitive functions in microgravity, COGIMIR; the influence of microgravity on immune system and genetic information; and the Mir'92 project. (For individual items see A93-26552 to A93-26573)

  4. Preliminary reference levels in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the European DIMOND approach to defining reference levels (RLs) for radiation doses delivered to patients during two types of invasive cardiology procedures, namely coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Representative centres of six European countries recorded patients' doses in terms of dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time and number of radiographic exposures, using X-ray equipment that has been subject to constancy testing. In addition, a DAP trigger level for cardiac procedures which should alert the operator to possible skin injury, was set to 300 Gy x cm2. The estimation of maximum skin dose was recommended in the event that a DAP trigger level was likely to be exceeded. The proposed RLs for CA and PTCA were for DAP 45 Gy x cm2 and 75 Gy x cm2, for fluoroscopy time 7.5 min and 17 min and for number of frames 1250 and 1300, respectively. The proposed RLs should be considered as a first approach to help in the optimisation of these procedures. More studies are required to establish certain ''tolerances'' from the proposed levels taking into account the complexity of the procedure and the patient's size. (orig.)

  5. Radiography in cardiology [cardiac disorders, cardiac insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic procedure in cardiology nearly always requires an X-ray examination of the thorax. This examination is very informative when it is correctly performed and interpreted. The radiographs need to be read precisely and comprehensively: this includes the evaluation of the silhouette of the heart (size, form and position) as well as the examination of extra-cardiac thoracic structures allowing among other things to search for signs of cardiac insufficiency. The conclusion of the X-ray examination can be drawn after having brought together information concerning the case history, the clinical examination and the study of the radiographs. The radiologist finds himself in one of three situations: (1) the information provided by the X-ray pictures is characteristic of a disease and permits a diagnosis, (2) the X-ray pictures indicate a group of hypotheses; further complementary tests could be useful and (3) the X-ray pictures provide ambiguous even contradictory information; it is necessary to complete the radiological examination by other techniques such as an ultrasonographic study of the heart

  6. Filter's importance in nuclear cardiology imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality which employs tomography procedures for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. One of the most commonly used apparatus is the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). To perform exams, a very small amount of a radiopharmaceutical must be given to the patient. Then, a gamma camera is placed in convenient positions to perform the photon counting, which is used to reconstruct a full 3 dimensional distribution of the radionuclide inside the body or organ. This reconstruction provides a 3-dimensional image in spatial coordinates, of the body or organ under study, allowing the physician to give the diagnostic. Image reconstruction is usually worked in the frequency domain, due to a great simplification introduced by the Fourier decomposition of image spectra. After the reconstruction, an inverse Fourier transform must be applied to trace back the image into spatial coordinates. To optimize this reconstruction procedure, digital filters are used to remove undesirable components of frequency, which can 'shadow' relevant physical signatures of diseases. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the applied filter is strongly dependent on its own mathematical parameters. In this work we demonstrate how filters interfere on image quality in cardiology examinations with SPECT, concerning perfusion and myocardial viability and the importance of the medical physicist in the choice of the right filters avoiding some serious problems that could occur in the inadequate processing of an image damaging the medical diagnosis. (author)

  7. Cardiology education using hypermedia and digital imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, J W; Andrews, L T; Leighton, R F

    1992-07-01

    A computer-based educational system for the study of cardiovascular imaging is described. This system, based on HyperCard * and a standard Macintosh II, integrates hypertext retrieval, computer graphics, sound, and medical images into a single interactive environment stored on a standard hard disk. This 'hypermedia' approach allows arbitrary complexity coupled with direct, immediate, easy traversal of the images and related text, which provides the opportunity for students to move at their own pace, choose their own direction through the material and repeat as often as desired. Storage on magnetic medium allows for easy updating with new studies and material in order to keep pace with advances in medical imaging technology. The system could be mastered onto CD-ROM for ease of distribution if so desired. The system includes a tutorial on the basics of digital image representation and example studies from cineangiography, nuclear medicine, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the heart. Quantitative techniques for evaluation of left ventricular function are explained using computer graphics overlays on the original medical images. Color encoded functional images are also included as an aid to visualization of ventricular performance data. The system has proven useful as a primer for digital imaging in cardiology prior to specific case study in a traditional mentor relationship. PMID:1458869

  8. Toward a personal health society in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayn, Jocelyne; Rubel, Paul

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new generation of health services that has emerged due to the development of advanced information and communication technology (ICT) solutions, like the Enhanced Personal, Intelligent, and Mobile system for Early Detection and Interpretation of Cardiac Syndromes (EPI-MEDICS). It is a personal self-care system that allows any citizen to self-record high-quality ECGs on demand with a smart portable device, which is endowed with powerful ICT capabilities: self-adaptive embedded intelligence, mobile health record management support on SmartMedia card, embedded Web server, and wireless communication. The EPI-MEDICS solution design also provides ambient, intelligent, and pervasive computing services offering any citizen a ubiquitous, reliable, and efficient management of his/her own cardiac status. A multicentric evaluation performed in Europe with a series of device prototypes and the performance assessment of the original methods of signal synthesis that were designed to guarantee a high interoperability level of the recorded data within the clinical practice, as well as of the decision-support methodologies that were developed for an early detection of life-threatening myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia, at home or anywhere, demonstrate the pertinence of going toward a personal health society in cardiology, which still yields the highest mortality rate in industrialized countries. PMID:20007033

  9. Recent advances of MIBG imaging in cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function both in healthy subjects and in patients with heart disease. Cardiac neurotransmission imaging allows in vivo noninvasive assessment of presynaptic storage, release and reuptake of neurotransmitters. Iodine-123 labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is an analogue of the sympatholytic agent guanethidine and behaves in a manner that is similar to norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system in the heart. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of MIBG uptake and washout kinetics has evaluated alterations of the cardiac sympathetic function in various heart diseases, such as cardiomyopathies, coronary artery disease, diabetic heart and arrhythmias. As reduced MIBG uptake has been related to the clinical indices of severity and prognosis, it can be used to evaluate the therapeutic effects on the cardiac sympathetic dysfunction. For example, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers which have been shown to improve functional capacity and prognosis in patients with heart failure, have been demonstrated to increase MIBG uptake and reduce its washout rate in these patients, indicating favorable effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Thus, MIBG imaging has become a promising noninvasive tool and a widely available modality for the assessment of prognosis and effects of medical therapy in various forms of cardiac pathology. The usefulness and recent advances of MIBG imaging in cardiology will be noted in this article. (author)

  10. Munich case, some decisions make great stories: Business Model innovation by means of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Donaire, Silvia; Olivé Tomàs, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to identify how Social Media influences the way the business is managed and/or innovated. To evaluate this Business Model Innovation we have conducted a case study that assesses how strategic choices made by managers, due to the implementation of Social Media, influences Business Model Innovation. The contribution of this article throughout the company’s history, Munich case, allows us to see how Munich’s Business Model has been innovated, and how Social ...

  11. Administrative Court of Munich, judgement of June 26, 1985 (security of nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision of the Administrative Court of Munich is dealing with the protection of the nuclear power station of Isar I in Ohu. The use of shotguns for the protection of objects and persons ouside of private properties is a danger for public security. Consequently shotguns are not qualified for the protection of nuclear power stations (sec. 7 para. 2 No. 5 of the Atomic Energy Act). (CW)

  12. Regional income and employment effects of the 1972 Munich Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmand, Stephanie; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Olympic Games may have impacts on income and employment in the host city, but no ex post study has been carried out for European Olympic host cities to date. The present study closes this gap using the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. The data period examined in this study allows for analysis of long-term effects. In addition, the methodology avoids overestimating the significance of the effects. Finally, we report results for all possible combinations of pre- and post-Olympic p...

  13. Beyond victimhood. The struggle of Munich anatomist Titus von Lanz during National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Mathias; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2015-09-01

    The article analyzes the life and career of the anatomist Titus von Lanz (1897-1967) of Munich focusing on the period of National Socialism (NS). Von Lanz lost his position as an associate professor at the Anatomical Institute of Munich University because of his marriage to a "half-Jewish" woman in 1938. In contrast to most of his colleagues affected by National Socialist measures, von Lanz had opportunities to save his career and made extensive use of them. His story is that of a complicated struggle for the continuation of his work, involving a wide range of supporters from prestigious physicians to high-ranking National Socialist officials as well as the alienation of his colleagues at the Munich department of anatomy. The article tries to clarify these developments through the presentation of his social background, his supporters, his enemies, the research he conducted during NS and von Lanz' own remembrance of these developments from the post-war period. It aims at laying out a critical appreciation of his motives and actions, thereby contributing to the understanding of individual behavior of anatomists under NS. PMID:26208340

  14. Meaningful, entertaining, popular and ‘Bavarian’: art into design in nineteenth century Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among European regional stereotypes few come across as strongly and consistently as ‘Bavaria’. Its strength is derived from the ways in which it appears to be firmly and comprehensively grounded in its land and its people. This article traces the way in which some of the stereotype’s associated forms and images, principally those related to the domestic environment, were first conceived during the nineteenth century. The principal claim is that it was the nineteenth century artists, architects and designers in the Kunststadt Munich, who, helped by the critics, arrived at very specific valorisations of their designs, which could then be applied in an essentialist way to all artefacts of the region, old or new. The article divides the Munich design activities into two phases. During the 1850s designers aimed for a poetic and ‘volkstümlich / popular’ kind of decoration of common objects, including scenes from Bavarian ‘folk’ poetry. In the second phase, during the 1870s and 1880s, interest turned more directly to the domestic environment of Alpine houses, valorising a plain wooden character. Clearly, an absolute belief in in a primeval and unchanging ‘Bavaria’ cannot be entertained any more. But neither should one classify it all as modern kitsch. The latter attitude must be the reason why the subject has hardly been touched on in the copious art histories of Munich so far.

  15. Occupational dose measurement in interventional cardiology, dosimetry comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of cardiology interventional procedures has significantly increased recently. This is due to the reliability of the diagnostic equipment to diagnose many heart disease. In the procedures the x-ray used results in increasing radiation doses to the staff. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and receive the dose primarily from scattered radiation from the patient. Therefore workers in interventional cardiology are expected to receive high doses. This study overviews the status of occupational exposure at the three cardiology centers at three different hospitals in Khartoum compared with that received by workers at other medical practices (radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology) in the Institute of Nuclear and Technology (INMO) at El Gezira. The TLD Harshaw 6600 reader was used in the assessment of effective dose for Hp (10). Two TLDs were used by each worker at the three cardiology centres, one worn under a protective apron and the other worn outside and above the apron as specified by the ICRP. Each worker at the other sections was facilitated with one dosimeter to be worn on the chest. The annual doses received by 14 cardiologists, 13 nurses and 9 technologists at the three cardiology centres were in the range: (0.84-4.77), (0.15-2.08), (0.32-1.10) mSv respectively. In the INMO the annual doses received by 7 doctors, 5 nurses and 14 technologists were in the range: (0.12-0.51), (0.11-0.65), (0.03-1.39) mSv respectively. The results showed that the annual doses received by the workers do not exceed 20 mSv. The study also indicated that doses received by workers in interventional cardiology, in particular the cardiologists are high compared to that received at the other medical sections.(Author)

  16. Hot topics in cardiology: data from IABP-SHOCK II, TRILOGY-ACS, WOEST, ALTIDUDE, FAME II and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukena, Christian; Böhm, Michael; Schirmer, Stephan H

    2012-11-01

    This summary article provides an update on novel clinical trials in the field of cardiovascular medicine which were presented at the annual meeting of the European Cardiac Society, held in Munich, Germany, in August 2012. The data were presented by leading experts in the field with relevant positions in the trials and registries. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary data as the analysis may change in the final publications. This article provides the reader with comprehensive summaries of the most recent diagnostic and therapeutic developments in cardiovascular medicine as previously reported (Walenta et al. in Clin Res Cardiol 100:955-971, 2011; Schirmer et al. in Clin Res Cardiol 98:691-699, 2009). PMID:23064855

  17. Defining displacements of bridges with geodetic methods on an example of a highway bridge Freimann in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Saša

    2009-01-01

    These theses discuss a highway bridge Freimann in Germany. This is around 600 m long and up to 40 m wide bridge in Munich. Because of necessary renovation was bridge longitudinal sawn into two parts. This procedure lasted 20 days. Whole length was divided on 20 spans. Discussed are data for length between three successive spans. Work on this area last two days. Measured were seven time cycles. Described is preparation on geodetic survey, course of survey, analyses of results and deformation m...

  18. Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Description and Evaluation of a Novel Intensive Training Program for Pediatric Cardiology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2016-06-01

    The transition from residency to subspecialty fellowship in a procedurally driven field such as pediatric cardiology is challenging for trainees. We describe and assess the educational value of a pediatric cardiology "boot camp" educational tool designed to help prepare trainees for cardiology fellowship. A two-day intensive training program was provided for pediatric cardiology fellows in July 2015 at a large fellowship training program. Hands-on experiences and simulations were provided in: anatomy, auscultation, echocardiography, catheterization, cardiovascular intensive care (CVICU), electrophysiology (EP), heart failure, and cardiac surgery. Knowledge-based exams as well as surveys were completed by each participant pre-training and post-training. Pre- and post-exam results were compared via paired t tests, and survey results were compared via Wilcoxon rank sum. A total of eight participants were included. After boot camp, there was a significant improvement between pre- and post-exam scores (PRE 54 ± 9 % vs. POST 85 ± 8 %; p ≤ 0.001). On pre-training survey, the most common concerns about starting fellowship included: CVICU emergencies, technical aspects of the catheterization/EP labs, using temporary and permanent pacemakers/implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), and ECG interpretation. Comparing pre- and post-surveys, there was a statistically significant improvement in the participants comfort level in 33 of 36 (92 %) areas of assessment. All participants (8/8, 100 %) strongly agreed that the boot camp was a valuable learning experience and helped to alleviate anxieties about the start of fellowship. A pediatric cardiology boot camp experience at the start of cardiology fellowship can provide a strong foundation and serve as an educational springboard for pediatric cardiology fellows. PMID:26961569

  19. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, S; Delgado Soler, C; Ginjaume, M; Beltran Vilagrasa, M; Rovira Escutia, J J; Duch, M A

    2015-07-01

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y(-1), averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y(-1). This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y(-1). Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y(-1). It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. PMID:25809107

  20. Contrast-induced nephropathy in interventional cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsky D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Doron Sudarsky, Eugenia NikolskyCardiology Department, Rambam Health Care Campus and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN, ie, a rise in serum creatinine by either ≥0.5 mg/dL or by ≥25% from baseline within the first 2–3 days after contrast administration, is strongly associated with both increased inhospital and late morbidity and mortality after invasive cardiac procedures. The prevention of CIN is critical if long-term outcomes are to be optimized after percutaneous coronary intervention. The prevalence of CIN in patients receiving contrast varies markedly (from <1% to 50%, depending on the presence of well characterized risk factors, the most important of which are baseline chronic renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Other risk factors include advanced age, anemia, left ventricular dysfunction, dehydration, hypotension, renal transplant, low serum albumin, concomitant use of nephrotoxins, and the volume of contrast agent. The pathophysiology of CIN is likely to be multifactorial, including direct cytotoxicity, apoptosis, disturbances in intrarenal hemodynamics, and immune mechanisms. Few strategies have been shown to be effective to prevent CIN beyond hydration, the goal of which is to establish brisk diuresis prior to contrast administration, and to avoid hypotension. New strategies of controlled hydration and diuresis are promising. Studies are mixed on whether prophylactic oral N-acetylcysteine reduces the incidence of CIN, although its use is generally recommended, given its low cost and favorable side effect profile. Agents which have been shown to be ineffective or harmful, or for which data supporting routine use do not exist, include fenoldopam, theophylline, dopamine, calcium channel blockers, prostaglandin E1, atrial natriuretic peptide, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.Keywords: contrast-induced nephropathy, contrast media

  1. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y-1 , averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y-1 . This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y-1. Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y-1. It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. (authors)

  2. Practical guidance for using rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation: balancing benefit and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Haas S.; Bode C; Norrving B; Turpie AGG

    2014-01-01

    Sylvia Haas,1 Christoph Bode,2 Bo Norrving,3 Alexander GG Turpie4 1Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 4Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Rivaroxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor that is widely available to reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non...

  3. Comparison of nuclear cardiology in the United States and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Cardiology is a widely available and a widely accepted tool for diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease both in the US and in Europe. Although the most common indications for nuclear studies are similar in the US and Europe, different social and economical environments may affect the practice of Nuclear Cardiology. The aim of this paper is to identify key issues and to provide some information on the similarities and differences which characterize the practice of Nuclear Cardiology in the US and Europe. This paper takes into account the training requirements, the relationships between different professional societies, the accessibility, the choice of imaging protocols, tracers and stressors, the impact of managed care and the role of cardiologists, nuclear physicians and technologists in nuclear labs. The economical differences which may affect the field of high technology, imply a wide range of variability concerning the availability of nuclear cardiology studies in different countries (1:1/10). Moreover the legislation which regulates the practice of nuclear medicine may differ from country. Thus in our opinion there are several important factors both in the US and Europe limiting the development of nuclear cardiology independently of its intrinsic clinical value

  4. Methods and clinical applications in nuclear cardiology: a position statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cardiological procedures have paved the way for non-invasive diagnostics of various partial functions of the heart. Many of these functions cannot be visualised for diagnosis by any other method (e.g. innervation). These techniques supplement morphological diagnosis with regard to treatment planning and monitoring. Furthermore, they possess considerable prognostic relevance, an increasingly important issue in clinical medicine today, not least in view of the cost-benefit ratio. Our current understanding shows that effective, targeted nuclear cardiology diagnosis - in particular for high-risk patients - can contribute toward cost savings while improving the quality of diagnostic and therapeutic measures. In the future, nuclear cardiology will have to withstand mounting competition from other imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, electron beam tomography, multislice computed tomography). The continuing development of these methods increasingly enables measurement of functional aspects of the heart. Nuclear radiology methods will probably develop in the direction of molecular imaging. (orig.)

  5. Practical application of natriuretic peptides in paediatric cardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens P; Andersen, Claus B;

    2010-01-01

    conclude that in premature neonates with persistent arterial ducts; in teenagers with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation; and in children with heart transplants and potential allograft rejection cardiac peptides can provide the clinician with additional information, but in children with atrial......It is still uncertain if cardiac natriuretic peptides are useful biomarkers in paediatric cardiology. In this review we identify four clinical scenarios in paediatric cardiology, where clinical decision-making can be difficult, and where we feel the paediatric cardiologists need additional...

  6. Report of hot-lab activities at the University of Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hot-lab facility of the University of Munich a technological equipment of newest standard enables the production of radioactive targets of highest quality. In the last 2 years targets have been prepared of the following nuclides: 14C, 235U, 238U, 232Th, 242Pu and 99Tc. Thereby, not only have standard target frames with carbon or tantalum backings been used, but also special plunger target assemblies with stretched flat nickel or titanium backing foils. A special task was the preparation of sputter targets in the form of Fe314C pellets

  7. Weekly Interdisciplinary Colloquy on Cardiology: A Decade of Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmacher, William H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    An experimental, continuing, weekly interdisciplinary colloquy on cardiology is described. It is organized between the departments of medicine and physiology of Loyola University Medical Center to promote interaction between basic scientists and practicing physicians in the medical school. (Author/MLW)

  8. Comparison of Two Educational Strategies in Teaching Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup-Benham, Christine A.; And Others

    This study assessed the impact of two educational strategies: text only versus text plus small group discussion, among two groups of third-year internal medicine clerkship students in a preventive cardiology course. The course was a required, 12-week Internal Medical clerkship at the University of Texas Medical Branch. The first group reviewed…

  9. Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Depression among Cardiology Residents in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Silvina V.; Diez, Juan Cruz Lopez; Arazi, Hernan Cohen; Linetzky, Bruno; Guinjoan, Salvador; Grancelli, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Because medical residency is a stressful time for training physicians, placing residents at increased risk for psychological distress, the authors studied the prevalence of burnout, perceived stress, and depression in cardiology residents in Argentina and examined the association between sociodemographic characteristics and these…

  10. DIHYDROPYRIDINE CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS. POSITION OF NIFEDIPINE IN MODERN CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Garganeeva

    2016-01-01

    Position of nifedipine in modern cardiology practice is highlighted. Nifedipine usage for arterial hypertension therapy , including combined one, stroke prevention, treatment of hypertensive crisis and ischemic heart disease is considered. Advantages of nifedipine innovative formulations are presented. Possible usage of nifedipine in pulmonary hypertension as well as pregnancy is discussed specially.

  11. Contributions to the 11. Geoengineering Congress in Munich. Geoengineering and energy; Beitraege zum 11. Geotechnik-Tag in Muenchen. Geotechnik und Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Norbert (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    Within the eleventh geotechnics conference at 09th March, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New construction of the highway A44 on a new open pit dump (N. Vogt); (2) Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps in the Lausitz (Wolfram Kudla); (3) Underfloor pumped-storage power plants in facilities of hard coal minings (Eugen Perau); (4) Geothermal energy power plant trademark (H. Haemmerle); (5) Surface settlements during the tunnel heading in the loose rock - prognosis, measurement and impact (J. Fillibeck); (6) Ring wall storages - an essential contribution to geotechnics for energy storage (M. Popp); (7) Storage basins and their geotechnical challenges (S. Messerklinger); (8) Energy from the Andes: The hydroelectric power plant La Confluencia in Chile (M. Mueller); (9) Particularities of geotechnical verifications for flat foundations of offshore wind power plants (U. Hartwig); (10) Dimensioning of piles for the foundation of offshore wind power plants (M. Achmus); (11) Offshore wind power fundaments: Practical experiences from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk (M. Horn); (12) Installation of a mono pile as a foundation structure for a tide turbine (S. Schmitz); (13) Carbon footprint - International comparison of assessment approaches at specialist foundation engineering techniques (A. Zoehrer); (14) Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines (A. Smith).

  12. Case study on the implementation of deammonification for the process water treatment of Munich WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, Rita; Steinle, Eberhard; Böhm, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The two-staged WWTP 'Gut Grosslappen' has a capacity of 2 mio. PE. It comprises a pre-denitrification in the first stage using recirculation from the nitrifying second stage. A residual post-denitrification in a downstream sand filter is required in order to achieve the effluent standards. Presently the process water from sludge digestion is treated separately by nitrification/denitrification. Due to necessary reconstruction of the biological stages, the process water treatment was included in the future overall process concept of the WWTP. A case study was conducted comparing the processes nitritation/denitrititation and deammonification with nitrification/denitrification including their effect on the operational costs of the planned main flow treatment. Besides the different operating costs the investment costs required for the process water treatment played a significant role. Six cases for the process water treatment were compared. As a result, in Munich deammonification can only be recommended for long-term future developments, due to the high investment costs, compared with the nitritation/denitritation alternative realizable in existing tanks. The savings concerning aeration, sludge disposal and chemicals were not sufficient to compensate for the additional investment costs. Due to the specific circumstances in Munich, for the time being the use of existing tanks for nitritation/denitritation proved to be most economical. PMID:22546808

  13. The Munich High Ability Test Battery (MHBT: A multidimensional, multimethod approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPH PERLETH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction the theoretical basis of the Munich High Ability Test-Battery (MHBT will be outlined in the first part of the article. The MHBT has been developed in the framework of the Munich longitudinal study of giftedness and talent. The MHBT includes not only cognitive predictors measuring several dimensions and types of giftedness concerning intellectual, creative or social abilities etc., but also giftedness-relevant non-cognitive personality and social moderators measuring interests, motivations, learning emotions, self-concepts or family and school climate, educational style, quality of instruction, etc. The MHBT-instruments (different scales and dimensions are described in greater detail.In the second part of the article, after dealing with the objectivity, the reliability, and the validity of the MHBT, the authors discuss the standardization procedure including the development of grade-based T-norms respectively as well as several talent-profiles, e.g. of gifted achievers vs. underachievers, intellectual, creative, social talents or linguistic, math, science talent profiles etc. Finally, examples of talent search for gifted programs and case studies on the basis of MHBT should illustrate multidimensional identification procedures.The MHBT fulfills the most relevant assessment tasks belonging to the gifted educational and counseling practice. The usefulness of the MHBT in the framework of giftedness research as well as of gifted program evaluation studies has also been proven in the last decade. Hence the MHBT offers many opportunities to assessing giftedness and talent.

  14. Cubierta para naves de grandes dimensiones en hormigón, Munich (Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomhard, H.

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the study, design and building of wide span concrete halls which, at present, are greatly influenced by the advances made in pre-stressed concrete, préfabrication and the development of modern building methods, as well as the new techniques in building with light concrete. The influence which gave origin to these halls is also described. Chosen as an example is the hall, with a span of 150 metres and a maximum hight of 27.30 metres, for the Munich goods station, showing the importance of this type of construction.El artículo describe el estudio, proyecto y construcción de naves de gran luz en hormigón que, en el momento actual, están decisivamente influenciadas por los adelantos en hormigón pretensado, en prefabricación y por el desarrollo de los modernos métodos de construcción, así como por las nuevas técnicas de la construcción en hormigones ligeros. Se detalla igualmente la influencia que originan estas naves de grandes dimensiones. Se toma como ejemplo la nave, de 150 m de luz y 27,30 m de altura máxima, para la estación de mercancías de Munich, haciendo patente su gran importancia en este tipo de construcciones.

  15. Faster regular long-distance DB trains thanks to new infrastructures in Berlin and between Nuremberg and Munich; Schneller Takt im DB-Fernverkehr durch neue Infrastruktur zwischen Nuernberg und Muenchen und in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauner, D.M.; Ostwald, J. [DB Fernverkehr AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Noteworthy improvements are being made to passenger services in Germany with the deployment of 28 new ICE-T tilting train sets (originally just a contract option) and the entry into service of three key infrastructure projects: - the North-South Tunnel through Berlin - the upgraded Berlin-Halle/Leipzig line with a maximum speed of 200 km/h, and - the part-upgraded/part-new Nuremberg - Ingolstadt-Munich line. The first travel-time improvements are going to come on 28 May 2006, just in time for the FIFA World Cup in Germany, when some routes and trains will start using the new infrastructure. A big step is scheduled for 10 December 2006, with the introduction of a half-hourly ICE service between Nuremberg and Munich, as one of the elements in a radical rearrangement of long-distance services to and from Bavaria. On 28 May 2006, the first scheduled trains are also going to start running through Berlin's new North-South Tunnel (NST). This is a massive improvement in the infrastructure serving the German capital, since for decades there has been just one north-south railway tunnel and that has carried suburban (S-Bahn) trains only. It represents the end of an era that goes back to the end of the Second World War and the building of the Berlin Wall. It also represents a shift in focus, in that the main effort in the immediate post-1989 years went into improving local rail services. As of now, Berlin is once again going to have excellent rail links in all directions with the territory of the federal state of Brandenburg, which surrounds it, and it is going to be possible to make massive improvements in long-distance train services too. (orig.)

  16. QA in interventional cardiology: The lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the methodology, shows the results and analyse the difficulties presented during implementation of the QA programmes in two Interventional Cardiology (IC) Centers of Uruguay in the context of an IAEA coordinated research project that explored the possibility of establishing guidance levels for interventional radiology procedures. First, cardiologists, technicians and nurses received specific information about the QA programme. X ray system tests methodologies were based on the DIMOND European Research Project. Characterizations were performed of the two X ray systems (Picker CV-PRO-1997- and Philips Integris 3000-1995). In clinical conditions (with couch and mattress), for all image intensifier diameters and all fluoroscopy and cine modes, Kerma rate and Kerma per frame (entrance patient dose) were measured with an ionization chamber (10x5-6 E, Radcal) at the entrance of four Plexiglas (PMMA) phantom thicknesses (16, 20, 24 and 28 cm). Simultaneously, spatial resolution and low contrast were evaluated at clinical distance to the monitor by a cardiologist and a physicist, using TOR [18FG] Leeds plate located in the center of the PMMA phantom and in the isocenter of the C-arm. In the same conditions, but for 10, 20 and 30 cm PMMA thicknesses, Kerma rate and Kerma per frame and image quality were studied with NEMA phantom (Standard XR21-2000). Constancy tests were performed with Leeds object test using 4 mm Cu attenuators and Leeds image plate. Kerma rates and Kerma per frame for the same conditions (geometry, cine or fluoroscopy modes, dose modes, image intensifier diameter, FOV and PMMA thickness) were different for each X ray system. As can be seen, values are high in the Philips unit. However, direct (subjective) observation of low and high contrast details of the Leeds test showed similar results. That would require objective evaluation (MTF, noise, contrast and SNR), but they consume more time. Differences in Kerma rate and Kerma per

  17. Nuclear cardiology in the UK: activity and practice 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A questionnaire was sent to 251 nuclear medicine centres asking for details of nuclear medicine activity, and nuclear cardiology activity and practice in 1997. One hundred and seventy-one (68%) centres replied. Nuclear medicine activity was estimated at 11.8 studies/1,000 population/year, and 9.5% of these studies were within cardiology (1.12 studies/1,000/year). Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies accounted for 77% and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for 22% of all nuclear cardiology. On a national basis this represents activity levels of 0.86 and 0.25 studies/1,000/year for MPI and RNV, respectively. Of the 171 responding centres, 102 (60%) performed MPI studies and 81 (79%) of these reported that activity was increasing. However, MPI activity was unevenly distributed between hospitals. Two centres accounted for 13% of total MPI; others had far lower activity rates, and 51/102 (50%) centres performed less than 200 MPI studies/year. Comparison with previous surveys showed that nuclear medicine activity had almost doubled since 1990 (it was 6.0 studies/1,000 population in 1990, 9.3 studies/1,000 in 1994 and 11.8 studies/1,000 in 1997). Over the same period, nuclear cardiology activity had also risen, the greatest increase being seen for the last 3 years (it was 0.7 studies/1,000 population in 1990, 0.82 studies/1,000 in 1994 and 1.12 studies/1,000 in 1997). Despite these encouraging figures, MPI activity for 1997 remained well below that recommended by the British Cardiac Society in 1994 (2.6 studies/1,000/year) as adequate to serve the needs of patients with cardiac disease in the UK; it was also below the European average activity for the same year (2.2 studies/1,000/year). The anticipated increased workload for nuclear cardiology is encouraging despite the wide and varied practice of nuclear cardiology around the UK. The nuclear medicine community now needs to address the issues that will prevent it keeping up with demand, such as restricted camera

  18. A new simulation model to evaluate interaction between neighbouring hydro-geothermal installations developing the deep Malm aquifer in the Munich region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, J.; Wenderoth, F.; Fritzer, T.; Huber, B.; Dussel, M.; Lüschen, E.; Thomas, R.; Schulz, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently, the Molasse basin (Bavaria) is the most dynamically developing "Geothermal region" in Germany. This is particularly relevant considering the cogeneration of heat and power. For a profitable operation very high production and reinjection rates of the geothermal well doublets or triplets are required as the energy source to such installations. This implies drilling targets with excellent structural and facial conditions, i.e. fault zones or reef areas. In turn, this forces special spatial arrangements of neighbouring well doublets which lead to mutual hydraulic influence. Hydraulic interaction is expected to increase because of an increasing number of installations in the nearest future. The new simulation model presented here allows for a quantitative analysis of the current state, for the first time on a scale larger than a single project. The model covers an area of 57 x 47 km around Munich. On the one hand it is based on a detailed revision of the existing structure and hydrogeological models. To initialize the numerical model a simplified, generalized layer structure of the aquifer was derived from all available well data ("standard profile"). On the other hand a 3D-seismic survey was carried out in the core region of the new model SW of Munich (5 x 7 km). Within the context of the revision of existing 2D seismic results in the other parts of the model area layer structure and fault zones were determined from this data. Furthermore, a facies variation map was derived from 3D-seismics and a 2D-seismics reevaluation. It was applied to "overwrite" the hydraulic conductivities of the standard profile within the affect-ed layers. The complex model structure and the achieved quality of model calibration are presented. Already in the stage of model calibration, hydraulic interaction between operating or tested wells was a key feature. Model calibration led to an improvement of the structural and parameter model of the geothermal reservoir in the following

  19. ["Now I am humble. Indeed." From Germany to Norway in 1934].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, E; Børdahl, P E

    2000-12-10

    A huge refugee problem arose when the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933. The most acute stages were just after 1933 and from the summer of 1938. This refugee drama involved all the western countries, including Norway. This paper describes the fate of the German gynaecologist Hans Saenger (1884-1943), professor in Munich, who in 1933 was dispelled by the Nazis because of his Jewish descent. He fled to Norway in 1934 and settled in Fredrikstad. However, the attitude in Norway to refugees in general and Jews in particular was hostile, mainly because of fear of unemployment. Prejudice and xenophobia were of importance, also in the medical profession. PMID:11215938

  20. Nuclear Cardiology. Guidance and Recommendations for Implementation in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cardiology represents one of the most widely used non-invasive techniques for the assessment of coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular conditions. It has been proven as a cost effective tool for the management of cardiac patients and usually has a decisive role in diagnosis, prognosis and risk stratification, as well as in evaluation of therapy. Clinical scenarios in which nuclear cardiology can be helpful are continuously expanding, with the identification of special subgroups of patients as potential beneficiaries of these methods and the emergence of technological developments in instrumentation and software that tend to enhance the cost-benefit ratio and the reliability of results. Many developing countries have introduced nuclear cardiology, with increasing use of this technique in view of the epidemic of cardiovascular disease that is taking place in most low to middle income countries. Longer life expectancies, changes in lifestyle, diabetes, overweight and obesity are thought to be some of the factors underlying the rapidly growing incidence of this life threatening condition. Today, cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in adults in most, if not all, countries of the world, although specific diseases show different relative weights according to local socioeconomic conditions. Thus, proper utilization of available resources such as nuclear cardiology and other imaging methods is essential to effectively combat these diseases. The practice of nuclear cardiology, however, is not homogeneous worldwide, owing to differences in technological capabilities, availability of consumables, education and training of human resources, and access to evidence based medicine, among other factors. Evidence based medicine is the judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available

  1. Antiplatelet drugs in cardiological practice: Established strategies and new developments

    OpenAIRE

    Kroetz, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Volker KlaussCardiology, Medical Policlinic, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Ziemssenstr. 1, 80336 MünchenAbstract: A common pathophysiological course in vascular diseases is an overwhelming activation and aggregation of blood platelets, which results in atherothrombosis. By causing the last decisive step of cerebral, coronary, or peripheral arterial ischemia thrombotic complications of atherosclerotic disease represent a major player ...

  2. A qualitative model for computer-assisted instruction in cardiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Julen, N.; Siregar, P.; Sinteff, J. P.; Le Beux, P.

    1998-01-01

    CARDIOLAB is an interactive computational framework dedicated to teaching and computer-aided diagnosis in cardiology. The framework embodies models that simulate the heart's electrical activity. They constitute the core of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) program intended to teach, in a multimedia environment, the concepts underlying rhythmic disorders and cardiac diseases. The framework includes a qualitative model (QM) which is described in this paper. During simulation using QM, dynam...

  3. First measurements with the Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer on Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Maier-Leibnitz accelerator laboratory in Garching has recently become operational. In the present implementation a 2D-ACAR spectrometer is set up, with a baseline of 16.5 m, a conventional 22Na positron source and two Anger-type gamma-cameras. The positrons are guided onto the sample by a magnetic field generated by a normal conducting electromagnet. The sample can be either cooled by a standard closed-cycle-cryostat to low temperatures or heated by a resistive filament to temperatures up to 500 K. We present the key features of this new 2D-ACAR spectrometer and, in addition, discuss first measurements on the pure metal system Cr. The 2D-ACAR measurements have been performed on Cr at different temperatures: at 5 K and at room temperature in the anti-ferromagnetic phase and at 318K slightly above the paramagnetic phase transition.

  4. First measurements with the Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer on Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Maier-Leibnitz accelerator laboratory in Garching has recently become operational. In the present implementation a 2D-ACAR spectrometer is set up, with a baseline of 16.5 m, a conventional 22Na positron source and two Anger-type gamma-cameras. The positrons are guided onto the sample by a magnetic field generated by a normal conducting electromagnet. The sample can be either cooled by a standard closed-cycle-cryostat to low temperatures or heated by a resistive filament to temperatures up to 500 K. We present the key features of this new 2D-ACAR spectrometer and, in addition, discuss first measurements on the pure metal system Cr. The 2D-ACAR measurements have been performed on Cr at different temperatures: at 5 K and at room temperature in the anti-ferromagnetic phase and at 318K slightly above the paramagnetic phase transition.

  5. Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Beschleunigerlabor MLL, 85478 Garching (Germany); Peeper, K.; Reichart, P.; Urban, B.; Vallentin, T. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Dollinger, G., E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction.

  6. Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction

  7. A distributed control system status report of the munich accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of computers connected by a local area network (ARCNET) controls the Munich accelerator facility. This includes ion sources, the tandem accelerator, the beam transport system, the gas handling plant, parts of experimental setup and also an ion source test bench. ARCNET is a deterministic multi-master network with arbitrary topology, using coax cables and optical fibers. Crates with single board computers and I/O-boards (analog, parallel or serial digital), dependent on the devices being controlled, are distributed all over the building. Personal computers serve as user interfaces. The LAN communication protocol is a client/server protocol. Communication language and programming language for the single board computers is Forth. The user mode drivers in the personal computers are also written in Forth. The tools for the operators are MS-Windows applications, programmed in Forth, C++ or Visual Basic. Links to MS-Office applications are available, too

  8. 17th European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, Munich 22.-26.10.2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed

  9. Status of the compact core design for the Munich research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel 'compact core' has been proposed for our project of substantially modernizing the research reactor FRM at Munich. This core has about 20 cm diameter and 70 cm height, is cooled by H2O and surrounded by a large D2O moderator tank. It makes essential use of the new U3Si/Al dispersion fuel with very high Uranium density now available. We present the results of new, two-dimensional neutronic calculations and give an estimate of the probable burnup and reactivity behaviour of the compact core. We expect that this core can be effectively operated with an unperturbed multiplication factor of about 1.22, and that a maximum thermal neutron flux of 7 to 8·1014cm-,2s-1 can be achieved in the D2O tank at 20 MW reactor power. (author)

  10. Munich and the Czechs – A psychological view. Reflections on “The Suicidal Embrace” by David R. Beisel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina

    Richmond : International Society of Political Psychology, 2011. [Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology: Cooperation and Human Societies: Towards a Multidisciplinary Political Psychology. 09.07.-12.07.2011, Istanbul] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Munich * Czech * Czechoslovakia * democracy Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  11. Olympic Summer Games mascots from Munich 1972 to Rio 2016: visual overview of each mascot presented with a description

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by people, animals and even creatures of myth and legend, the mascots are an integral part of the Olympic celebrations. From Waldi, the dachshund who accompanied the 1972 Games in Munich, to Vinicius, the agile mascot of Rio 2016, discover these characters which are also part of the history of the Games.

  12. Benzene exposures caused by traffic in Munich public transportation systems between 1993 and 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemmelt, H.; Pfaller, A.; Fruhmann, G.; Nowak, D. [Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Ziemssenstr. 1, D-80336 Munich (Germany)

    1999-10-29

    Volatile aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes, the BTX-aromatics) were measured between 1993 and 1997 in buses and trams in Munich center and along main roads during regular rides. The sampling time was between 07.00 and 00.00 h. A total of 631 probes were sampled and centrally analyzed. In the mean of 5 years we found 15.0 {mu}g benzene/m{sup 3}, 50% above the limit of the 23. BImSchV and 107.5 {mu}g BTX aromates/m{sup 3} along the strongly traffic loaded main streets. Splitting up these mean emissions into single years we observed a trend toward a decline of mean immission of all volatile aromatics (benzene from 23.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} to 7.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and the sum of BTX aromatics (from 147.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} to 59.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Munich center were consistent with the long range theoretical calculations concerning the decrease of traffic-caused benzene immissions in cities. If the current trends continue, we can expect benzene concentrations to be below 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} by the year 2001 and below 2.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} by the year 2008. At these levels, the carcinogenic risk from benzene is probably less significant than the risks to public health from other car exhaust components.

  13. Effects of extreme spring temperatures on phenology: a case study from Munich and Ingolstadt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Extreme events - e.g. warm spells or heavy precipitation events - are likely to increase in the future both in frequency and intensity. Therefore, research on extreme events gains new importance; also in terms of plant development which is mostly triggered by temperatures. An arising question is how plants respond to an extreme warm spell when following an extreme cold winter season. This situation could be studied in spring 2009 in the greater area of Munich and Ingolstadt by phenological observations of flowering and leaf unfolding of birch (Betula pendula L.) and flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The long chilling period of winter 2008 and spring 2009 was followed by an immediate strong forcing of flowering and leaf unfolding, especially for birch. This extreme weather situation diminished the difference between urban and rural dates of onset. Another important fact that could be observed in the proceeding period of December 2008 to April 2009 was the reduced temperature difference among urban and rural sites (urban heat island effect). Long-term observations (1951-2008) of the phenological network of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) were used to identify years with reduced urban-rural differences between onset times in the greater area of Munich in the past. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the question whether the sequence of extreme warm and cold events leads to a decreased difference in phenological onset times or if this behaviour can be attributed to extreme warm springs themselves or to the decreased urban heat island effect which is mostly affected by general atmospheric circulation patterns.

  14. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  15. Comparison of EuroMISE Minimal Data Model for Cardiology and HL7 V3 DAM: Cardiology Rel. 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seidl, Libor; Hanzlíček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 33-36. ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data model * EuroMISE MDMC * HL7 V3 DAM cardiology * comparison Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Seidl_en.pdf

  16. Dose to patients and professionals in cardiology interventional: Progress of multicenter group Doccaci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multidisciplinary group and multicenter DOCCACI (dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional cardiology), sponsored by the section of haemodynamics of the Spanish society of Cardiology, is intended to propose reference levels to doses received by patients in interventional cardiology procedures such as recommended by the International Commission on radiological protection It also investigates the doses received by professionals, in particular dose in Crystallyne whose recommended limit dose has been reduced recently from 150 to 20 mSv/year. (Author)

  17. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-11-20

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55{+-}0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 {mu}m. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5{+-}4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the

  18. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55±0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 μm. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5±4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the SPM

  19. Nuclear cardiology in Senegal: a luxury or a need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: to sensitize at the same time experts and public authorities on the interest of the establishment of nuclear cardiology in Senegal. Material and method: the radioimmunoassay of micro-albuminuria, early marker of cardiovascular morbid-mortality was carried out in the nuclear medicine department of Dakar on a population of 100 diabetic patients (74 of type 1 and 26 of type 2) presenting one or more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Out of these patients, 39% had abnormal rest ECG, asymptomatic in half of the cases. Results: prevalence of micro-albuminuria is high (24%). There is no significant difference in distribution between type I and type 2. Micro-albuminuria > 30 mg/24 h exists in 16,3% of patients with lipid abnormalities (ratio: total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol > 5), 30% of obese, 75% of hypertensive patients and 43,6% of patients with abnormal rest ECG, who would benefit from myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): about 17% of patients involved in this study. No or weak correlation is found between micro-albuminuria and traditional risk factors. Conclusion: From these results and available epidemiological data in 2005, the estimate of the requirements in nuclear cardiology for the Senegalese diabetic population, indicates that 3740 patients should have benefited that year from it. Considering that this figure underestimates the real needs, taking into account the needs brought back to a population of 10 million inhabitants and the expect expansion of the diabetic disease, it appears justified to include the nuclear cardiology in the national programmes of prevention of the public health in Senegal. (author)

  20. Current status of nuclear cardiology in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its introduction 20 years ago, nuclear cardiology in the Republic of Korea has grown impressively and is now widely used as a noninvasive procedure in the diagnosis and functional evaluation of various types of heart diseases. All of the classes of procedures, that is, first-pass radionuclide cardioangiography, gated blood pool scan, myocardial perfusion imaging, and myocardial infarct imaging, are being employed frequently and have been the subject of numerous studies. First-pass radionuclide ventriculography is being used in the detection and quantification of intracardiac shunts, the evaluation of chamber size, function, or cardiopulmonary dynamics in various disease states. With gated blood pool scans, several parameters of cardiac function are being measured in a variety of conditions including coronary heart disease. Quantifications of regurgitations are also being done. Both thallium-201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate are being used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Besides clinical imaging, active research in the field of nuclear cardiology has also been taking place in the Republic of Korea. Examples include investigations on new imaging agents such as 111In-antimyosin monoclonal antibody and hexakis technetium(I) cations, or instrumental developments such as the nuclear stethoscope. Despite such noteworthy accomplishments, however, there have also been some obstacles to further developments in the Republic of Korea, such as the unavailability of a cyclotron. Nevertheless, considering the rate of expansion these procedures are showing and the effort we are putting into further development, the future for nuclear cardiology in the Republic of Korea appears quite promising and may become an example for other developing countries. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Nuclear cardiology in the era of cardiac CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Current indications for classical nuclear cardiology are summarized (diagnosis, prognosis, myocardial viability, ventricular function). First, the use of nuclear cardiology is discussed within the clinical context (typical vs. atypical history of ischemia, findings on resting ECG etc.). An overview of different perfusion tracers is given both for SPECT (thallium, MIBI, microspheres) and PET (NH4, H2O, Rb). The advantages of gated imaging are mentioned, thus combining information regarding perfusion, ventricular function, regional wall motion and thickening. Then specificity and sensitivity data for detection of significant coronary artery disease are reviewed in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients: sensitivity values of 86% are reached for coronary artery stenosis of >50% in both populations. Sensitivity increases to around 90% for coronary artery stenosis of >70%. The issue of risk stratification and prognosis in both populations is raised: Negative predictive values as high as 0.97 for death and 0.94 for death or myocardial infarction are reached when patients have normal myocardial perfusion scans (follow-up 23+/-17 months). The current strengths and weaknesses of CT and MR imaging for detection of coronary artery disease are mentioned, including dobutamine stress MRI and perfusion imaging. With dobutamine stress MRI, sensitivity values between 83% and 91% are observed. When comparing dobutamine stress MRI with dobutamine echocardiography, image quality has a huge impact on sensitivity and specificity values with echo, but only minimal impact on MRI sensitivity/specificity values. In a second part of the talk, the advantages of positron emission tomography (PET) and its use in clinical cardiology (mainly detection of viability) are discussed. First, advantages of positron tomography are listed: short half life of the tracer, physiological labelling, absolute quantification, tomographic imaging. Different cardiac tracers are mentioned, such as

  2. Metabolomics, a promising approach to translational research in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Deidda

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we will provide a description of metabolomics in comparison with other, better known “omics” disciplines such as genomics and proteomics. In addition, we will review the current rationale for the implementation of metabolomics in cardiology, its basic methodology and the available data from human studies in this discipline. The topics covered will delineate the importance of being able to use the metabolomic information to understand the mechanisms of diseases from the perspective of systems biology, and as a non-invasive approach to the diagnosis, grading and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. The Paediatric Cardiology Hall of Fame – Donald Nixon Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Donald Nixon Ross, FRCS (4 October 1922 to 7 July 2014) was a South African-born British cardiothoracic surgeon, who developed the pulmonary autograft, known as the Ross procedure, for the treatment of aortic valve disease, and also performed the first heart transplant in the United Kingdom in 1968. This paper, written by Jane Somerville, Professor of Cardiology [Retired], Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, provides the personal recollections about Donald Ross from Jane Somerville, and thus provides a unique snapshot of cardiac surgical history. PMID:26574617

  4. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  5. Myocardial scintigraphy. Clinical use and consequence in a non-invasive cardiological department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Elisabeth; Graff, J; Rasmussen, SPL; Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    analyse the clinical use of MPI in a university hospital without invasive cardiological laboratory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period 01.01.2002 to 31.12.2003, 259 patients (141 women, 118 men) were referred to MPI from our department of cardiology. RESULTS: Normal MPI was seen in 111 patients (43...

  6. Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE – a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0350-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  7. Further evaluations of Munich tests on creep behavior of concrete under triaxial compressive stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 10th SMIRT conference, a report was presented on the Munich tests on the creep behavior of sealed concrete cylinders of 15 cm diameter and 30 cm height under triaxial compressive stresses. The method of comprehensive representation of all results for one observed level of the related longitudinal stress is shown. Some further evaluation was done, and the results are reported. In order to get deformation values with very small creep influence, load was applied very quickly. Nevertheless, the measured deformation values at the beginning of creep curves included creep components, and the improvement is necessary. The basic elasticity values K and G used for the multiaxial studies of isotropic materials were derived. The result of the evaluation in accordance with these formulas is shown. With the basic elasticity values Ki and Gi, the initial strains are obtained. An example showed that creep deformation already occurred in a short time despite very fast stress application. The result of the improvement is shown. Creep process is frequently represented by the related values instead of deformation. A creep coefficient is generally used for the creep of concrete. (K.I.)

  8. The new thermal triple-axis spectrometer at the Munich neutron-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the thermal triple-axis spectrometer started to be built at the new neutron-source FRM-II near Munich are presented. The planned instrument will be optimized to provide a competitive neutron flux compared to the best existing instruments, while keeping the configuration as flexible as possible. The geometry of the beam tube has been adapted to the instruments needs for best usage of focussing in real and reciprocal space. The variable horizontal slit in the beam-shutter is the entrance slit of the monochromatic horizontal focussing. From the double bent monochromators the samples will be illuminated with a horizontal divergence of up to 2 deg and a vertical divergence of up to 4 deg. For experiments requiring high resolution in q-space collimators may be introduced in the beam path. A velocity selector as higher-order filter inside the monochromator shielding will reduce the background and avoid spurious intensity. For polarization analysis the use of He3 filters is planned. Compared to commonly used techniques this should overcome the limitations for high incident neutron energies and make polarization- and energy-transfer analysis independent from each other. A multi-crystal analyzer setup is envisaged for multiplexing purposes. (author)

  9. Overview of the Munich project for laser-driven X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years great progress has been achieved within the field of laser-plasma accelerators. Energies on the GeV-scale are reached as well as substantial improvements in stability demonstrated. Our group focuses on applications of such laser-driven electron beams and follows two major paths: the near-future goal is the realization of first X-ray pump-probe experiments that exploit the ultra-short electron-bunch length of few femtoseconds only and the ultimate long-term project is a table-top Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Both goals rely on active control of the electron beam transport. We have started developments of miniature quadrupole lenses and show their impact on laser-driven soft X-ray undulator radiation. On the theoretical side our group contributed work on space-charge induced energy chirps. This talk gives an overview of all activities of the Munich group in the new field of laser-driven X-ray sources.

  10. Upgrades of two SANS diffractometers at the Munich reactor FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Political decisions made the Juelich reactor FRJ-2 shut down, and the high performance instruments are moved to Munich now. The two SANS diffractometers are transferred, and refurbished in a second step in order to meet the world leading machines. Neutron polarization and polarization analysis will be possible to study magnetic samples. Supermirrors and 3He filters will be installed. Aspherical neutron MgF2 lenses aim at two goals: 10 to 20 times higher intensity and a resolution of ΔQ=10-4 A. The lenses will be cooled to minimize the thermal diffuse scattering. A high resolution detector (Deltax=0.5 mm) allows to collect the high resolution scattering patterns. To operate with high resolution at finite Q a chopper placed behind the selector will reduce the wavelength uncertainty to 1% and better by a TOF analysis. The newly developed TiSANE mode will be possible: The neutron pulses will be triggered by a periodic external field at the sample in concert with the projected time-dependent scattering collected by the detector. We expect to resolve kinematic processes in the range of 2 μs to 5 ms and above. In this mode the Q-resolution typically is not improved. The GISANS option allows to study the lateral structure of thin films in the range of 10 to 1000 A with a free depth resolution. Here we aim at soft condensed matter and magnetic films. (orig.)

  11. Phase contrast medical imaging with compact X-ray sources at the Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics (MAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany)], E-mail: paola.coan@esrf.fr; Gruener, F. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Munich, Garching (Germany); Glaser, C.; Schneider, T. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Institut of Clinical Radiology, Klinikum Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich (Germany); Bravin, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Reiser, M. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Institut of Clinical Radiology, Klinikum Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich (Germany); Habs, D. [Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics, Munich (Germany); Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Munich, Garching (Germany)

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, the excellence cluster 'Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics' (MAP) is presented. One of the aims of the project is the development of innovative X-ray-based diagnostics imaging techniques to be implemented at an ultra-compact high-energy and high-brilliance X-ray source. The basis of the project and the developments towards the clinical application of phase contrast imaging applied to mammography and cartilage studies will be presented and discussed.

  12. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  13. Improved cardiovascular diagnostic accuracy by pocket size imaging device in non-cardiologic outpatients: the NaUSiCa (Naples Ultrasound Stethoscope in Cardiology) study

    OpenAIRE

    Schiattarella Pier; Farina Francesca; Raia Rosa; Esposito Roberta; Lomoriello Vincenzo; Versiero Marco; Santoro Alessandro; Galderisi Maurizio; Bonito Manuela; Olibet Marinella; de Simone Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Miniaturization has evolved in the creation of a pocket-size imaging device which can be utilized as an ultrasound stethoscope. This study assessed the additional diagnostic power of pocket size device by both experts operators and trainees in comparison with physical examination and its appropriateness of use in comparison with standard echo machine in a non-cardiologic population. Three hundred four consecutive non cardiologic outpatients underwent a sequential assessment including...

  14. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  15. Earnings Inequality in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine G. Abraham; Susan N. Houseman

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the growth of earnings inequality in the United States during the 1980s. In contrast to these studies' findings, our analysis of micro data for the former West Germany yields virtually no evidence of growth in earnings inequality over the same period. Between 1978 and 1988, a reduction in the dispersion of earnings among workers in the bottom half of the earnings distribution led to a narrowing of the overall dispersion of earnings in Germany. Earnings different...

  16. Germany; an Immigration Country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  17. Simulation-based planning of surgical interventions in pediatric cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Hemodynamics plays an essential role in the progression and treatment of cardiovascular disease. This is particularly true in pediatric cardiology, due to the wide variation in anatomy observed in congenital heart disease patients. While medical imaging provides increasingly detailed anatomical information, clinicians currently have limited knowledge of important fluid mechanical parameters. Treatment decisions are therefore often made using anatomical information alone, despite the known links between fluid mechanics and disease progression. Patient-specific simulations now offer the means to provide this missing information, and, more importantly, to perform in-silico testing of new surgical designs at no risk to the patient. In this talk, we will outline the current state of the art in methods for cardiovascular blood flow simulation and virtual surgery. We will then present new methodology for coupling optimization with simulation and uncertainty quantification to customize treatments for individual patients. Finally, we will present examples in pediatric cardiology that illustrate the potential impact of these tools in the clinical setting.

  18. Simulation based planning of surgical interventions in pediatric cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-10-01

    Hemodynamics plays an essential role in the progression and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, while medical imaging provides increasingly detailed anatomical information, clinicians often have limited access to hemodynamic data that may be crucial to patient risk assessment and treatment planning. Computational simulations can now provide detailed hemodynamic data to augment clinical knowledge in both adult and pediatric applications. There is a particular need for simulation tools in pediatric cardiology, due to the wide variation in anatomy and physiology in congenital heart disease patients, necessitating individualized treatment plans. Despite great strides in medical imaging, enabling extraction of flow information from magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, simulations offer predictive capabilities that imaging alone cannot provide. Patient specific simulations can be used for in silico testing of new surgical designs, treatment planning, device testing, and patient risk stratification. Furthermore, simulations can be performed at no direct risk to the patient. In this paper, we outline the current state of the art in methods for cardiovascular blood flow simulation and virtual surgery. We then step through pressing challenges in the field, including multiscale modeling, boundary condition selection, optimization, and uncertainty quantification. Finally, we summarize simulation results of two representative examples from pediatric cardiology: single ventricle physiology, and coronary aneurysms caused by Kawasaki disease. These examples illustrate the potential impact of computational modeling tools in the clinical setting.

  19. Investigation of radiation skin dose in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background - The study investigated the radiation skin doses for interventional patients in cardiology; two procedures which have the highest radiation dose are Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation (RFCA) and Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA). Methods and Results - 56 patients were randomly selected and investigated; 23 patients in the RFCA group and 33 in the PTCA group. Skin and effective dose were calculated from Dose Area Product (DAP). Thermoluminescent Dosimetry was the second method of dose measurement used. Patients were followed-up for a three month period to check for possible skin reactions resulting from the radiation dose during the procedure. Radiation skin doses in 14 patients were calculated to be more than 1 Gy, including three patients who received more than 2 Gy, the threshold dose for deterministic effects of radiation. 7 patients (12.5%) reported skin reactions as a result of the radiation received to their backs during the procedure. Mean DAP and estimated effective doses were 105 Gycm2 and 22.5 mSv for RFCA, and 32 Gycm2 and 6.2 mSv for PTCA procedures respectively. Conclusion - Complex procedures in Interventional Cardiology can exceed the threshold level for deterministic effects in the skin. (author)

  20. Retail fuel price adjustment in Germany: A threshold cointegration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers in Germany often complain that retail fuel prices usually adjust quickly to crude oil price increases than decreases and characterize this pricing pattern as market power exploitation. In this paper, we use both weekly national and daily city-specific (Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Cologne) data to investigate the extent to which retail fuel prices in Germany adjust to changes in the international crude oil price. At the national level with weekly prices, we find positive asymmetries for both gasoline and diesel within the period 2003–2007, reflecting that retail prices react more swiftly to crude oil price increases than decreases. In contrast, for 2009–2013, we observe symmetric adjustment and negative asymmetry for retail diesel and gasoline prices, respectively. The city level analysis supports our findings in the latter time period. Thus, regulatory measures aimed at the retail fuel market over recent years seem to have been effective, and, contrary to consumers' perception, we find no evidence for excessive market power or collusion. - Highlights: • The paper examines the adjustment of German retail fuel (gasoline and diesel) prices to international crude oil price changes. • An error correction model with threshold cointegration is used to investigate the price dynamics. • The findings generally point to a competitive retail fuel pricing, notwithstanding the oligopolistic market structure

  1. Progression or Regression? – Strengths and Weaknesses of the New Munich Nomenclature III for Cervix Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Z.; Tempfer, C.; Schiermeier, S.; Reinecke, J.; Ruppenkamp, C.; Hilal, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 01. 01. 2015 the new Munich nomenclature III for gynaecological diagnostics of the cervix has been in force. The changes have led to controversial scientific discussions. This study reports for the first time on the consequences. Materials and Methods: The present data are based on smear screening results for the year 2014. The data of 63 134 patients were evaluated. Results: 2.27 % of all smears were remarkable. Group IIa was assigned to 0.91 %. Group II-p was somewhat more frequently recorded than group IIID1 (0.59 vs. 0.53 %). Groups IIID1 and IIID2 were found in 0.53 and 0.61 %, respectively, of the cases. Agreement with histology was found in 36.84 and 44.68 %, respectively. Glandular lesions represented the most frequent changes in group III. Histological clarification was obtained for 0.18 % of all remarkable findings. The relative incidence of high-grade precancerous conditions (CIN III) and invasive tumours amounted to 0.1 %. Conclusion: A close communication between gynaecologists and cytologists is mandatory for the correct usage of the new nomenclature. The future annual statistics of the health insurances can now be analysed in more detail. A statistical classification of glandular epithelial changes is now also possible for the first time. The heterogeneous group IIa constitutes an unnecessary uncertainty for patients and physicians. The splitting of the group IIID does not appear to have any advantage for the further clinical management. Further studies are needed to show whether or not the classification can stand up to international comparisons. PMID:26556907

  2. Clinical and economic outcomes assessment in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear medicine procedures, as understood within our current economic climate, depends upon its ability to provide relevant clinical information at similar or lower comparative costs. With an ever-increasing emphasis on cost containment, outcome assessment forms the basis of preserving the quality of patient care. Today, outcomes assessment encompasses a wide array of subjects including clinical, economic, and humanistic (i.e., quality of life) outcomes. For nuclear cardiology, evidence-based medicine would require a threshold level of evidence in order to justify the added cost of any test in a patient's work-up. This evidence would include large multicenter, observational series as well as randomized trial data in sufficiently large and diverse patient populations. The new movement in evidence-based medicine is also being applied to the introduction of new technologies, in particular when comparative modalities exist. In the past 5 years, it has seen a dramatic shift in the quality of outcomes data published in nuclear cardiology. This includes the use of statistically rigorous risk-adjusted techniques as well as large populations (i.e., >500 patients) representing multiple diverse medical care settings. This has been the direct result of the development of multiple outcomes databases that have now amassed thousands of patients worth of data. One of the benefits of examining outcomes in large patient datasets is the ability to assess individual endpoints (e.g., cardiac death) as compared with smaller datasets that often assess combined endpoints (e.g., death, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina). New technologies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease have contributed to the rising costs of care. In the United States and in Europe, costs of care have risen dramatically, consuming an ever-increasing amount of available resources. The overuse of diagnostic angiography often leads to unnecessary revascularization that does not lead to

  3. Environmental protection in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication consists of two parts: 1. The National Report of the Federal Republic of Germany for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992 in Brazil. This report details the development of environment policy in the Federal Republic of Germany since the last UN Conference in 1972 and describes the fundamental principles and objectives of national environment policy; for the first time, an overview is given of the state of the environment in the united Germany. 2. The National Committee's declaration which was presented after the National Report on the Conference and appeals to the industrialised countries to shoulder the particular responsibility they bear and shows what perspectives it sees for future sustainable development on a global scale. (orig./BBR)

  4. Optimisation of patient and staff exposure in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Council Directive of the European Community 97/43/Euratom (MED) deals with the health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure, and also focuses attention on some special practices (Art. 9), including interventional radiology, a technique involving high doses to the patient. The paper presents the European approach to optimisation of exposure in interventional cardiology. The DIMOND research consortium (DIMOND: Digital Imaging: Measures for Optimising Radiological Information Content and Dose) is working to develop quality criteria for cineangiographic images, to develop procedures for the classification of complexity of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures and to derive reference levels, related also to procedure complexity. DIMOND project also includes aspects of equipment characteristics and performance and content of training in radiation protection of personnel working in interventional radiology field. (author)

  5. Exploiting expert systems in cardiology: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, George-Peter K; Sourla, Efrosini; Stamatopoulou, Konstantina-Maria; Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Sioutas, Spyros; Tsakalidis, Athanasios; Tzimas, Giannis

    2015-01-01

    An improved Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in the field of critical cardiovascular diseases is presented. The system stems from an earlier application based only on a Sugeno-type Fuzzy Expert System (FES) with the addition of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) computational structure. Thus, inherent characteristics of ANNs, along with the human-like knowledge representation of fuzzy systems are integrated. The ANFIS has been utilized into building five different sub-systems, distinctly covering Coronary Disease, Hypertension, Atrial Fibrillation, Heart Failure, and Diabetes, hence aiding doctors of medicine (MDs), guide trainees, and encourage medical experts in their diagnoses centering a wide range of Cardiology. The Fuzzy Rules have been trimmed down and the ANNs have been optimized in order to focus into each particular disease and produce results ready-to-be applied to real-world patients. PMID:25417018

  6. Open source cardiology electronic health record development for DIGICARDIAC implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarte, Nelson; Medina, Rubén.; Huiracocha, Lourdes; Rojas, Rubén.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of a Cardiology Electronic Health Record (CEHR) system. Software consists of a structured algorithm designed under Health Level-7 (HL7) international standards. Novelty of the system is the integration of high resolution ECG (HRECG) signal acquisition and processing tools, patient information management tools and telecardiology tools. Acquisition tools are for management and control of the DIGICARDIAC electrocardiograph functions. Processing tools allow management of HRECG signal analysis searching for indicative patterns of cardiovascular pathologies. Telecardiology tools incorporation allows system communication with other health care centers decreasing access time to the patient information. CEHR system was completely developed using open source software. Preliminary results of process validation showed the system efficiency.

  7. Categories by Heart: Shortcut Reasoning in a Cardiology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jacobsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of doctors and nurses to invoke the categories of age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle factors when discussing individual patients and patient groups. In what situations are such references explicitly made, and what does this practice accomplish? The material consists of field notes from a cardiology clinic in Sweden, and a theory of descriptive practice guided the analysis. When professionals describe patients, discuss decisions, or explain why a patient is ill, age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle serve as contextualization cues, often including widespread results from epidemiological research about groups of patients at higher or lower risk for cardiac disease. These categories work as shortcut reasoning to nudge interpretations in a certain direction, legitimize decisions, and strengthen arguments. In general, studying the descriptions of patients/clients/students provides an entrance to professional methods of reasoning, including their implicit moral assumptions.

  8. On New Spain and Mexican medicinal botany in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo Alessandro; Izaguirre-Ávila, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Towards the middle of the XVI century, the empirical physician Martín de la Cruz, in New Spain, compiled a catalogue of the local medicinal herbs and plants, which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, professor at the Franciscan college of Tlatelolco. On his side, Dr. Francisco Hernández, the royal physician (protomédico) from 1571 until 1577, performed a systematic study of the flora and fauna in this period. His notes and designs were not published at that time, but two epitomes of Hernández' works appeared, respectively, in 1615 in Mexico and in 1651 in Rome. During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived to these lands. They were led, respectively, by the Spanish naturalist Martín Sessé and the Italian seaman, Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. These expeditions collected and carried rich scientific material to Spain. At the end of that century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his botanic work. In the last years of the colonial period, the fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland on the geographic distribution of the American plants were published. In the modern age, the first research about the Mexican medicinal botany was performed in the laboratory of the Instituto Médico Nacional [National Medical Institute] under the leadership of Dr. Fernando Altamirano, who started pharmacological studies in this country. Later, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico City, on Dr. Ignacio Chávez' initiative. The Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition persists alive and vigorous at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología and other scientific institutions of the country. PMID:24960330

  9. Elementary Education in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    In this overview of preschool education in Germany the history of the kindergarten is tracked from 1802 to the present. Different types of pre-primary institutions (creches, kindergartens) are described; statistical data from December 2002 are presented. The article also deals with curriculum development and staff training. It presents the numbers…

  10. Teacher Education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebahn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

  11. SFC/SFBMN guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures: stress testing in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures are studied in this article. We find the minimum technique conditions for the stress testing practice, the recommendations for the different ischemia activation tests, the choice of the stress test. (N.C.)

  12. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  13. Clinical - cardiologic data of 170 dogs - general aspects of diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an actual continuous cardiologic follow up study on 170 unselected dogs. Each proband underwent a complete cardiologic examination (history, auscultation, ECG, radiologic examination, in some cases also echocardiography). Data were grouped by age, sex, breed, congenital and acquired cardiac diseases, and by therapy. 81 (47.65 percent) of the 170 dogs were suffering from an acquired, 25 (14.70 percent) from a congenital cardiac disease. 64 dogs (37.65 percent) showedno clinical signs of heart disease

  14. A telemedicine network for remote paediatric cardiology services in north-east Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Providing health care for children with congenital heart diseases remains a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Approach In October 2011, the Government of Paraíba, Brazil, established a paediatric cardiology network in partnership with the nongovernmental organization Círculo do Coração. A cardiology team supervised all network activities, using the Internet to keep in contact with remote health facilities. The network developed protocols for screening heart...

  15. Carbon dioxide and water budget of grazed grassland in Grünschwaige (Munich, Bavaria) measured by EC-method with an open path gas analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, S.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Auerswald, K.

    2009-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems like grasslands can act as a sink or source for greenhouse gases (GHG) like carbon dioxide. This is important for scientific and political stakeholders as GHG cause the climate change. The eddy covariance method has become a major tool for quantifying such fluxes. It depends, however, on a number of corrections applied to the measured data. The influence of air density is often considered following the WPL-correction (Webb-Pearman-Leuning), which does not take the heating of the instrument surface into account in contrast to the recently published method by Burba et al. (2008). The aim of the study is the comparison of the influence of the two density correction on the CO2 fluxes. The fluxes of water and carbon dioxide were measured with the eddy covariance method from 2002 to 2008 on a grazed grassland site located in Grünschwaige close to Munich (Bavaria) in the South of Germany. The climate in this area is temperate with an annual precipitation of 800 mm and an annual mean temperature of 9 °C. For eddy covariance measurements an open path CO2/H2O analyzer was used. Wind speed (3D) and temperature were measured by a sonic anemometer. The sensible/latent heat flux and the carbon dioxide flux were calculated and corrected using EdiRe. The application of the two density correction methods resulted in important differences of the carbon dioxide flux. The fluxes corrected according to Burba et al. (2008) indicated small CO2 sinks (= negative net carbon exchange) or even sources while the WPL-correction showed (larger) CO2 sinks. Additionally, with both correction methods the results showed a high sensitivity to weather conditions but the effects were stronger using the correction following Burba et al. (2008). The most important drivers of flux variability were precipitation and temperature. The seasonal pattern of precipitation was important especially during the vegetation period. Drought and heat periods, which lasted at last one month like

  16. Neutron-induced 63Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a comprehensive presentation of results obtained at the Munich Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Carroll, K L; Egbert, S D; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; McAninch, J E; Rugel, G; Straume, T; Wallner, A; Wallner, C; Fujita, S; Hasai, H; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K

    2007-11-01

    Those inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were affected by the A-bomb explosions, were exposed to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field. Few years later about 120,000 survivors of both cities were selected, and since then radiation-induced late effects such as leukemia and solid tumors are being investigated in this cohort. When the present study was initiated, the fast neutron fluences that caused the neutron doses of these survivors had never been determined experimentally. In principle, this would have been possible if radioisotopes produced by fast neutrons from the A-bomb explosions had been detected in samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki at distances where the inhabitants survived. However, no suitable radioisotope had so far been identified. As a contribution to a large international effort to re-evaluate the A-bomb dosimetry, the concentration of the radionuclide (63)Ni (half-life 100.1 years) has been measured in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements were mainly performed at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory in Munich, Germany, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry. Because the (63)Ni had been produced in these samples by fast A-bomb neutrons via the reaction (63)Cu(n,p)(63)Ni, these measurements allow direct experimental validation of calculated neutron doses to the members of the LSS cohort, for the first time. The results of these efforts have already been published in a compact form. A more detailed discussion of the methodical aspects of these measurements and their results are given in the present paper. Eight copper samples that had been significantly exposed to fast neutrons from the Hiroshima A-bomb explosion were investigated. In general, measured (63)Ni concentrations decreased in these samples with increasing distance to the hypocenter, from 4 x 10(6 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at 391 m, to about 1 x 10(5 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at about 1,400 m. Additional measurements performed on three large

  17. Heat transfer 1982. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, Technische Universitaet, Muenchen, Munich, West Germany, September 6-10, 1982. Volume 1 - Review and keynote papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects of heat transfer are addressed. The topics considered include: heat transfer in turbulent flows, boiling mixtures, the atmosphere, rheological systems, and combustion chambers; numerical methods and visualization of heat transfer; radiative, particle, and cryogenic heat transfer; flow boiling, heat exchanger technology and prediction of transport properties related to heat transfer. Also discussed are: advanced boundary-layer theory in heat transfer, enhancement of heat transfer, nuclear safety heat transfer, free convection, influence of fouling on heat transfer, heat and mass transfer to rivers, and buoyancy effect on heat transfer in forced channel flows

  18. Inter-noise 85; Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Munich, West Germany, September 18-20, 1985. Volumes 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various papers on the problem of noise are presented. The general topics addressed include: sources of noise emission; physical phenomena associated with noise; noise control elements; and the generation, transmission, isolation, and reduction of vibrations. Individual subjects discussed include: regulation and technical standards of noise control; noise-induced health disturbances; principles of machine noise reduction; characteristics and prediction of factory sound propagation; reduction of structure-borne noise; noise prediction and planning; noise emission data of machines and equipment; noise emission from road vehicles; noise from general aviation aircraft; noise emission from jet aircraft during takeoff; damping and acoustical radiation efficiency of carbon fiber-reinforced carbon epoxy plates.

  19. Nuclear cardiology: Its role in cost effective care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    would not otherwise have been achieved if the early disease remained undetected. This publication presents a comprehensive overview of CVDs as a public health problem in developing countries, the relative role of nuclear cardiology methods within a scenario of unprecedented technology advances, and the evidence behind appropriateness recommendations. The potential expanding role of non-invasive functional imaging through the transition from diagnosis of obstructive CAD to defining the global burden of CVDs is also discussed, as well as the need for thorough training, education, and quality in nuclear cardiology practice. This report will be of interest for all medical practitioners involved in the management of CAD, including internists, cardiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, as well as hospital administrators and health care stakeholders.

  20. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  1. Unemployment Accounts for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Alfred; Alessio J. G. Brown; Snower, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a proposal for reforming unemployment assistance in Germany through the introduction of unemployment accounts (UAs). Instead of paying taxes that finance the unemployment assistance, employed people make ongoing contributions to their UAs and can make withdrawals from these accounts during periods of unemployment. The aim of this policy proposal is to improve employment incentives without significant changes in the current redistribution scheme. We provide a detailed account of how...

  2. Restructuring in SMEs: Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mandl, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Germany.

  3. Cultural Integration in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Nottmeyer, Olga; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter investigates the integration processes of immigrants in Germany by comparing certain immigrant groups to natives differentiating by gender and immigrant generation. Indicators which are supposed to capture cultural integration of immigrants are differences in marital behavior as well as language abilities, ethnic identification and religious distribution. A special feature of the available data is information about overall life satisfaction, risk aversion and political interest. ...

  4. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja; Gorenoi, Vitali; Schönermark, Matthias P.

    2009-01-01

    Scientific background The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient's care. Research questions The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods A systematic literature search ...

  5. The EDP data base as a marketing instrument in the supply industry. Methods and experiences in natural gas customer acquisition of the Munich municipal utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas marketing concept of the Munich municipal utilities describes the aims and objectives for the acquisition of new customers beyond the year 2000. One target is to extend the grids into new areas but also activate natural gas clients in densely populated areas. The marketing strategies concentrate on extensive advice and consulting co-ordinated by the customer service representatives with the support of electronic data processing. The following report shows how modern database systems were integrated into marketing activities by the Munich municipal utility company and describes the strategies selected in new areas and areas with a high customer population. (orig.)

  6. Radiation doses to the staff of a nuclear cardiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last years, new radiopharmaceuticals are used in a Nuclear Medicine (NM) Department. Nowadays, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is a method of routine imaging, a fact that has required increased levels of radioactivity in certain patient examinations. The staff that is more likely to receive the greatest radiation dose in a NM Department is the technologist who deals with performance of patient examination and injection of radioactive material and the nurse who is caring for the patients visiting the Department some of which being totally helpless. The fact that each NM Dept possesses equipment with certain specifications, deals with various kind of patients, has specific design and radiation protection measures which can differ from other NM Depts and uses various examination protocols, makes essential the need to investigate the radiation doses received by each member of the staff, so as to continuously monitor doses and take protective measures if required, control less experienced staff and ensure that radiation dose levels are kept as low as possible at all times. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate radiation dose to the nuclear cardiology department staff by thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) placed on the the skin at thyroid and abdominal region as well as evaluating protection measures taken currently in the Dept

  7. Clinical value of thallium 201 in a cardiology service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present the most widely used element in isotopic cardiology is undoubtedly 201Tl. In the few years since its appearance many publication testify to its growing use in the external detection of coronary thrombosis, the discovery of ischemia exertion, the non-traumatic observation of patients after an aortocoronary bridging operation, the diagnosis of coronary deficiency associated with another heart disease (aorta narrowing, mitral prolapsus, obstructive cardiomyopathy) and in combination with two other radioisotopic methods. The present work is intended as a modest contribution, still very recent, to the critical study of this new technique in all its present aspects. Part one presents the various characteristics responsible for the advantages and limits of 201Tl, then describes the techniques and apparatus used. The production, dosimetry, toxicity and biological behaviour of 201Tl are also discussed. A hundred and twenty-five examinations were performed in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the Limoges UHC between May 1977 and October 1978. The results are analysed in part two. This is followed by a discussion which attempts, in the light of our experience, to situate the place occupied by 201Tl in the range of complementary examinations useful in declared or assumed coronary cases. We then propose an examination procedure and precise indications we believe to be justified, accounting for economic problems before considering the future prospects of myocardium scintigraphy

  8. Antiplatelet drugs in cardiological practice: Established strategies and new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Krötz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Volker KlaussCardiology, Medical Policlinic, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Ziemssenstr. 1, 80336 MünchenAbstract: A common pathophysiological course in vascular diseases is an overwhelming activation and aggregation of blood platelets, which results in atherothrombosis. By causing the last decisive step of cerebral, coronary, or peripheral arterial ischemia thrombotic complications of atherosclerotic disease represent a major player in death cause statistics of most western countries. The development of novel therapies against platelet-dependent thrombosis and the concurrent improvement of existing therapeutic strategies thus is a paramount focus of pharmaceutical research. Currently, efficiency, dosing and indications of established antiplatelet substances are being re-evaluated, whilst new, so far unrecognized molecular targets for inhibition of platelet activity come up front. This not only allows for interesting new therapeutical options, but also widens our insight into the role platelets play in atherosclerosis in general. This article summarizes the relevant pathophysiology of platelet activation, presents current concepts in antiplatelet drug therapy, and highlights the role of platelets in vascular diseases apart from atherothrombosis.Keywords: atherothrombosis, antiplatelet drug therapy, pathophysiology, platelet activation

  9. [About the origin, evolution and irradiation of Mexican cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican cardioangiology started in the nineteen century thanks to first endeavors of surgeons and physicians related to local academies and to School of Medicine, established in 1833 by Dr. Valentin Gómez Farías. Dr. Manuel Carpio, the future first head of department of physiology in this school, translated to Spanish language and published, in 1823, the article On pectoriloquo of the French physician Marat and later performed some experiments on the heart' motion. During the Secont Empire (1864-1867), the physician Samuel von Basch performed studies to define the arterial hypertension, called by him "latent atherosclerosis", i.e. the "essential hypertension". Once he had returned to his country, he invented in 1880, a sphygmomanometer of mercury column, that was the model for the instrument constructed by the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci and presented in 1896. In our time, Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares systematized a metabolic therapy called "polarizing therapy", i.e. capable of repolarizing the heart's cells partly depolarized due to hypoxia or direct aggressions. These were the first steps in Mexico on the way to a promising medicine starting and the great adventure of Mexican cardiology. PMID:25260577

  10. Examples of successful architectural integration of PV: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are developing rapidly, and much progress has been achieved in the past five years. BIPV can be used today in different ways on both existing and new buildings. Architects and designers are discovering BIPV. With the help of custom-made products available on the German market they are beginning to explore the technical limits of an aesthetic and structural integration of PV in buildings. As a result some exciting high-profile building projects with PV have been built, for example, the small service pavilion Meereslauschen in Steinhude or the new headquarters building of the Wood Trade Association in Munich. These projects show that the use of PV is very varied and offers opportunities for creative architects. However non-technical problems still need to be solved to allow a meaningful and widespread application of PV in the built environment. To decrease costs it is essential to develop further standard BIPV components. The aim of such developments should be to replace standard PV modules by products in which PV and structural building elements are melded into one design and structural unit. (author)

  11. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  13. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  14. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large......-scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over the...... 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  15. Country report: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles for waste management in Germany are established in the Atomic Energy Act and in the waste management concept of the German Government which gives greater substance to the statutory requirements and the principles of the waste management provisions for nuclear power plants. The resolution passed on 28 September 1979 by the heads of the State and Federal Governments confirms the integral waste management concept; it is based in general on onsite and offsite interim storage followed by reprocessing of spent fuel, recovery of radioactive materials, and conditioning for the final disposal of radioactive waste

  16. Credit Crunch in Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Nehls, Hiltrud; Schmidt, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether the Germany economy is currently affected by a credit crunch, i.e. a supply-side restriction of loans that is not in line with market interest rates and profitability of investment projects.With help of a disequilibrium- model, we calculate a credit supply and a demand-function. We compare estimated demand with estimated supply, finding a considerable excess- demand particularly in the second half of 2002. The main reason for this restriction is the drop in earnin...

  17. Credit Crunch in Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Nehls, Hiltrud; Schmidt, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether the Germany economy is currently affected by a credit crunch,i.e.a supply-side restriction of loans that is not in line with market interest rates and profitability of investment projects.With help of a disequilibrium-model,we calculate a credit supply and a demand-function.We compare estimated demand with estimated supply,finding a considerable ex- cess-demand particularly in the second half of 2002.The main reason for this restriction is the drop in earnings in ...

  18. Modelling Turkish Migration to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyunlu, Sule; Siliverstovs, Boriss

    2006-01-01

    This study develops a time series model of Turkish migration to Germany for the period 1963-2004 using the cointegration technique. A single cointegrating relation between the migration flow variable and the relative income ratio between Germany and Turkey, the unemployment rates in Germany and Turkey, and the trade variable, that captures intensity of bilateral economic cooperation, is found. By including the trade variable in the empirical migration function we investigate whether trade and...

  19. Assessment of patients' skin dose during interventional cardiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 30 years the use of Interventional Cardiology (IC) procedures has increased significantly, mainly due to the benefits and advantages of the method that offers more accurate diagnosis and treatment along with less complications and hospitalization. However, IC procedures are based on the use of x-ray radiation, mostly localized at certain areas of patient's body and for extended periods of time. Consequently, patient may receive high radiation dose and deterministic effects, such as erythema, epilation or even dermal necrosis may be observed. Therefore, the need for reducing radiation dose is highly important. In order to achieve this, good knowledge of the dose levels delivered to the patient during IC procedures is essential since radiation effects are known to increase with dose. It is of great interest to know the point where the maximum skin dose (MSD) is noted since individual sensitivity may vary. MSDs greater than 1 Gy should be recorded. Patient dosimetry during IC procedures is a complex task since these type of procedures depend on various factors, such as complexity and severity of case, different specifications of x-ray equipment and patient's physical characteristics. Moreover, cardiologist's experience plays an important role. For these reasons, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), have published documents on radiation safety and ways to reduce skin injuries during IC procedures. Various methods have been proposed for measuring MSD such as the use of slow radiotherapy films, thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), scintillation detectors, Dose-Area Product (DAP) meter, as well as a combination of DAP and air kerma. A literature review on MSDs measured during IC procedures showed that doses ranged from 300 to 43000 mGy

  20. Protection Against X-ray Treatment in Intervention Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to show basic propositions on protection against ionizing radiation in intervention cardiology. X-ray treatment should also be subjected to all radiological standards and principles of protection against radiation as well as all other radiological examinations. A cardiologist takes over the role of a radiologist after successfully completing additional education. The measures for reducing radiation include professional team, X-ray machines, a diagnostic room and, first of all, a patients body. A long-life diascopy is replaced by aimed photos. Concerning the X-ray machines, filtration, limiting of the bundle of rays and usage of reinforced foils are the important parts. Protection of thyroid gland, eye lenses, ovaries or spermaries and haematic organs must be ensured by safety measures. People who work with x-ray machines must have protective means in working order and personal dosimeters. Protective power of aprons, gloves and glasses must be at least 0.25 mm thick concerning lead. A medical check-up before working with radiation includes a general medical check-up with a working anamnesis and an ophtalmological, gynoecological, dermatological check-up and a psycho test as well as a haematologic analysis, an analysis of chromosome aberration and an urinanalysis. A legal and a physical person who has been appointed to work with the sources of ionizing radiation is obliged to appoint a person responsible for protection against ionizing radiation. The danger which accompanies exposure to radiation cannot be completely eliminated. However, the risk must be limited and reduced by means of administrative, organizational and technological measures. (author)

  1. The present role of nuclear cardiology in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, A.N.; Beller, G.A. [Virginia University, Charlottesville (United States). Cardiovascular Division Department of Medicine

    2005-03-01

    Many advances have been made in the field of nuclear cardiology in the past decade for enhancing the diagnostic and prognostic value of stress myocardial variability using SPECT technology. Gated SPECT for determining regional and global function have provided incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in the evaluation of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. Left ventricular ejection fraction and regional myocardial wall thickening can now be simultaneously evaluated with regional perfusion particularly with the use of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled perfusion agents such as sestamibi and tetrofosmin. Many studies have shown that the extent and severity of stress-induced perfusion defects have incremental prognostic value over exercise electrocardiographic stress test variables alone. Patients with normal perfusions scans have <1% combined cardiac death and myocardial infarction rates per year and thus have an excellent prognosis. Diabetics are particularly benefited from stress perfusion imaging for detection of coronary artery disease and risk assessment. Diabetics have a worse prognostic than non diabetics for the same amount of hypoperfusion on stress SPECT studies. Quantitative rest perfusion imaging with {sup 201}Tl or with one of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled imaging agents, or PET imaging with {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose can accurately distinguish viable from irreversibility injured myocardium providing useful information for identifying which patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy benefit most from coronary revascularization with a subsequent improvement in left ventricular function and enhanced survival. Finally, serial stress perfusion imaging can be employed to monitor the efficacy of medical therapy that improves endothelial function and myocardial blood flow reserve.

  2. Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in a biplane x-ray system used for interventional cardiology have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient thicknesses (4-20 cm of PMMA). Images from fluoroscopy (low, medium and high) and cine modes have been archived in digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), figure of merit (FOM), contrast (CO), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) have been computed from the images. Data on dose transferred to the DICOM header have been used to test the values of the dosimetric display at the interventional reference point. ESAK for fluoroscopy modes ranges from 0.15 to 36.60 μGy/frame when moving from 4 to 20 cm PMMA. For cine, these values range from 2.80 to 161.10 μGy/frame. SNR, FOM, CO, CNR and HCSR are improved for high fluoroscopy and cine modes and maintained roughly constant for the different thicknesses. Cumulative dose at the interventional reference point resulted 25-45% higher than the skin dose for the vertical C-arm (depending of the phantom thickness). ESAK and numerical image quality parameters allow the verification of the proper setting of the x-ray system. Knowing the increases in dose per frame when increasing phantom thicknesses together with the image quality parameters will help cardiologists in the good management of patient dose and allow them to select the best imaging acquisition mode during clinical procedures

  3. Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E [Radiology Department, Medicine School, Complutense University and San Carlos University Hospital, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ubeda, C [Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of the Science of Health, Tarapaca University, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile); Leyton, F [Institute of Public Health of Chile, Marathon 1000, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Miranda, P [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Avenida Antonio Varas 360, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es

    2008-08-07

    Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in a biplane x-ray system used for interventional cardiology have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient thicknesses (4-20 cm of PMMA). Images from fluoroscopy (low, medium and high) and cine modes have been archived in digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), figure of merit (FOM), contrast (CO), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) have been computed from the images. Data on dose transferred to the DICOM header have been used to test the values of the dosimetric display at the interventional reference point. ESAK for fluoroscopy modes ranges from 0.15 to 36.60 {mu}Gy/frame when moving from 4 to 20 cm PMMA. For cine, these values range from 2.80 to 161.10 {mu}Gy/frame. SNR, FOM, CO, CNR and HCSR are improved for high fluoroscopy and cine modes and maintained roughly constant for the different thicknesses. Cumulative dose at the interventional reference point resulted 25-45% higher than the skin dose for the vertical C-arm (depending of the phantom thickness). ESAK and numerical image quality parameters allow the verification of the proper setting of the x-ray system. Knowing the increases in dose per frame when increasing phantom thicknesses together with the image quality parameters will help cardiologists in the good management of patient dose and allow them to select the best imaging acquisition mode during clinical procedures.

  4. Regional monitoring of metals in the Munich metropolitan area: Comparison of biomonitoring (standardized grass culture) with deposition and airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Munich metropolitan area a close association of lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) impacts with traffic was observed in 1992 and 1993. The intercorrelation of both metals was found by samples of standardised grass cultures and was reflected by deposition sampling, too. With respect to location-specific variations, however, both methods revealed differing gradients of Pb and Sb concentrations with increasing distance from traffic. It appeared that Sb variations according to traffic implications were particularly well indicated by means of biomonitoring, while Pb variations were not indicated adequately. As a result, a special qualification of grass to selectively collect metals on airborne dust according to particle sizes was suggested. Further investigations on the correlations between metal biomonitoring, metal deposition and airborne metals in 1994 - 1996 corroborated method-specific sampling features. They in turn showed that one interference is the individual prevalence of the metals on different particle sizes. (author)

  5. Munich Re konsultant Gerhard Berz : katastroofid on meie ärile kasulikud / Gerhard Berz ; interv. Ulrich Schnabel, tõlk. Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berz, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Intervjuu meteoroloogiga, kes on kolm aastakümmet arvutanud edasikindlustusfirma Munich Re heaks loodusõnnetuste riske ja viibinud ligi viiekümnes katastroofipiirkonnas. Vaatamata sellele, et 2004. aasta oli kõige kulukamate looduskatastroofide aasta, saavutas firma läbi aegade parimad majandustulemused. Lisa: Meeletu kahju

  6. High prevalence of Babesia microti 'Munich' type in small mammals from an Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric area in the Omsk region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rar, Vera; Yakimenko, Valeriy; Makenov, Marat; Tikunov, Artem; Epikhina, Tamara; Tancev, Aleksey; Bobrova, Oksana; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Babesia microti is a genetically diverse group of protozoan parasites whose life cycle is associated with both small mammals and Ixodes spp. ticks. In this study, the prevalence of different B. microti genetic groups in ticks and small rodents in an area with Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes trianguliceps occurring in sympatry was examined. A total of 541 small mammals were captured during eight sampling periods between 2013 and 2015 at a site in the Omsk region of Russia and tested for the presence of B. microti using nested PCR with subsequent sequencing of positive samples. B. microti DNA was found in 31.6 % of examined samples, and prevalence rates ranged from 5.3 to 61.6 % in different sampling periods. The sequenced B. microti samples belonged to two genetic groups: enzootic B. microti 'Munich' type and zoonotic B. microti 'US' type. B. microti 'Munich' type was more common across all sampling periods, with greater than 80 % prevalence in infected animals. Despite the high B. microti 'Munich'-type prevalence in voles, B. microti was not found in any of 394 adult I. persulcatus ticks collected by flagging or in the 84 I. persulcatus or 20 I. trianguliceps ticks taken from voles and molted under laboratory conditions. It was demonstrated that B. microti 'Munich'-type DNA can be detected in the blood of naturally infected voles for at least 20 weeks after capture. Thus, the high prevalence of B. microti 'Munich' type in small mammals may be explained by the prolonged persistence of B. microti in the blood of wild voles. PMID:27212463

  7. Present and future of nuclear cardiology. Where we come from and where we are going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present of nuclear cardiology techniques with gated-SPECT, positron emission tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, cardiac mIBG scintigraphy and anatomical and functional images of three-dimensional SPECT-CT fusion may be the future for some centers, a future more or less distant for others. The prediction of the ways that will be followed by the different radioisotope scans in the field of cardiology is to some extent uncertain and depends on the development of other noninvasive techniques and on the possibility of reducing the dose of irradiation, decreasing the undesirable effects of ischemia-inducing drugs, but also on the evolution of macroeconomics in different countries, and of course on the level of experience and excellence in nuclear cardiology laboratories and the confidence generated on clinical cardiologists. (author)

  8. Dosimetric data and radiation risk analysis for new procedures in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiation doses to the patients and operators during interventional cardiology procedures, with a particular focus on the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Patient doses for 5549 diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and 76 TAVI were examined, as well as occupational doses to Cardiology Dept. operators. The average patient dose for TAVI was double that of PTCA and six times higher than a simple CA; statistically significant differences were shown in the average patient dose for both trans-femoral and trans-apical access; the measurements show a corresponding increase in the average occupational dose for the cardiologist. Interventional cardiology could increase the collective dose and occupationally exposed worker doses; this increase could be significant if the use of certain procedures is extended to younger people; particular attention in the choice of procedure, optimisation and staff education and organisation is therefore suggested. (authors)

  9. Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Specialist Heart Failure Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonagh, Theresa A; Gardner, Roy S; Lainscak, Mitja;

    2014-01-01

    . The second year allows completion of the optional modules of advanced imaging, device therapy for implanters, cardiac transplantation, and mechanical circulatory support. The second year can also be devoted to continuation of specialist heart failure training and/or research for those not wishing to......It is well established that organized care of heart failure patients, including specialist management by cardiologists, improves patient outcomes. In response to this, other national training bodies (the UK and the USA) have developed heart failure subspecialty curricula within their Cardiology...... Training Curricula. In addition, European Society of Cardiology (ESC) subspecialty curricula exist for Interventional Cardiology and Heart Rhythm Management. The purpose of this heart failure curriculum is to provide a framework which can be used as a blueprint for training across Europe. This blueprint...

  10. The Brugada syndrome: a complex cardiological problem in the experience of the specialist in internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Frabetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brugada syndrome, a disease burdened by elevated risk of sudden unexpected cardiac death, often affects young aged subjects that have structurally healthy heart. The diagnostic itinerary is complex: anamnesis, ECG, pharmacological test and electrophysiological study. Its phenotypes are three. METHOD We have identified 13 cases (10 men and 3 women, 12 estimated at the Cardiological Outpatients’ Department and 1 at the First-aid Station. RESULTS 2 cases belonged to phenotype 1, 4 cases to phenotype 2 and 7 cases to phenotype 3. CONCLUSIONS Our work of specialists in internal medicine, toward this syndrome, is: an accurate anamnesis, a correct interpretation of ECG, fast sending of high risk cases to advanced level cardiological competences, a selection of cases to submit to pharmacological test, to address middle risk patients to cardiological competences, offering our cooperation in the follow-up.

  11. Mass Media in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  12. AZERBAIJAN-GERMANY: COOPERATION VECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinalova, Sudaba

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at cooperation between Azerbaijan and Germany in the context of European integration and presents a brief overview of how the political dialog, economic relations, and cultural ties between the Azerbaijan Republic and the Federative Republic of Germany have been developing over the past 15 years.

  13. Pediatric cardiology. Clinical and practical experiences with heart diseases of children, juveniles and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on pediatric cardiology covers the following chapters: (I) Fundamentals and diagnostics: pediatric cardiologic anamnesis, electrocardiograms, thorax X-radiography, MRT and CT of the heart, nuclear medical diagnostics, exercise tests, heart catheter examination, electrophysiological tests. (II) Leading symptoms: Cyanosis, cardiac murmur, thorax pain, palpitation, syncopes. (III) Disease pictures: congenital heart defects, acquired heart defects, cardiomyopathies, heart rhythm disturbances, heart insufficiency, arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, other heart involving syndromes. (IV) Therapy: Catheter interventional therapy, post-surgical pediatric cardiac therapy, surgery involving the life-support machine, mechanical cardiovascular support systems, initial treatment of newborns with critical heart defects, heart transplantation, vaccination of children with heart diseases, medicinal therapy.

  14. Cardiology in the young : where we have been. Where we are. Where we are going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2014-12-01

    Cardiology in the Young is devoted to cardiovascular issues affecting the young, and older patients with congenital heart disease, or with other cardiac diseases acquired during childhood. The journal serves the interests of all professionals concerned with these topics. By design, the journal is international and multidisciplinary in its approach, and members of the editorial board take an active role in its mission, helping to make it an indispensable reference for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. All aspects of paediatric and congenital cardiac care are covered within the journal. The content includes original articles, brief reports, editorials, reviews, and papers devoted to continuing professional development. High-quality colour figures are published on a regular basis, and without charge to the authors. Regular supplements are published containing the abstracts of the annual meetings of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology, along with other occasional supplements. These supplements are supplied free to subscribers. The vision of Cardiology in the Young is to use print and electronic media to improve paediatric and congenital cardiac care. The mission of Cardiology in the Young is to be a premier global journal for paediatric and congenital cardiac care - an essential journal that spans the domains of patient care, research, education, and advocacy, and also spans geographical, temporal, and subspeciality boundaries. Cardiology in the Young was officially launched in December, 1990. The late Lucio Parenzan was Editor-in-Chief from 1990 through Volume 4, Number 1, January 1994. Professor Robert Anderson and Giancarlo Crupi then shared the Editor-in-Chief position until the end of 1995. Then, from 1995 through 2007, Professor Robert Anderson served as the sole Editor-in-Chief of Cardiology in the Young . Edward Baker, MD, FRCP, FRCPCH, served as Editor-in-Chief of Cardiology in the Young from 2007 to 2013. In January, 2014

  15. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  16. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  17. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  18. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  19. Laboratory reconstruction of personal doses in interventional radiology and cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People working in interventional cardiology represent one of the most occupationally exposed groups. As recommended by the ICRP, these workers should be equipped with two personal dosemeters, one of them worn on the neck outside the protective collar and the second one on the trunk under the protective apron. It is proved that this double dosimetry method provides more precise estimate of effective dose. In connection with the new lower limit of the eye lens dose, the demands on the eye lens dose estimate increase. The aim of our experiment was to examine the relation between eye lens dose and the quantities Hp(10),Hp(3) or Hp(0.07) measured with conventional personal dosemeters worn on neck and chest. Irradiation conditions imitating the common operation of interventional radiology were created in the laboratory. The patient's body was substituted for a slab PMMA phantom (30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm). An anthropomorphic Random phantom representing a physician was clothed in a protective apron and a collar, with equivalent of 0.5 mm Pb for both. Three personal multicomponent whole-body thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD), which allow to measure personal dose equivalents Hp(10),Hp(3) and Hp(0.07), were fixed the Random phantom, one on the collar on the neck and two on the chest over and under the apron. The use of the third dosemeter outside the apron, beyond the recommended double dosimetry, was motivated by the fact that the double dosimetry is not preferred in the Czech Republic yet. Moreover, a special TLD called EYE-D, measuring Hp(3), was employed to determine eye lens dose. It was placed on the Random phantom's temple in the proximity of the eye closer to the radiation source. The utilized PMMA slab phantom was irradiated with X-ray source with the quality RQR5 in four typical irradiation geometries, i.e. radiation beam entered the patient from the front, back, left and right side, which was simulated by the respective arrangement of both the phantoms

  20. Air kerma rates measurement in an interventional cardiology suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Interventional Cardiology (IC), the assessment of the radiation that the physicians are exposed to is extremely important because the irradiation is not uniform and the received doses are substantially high. During the procedure, the radiation control is complex and there are several reasons for the high exposure levels. It is necessary to perform dosimetric assessments in different parts of the physicians' body and in different specific points of the examination room. By analyzing this information it is possible to determine the probable causes and to provide recommendations, aiming at optimizing the radiological protection. This work had the following objectives: to assess the exposition levels at representative points of critical anatomical regions of the physicians' body who perform IC examinations; to provide means to implement personal monitoring procedures; and to make them aware of the radiation risks. Measurements of air kerma rates were performed in 45 points around the examination table, along the room. Such measurements were made in the conditions frequently used in coronary angiography and coronary angioplasties procedures: adult patient phantom; RAO, LAO and AP incidences; fluoro and digital modes; 13cm and 17cm magnification modes; frequencies of 30f/s (fluoro) and 15 f/s (digital); typical field size used during examinations. Data were obtained at the lenses, chest, hands, gonads and knees levels. For AP incidence, the lowest contributions for scattered radiation and a more homogeneous distribution of radiation were observed. The highest air kerma rates were obtained during digital acquisition mode and for LAO incidence on interventional radiologists, anaesthesists and nurses. The most critical anatomical regions were the knees and gonads. Air kerma rates of about 7,8mGy/h were registered in some places. At physicians' hands position, rates of about 5mGy/h were reached. In several points and levels measured (workload ∼ 6 examinations/day), this

  1. Germany, country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the licensing approach in Germany is the Act on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the protection against its hazards (Atomic Energy Act) with subordinated rules guidelines and standards. Due to the federal structure of Germany, the state authorities are responsible for the licensing of nuclear power plants. First applications of computer based Instrumentation and Control were introduced in the frame of minor upgrading projects, the associated assessment and licensing activities were performed on a case by case basis, with existing rules and guidelines (e.g. issued by KTA or the German Reactor Safety Commission - RSK) applied according to the safety rationale laid down in these documents. Since specific national standards and guidelines for digital Instrumentation and Control were not available, international standards, especially IEC 60880, have been used in addition. The structure consists of four protection goals and five auxiliary functions embracing these goals. The protection goals and the principle tasks to be performed in order to meet these goals are (definition according to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection BfS). This covers the following: Control of Reactivity, cooling of Fuel Elements, Enclosure of Radioactive Substances, Limitation of Radiation Exposure, Auxiliary functions embracing the protection goals referring to the reliability, entire plant, administration, instrumentation and control, power supplies. Depending on the safety importance of the functions and the associated reliability requirements, the I and C architecture (e.g. the degree of redundancy) is developed and appropriate equipment is selected to build up the I and C system. As mentioned above a clear requirement specification is an important pre-requisite for defining the process and the related I and C functions. Moreover it provides the basis for grading the requirements for a classification system. According to the RSK Guidelines following basic

  2. Germany: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance. A total of 70 million people or 85% of the population are covered by statutory health insurance in one of 132 sickness funds in early 2014. Another 11% are covered by substitutive private health insurance. Characteristics of the system are free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels. A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between ambulatory physicians and hospitals. Germany invests a substantial amount of its resources on health care: 11.4% of gross domestic product in 2012, which is one of the highest levels in the European Union. In international terms, the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as relatively low cost-sharing. However, the German health care system still needs improvement in some areas, such as the quality of care. In addition, the division into statutory and private health insurance remains one of the largest challenges for the German health care system, as it leads to inequalities. PMID:25115137

  3. The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Section: increasing the opportunities for the congenital heart disease community within the American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gerard R; Mitchell, Stephanie; Beekman, Robert H; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Jenkins, Kathy J; Landzberg, Michael; Webb, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (AC/PC) Section was established to develop a clear voice within the American College of Cardiology and address the myriad issues facing the congenital heart disease profession. The Section is governed by the AC/PC Council, which includes pediatric cardiologists, adult congenital cardiologists, a cardiac care associate, and a fellow-in-training member. The Council is responsible for bidirectional communication between the College's Board of Trustees and the AC/PC Section members. Since its founding in 2004, Section objectives have been defined by the College's mission: to advocate for quality cardiovascular care through education, research promotion, and the development and application of standards and guidelines and to influence health care policy. The pillars of the College-advocacy, quality, education, and member engagement-serve as the defining template for the Section's strategy. The Section has developed work groups in advocacy, clinical practice, education and training, quality, and publications. A separate leadership group has been developed for adult congenital heart disease. Work groups are open to all Section members. Recognition of the importance of lifelong care in congenital heart disease led Section leaders to incorporate pediatric cardiology and adult congenital heart disease content into each of the work groups. There are more than 1,200 Section members, with nearly 400 members actively contributing to Section activities. This article outlines Section efforts to date and highlights significant successes to date. PMID:22192673

  4. Fractal Fragmentation triggered by meteor impact: The Ries Crater (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Perugini, Diego; Rossi, Stefano; Kueppers, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    FRACTAL FRAGMENTATION TRIGGERED BY METEOR IMPACT: THE RIES CRATER (GERMANY) Joali Paredes (1), Stefano Rossi (1), Diego Perugini (1), Ulrich Kueppers (2) 1. Department of Physics and Geology, University of Perugia, Italy 2. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Munich, Germany The Nördlinger Ries is a large circular depression in western Bavaria, Germany. The depression was caused by a meteor impact, which occurred about 14.3 million-14.5 million years ago. The original crater rim had an estimated diameter of 24 kilometers. Computer modeling of the impact event indicates that the impact or probably had diameters of about 1.5 kilometers and impacted the target area at an angle around 30 to 50 degrees from the surface in a west- southwest to east-northeast direction. The impact velocity is thought to have been about 20 km/s. The meteor impact generated extensive fragmentation of preexisting rocks. In addition, melting of these rocks also occurred. The impact melt was ejected at high speed provoking its extensive fragmentation. Quenched melt fragments are ubiquitous in the outcrops. Here we study melt fragment size distributions with the aim of understanding the style of melt fragmentation during ejection and to constrain the rheological properties of such melts. Digital images of suevite (i.e. the rock generated after deposition and diagenesis of ash and fragments produced by the meteor impact) were obtained using a high-resolution optical scanner. Successively, melt fragments were traced by image analysis and the images segmented in order to obtain binary images on which impact melt fragments are in black color, embedded on a white background. Hence, the size of fragments was determined by image analysis. Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to fragment size distributions of melt fragments in the Ries crater. Results indicate that melt fragments follow fractal distributions indicating that fragmentation of melt generated by the

  5. High and low volume sampling of particulate matter at sites with different traffic profiles in the Netherlands and Germany: Results from the HEPMEAP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Meliefste, Kees; Fuchs, Oliver; Weiland, Stephan K.; Cassee, Flemming; Brunekreef, Bert; Sandstrom, Thomas

    Within the EU project "Health Effects of Particles from Motor Engine Exhaust and Ambient Pollution" (HEPMEAP), ambient particulate matter (PM) was collected at sites, with varying traffic density and sources of PM emissions, in the Netherlands and Munich, Germany. In the Netherlands, measurements were conducted close to four schools which had participated 4 years earlier in a study on respiratory health of children attending schools near motorways. In Munich, measurements were conducted at a high traffic inner city and a suburban background (low traffic) site. Measurements were spaced over a period of approximately 1 year. Collection of PM was conducted using both high volume and low volume impaction methods. In addition to PM mass, PM-absorbance ('soot') and NO 2 were measured as indicators of fossil fuel combustion. PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations calculated from the high volume collections were highly correlated with PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations measured simultaneously by low volume samplers ( R2 0.87-0.94). Both high and low volume measurements showed little difference in semi annual average PM mass concentrations between sites within each country, with PM concentrations at the highest exposed sites being only about 10-30% higher compared to the lowest exposed sites. Contrasts for PM-absorbance and NO 2 were significantly higher than for PM mass (70-90% in the Netherlands and 90-167% in Germany). This demonstrates a higher impact of traffic on these components compared to PM mass.

  6. On Experiences of Teachers Team Construction of Technical University of Munich and Its Enlightenments%慕尼黑工业大学教师队伍建设经验及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚平; 王梅; 安蓉

    2015-01-01

    As a first-class university in Germany, Technical University of Munich is committed to build the first-class teachers team, which is distinctive in many aspects, such as, the way of teachers employment, the evaluation of teachers promotion, the professional development of teachers, the management of teachers team, the structure of teachers team, etc. With reference to its experiences, Chinese universities can promote the construction and development of teachers team by exploring flexible system of teacher appointment and promotion, practicing the teachers' evaluation mechanism with combination of evaluation and promotion, establishing teachers management model dominated by academic, optimizing the structure of teachers team reasonably.%作为德国一流大学,慕尼黑工业大学致力于建设一流的教师队伍,在教师聘任方式、教师评估晋升、教师专业发展、教师队伍管理、教师队伍结构等方面的做法都极具特色。参照其经验,我国高校可以通过探索灵活的教师聘任与晋升制度、实行评聘结合的教师评估机制、建立以学术权力为主导的管理模式、合理优化教师队伍结构等方式推进教师队伍的建设与发展。

  7. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P < 0.001) and of PET was 2.6 ± 1.5 mSv (RoW 3.8 ± 2.5 mSv; P < 0.001). The mean effective doses of SPECT and PET differed between European regions (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The mean quality score was 6.2 ± 1.2, which was higher than the RoW score (5.0 ± 1.1; P < 0.001). Adherence to best practices did not differ significantly among the European regions (range 6 to 6.4; P = 0.73). Of the best practices, stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted dosing were the least commonly used. In Europe, the mean effective dose from nuclear cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the RoW. There is regional variation in effective dose in

  8. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Oliver; Burchert, Wolfgang [University Hospital of the Ruhr University, Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana [International Atomic Energy Agency, Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Mercuri, Mathew [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Kitsiou, Anastasia [Sismanoglio Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Athens (Greece); Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Underwood, S.R. [Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Vitola, Joao V. [Quanta Diagnostico and Terapia, Curitiba (Brazil); Mahmarian, John J. [Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Department of Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Karthikeyan, Ganesan [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiology, New Delhi (India); Better, Nathan [Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Rehani, Madan M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Radiation Protection of Patients Unit, Vienna (Austria); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Einstein, Andrew J. [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Collaboration: for the INCAPS Investigators Group

    2016-04-15

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P < 0.001) and of PET was 2.6 ± 1.5 mSv (RoW 3.8 ± 2.5 mSv; P < 0.001). The mean effective doses of SPECT and PET differed between European regions (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The mean quality score was 6.2 ± 1.2, which was higher than the RoW score (5.0 ± 1.1; P < 0.001). Adherence to best practices did not differ significantly among the European regions (range 6 to 6.4; P = 0.73). Of the best practices, stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted dosing were the least commonly used. In Europe, the mean effective dose from nuclear cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the RoW. There is regional variation in effective dose in

  9. Rising Wage Inequality in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gernandt, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of wages and the recent tendency to rising wage inequality in Germany, based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for 1984 to 2004. Between 1984 and 1994 the wage distribution was fairly stable. Wage inequality started to increase around 1994 in Germany for all workers and for prime age dependent male workers as well. Rising inequality is not the result of the recent rise in self-employment. In West Germany rising inequality occurred in the lower pa...

  10. Test of a Cardiology Patient Simulator with Students in Fourth-Year Electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewy, Gordon A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Students at five medical schools participated in an evaluation of a cardiology patient simulator (CPS), a life-size mannequin capable of simulating a wide variety of cardiovascular conditions. The CPS enhances learning both the knowledge and the skills necessary to perform a bedside cardiovascular evaluation. (Author/MLW)

  11. The application of dual-isotope technique in nuclear cardiology and its scatter correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquisition of both stressed and rest myocardial perfusion simultaneously is possible when dual-isotope technique is used. And using this technique authors also can obtain data of myocardial perfusion and metabolism imaging with different clinical significance under the same physiological condition. The clinical application of dual-isotope in nuclear cardiology and its scatter correction was reviewed

  12. Clinical and scientific progress related to the interface between cardiology and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman, R A M; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    In November 1975, as the first in the Netherlands, a full-time psychologist was employed at the Department of Cardiology of the Thoraxcenter of the Erasmus Medical Center. This innovative decision was consistent with a view to treat the patient as a whole rather than the heart as a single body pa...

  13. European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association Standards for delivering heart failure care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonagh, Theresa A.; Blue, Lynda; Clark, Andrew L.; Dahlstroem, Ulf; Ekman, Inger; Lainscak, Mitja; McDonald, Kenneth; Ryder, Mary; Stroemberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2011-01-01

    The management of heart failure (HF) is complex. As a consequence, most cardiology society guidelines now state that HF care should be delivered in a multiprofessional manner. The evidence base for this approach now means that the establishment of HF management programmes is a priority. This documen

  14. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is a paucity of information worldwide on radiation exposure in paediatric interventional cardiology. At present Nationally established Diagnostic Reference Levels exist for adult interventional cardiology procedures in the UK but little data is available for paediatrics. In addition, interventional cardiology has been identified as one the highest contributors to medical exposure to ionising radiation and children are more radiosensitive than adults. Objective: This study sought to determine current radiation dose levels in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) with a view to establishing local diagnostic reference levels (LDRL). Methods: Radiation dose and examination details were recorded for 354 paediatric patients examined by IC in a specialised paediatric centre in Europe. Radiation doses were recorded using a Dose Area Product meter along with examination details. Procedures were categorised as either diagnostic (A) or therapeutic (B). Data was further sub-divided into five age ranges; (1) newborn <1 year (2) 1 <5 years (3) 5 <10 years (4) 10 <15 years (5) 15 years and over. Proposed LDRL were calculated from the mean dose area product readings. Results: The mean patient age was 2.6 years (range 0.0 days–16 years) and weight was 14.9 kg (range 2.4–112 kg). LDRL for the five age groupings were calculated as 190, 421, 582, 1289 and 1776 cGycm² respectively. Conclusion: Local dose reference levels have been proposed for paediatric IC and can be used as a benchmark for other hospitals to compare against their own radiation doses

  15. Paediatric cardiology programs in countries with limited resources: how to bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulafa, K M Ali

    2010-07-01

    Establishing paediatric cardiology service in a country with limited resources like Sudan is a challenging task. A paediatric cardiac team was formed then the services in different disciplines were gradually established. Echocardiography (echo) clinics were founded in tertiary and peripheral hospitals. Cardiac catheterization (cath) was established at the Sudan Heart Centre (SHC) in 2004 and over 400 procedures had been performed including interventional catheterization like pulmonary valve dilatation, patent ductus arteriosus and atrial septal defect device closure. Congenital heart surgery started in 2001, currently 200 cases are done each year including closed procedures as well as open heart procedures for patients weighing more than 8 kg. Cardiology-cardiac surgery as well as adult congenital heart disease meetings were held and contributed positively to the services. The cardiology-cardiac surgery scientific club meeting was founded as a forum for academic discussions. A fellowship program was established in 2004 and included seven candidates trained in paediatric cardiology and intensive care. Two training courses had been established: congenital heart disease echo and paediatric electrocardiogram interpretation. Links with regional and international cardiac centres had important roles in consolidating our program. Significant obstacles face our service due to the small number of trained personnel, high cost of procedures, the lack of regular supplies and lack of cardiac intensive care facilities for young infants. Bridging the huge gap needs extensive official as well as non-governmental efforts, training more staff, supporting families and collaboration with regional and international centres. PMID:23960607

  16. Investigation of the fluoroscopy units used in radiology and cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nationwide survey was launched in 2002 in Switzerland in order to investigate the use of fluoroscopy and to establish national reference levels (RL) for dose intensive procedures particularly in interventional radiology. The two year investigation covered five radiology and nine cardiology departments in public hospitals and private clinics, and focused on twelve types of examinations: six diagnostic and six interventional. The performance of the fluoroscopy units used in these healthcare centres (image quality and dose) was assessed extensively. This characterization was useful since, unlike the American RAD-IR study where the fluoroscopy units where similar (Siemens, with Cu filtration), a large variability in the brands and the technical specifications of the fluoroscopy units used in the participating centres are registered in our case. The units are often programmed according to the anatomical region under investigation. Knowledge of the parameters used for the various categories of examinations is crucial for analysis of the results of the survey. First, the DAP meters of the fluoroscopy units were checked using an external reference DAP meter put on top of the measuring device of the fluoroscopy unit. The units were then characterized in terms of the image quality and the patient dose associated to the various modes used. Assessment of the image quality consisted of establishing the spatial resolution limit at the middle of a Leeds TOR(CDR) Test Object. The dose measurements were performed using an 11 cm3 ionization chamber connected to a Radcal 3036 dosemeter and a 20 cm thick PMMA phantom. The characteristics of the fluoroscopy units (dose rate, dose per frame, image quality index and spatial resolution) were established for three imaging modes (radiography, fluoroscopy and cine), various diameters (or magnifications) of the image intensifier and various imaging frequencies and for six categories of examinations: 1) barium based examinations, 2) bile

  17. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  18. Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The article summarizes the geothermal potential, the status and the prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany and arrives at the following conclusions: Even in a country like Germany with no active vulcanism the resources for geothermal power production and direct use are very high and exceed those of conventional energy sources by far. Geothermal use in Germany however is still in its initial stage. The installed capacity in 2005 amounted to 135 MW{sub th} for direct use and to only 230 kW{sub el} for power production. The uprating of the allowance for geothermal power from 0.09 Euro/kWh to 0.15 Euro/kWh in 2004 and the R and D-programme for renewable energy of the Ministry of Environment has initiated a great number of new projects especially in the Upper Rhine Valley and in the Fore Alp Region near Munich. The success of these projects will be critical for the development of geothermal power production in Germany in the near future. Geothermal energy use in Germany is so far restricted to deep seated hot water aquifers. One of the major barriers for a wider application of this resource is our poor knowledge about the hydraulic properties of these aquifers leading to a great and in many cases unacceptable risk for potential investors. For this reason a geothermal information system is under development at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover which will help to supply investors with the best information available and to quantify the risk for insurance companies and geothermal funds. Though hot water aquifers suitable for geothermal power production are rare in Germany the size of this resource is comparable to the German oil and gas resources. Nevertheless their contribution to the national power production will remain small and will hardly exceed a few hundred MW{sub el}. Their potential for direct use is much higher. But since heat has to be produced very close to the consumer to prevent excessive costs for transportation this huge

  19. MEMS - Munich Energy Management System. FIA Project: Exchange of research information; MEMS - Muenchner Energiemanagement-System. FIA-Projekt - Forschungs-Informations-Austausch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, H.; Fries, W.

    2001-10-01

    The City of Munich developed the project 'Munich Energy-Management-Systems (MEMS)' with financial support from the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology. The project is based on a system of building automation using as many standard elements of hardware and software as possible. This will guarantee a high degree of independence from suppliers and subcontractors. The project has led to a reliable working base for the evaluation, measuring and control for ca. 150 municipal buildings. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Projekt 'Muenchner Energie-Management-System (MEMS)' erstellte die Landeshauptstadt Muenchen mit finanzieller Unterstuetzung des Bundesministeriums fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie ein auf der Leitzentrale Haustechnik (LZH) basierendes zentrales Energiemanagementsystem. Die Verwendung moeglichst vieler Standards in Hard- und Software ist dabei ein wesentlicher Gesichtspunkt. Dadurch wurde eine weitgehende Unabhaengigkeit von einem einzelnen Hersteller erreicht. Damit wurde ein Erfassungs-, Auswerte- und Steuerungssystem fuer derzeit rund 150 staedtische Gebaeude geschaffen. (orig.)

  20. Development of a thermal hydraulic modelling of ground water of the Malm in the Munich metropolitan area; Entwicklung einer thermisch-hydraulischen Grundwassermodellierung des Malm im Grossraum Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussel, M.; Lueschen, E.; Thomas, R. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik, Hannover (DE)] (and others)

    2011-10-24

    The mutual potential influence of geothermal duplicates and the scientific investigation of the relationship between seismic and hydraulic parameters are investigated in the joint research project 'Geothermal characterization of fractured karst limestone aquifers in the Munich metropolitan area'. Thirteen doublets and triplets being in production or sunk illustrate the great geothermal potential and provide important data on the development of a thermal-hydraulic modeling of the reservoir. 3D seismic Unterhaching, 3D structural model, hydrogeological model and a high-resolution 3D temperature model form the basis of the numerical modeling. Different seismic signatures, seismic attributes and variations in the interval velocities characterize the ground geophysically, and were interpreted under consideration of geological and hydrogeological background information as well as borehole measurements in terms of hydraulically conductive homogeneous areas. For the Munich metropolitan area, the numerical modeling is a decision aid for the future optimized and sustainable hydrothermal utilization of the Malm aquifer.

  1. Undergraduate medical education in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between ...

  2. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey -- IV. Biases in the Completeness of Near-Infrared Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Snigula, J; Bender, R; Botzler, C S; Feulner, G; Hopp, U

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of completeness simulations for the detection of point sources as well as redshifted elliptical and spiral galaxies in the K'-band images of the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS). The main focus of this work is to quantify the selection effects introduced by threshold-based object detection algorithms used in deep imaging surveys. Therefore, we simulate objects obeying the well-known scaling relations between effective radius and central surface brightness, both for de Vaucouleurs and exponential profiles. The results of these simulations, while presented for the MUNICS project, are applicable in a much wider context to deep optical and near-infrared selected samples. We investigate the detection probability as well as the reliability for recovering the true total magnitude with Kron-like (adaptive) aperture photometry. The results are compared to the predictions of the visibility theory of Disney and Phillipps in terms of the detection rate and the lost-light fraction. Addit...

  3. Design and Operation of Public Transport in Munich%慕尼黑公共交通的设计与运营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guenter Pedall

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction of Public Transport in Munich Underground System The new generation of underground trains travel at a top speed of 80 km/h and are equipped with cutting-edge technology. Current projects rolling stock are equipped with Onboard Fire-Detection and Extinction of fire, viedo-surveillance-system with data communication in parking facilities, on board-TV(passenger information and entertainment) and passenger counting system.

  4. Recollections of life as a student and a young astronomer in Germany in the 1920s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Hermann A.; Brück, Mary T.

    2000-12-01

    The author of this essay, Hermann Alexander Brück, Emeritus Professor of Astronomy at the University of Edinburgh and former Astronomer Royal for Scotland, died on 4 March 2000 in his 95th year. He was the last of his generation of astronomers in both Germany and Britain, and among the oldest members, if not the oldest, of the Royal Astronomical Society and of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Hermann Brück was born in Berlin in 1905 and, as he recounts below, received his education at the Universities of Kiel, Bonn and Munich in 1924-1928. To the end of his life he looked back on his student days in Munich as the most profitable and exciting he ever experienced. From Munich he began his astronomical career at the Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory. These, too, were happy days, destined, however, to be blighted within a few years by the rise of Nazism. In 1936 Brück left Germany, and obtained a temporary Research Assistantship at the Vatican Observatory. From there he went a year later to Cambridge, rising to the rank of John Couch Adams Astronomer and Assistant Director of the Observatory. In 1947, in response to an invitation from Eamon de Valera, then Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Ireland, he moved to Dublin where he undertook the task of re-founding the defunct Dunsink Observatory under the auspices of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. He moved from Dublin to the Royal Observatory Edinburgh in 1957, taking up the combined post of Astronomer Royal for Scotland and Regius Professor of Astronomy in the University of Edinburgh. He retired in 1975 at the age of 70. Always interested in history, he occupied himself in his retirement with various historical projects. These included writing the histories of the Royal Observatory Edinburgh (The Story of Astronomy in Edinburgh, Edinburgh 1983) and of the earlier Dun Echt Observatory in Aberdeenshire (Lord Crawford's Observatory at Dun Echt 1872-1892, Vistas in Astronomy 35, 1992) as well as a record of his own

  5. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  6. Country report Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany, there are 19 operating nuclear power plants, with a total installed capacity of 21.4 GWe. In 2002, the electricity production of these 19 nuclear power plants amounted to 165 TWh, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity production. The average availability of the German nuclear power plants was 85.6 % (this low value is due to the unexpected outage of some NPPs). The expressed goal of the German Federal Government is to phase out of nuclear energy without paying compensations to the utilities. On 11 June 2001, the final agreement between the German utilities and the German Federal Government was signed, and the amendment to the German Atomic Law (AtG-Novelle) was enforced on 27 April 2002. The overall objective of the new AtG is changed from 'support of nuclear energy' to 'fix phase-out of nuclear energy'. After the German parliament elections, the new Government coalition formulated a Coalition Contract which has the following statements on Nuclear Energy: - Work out an energy research programme which gives first priority to renewable energies and energy efficiency, - Assess termination of EURATOM membership, - Terminate nuclear electricity production on the base of a guaranteed total amount of electricity produced (in GWh),No reprocessing after 2005, - Erection of interim storages at nuclear power plant sites, - Support of research to improve safety of existing reactors, - Stop of national support for development of techniques for nuclear energy production (this includes fission and fusion). The German Committee on a Selection Procedure for Repository Sites (AkEnd) was established 1998 by the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) reached agreement on the following main issues: - One final repository concept, - Storage in deep geological formation starting about 2030, - Isolation for 1 million years, - Under-ground exploration of at lease two sites, - One selection criteria for the final repository is the transparency of

  7. Changed vegetation composition in coniferous forests near to motorways in Southern Germany: The effects of traffic-born pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the effect of traffic emissions on the vegetation composition of coniferous forests near to motorways, three transects of 520 m length were studied by analysing vegetation composition, soil parameters and deposition data in the Munich-area, Southern Germany. The detected patterns suggest that motorways have an impact on the vegetation composition in the neighbourhood of roads. Depending on the wind direction, the influences of the motorways reaches up to 230 m on downwind side and up to 80 m on upwind side. The vegetation is mainly affected by the deposition of nitrogen deriving from fuel combustion and by basic substances added to road salt. By monitoring vegetation changes near to motorways, it is possible to estimate the areas where harmful alterations of the ecosystem can be expected. - Vegetation near motorways was strongly influenced by traffic-borne nitrogen

  8. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  9. Green energy. Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

  10. The Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR): Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last three decades, the use of image guided interventional procedures in cardiology has increased significantly, bringing great benefit to millions of patients around the world. As technology improves, the medical capabilities of these procedures continue to expand, adding further to the armamentarium for diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiac problems. All of these procedures require health professionals (including interventional cardiologists, electrophysiologists, nurses and medical radiation technologists) to be present in the room and alongside the patient when radiation is being used, which may result in occupational exposure. While it has been long known that there is significant potential for health professionals in attendance during interventional cardiology to receive non-trivial occupational exposures, reported details have been typically limited to a few specific interventional cardiology facilities and situations. A more global perspective has been lacking, as is the availability of a systematic means for improving occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology facilities throughout the world. In 2006, the IAEA published the Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1), which sets out the fundamental safety objective and principles of protection and safety. In 2011, the IAEA published Radiation Protection and Safety of Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim Edition)), which sets out the requirements for meeting the fundamental safety objective and applying the principles specified in the Fundamental Safety Principles. The establishment of safety requirements and provision of guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation protection and safety provided by the IAEA to Member States. This publication was developed under the IAEA's statutory responsibility to facilitate worldwide application

  11. Activity and practice of nuclear cardiology in the Czech Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has been on the rise in Europe and the USA. Details on nuclear cardiology in the Czech Republic are not available as yet, as it is impossible to obtain comprehensive data from official registers owing to different methods of reporting and data evaluation. A questionnaire concerning nuclear cardiology activity and practice in 2001 was sent to all nuclear medicine departments in the Czech Republic. All 48 departments completed the questionnaire. In 2001, 50 planar and 54 tomographic (SPET) scintillation cameras were used. The average age of the SPET cameras was 5 years (13% of SPET cameras were >8 years old). Out of the 48 centres, 39 (81%) provided a nuclear cardiology service; the total number of cardiological studies was 15,740 in 2001 (1.5 studies/1,000 population/year). The most frequently employed method was MPI (81.7%), the frequency of which had increased by 10% compared with 2000; 26 of the 39 (67%) departments reported that MPI activity was increasing. Nevertheless, the Czech Republic nuclear cardiology activity remained below the European average (2.2/1,000 population in 1994) and, particularly, below activity in the USA (15/1,000 in 1997). The activity was rather unevenly spread. Whereas two centres with >1,000 studies/year accounted for 20% of the total MPI studies, 16 of 39 (41%) departments exhibited low activity (99mTc-MIBI (60% of total MPI), followed by 201Tl (21%) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (19%). ECG-gated SPET was employed by 20/39 (51%) centres, of which 11 (28%) performed it as a standard examination; 39% of the total MPI studies included this technique. Thirteen percent (5/39) of the departments used attenuation correction, and 69% (27/39) of the departments used a prone projection. Equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, with 2,317 examinations (14.7%), ranked second among all nuclear cardiology methods, followed by first-pass angiocardiography (406 studies, 2.6%) and 18F-FDG (163 studies, 1

  12. A comparison of the quality of the information available on the internet on interventional radiology, vascular surgery, and cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Alsafi, A.; Kaya, G.; Patel, H; M S Hamady

    2013-01-01

    Context and Aims: Internet use is rapidly expanding and increasingly plays a substantial role in patient education. We sought to evaluate and compare the quality of information available to patients online on three closely linked specialties: Interventional radiology (IR), cardiology, and vascular surgery. Materials and Methods: We searched the leading three search engines for the terms: "Interventional Radiology", "cardiology," and "vascular surgery," collating the top 50 hits from each sear...

  13. Testosterone and cardiovascular risk: myths and new truth about cardiological safety of androgen replacement therapy in men

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yu. Kalinchenko; I. A. Tyuzikov; L. O. Vorslov; Yu A Tishova

    2014-01-01

    In a critical review of the literature highlights issues cardiological safety of testosterone therapy in men with cardiovascular diseases, based on research evidence over the past 25 years, as well as a detailed analysis of a number of recent publications, was summoned by the ambiguous attitude of experts and researchers in connection with them demonstrated high frequency of adverse cardiological outcomes in men on the background of androgen replacement therapy. Most modern randomized studies...

  14. Inspection of cardiology departments in Norway: are they making it great in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staff involved in interventional cardiology receive the highest occupational doses in Norway, and skin burns of patients have been reported. To identify the level of radiation protection (RP) for patients and staff, and compliance with the RP regulation, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority carried out inspections. The inspections were conducted (2013-14) as quality system reviews, based on document reviews, interviews, on-site inspections and observations of interventional procedures. The inspections revealed that most of the hospitals had non-compliancies according to the RP regulation. Most deviations were associated with education in RP and follow-up of patients who had received high radiation doses. Lack of systematic optimisation of procedures and estimation of eye lens doses to evaluate the risk for cataracts were also common. Inspections turned out to increase the awareness of RP in cardiology and are identified as an effective tool for improving RP. (authors)

  15. Neuropsychological Testing in Interventional Cardiology Staff after Long-Term Exposure to Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Demi, Virginia; Campana, Serena; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Guagliumi, Giulio; Conversano, Ciro; Baroni, Stefano; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Picano, Eugenio

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at comparing neuropsychological test scores in 83 cardiologists and nurses (exposed group, EG) working in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, and 83 control participants (non exposed group, nEG), to explore possible cognitive impairments. The neuropsychological assessment was carried out by means of a battery called "Esame Neuropsicologico Breve." EG participants showed significantly lower scores on the delayed recall, visual short-term memory, and semantic lexical access ability than the nEG ones. No dose response could be detected. EG participants showed lower memory and verbal fluency performances, as compared with nEG. These reduced skills suggest alterations of some left hemisphere structures that are more exposed to IR in interventional cardiology staff. On the basis of these findings, therefore, head protection would be a mandatory good practice to reduce effects of head exposure to ionizing radiation among invasive cardiology personnel (and among other exposed professionals). PMID:26400563

  16. Inspection of cardiology departments in Norway: are they making it great in radiation protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkoset, R D; Widmark, A; Friberg, E G

    2015-07-01

    Staff involved in interventional cardiology receive the highest occupational doses in Norway, and skin burns of patients have been reported. To identify the level of radiation protection (RP) for patients and staff, and compliance with the RP regulation, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority carried out inspections. The inspections were conducted (2013-14) as quality system reviews, based on document reviews, interviews, on-site inspections and observations of interventional procedures. The inspections revealed that most of the hospitals had non-compliances according to the RP regulation. Most deviations were associated with education in RP and follow-up of patients who had received high radiation doses. Lack of systematic optimisation of procedures and estimation of eye lens doses to evaluate the risk for cataracts were also common. Inspections turned out to increase the awareness of RP in cardiology and are identified as an effective tool for improving RP. PMID:25813484

  17. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental...... problems on visual analogue scales (VAS-somatic and VAS-mental). Cardiac diagnosis, noncardiac comorbidity, history of mental disorder, and the number of daily social contacts were noted. Survival was followed for 6 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 33 (38.4%) patients had mental disorder, 6 dementia, 11 major...

  18. [The beginning of Mexican cardiology in the springtime of the Mexican National Academy of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The National Academy of Medicine was founded 141 years ago during the French intervention. Under the sponsorship of this brand-new medical association, Mexican cardioangiology took its first steps in the medical and surgical field as well. After the falling of the second empire, the medical and surgical advances of this discipline continued. The corresponding publications appeared in different volumes of the "Gaceta Médica de México"; at present journal of the Academy still published in our time. These steps permitted the development of the true cardiologic speciality during 40s of the twentieth century, due to the vision of Professor Ignacio Chávez, father of Mexican cardiology. Some examples of application are the epistemologic criteria in cardiologycal domains such as the conception of Riva-Rocci's sphygmomanometer in Italy in the nineteenth century and the so-called cardiac metabolic therapy in Mexico of our time, are included. PMID:26549154

  19. International project on individual monitoring and radiation exposure levels in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, R; Le Heron, J; Cruz-Suarez, R; Duran, A; Lefaure, C; Miller, D L; Sim, H K; Vano, E; Rehani, M; Czarwinski, R

    2011-03-01

    Within the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR), a new International Atomic Energy Agency initiative, a Working Group on interventional cardiology, aims to assess staff radiation protection (RP) levels and to propose an international database of occupational exposures. A survey of regulatory bodies (RBs) has provided information at the country level on RP practice in interventional cardiology (IC). Concerning requirements for wearing personal dosemeters, only 57 % of the RB specifies the number and position of dosemeters for staff monitoring. Less than 40 % of the RBs could provide occupational doses. Reported annual median effective dose values (often <0.5 mSv) were lower than expected considering validated data from facility-specific studies, indicating that compliance with continuous individual monitoring is often not achieved in IC. A true assessment of annual personnel doses in IC will never be realised unless a knowledge of monitoring compliance is incorporated into the analysis. PMID:21051431

  20. Myocardial scintigraphy. Clinical use and consequence in a non-invasive cardiological department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Elisabeth; Graff, J; Rasmussen, SPL;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly used for the diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. The method is particularly applied as a gate keeper before coronary angiography (CAG) in patients with intermediate probability for ischaemic heart disease. This study aimed to...... analyse the clinical use of MPI in a university hospital without invasive cardiological laboratory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period 01.01.2002 to 31.12.2003, 259 patients (141 women, 118 men) were referred to MPI from our department of cardiology. RESULTS: Normal MPI was seen in 111 patients (43......%), whereas reversible ischaemia was seen in 88 patients (34%) and led to referral of 52 patients (59%) to CAG. 17 patients (19%) continued clinical control, and 19 cases (22%) were closed. Correlating results between MPI and all performed CAGs were found in 42 patients (61%), and divergent results were seen...

  1. NORMAN HOLTER AND HIS METHOD OF REMOTE CARDIOLOGIC MONITORING. CASE HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rassadina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication is devoted to the personality and creative designs of uncommon American scientist, the engineer and the inventor – Norman Jefferis «Jeff» Holter. Norman Jefferis Holter introduced the terminology of «nuclear medicine» for the name of the new at that time area which associated with employment of the achievements of the nuclear physics in the medical goals. Also he is the author of ambulatory cardiological monitoring.

  2. Imaging skills for transthoracic echocardiography in cardiology fellows: The value of motion metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Montealegre-Gallegos; Feroze Mahmood; Han Kim; Remco Bergman; Mitchell, John D.; Ruma Bose; Hawthorne, Katie M.; T David O′Halloran; Vanessa Wong; Hess, Philip E.; Robina Matyal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proficiency in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) requires an integration of cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. Whereas cognitive knowledge can be quantified, psychomotor skills are implied after repetitive task performance. We applied motion analyses to evaluate psychomotor skill acquisition during simulator-based TTE training. Methods and Results: During the first month of their fellowship training, 16 cardiology fellows underwent a multimodal TTE training program for...

  3. Prescription pattern of fixed dose drug combination in cardiology department in a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar Manjhi; Lalit Mohan; Manish Kumar; Harihar Dikshit; Singh, B. P.; Anuj Kumar Pathak; Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: A cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity globally. The drastic change in the lifestyle of population during 21st century has had a great impact on health especially cardiovascular diseases. Objective of this study was to assess the prescription pattern of fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs) in the department of cardiology in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The prescriptions of 210 patients suffered by cardiovascular disorders...

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – Its application in cardiology and occupational medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Kurpesa; Katarzyna Jerka; Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a method used to assess the exercise capacity. It is used in cardiology to define the diagnostic and prognostic information, the treatment and its effectiveness. This method is also useful in sport medicine and in occupational medicine. The cardiopulmonary exercise test involves measuring of gas exchange during exercise testing. The article presents the main parameters assessed during the test and the indications and contraindications for conducting the tes...

  5. Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: Update 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lederbogen, Florian; Albus, Christian; Angermann, Christiane; Borggrefe, Martin; Fischer, Denise; Fritzsche, Kurt; Haass, Markus; Jordan, Jochen; Jünger, Jana; Kindermann, Ingrid; Köllner, Volker; Kuhn, Bernhard; Scherer, Martin; Seyfarth, Melchior

    2014-01-01

    [english] Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK) to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008.Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated...

  6. NORMAN HOLTER AND HIS METHOD OF REMOTE CARDIOLOGIC MONITORING. CASE HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Rassadina; S. A. Tarakanov; V I Kuznetsov

    2013-01-01

    This publication is devoted to the personality and creative designs of uncommon American scientist, the engineer and the inventor – Norman Jefferis «Jeff» Holter. Norman Jefferis Holter introduced the terminology of «nuclear medicine» for the name of the new at that time area which associated with employment of the achievements of the nuclear physics in the medical goals. Also he is the author of ambulatory cardiological monitoring.

  7. Clinical use of nuclear cardiology in the assessment of heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cardiology is the most commonly performed non-invasive cardiac imaging test in patients with heart failure, and it plays an important role in their assessment and management. Quantitative gated single positron emission computed tomography is used to assess quantitatively cardiac volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac diastolic function. Resting and stress myocardial perfusion imaging can not only identify nonischemic heart failure and ischemic heart failure, but also demonstrate myocardial viability. Diastolic heart failure also termed as heart failure with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction is readily identified by nuclear cardiology techniques and can accurately be estimated by peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate. With newer techniques such as three-dimensional, quantitative gated single positron emission computed tomography can assess movement of the left ventricle, and wall thickening evaluation aids its assessment. Myocardial perfusion imaging is also commonly used to identify candidates for implantable cardiac defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapies. Neurotransmitter imaging using 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine offers prognostic information in patients with heart failure. Metabolism and function in the heart are closely related, and energy substrate metabolism is a potential target of medical therapies to improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure. Cardiac metabolic imaging using 123I-15-(p-iodophenyl) 3-R, S-methylpentadecacoic acid is a commonly used tracer in clinical studies to diagnose metabolic heart failure. Nuclear cardiology tests, including neurotransmitter imaging and metabolic imaging, are now easily preformed with new tracers to improve heart failure diagnosis. Nuclear cardiology techniques contribute significantly to identifying patients with heart failure and to guiding their management decisions. (authors)

  8. Pulmonary Edema Assessed by Ultrasound: Impact in Cardiology and Intensive Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo A; Cianciulli, Tomás F

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary edema is a frequent condition found in adult patients hospitalized in cardiology wards and intensive care units. Ultrasonography is a diagnostic modality with a high sensitivity for the detection of extravascular lung water, visualized as B lines, and usually caused by cardiogenic or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. This paper highlights a simple method for the assessment of patients with pulmonary edema, which allows for a differential diagnosis of its possible mechanism and contributes to therapeutic intervention guiding and monitoring. PMID:26841270

  9. Impact of cardiology referral: clinical outcomes and factors associated with physicians' adherence to recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André C. Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cardiology referral is common for patients admitted for non-cardiac diseases. Recommendations from cardiologists may involve complex and aggressive treatments that could be ignored or denied by other physicians. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients who were given recommendations during cardiology referrals and to examine the clinical outcomes of patients who did not follow the recommendations. METHODS: We enrolled 589 consecutive patients who received in-hospital cardiology consultations. Data on recommendations, implementation of suggestions and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Regarding adherence of the referring service to the recommendations, 77% of patients were classified in the adherence group and 23% were classified in the non-adherence group. Membership in the non-adherence group (p<0.001; odds ratio: 10.25; 95% CI: 4.45-23.62 and advanced age (p = 0.017; OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.07 were associated with unfavorable outcomes. Multivariate analysis identified four independent predictors of adherence to recommendations: follow-up notes in the medical chart (p<0.001; OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.48-4.01; verbal reinforcement (p = 0.001; OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.23-2.81; a small number of recommendation (p = 0.001; OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94; and a younger patient age (p = 0.002; OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99. CONCLUSIONS: Poor adherence to cardiology referral recommendations was associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Follow-up notes in the medical chart, verbal reinforcement, a limited number of recommendations and a patient age were associated with greater adherence to recommendations.

  10. A Computer System for Integration and Analysis of Cardiology Patient Information

    OpenAIRE

    Uretz, Eugene F.; Murphy, Tom; Millar, Roger; Jones, Jerry; Messer, Joseph V.

    1981-01-01

    A two phased approach to the statistical and mathematical analyses of cardiology data distributed over many large (Hewlett-Packard Image 1000) computer data bases is presented. During the first phase, patients satisfying specified criteria in each of the data bases are selected and specific data of these patients required for analyses during the second phase are retrieved and merged into a single random access file. During the second phase, statistical and mathematical analyses of the merged ...

  11. Improved cardiovascular diagnostic accuracy by pocket size imaging device in non-cardiologic outpatients: the NaUSiCa (Naples Ultrasound Stethoscope in Cardiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiattarella Pier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Miniaturization has evolved in the creation of a pocket-size imaging device which can be utilized as an ultrasound stethoscope. This study assessed the additional diagnostic power of pocket size device by both experts operators and trainees in comparison with physical examination and its appropriateness of use in comparison with standard echo machine in a non-cardiologic population. Three hundred four consecutive non cardiologic outpatients underwent a sequential assessment including physical examination, pocket size imaging device and standard Doppler-echo exam. Pocket size device was used by both expert operators and trainees (who received specific training before the beginning of the study. All the operators were requested to give only visual, qualitative insights on specific issues. All standard Doppler-echo exams were performed by expert operators. One hundred two pocket size device exams were performed by experts and two hundred two by trainees. The time duration of the pocket size device exam was 304 ± 117 sec. Diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities was made in 38.2% of cases by physical examination and in 69.7% of cases by physical examination + pocket size device (additional diagnostic power = 31.5%, p In conclusion, pocket size device showed a relevant additional diagnostic value in comparison with physical examination. Sensitivity and specificity were good in experts and suboptimal in trainees. Specificity was particularly influenced by the level of experience. Training programs are needed for pocket size device users.

  12. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  13. Assessment and Utility of Frailty Measures in Critical Illness, Cardiology, and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabali, Naheed; Rolfson, Darryl; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2016-09-01

    Frailty is a clearly emerging theme in acute care medicine, with obvious prognostic and health resource implications. "Frailty" is a term used to describe a multidimensional syndrome of loss of homeostatic reserves that gives rise to a vulnerability to adverse outcomes after relatively minor stressor events. This is conceptually simple, yet there has been little consensus on the operational definition. The gold standard method to diagnose frailty remains a comprehensive geriatric assessment; however, a variety of validated physical performance measures, judgement-based tools, and multidimensional scales are being applied in critical care, cardiology, and cardiac surgery settings, including open cardiac surgery and transcatheter aortic value replacement. Frailty is common among patients admitted to the intensive care unit and correlates with an increased risk for adverse events, increased resource use, and less favourable patient-centred outcomes. Analogous findings have been described across selected acute cardiology and cardiac surgical settings, in particular those that commonly intersect with critical care services. The optimal methods for screening and diagnosing frailty across these settings remains an active area of investigation. Routine assessment for frailty conceivably has numerous purported benefits for patients, families, health care providers, and health administrators through better informed decision-making regarding treatments or goals of care, prognosis for survival, expectations for recovery, risk of complications, and expected resource use. In this review, we discuss the measurement of frailty and its utility in patients with critical illness and in cardiology and cardiac surgery settings. PMID:27476983

  14. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang;

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...

  15. Schooling in Germany : Structural Deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiiver, H.

    2010-01-01

    The German educational system is battling with a range of challenges exposed by the PISA studies and other publications such as the OECD's "Education at a glance". This dissertation discusses four distinct topics, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Data. In Germany, the socio-economic b

  16. Dose to patients and professionals in cardiology interventional: Progress of multicenter group Doccaci; Dosis a pacientes y a profesionales en cardiologia intervencionista: Avances del grupo multicentrico DOCCACI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R. M.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J. M.; Goicolea Ruigomez, J.; Pifarre, X.; Escaned, J.; Rovira, J. J.; Garcia del Blanco, B.; Carrera, F.; Diaz, J. F.; Ordiales, J. M.; Nogales, J. M.; Hernandez, J.; Bosa, F.; Rosales, F.; Saez, J. R.; Soler, M. M.; Romero, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The multidisciplinary group and multicenter DOCCACI (dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional cardiology), sponsored by the section of haemodynamics of the Spanish society of Cardiology, is intended to propose reference levels to doses received by patients in interventional cardiology procedures such as recommended by the International Commission on radiological protection It also investigates the doses received by professionals, in particular dose in Crystallyne whose recommended limit dose has been reduced recently from 150 to 20 mSv/year. (Author)

  17. Japanese version of the Munich Parasomnia Screening: translation and linguistic validation of a screening instrument for parasomnias and nocturnal behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komada Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Komada,1 Raoul Breugelmans,2 Stephany Fulda,3 Sae Nakano,4 Aya Watanabe,4,5 Chieri Noda,4,6 Shingo Nishida,1 Yuichi Inoue1 1Department of Somnology, 2Department of Medical Education, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Sleep and Epilepsy Center, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Civic Hospital (EOC of Lugano, Lugano, Switzerland; 4Department of International Medical Communications, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 5Language Center, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan; 6Department of Applied Linguistics and Communication, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK Objective: There is no broad screening instrument that can comprehensively assess parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders listed in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. The aim of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Munich Parasomnia Screening (MUPS, a screening instrument for parasomnias and nocturnal behaviors, which was developed and validated at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry. Methods: A multi-step translation methodology consisting of forward translation, back translation, expert review, and cognitive debriefing interviews was performed between June and November 2011. Results: The English version of the MUPS was translated into Japanese, and the original author performed an expert review on the basis of a detailed report on the forward and back translation steps. The cognitive debriefing was carried out in five patients with parasomnia. The mean time to fill out the questionnaire was 8 minutes (ranging from 2 to 17 minutes. The authors reviewed and discussed the results of the cognitive debriefing interviews and modified the Japanese version. The final Japanese version was confirmed to be conceptually equivalent to the original English version. Conclusion: The Japanese version of the MUPS is an easy-to-use self-rating instrument for parasomnia and nocturnal behavior screening, consistent with the original version. The

  18. Manual of recommendations for the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with Breast Cancer of the Tumor Center Munich - a regional hands-on publication

    OpenAIRE

    Janni, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The revised 11th edition of the Manual of Recommendations for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Follow-Up of Patients with Breast Cancer of the publications series of the Tumor Center Munich (Tumorzentrum München, TZM) is an excellent example of a regional hands-on publication which, while based on national and international guidelines, does not replace these. By virtue of countless additions and revisions in the course of 10 editions, the ‘blue tumor manual for breast cancer’ has matured into a ha...

  19. Advertisement for solar energy. Munich fairground buildings with the world`s biggest PV system; Werbung fuer Solarenergie. Messe Muenchen realisiert groesste Photovoltaikanlage der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    1998-03-01

    On 19 November 1997, the 1 MW solar system of the new Munich fairground was commissioned on a bright and sunny day. According to the Bayernwerk AG, it is the world`s biggest roof-mounted photovoltaic system. It was constructed in only 10 months at a cost of DM 15 million. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei strahlendem Sonnenschein wurde am 19. November 1997 auf dem Gelaende der Neuen Messe Muenchen die Ein-Megawatt-Solaranlage in Betrieb genommen. Nach Aussagen der Bayernwerk AG ist sie `die groesste Photovoltaik-Dachanlage der Welt`. Sie wurde in nur zehn Monaten Bauzeit auf den Hallendaechern installiert. Die Kosten beliefen sich auf 15 Mio DM. (orig.)

  20. Criticality accidents in a fuel reprocessing plant are equivalent to a nuclear explosion. Comment on the statement by Prof. Dr. Armin Weiss, University of Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for comment results from the fact that Prof. Weiss, endowed with the authority of a professor at the University of Munich, maintains that there could be a nuclear explosion, propagates this claim by an open letter, and that all the inhabitants of the districts adjoining Wackersdorf are concerned. The brochure points out the prerequisites for a substantial nuclear explosion, describes the consequences of a criticality accident in a fuel reprocessing plant, and looks into the background motives (scientific, private) for making such a claim. (DG)

  1. Reanálisis del diagnóstico de alcoholismo en Perú: el test de alcoholismo Munich (malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter Gorené

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available El Test de Alcoholismo Munich (MALT fue traducido al español y aplicado a una muestra constituida por 145 probandos peruanos, de los cuales 94 eran alcohólicos. El MALT consta de dos partes: la primera está conformada por siete preguntas que son contestadas por el médico y la segunda sección está formada por 24 preguntas y son contestadas por el paciente. Tanto el coeficiente de validación para toda la prueba (r=0.87 como el coeficiente de confiabilidad de la parte autoadministrable (r=0.93 fueron elevados.

  2. Report on the 3'rd scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V. held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 4'th - Nov. 6'th, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinschnitz Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From November 4th- 6th 2011, the 3rd NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Like in the previous years, the meeting provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects for young colleagues in the fields of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. As kick-off to the scientific sessions, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Head of the Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology in Munich, gave an illustrious overview on the many fascinations of neuroimmunologic research. A particular highlight on the second day of the meeting was the award of the 1'st NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young academics in the field of experimental neurology. This award is posted for young colleagues under the age of 35 with a significant achievement in the field of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration and comprises an amount of 20.000 Euro, founded by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt. Germany. The first prize was awarded to Ivana Nikic from Martin Kerschensteiner's group in Munich for her brilliant work on a reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, published in Nature Medicine in 2011. This first prize award ceremony was a great incentive for the next call for proposals now upcoming in 2012.

  3. The lebanese society of cardiology: plans and perspectives, navigating against contrary winds and progressing against all odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossaify, Antoine; Moussallem, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Scientific societies in medicine theoretically aim to improve a medical field as a science; however, this role is expanding nowadays to seeking also the improved practice of a certain medical field. In this regard, the current Lebanese Society of Cardiology (2013-2015) has laid many plans and considered many perspectives. These concern mainly, but not exclusively, the increase of public awareness regarding prevention, investment in research, implementation of guidelines, support of continuous medical education, organization of cardiology symposia and congresses, and achievement of national registries regarding main cardiac conditions, as well as the society's main objective of decreasing the burden of cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Nonetheless, the implementation of such plans and perspectives is facing contrary winds related to a multifaceted phenomenon: the dominance of private medicine with a subsequent lack of teamwork, the dominance of private media, the social and political unrest in Lebanon, significant discrepancies in the scientific background of cardiologists, and the absence of a standardized national cardiology licensing exam. Importantly, the implementation of such plans and perspectives requires individual commitment, along with the cooperation of the Order of Physicians, the Syndicate of Hospitals in Lebanon (representing private hospitals) and the Ministry of Health. Moreover, industry must be more committed to medical scientific societies; the support of cardiology events organized without the auspices of the Lebanese Society of Cardiology is not encouraged because of the presence of significant conflict of interest. PMID:25452697

  4. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in Germany. Results of the 2005 query and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN), in cooperation with the working group Nuclear Cardiology of the German Cardiac Society (DGK), decided to conduct a national survey on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Method: a questionnaire to evaluate MPS for the year 2005 was sent. Results: 346 completed questionnaires had been returned (213 private practices, 99 hospitals and 33 university hospitals). MPS of 112 707 patients were reported with 110 747 stress and 95 878 rest studies. The majority (> 75%) was performed with 99mTc-MIBI or tetrofosmin. 201Tl stress-redistribution was used in 22 637 patients (20%). The types of stress were exercise in 78%, vasodilation with adenosine or dipyridamol in 21% and dobutamine in 1%. 99.97% of all MPS were SPECT studies. Gated SPECT was performed in 36% of the stress and in 32% of the rest studies. An attenuation correction was used in 21%. 29 institutions (8%) performed gated SPECT (stress and rest) and attenuation correction. 47% of all MPS were requested by ambulatory care cardiologists, 17% by internists, 12% by primary care physicians, 21% by hospital departments and 2% by others. Conclusion: in Germany, MPS is predominantly performed with 99mTc-perfusion agents. The common type of stress is ergometry. Gated SPECT and attenuation correction do not yet represent standards of MPS practice in Germany, which indicates some potential of optimization. (orig.)

  5. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in Germany. Results of the 2005 query and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, O. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Burchert, W. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Arbeitsgemeinschaft ' ' Kardiovaskulaere Nuklearmedizin' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Bengel, F.M. [Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Insts., Baltimore (United States); Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Nuklearkardiologische Diagnostik' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Kardiologie (Germany); Zimmermann, R. [Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Nuklearkardiologische Diagnostik' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Kardiologie (Germany); Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Pforzheim GmbH (Germany); Dahl, J. vom [Klinik fuer Kardiologie, Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Moenchengladbach (Germany); Schaefer, W.; Buell, U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany); Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Schwaiger, M. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Kluge, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Schaefers, M. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft ' ' Kardiovaskulaere Nuklearmedizin' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The working group Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN), in cooperation with the working group Nuclear Cardiology of the German Cardiac Society (DGK), decided to conduct a national survey on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Method: a questionnaire to evaluate MPS for the year 2005 was sent. Results: 346 completed questionnaires had been returned (213 private practices, 99 hospitals and 33 university hospitals). MPS of 112 707 patients were reported with 110 747 stress and 95 878 rest studies. The majority (> 75%) was performed with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI or tetrofosmin. {sup 201}Tl stress-redistribution was used in 22 637 patients (20%). The types of stress were exercise in 78%, vasodilation with adenosine or dipyridamol in 21% and dobutamine in 1%. 99.97% of all MPS were SPECT studies. Gated SPECT was performed in 36% of the stress and in 32% of the rest studies. An attenuation correction was used in 21%. 29 institutions (8%) performed gated SPECT (stress and rest) and attenuation correction. 47% of all MPS were requested by ambulatory care cardiologists, 17% by internists, 12% by primary care physicians, 21% by hospital departments and 2% by others. Conclusion: in Germany, MPS is predominantly performed with {sup 99m}Tc-perfusion agents. The common type of stress is ergometry. Gated SPECT and attenuation correction do not yet represent standards of MPS practice in Germany, which indicates some potential of optimization. (orig.)

  6. Germany: energy transition or revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

  7. Law And Economics In Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland

    1997-01-01

    Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...

  8. Heavy metal depositions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and importance of the measurement of dust precipitation and its metallic components are discussed. Test programs and results of heavy metal measurements in precipitations in Germany are summarized. The focus is on measurements of lead and cadmium. There is a clearly decreasing trend also seen in long-term test programs. The limiting values set in the Clean Air Act were hardly ever exceeded in recent years. (orig.)

  9. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  10. Protection against ionizing radiation by leaded glass googles during interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: It is not known whether leaded glass goggles with 0.25 mm Pb equivalency, used in interventional cardiology procedures, attenuate radiation below the levels established by the latest recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Aim: To assess if the degree of attenuation of the secondary ionizing radiation achieved by the use of 0.25 mm Pb leaded glass goggles, in occupationally exposed workers in interventional cardiology procedures, meets the latest ICRP recommendations. Material and Methods : A prospective investigation was carried out to compare the eye exposure to secondary ionizing radiation received by occupationally exposed personnel in a 9 months period. A set of two thermo luminescent dosimeters was arranged in the front and back of leaded glass goggles in a cohort of seven members of an interventional cardiology service, exposed to 1057 consecutive procedures. Results:The monthly dose equivalent measurement performed in front of the goggles ranged between 1.1 and 6.5 mSv,for paramedics and interventional cardiologists. The radiation measured in the back of the glass varied between 0.66 and 2.75 mSv,respectively.The degree of attenuation of the dose at eye level ranged from 40% to 57.7%,respectively. The projected annual exposure would reach 33 mSv for the interventional cardiologist. Conclusions: With a similar load of work and wearing 0.25 mm Pb equivalent glass goggles, interventional cardiologists will exceed the crystalline equivalent dose limit recommended by the ICRP (20 mSv/year averaged over the past 5 years)

  11. The impact of carotid plaque presence and morphology on mortality outcome in cardiological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasanisi Emilio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid plaque severity and morphology can affect cardiovascular prognosis. We evaluate both the importance of echographically assessed carotid artery plaque geometry and morphology as predictors of death in hospitalised cardiological patients. Methods 541 hospitalised patients admitted in a cardiological division (age = 66 ± 11 years, 411 men, have been studied through ultrasound Duplex carotid scan and successively followed-up for a median of 34 months. Echo evaluation assessed plaque severity and morphology (presence of heterogeneity and profile. Results 361 patients showed carotid stenosis (67% with 70% stenosis, 4% with near occlusion and 2% with total occlusion. During the follow-up period, there were 83 all-cause deaths (15% of the total population. Using Cox's proportional hazard model, age (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09, p = 0.000, ejection fraction > 50% (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.4–0.96, p = 0.03, treatment with statins (RR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29–0.95, p = 0.34 and the presence of a heterogeneous plaque (RR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.14, p = 0.002 were independent predictors of death. Kaplan – Meier survival estimates have shown the best outcome in patients without plaque, intermediate in patients with homogeneous plaques and the worst outcome in patients with heterogeneous plaques (90% vs 79% vs 73%, p = 0.0001. Conclusion In hospitalised cardiological patients, carotid plaque presence and morphology assessed by ultrasound are independent predictors of death.

  12. Biomarkers in Cardiology - Part 2: In Coronary Heart Disease, Valve Disease and Special Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of mortality and morbidity in Brazil. Their primary and secondary preventions are a priority for the health system and require multiple approaches for increased effectiveness. Biomarkers are tools used to identify with greater accuracy high-risk individuals, establish a faster diagnosis, guide treatment, and determine prognosis. This review aims to highlight the importance of biomarkers in clinical cardiology practice and raise relevant points regarding their application and perspectives for the next few years. This document was divided into two parts. This second part addresses the application of biomarkers in coronary heart disease, valvular diseases, cardio-oncology, pulmonary embolism, and cardiorenal syndrome.

  13. [Pay for performance approach and its possible future influence on revenues in German interventional cardiology units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljak, Tomislav; Rupp, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Pay-for-performance in German health care system is still uncommon but--in view of scheduled legislative projects--could gain more influence in future. Beside others, risc adjusted in-hospital mortality and the door-to-ballon-time inpatients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction could become quality- and performance indicators in interventional cardiology units. As a result, process optimization based on these indicators could have an impact on both patient value (as already today) and revenues (from 2017 onwards). PMID:26800075

  14. Influence of dosemeter position for the assessment of eye lens dose during interventional cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Principi, Sara; Ginjaume Egido, Mercè; Duch Guillen, María Amor; Sanchez, Roberto Mariano; Ferenandez, Jose Miguel; Vaño, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    The equivalent dose limit for the eye lens for occupational exposure recommended by the ICRP has been reduced to 20 mSv y-1 averaged over defined periods of 5 y, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. The compliance with this new requirement could not be easy in some workplace such as interventional radiology and cardiology. The aim of this study is to evaluate different possible approaches in order to have a good estimate of the eye lens dose during interventional procedures. Measurements wer...

  15. PET/CT cardiology: an area whose boundaries are still out of sight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) performed with PET/CT cameras allow us to obtain concurrently information on the presence and degree of alterations of myocardial perfusion and metabolism and on coronary arteries calcification. Furthermore, by gated myocardial perfusion studies, PET may provide crucial information on regional coronary blood flow reserve and endothelial dysfunction. A number of recent papers provide some insight on the potential of PET/CT in cardiology and in the assessment of various cardiovascular diseases including various types of vasculitis and metabolic diseases

  16. Nuclear cardiological investigations in patients classified as physically disabled following myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    110 patients classified as physically disabled as a consequence of myocardial infarction were reinvestigated by means of nuclear cardiological methods. Resting 201Tl perfusion scintigraphy showed a normal distribution of radioactivity, while radionuclide ventriculography revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and a normokinetic left ventricle in 20 patients. The investigation of a further 19 patients demonstrated only minimal pathological changes. The results in 34 patients revealed severe myocardial damage, and in a further 19 cases the development of left ventricular aneurysm. The results clearly show the value of 201Tl scintigraphy and radionuclide ventriculography in assessments of the degree of physical disability after myocardial infarction. (author) 15 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Optimisation of interventional cardiology procedures; Optimisation des procedures en cardiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, Olivier [SELARL, Cardiologie Interventionnelle Imagerie Cardiaque - CIIC, 8, place de la Cathedrale - 37042 Tours (France)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation-guided procedures in interventional cardiology include diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures, primarily coronary catheterization and coronary angioplasty. Application of the principles of radiation protection and the use of optimised procedures are contributing to dose reduction while maintaining the radiological image quality necessary for performance of the procedures. The mandatory training in patient radiation protection and technical training in the use of radiology devices mean that implementing continuous optimisation of procedures is possible in practice. This optimisation approach is the basis of patient radiation protection; when associated with the wearing of protective equipment it also contributes to the radiation protection of the cardiologists. (author)

  18. THE ROLE OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN CARDIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shulkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analysis of published data the role of P-glycoprotein, carrier protein, in rational pharmacotherapy in cardiology was shown on the example of its substrates – digoxin, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. Determination of C3435T polymorphism of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1, encoding P-glycoprotein, in pharmacotherapy with digoxin, antiplatelet drugs (clopidogrel tikagrelol, prasugrel and anticoagulants (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, edoxaban is not feasible in routine practice. Drug in- teractions have clinical implications for the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in coadministration of these drugs with P-glycoprotein substrates, inducers and inhibitors.

  19. Wind power report Germany 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  20. On the use of DICOM cine header information for optimisation: Results from the 2002 European DIMOND cardiology survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores the level of information contained within the DICOM header in images from various cardiology systems. Data were obtained in the European DIMOND survey on image quality (Italy (Ireland)) (Belgium)) (Greece)) and Spain). Images from five standard diagnostic cardiology procedures carried out in six European hospitals have been analysed. DICOM header information was extracted to a database in order to analyse how it could help in the optimisation of the procedures. The level of data contained in the headers differs widely between cardiology systems. None of the X-ray systems in the 2002 survey archives the dosimetric data in the DICOM header. The mean number of runs per procedure ranges between 7.5 and 15.4 and the mean number of frames per procedure between 575 and 1417. Differences in kV p, mA, pulse time, distances and C-arm angulations are substantial and suggest that there exists a wide range for optimisation. (authors)

  1. Low dose in nuclear cardiology: state of the art in the era of new cadmium-zinc-telluride cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampa, Wanda; Buechel, Ronny R; Gimelli, Alessia

    2016-06-01

    The use of myocardial perfusion imaging has seen a tremendous growth during the last decade and has become the most commonly used non-invasive imaging tool for risk stratification in patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease. Adherence to radiation safety best practices varied significantly between laboratories but the possibility to use the new cameras in nuclear cardiology can reduce dramatically the radiation dose without losing accuracy. Moreover, the physical characteristics of ultrafast technology could be able to open new doors for the evaluation of old parameters, changing the impact of nuclear cardiology in the diagnostic strategies. PMID:26985078

  2. Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Koelman, Jos

    2001-01-01

    The German system of higher education is a binary system that consists of a university and a non-university sector. The institutions of higher education in these two sectors include all institutions (public and private) as defined in the higher education laws of the Länder. Each Land has its own ministry responsible for higher education. At the federal level the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung is responsible for the implementation of the federal law on higher education (Hochschulr...

  3. Influence of Ceiling Suspended Screen Positioning to the Scatter Radiation Levels in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of the ceiling suspended screen position to the scatter radiation levels in the interventional cardiology. The scatter radiation in terms of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured for various positions of protective screen in the positions of the first operator, nurse and radiographer, at elevations 100-190 cm and in four different angulations of the x-ray tube. To assess the effectiveness of the protective screen, the scattered dose was also measured in the absence of any protection in all four angulations and elevations. To simulate real clinical situation the measurements were performed in the presence of 30 cm PMMA phantom using standard clinical protocol. The utility of protective screen varied for different positions and angulations. Scatter radiation levels varied in the range 70 - 3400 μSv/h for the first operator, 140 - 3200 μSv/h for the nurse and 50 - 560 μSv/h for radiographer. Ceiling suspended screens can provide a substantial level of protection (up to factor 18) in interventional cardiology, but they have to be properly managed and positioned to achieve sufficient level of protection. The guidance for optimal protection is provided in the paper.(author)

  4. Kerma rate evaluation in the air in a room interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the number of interventional cardiology procedures is increasing. However, due to the long time of fluoroscopy in these procedures, care teams can receive high doses of radiation. The radiation scattered by the patient is not uniform, and their assessment is of utmost importance. This study aimed to estimate and map the kerma rate in the air at the time of the gonads, in an interventional cardiology room, seeking to optimize the dose absorbed by individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. For data collection, the room was divided into quadrants of 1m2, totaling 40 collection points. The simulator was positioned so that its entry surface was located in the interventional reference point. Were chosen the conditions that simulate angiography and angioplasty procedures performed in the service. The data were obtained for height of 1 meter, gonad region. The results obtained for kerma rates in air, in quadrants, show that higher measured values was in the vicinity of the X-ray tube. Has been found that the medical staff are more exposed, because of its location during the procedure, around the table. The law of the inverse square distance of the farthest points of the X-ray tube were verified

  5. Influence of dosemeter position for the assessment of eye lens dose during interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Sara; Ginjaume, Mercè; Duch, Maria Amor; Sánchez, Roberto M; Fernández, Jose M; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-04-01

    The equivalent dose limit for the eye lens for occupational exposure recommended by the ICRP has been reduced to 20 mSv y(-1) averaged over defined periods of 5 y, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. The compliance with this new requirement could not be easy in some workplace such as interventional radiology and cardiology. The aim of this study is to evaluate different possible approaches in order to have a good estimate of the eye lens dose during interventional procedures. Measurements were performed with an X-ray system Philips Allura FD-10, using a PMMA phantom to simulate the patient scattered radiation and a Rando phantom to simulate the cardiologist. Thermoluminescence (TL) whole-body and TL eye lens dosemeters together with Philips DoseAware active dosemeters were located on different positions of the Rando phantom to estimate the eye lens dose in typical cardiology procedures. The results show that, for the studied conditions, any of the analysed dosemeter positions are suitable for eye lens dose assessment. However, the centre of the thyroid collar and the left ear position provide a better estimate. Furthermore, in practice, improper use of the ceiling-suspended screen can produce partial protection of some parts of the body, and thus large differences between the measured doses and the actual exposure of the eye could arise if the dosemeter is not situated close to the eye. PMID:25514919

  6. Paediatric interventional cardiology: flat detector versus image intensifier using a test object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) values and image quality parameters were measured and compared for two biplane angiography x-ray systems dedicated to paediatric interventional cardiology, one equipped with image intensifiers (II) and the other one with dynamic flat detectors (FDs). Polymethyl methacrylate phantoms of different thicknesses, ranging from 8 to 16 cm, and a Leeds TOR 18-FG test object were used. The parameters of the image quality evaluated were noise, signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SdNR), high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and three figures of merit combining entrance doses and signal-to-noise ratios or HCSR. The comparisons showed a better behaviour of the II-based system in the low contrast region over the whole interval of thicknesses. The FD-based system showed a better performance in HCSR. The FD system evaluated would need around two times more dose than the II system evaluated to reach a given value of SdNR; moreover, a better spatial resolution was measured (and perceived in conventional monitors) for the system equipped with flat detectors. According to the results of this paper, the use of dynamic FD systems does not lead to an automatic reduction in ESAK or to an automatic improvement in image quality by comparison with II systems. Any improvement also depends on the setting of the x-ray systems and it should still be possible to refine these settings for some of the dynamic FDs used in paediatric cardiology.

  7. Evaluation of doses to staff involved in interventional cardiology in two Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In interventional cardiac procedures, staff operates near the patient in a non-uniformly scattered radiation field. Consequently, workers may receive, over a period of time, relatively high radiation doses. The measurement of individual doses to personnel becomes critical due to the use of protective devices and, as a consequence of the large number of methods proposed to assess the effective dose, In this study, staff doses were measured in two cardiac centers: Ahmed Gasim Hospital and Cardiac Center, Khartoum. The objective was to measure personal dose equivalent and accordingly estimate the effective dose which is received by staff in interventional cardiology. Measurements were performed using electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) worn over lead apron during the examination and were read immediately following each examination. A total number of 40 radiation worker were monitored for a period of two weeks. The highest doses received by the cardiologist followed by nurses and then X-ray technicians. Staff received mean effective doses that ranged from 24 to 110 μSv estimated for four weeks. Recommendations on how to reduce staff doses in interventional cardiology are presented. (Author)

  8. Pulse waveform analysis as a bridge between pulse examination in Chinese medicine and cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2013-04-01

    Pulse examination was probably the earliest attempt to distinguish between health and illnesses. Starting at the pre-Hippocratic era, Chinese medicine practitioners developed techniques for pulse examination and defined pulse images based on their perceptions of pulse waveforms at the radial artery. Pulse images were described using basic variables (frequency, rhythm, wideness, length, deepness, and qualities) developed under philosophical trends such as Taoism and Confucianism. Recent advances in biomedical instrumentation applied to cardiology opened possibilities to research on pulse examination based on ancient Chinese medical theories: the pulse wave analysis. Although strongly influenced by philosophy, some characteristics used to describe a pulse image are interpretable as parameters obtained by pulse waveform analysis such as pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Those clinical parameters reflect concepts unique to Chinese medicine - such as yinyang - while are based on wave reflection and resonance theories of fluids mechanics. Major limitations for integration of Chinese and Western pulse examination are related to quantitative description of pulse images and pattern differentiation based on pulse examination. Recent evidence suggests that wave reflection and resonance phenomena may bridge Chinese medicine and cardiology to provide a more evidence-based medical practice. PMID:23546634

  9. Anticoagulation control in atrial fibrillation patients present to outpatient clinic of cardiology versus anticoagulant clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xin; MA Chang-sheng; LIU Xiao-hui; DONG Jian-zeng; WANG Jun-nan; CHENG Xiao-jing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice, which if untreated results in a doubling of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. AF is an independent predictor of stroke, with an annual risk 5 to 6 times higher than patients in sinus rhythm.1 During recent years, several randomised clinical trials conducted by investigators around the world involving 13 843 participants with NVAF have demonstrated convincingly the value of warfarin therapies for stroke prevention in high risk patients.2-8 However, the dose response of warfarin is complex and its activity is easily altered by concurrent medications, food interactions, alcohol and illnesses. Adherence to medical advice and routine monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) is important, because low anticoagulant intensity predisposes the patients to thromboembolic complications and high intensity to haemorrhage. Studies suggested that anticoagulant clinics could improve the quality of anticoagulation control,9 and anticoagulant clinics are common in western countries. However, in China, most AF patients taking warfarin usually attend the outpatient clinic of cardiology, while the quality of anticoagulation control is never investigated. We therefore assessed anticoagulation control in the outpatient clinic of cardiology, and the quality of anticoagulation control since the establishment of anticoagulant clinics.

  10. Influence of dosemeter position for the assessment of eye lens dose during interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalent dose limit for the eye lens for occupational exposure recommended by the ICRP has been reduced to 20 mSv y-1 averaged over defined periods of 5 y, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. The compliance with this new requirement could not be easy in some workplace such as interventional radiology and cardiology. The aim of this study is to evaluate different possible approaches in order to have a good estimate of the eye lens dose during interventional procedures. Measurements were performed with an X-ray system Philips Allura FD-10, using a PMMA phantom to simulate the patient scattered radiation and a Rando phantom to simulate the cardiologist. Thermoluminescence (TL) whole-body and TL eye lens dosemeters together with Philips DoseAware active dosemeters were located on different positions of the Rando phantom to estimate the eye lens dose in typical cardiology procedures. The results show that, for the studied conditions, any of the analysed dosemeter positions are suitable for eye lens dose assessment. However, the centre of the thyroid collar and the left ear position provide a better estimate. Furthermore, in practice, improper use of the ceiling-suspended screen can produce partial protection of some parts of the body, and thus large differences between the measured doses and the actual exposure of the eye could arise if the dosemeter is not situated close to the eye. (authors)

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 63Ni at the Munich Tandem Laboratory for estimating fast neutron fluences from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Knie, K; Rugel, G; Marchetti, A A; Faestermann, T; Wallner, C; McAninch, J E; Straume, T; Korschinek, G

    2000-10-01

    After the release of the present dosimetry system DS86 in 1987, measurements have shown that DS86 may substantially underestimate thermal neutron fluences at large distances (>1,000 m) from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. This discrepancy casts doubts on the DS86 neutron source term and, consequently, the survivors' estimated neutron doses. However, the doses were caused mainly by fast neutrons. To determine retrospectively fast neutron fluences in Hiroshima, the reaction 63Cu(n, p)63Ni can be used, if adequate copper samples can be found. Measuring 63Ni (half life 100 y) in Hiroshima samples requires a very sensitive technique, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), because of the relatively small amounts of 63Ni expected (approximately 10(5)-10(6) atoms per gram of copper). Experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have demonstrated in 1996 that AMS can be used to measure 63Ni in Hiroshima copper samples. Subsequently, a collaboration was established with the Technical University of Munich in view of its potential to perform more sensitive measurements of 63Ni than the Livermore facility and in the interest of interlaboratory validation. This paper presents the progress made at the Munich facility in the measurement of 63Ni by AMS. The Munich accelerator mass spectrometry facility is a combination of a high energy tandem accelerator and a detection system featuring a gas-filled magnet. It is designed for high sensitivity measurements of long-lived radioisotopes. Optimization of the ion source setup has further improved the sensitivity for 63Ni by reducing the background level of the 63Cu isobar interference by about two orders of magnitude. Current background levels correspond to a ratio of 63Ni/Nineutron fluences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is possible for ground distances of up to 1500 m, and--under favorable conditions--even beyond. To demonstrate this capability, we have measured successfully 6Ni/Ni ratios as low as (3.5 +/- 0.6) x 10

  12. Electricity Market Design for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    REES, Ray; Scholz, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Germany has two ambitious goals: It wants to generate 20% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020; and it wants to reach its nuclear phase-out target by 2021, according to the Atomic Energy Law of 2002. To be successful, it needs a strong transmission network that connects the offshore wind parks at the North and Baltic Sea with regions of high population and industry densities. At the same time it has to be keeping its generation capacity at a high enough level. This paper describe...

  13. Perspectives for Germany's Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2006-01-01

    For various reasons, the policies governing the energy sector have a central role to play in Germany. Thus, for example, competition on the electricity and gas markets will have to be increased considerably in the course of the market's liberalization. At the same time, a secure supply of energy must also be ensured, in other words, the matters of preventing short-term power outages while ensuring the long-term availability of energy resources must be dealt with. Last but not least, the envir...

  14. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Regina T. Riphahn; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  15. Equality of opportunity: East vs. West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Peichl, Andreas; Ungerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The case of German reunification has been subject to extensive research on earnings inequality and labor market integration. however, little is known about the development of equality of opportunity (EOp) in East and West Germany after 1990.Using German micro data, we empirically analyze how circumstances beyond the sphere of individual control explain inequality in East and West Germany. Our results suggest that equal opportunities in Germany have grown since reunification. Interestingly, EO...

  16. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning an...

  17. Cardiology; Cardiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A.; Agostini, D.; Py, M.; Guillo, P.; Weinmann, P.; Benabib, C.; Toussaint, J.F.; Eder, V.; Alibelli, M.J.; Franken, P. [Societe Fran ise de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Moleculaire, 75 - Paris (France); Valli, N.; Garrigue, S.; Gatta, B.; Vialard, M.J.; Hossini, M.; Clementy, J.; Haissaguerre, M.; Ducassous, D.; Barat, J.L. [Hopital du Haut Leveque Univ. Victor Segalen, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Tran, N.; Groubatch, F.; Poussier, S.; Villemot, J.P.; Maskali, F.; Laurens, M.H.; Karcher, G.; Py, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 54 - Nancy (France); Franken, P.R.; Vanhove, C. [AZ-VUB Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2005-11-15

    Medical examinations such SPECT or scintigraphy are used to establish a diagnosis, to provide the follow up in the case of cardiac diseases. three examples are detailed, monitoring of myocardium viability under SPECT, evaluation of patients reached by a Brugada syndrome with scintigraphy at Mibg {sup 123}I, analysis of transplant of mesenchyme cells with pinhole-SPECT among rats having a chronic myocardium infarction. (N.C.)

  18. Fetal cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doppler echocardiography makes it possible to diagnose congenital heart disease in early pregnancy. It allows us to study the anatomical configuration of the fetal heart, and additionally, to evaluate the physiological conditions of the fetus. Evaluation of the direction, velocity, wave form pattern, and quantification of blood flow at the various sites in the fetal heart helps us to assess the characteristics of the fetal circulation and condition of the fetal heart. In order to use this technique in pathological situations, an initial study of the developing normal human fetal circulation was necessary. The authors studied 34 uncomplicated pregnancies by serial Doppler echocardiography. The studies were performed every 4 weeks from 16-weeks gestation to term. The pulsed Doppler sector scanner provided cardiac cross-sectional images, mitral and tricuspid blood velocities were obtained from apical four-chamber views. Angle corrected maximal and mean temporal velocities were calculated by digitizing the Doppler frequency shift recording on a graphic tablet computed with a minicomputer. The angle between the Doppler interrogation beam and the direction of blood flow was kept as small as possible in order to minimize the error

  19. Business environment and enterprise behaviour in East Germany compared to West Germany and central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Krkoska; Katrin Robeck

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines institutional differences between the former East and West Germany and four central European transition countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic). Using enterprise survey data we show that the quality of both formal and informal institutions in East Germany still differs from West Germany. In addition, central European transition countries are shown to have closed the gap in institutional quality with East Germany in many areas. We also show t...

  20. SEMINATURAL SILVICULTURE IN SOUTHWEST GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spathelf

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief historical overview shows the mainstream development pattern in German silviculture and outlines the adjacent role of seminatural (naturally-oriented silviculture. The rationale for seminatural silviculture is discussed with reference to its ecological and economical aspects. Elements of seminatural silviculture of the Baden-Württemberg-concept are introduced. This concept is not purely a preservation strategy, but recognizes the importance of timber production. Some aspects of selection forest, which is a special case of uneven-aged forest with a long tradition in Southwest Germany, are discussed. As there are still a lot of even-aged (pure forests in Southwest Germany, transformation strategies towards uneven-aged mixed forests are shown with the aid of some examples. Criteria and indicators for seminatural silviculture which have to be developed on a regional or local scale, can be used as a basis for establishing a certification process for Southwest German forests. Seminatural silviculture is suited as a rational and  intergrating  silvicultural     system      to     fulfill     future     requirements     on     forests     in    a    dynamically changing world.

  1. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  2. [Future cancer incidents in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, J; Bertz, J; Görsch, B; Dölle, R; Kurth, B-M

    2006-05-01

    The future as well as the past development of cancer incidents in Germany is of continuous importance for health policy. Cancer incidence data observed over more than 20 years are analysed by log-linear models with polynomial trend components. The estimated trend models are used for a trend extrapolation until the year 2020. Since cancer registration in Germany is not complete yet and does not cover the whole area of the country national incidences are estimated by the data of the existing complete regional cancer registries. In this way it can be assessed that the number of new cancer diseases increased from 270,000 cases in 1980 to 420,000 cases in 2002. Extrapolating the trends and taking into account the demographic prognosis of the German Federal Statistical Office 570,000 (version 1) or 590,000 (version 9) annual cancer cases are predicted for the year 2020. From 1980 to 2002 a decrease of cancer mortality was observed. If this trend continues until 2020, the number of deaths caused by cancer would decrease from 209,000 in 2002 to 153,000 (or 158,000) in 2020, although the number of cancer cases are predicted to increase. Assuming constant mortality rates the number of deaths caused by cancer would be much higher. PMID:16596362

  3. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO2, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  4. The 17{sup th} European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition in Munich from a Swiss point of view; Die 17. europaeische Photovoltaikkonferenz in Muenchen aus Schweizer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed.

  5. History of anesthesia in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawersik, J

    1991-01-01

    The first ether anesthetic was administered in Germany by J.F. Heyfelder (1798-1869) at the Erlangen University Hospital on January 24, 1847. Thereafter, famous discoveries occurred in the field of pharmacology. Albert Niemann isolated cocaine from the coca shrub in 1860; Emil Fischer synthesized the first barbiturate, Veronal, in 1902; and Helmut Weese promoted the first ultra-short-acting barbiturate, hexobarbital (Evipan), in 1932. The local anesthetic effect of cocaine was reported by Koller at the Congress of the German Society for Ophthalmology on September 15, 1884, in Heidelberg. Many new techniques were tried first in German hospitals. Friedrich Trendelenburg carried out, by tracheotomy, the first operation with endotracheal intubation in 1869, and Franz Kuhn promoted and clinically practiced endotracheal intubation in Heidelberg beginning in 1900. August Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Kiel University Hospital on August 16, 1898. Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) standardized the methods of infiltration anesthesia by using a cocaine solution in sufficient dilution. The development of anesthesia machines was greatly influenced by Heinrich Dräger (1847-1917) and his son Bernhard Dräger (1870-1928). The Dräger Company in Lübeck built the first anesthesia machine with a carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber and circle system in 1925. Paul Sudeck and Helmut Schmidt worked with this system at the Hamburg University Hospital and reported their results in 1926. The first Dräger anesthesia machine was produced in 1902 and introduced into clinical use by Otto Roth (1863-1944) in Lübeck. Before the Second World War, three universities in Germany carried out research in the field of anesthesia: the University of Freiburg with H. Killian, the University of Hamburg with P. Sudeck and H. Schmidt, and the University of Würzburg with C.G. Gauss. Killian and Gauss established the first journals, Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie, in

  6. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  7. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  8. In-Hospital Cardiology Consultation and Evidence-Based Care for Nursing Home Residents with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; Rich, Michael W.; Goodlin, Sarah J.; Birkner, Thomas; Zhang, Yan; Feller, Margaret A.; Aban, Inmaculada B.; Jones, Linda G.; Bearden, Donna M.; Allman, Richard M.; Ahmed, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association between cardiology consultation and evidence-based care for nursing home (NH) residents with heart failure (HF). Participants Hospitalized NH residents (n= 646) discharged from 106 Alabama hospitals with a primary discharge diagnosis of HF during 1998–2001. Design Observational. Measurements of Evidence-Based Care Pre-admission estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for patients with known HF (n=494), in-hospital LVEF estimation for HF patients without known LVEF (n=452), and discharge prescriptions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs-or-ARBs) to systolic HF (LVEF 100 mm Hg. Results Pre-admission LVEF was estimated in 38% and 12% of patients receiving and not receiving cardiology consultation, respectively (adjusted odds ratio {AOR}, 3.49; 95% CI, 2.16–5.66; p <0.001). In-hospital LVEF was estimated in 71% and 28% of patients receiving and not receiving cardiology consultation, respectively (AOR, 6.01; 95% CI, 3.69–9.79; p <0.001). ACEIs-or-ARBs were prescribed to 62% and 82% of patients receiving and not receiving cardiology consultation, respectively (AOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07–0.81; p=0.022). Conclusion In-hospital cardiology consultation was associated with significantly higher odds of LVEF estimation among NH residents with HF. However, it did not translate into higher odds of discharge prescriptions for ACEIs-or-ARBs to NH resident with systolic HF who were eligible for the receipt of these drugs. PMID:21982687

  9. Waste management strategy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Federal Government made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is phasing out of nuclear energy, finally set in force by the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. According to the new approach to waste management and disposal, further sites in various host rocks shall be investigated for their suitability based on repository site selection criteria and respective procedures developed by a special expert group. The objective of the site selection procedure is to identify with public participation potential disposal sites in a comprehensible and reliable way. (author)

  10. Diagnostic radiology and nuclear cardiology: their use in assessment of equine cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey thoracic radiography, although limited by physical considerations in the adult horse, can supply clinically useful information about changes in cardiac size and function. The radiographic features of cardiomegaly, altered pulmonary circulation, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion as manifested in the horse are discussed. Nuclear cardiology can be performed in the standing horse. The initial transit of a radioactive tracer through the central circulation provides information about cardiac chamber size, efficiency of ventricular contraction, valvular competence, and presence of intracardiac or extracardiac shunts. Computer analysis of similar studies allows quantitation of several useful cardiac parameters including ventricular ejection fraction and shunt size (QP/QS). Gated blood pool nuclear studies are better suited to evaluate cardiac response to stress but are difficult to perform in the conscious horse with standard imaging equipment

  11. Assessment of the occupational exposure in real time during interventional cardiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional cardiology (IC) procedures can be complex, requiring the operators to work near the patient, during long exposure times. Owing to scattered radiation in the patient and the fluoroscopic equipment, the medical staff are exposed to a nonuniform radiation field and can receive high radiation doses. In this study, it is proposed to analyse staff doses obtained in real time, during IC procedures. A system for occupational dosimetry in real time was used. In order to identify some parameters that may affect the staff doses, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, using MCNPX v.2.7.0 code and voxel phantoms, were performed. The data obtained from measurements, together with MC simulations, allowed the identification of actions and behaviours of the medical staff that could be considered a risk under routine working conditions. The implementation of this monitoring system for exposure of personnel may have a positive effect on optimisation of radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedures. (authors)

  12. Assessment of the occupational exposure in real time during interventional cardiology procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M; Figueira, C; Teles, P; Cardoso, G; Zankl, M; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    Interventional cardiology (IC) procedures can be complex, requiring the operators to work near the patient, during long exposure times. Owing to scattered radiation in the patient and the fluoroscopic equipment, the medical staff are exposed to a non-uniform radiation field and can receive high radiation doses. In this study, it is proposed to analyse staff doses obtained in real time, during IC procedures. A system for occupational dosimetry in real time was used. In order to identify some parameters that may affect the staff doses, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, using MCNPX v.2.7.0 code and voxel phantoms, were performed. The data obtained from measurements, together with MC simulations, allowed the identification of actions and behaviours of the medical staff that could be considered a risk under routine working conditions. The implementation of this monitoring system for exposure of personnel may have a positive effect on optimisation of radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedures. PMID:25848113

  13. Performance of several active personal dosemeters in interventional radiology and cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active personal dosemeters (APDs) are very useful instruments for optimizing radiation protection of workers and for increasing worker’s awareness of unexpected exposures. The challenge of monitoring personal equivalent doses with APDs in interventional fluoroscopy is that they must be sensitive to low energy photon beams and be able to record high dose rates. The aim of this work is to verify both the performance and the reliability of four active personal dosemeters (APDs) and one direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter in typical X-ray radiation fields used during interventional radiology and cardiology (IR/IC) procedures. The values of the personal dose equivalent at a depth of 10 mm measured by the APDs are compared with the response of a whole body thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) as a reference dosemeter. The response is found to be satisfactory in the tested situations.

  14. Measurements of eye lens doses in interventional radiology and cardiology: Final results of the ORAMED project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the ORAMED project (Optimization of Radiation Protection of Medical Staff) a coordinated measurement program for occupationally exposed medical staff was performed in different hospitals in Europe ( (www.oramed-fp7.eu)). The main objective was to obtain a set of standardized data on extremity and eye lens doses for staff involved in interventional radiology and cardiology and to optimize radiation protection. Special attention was given to the measurement of the doses to the eye lenses. In this paper an overview will be given of the measured eye lens doses and the main influence factors for these doses. The measured eye lens doses are extrapolated to annual doses. The extrapolations showed that monitoring of the eye lens should be performed on routine basis.

  15. First results of an eye lens dosimetry survey in an interventional cardiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Mariotti, F; Campani, L; Castelluccio, D M; Pierotti, L; Pettinato, C; Golfieri, R; Marzocchi, A; De Palma, A

    2015-06-01

    The eye lens annual dose limit for exposed personnel to ionizing radiation has recently been revised by the ICRP--International Commission on Radiological Protection and the proposed new limit has been accepted by European legislation through the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM 2013. Among medical exposed personnel, the staff performing interventional cardiology are usually affected by relevant doses. For this reason a survey, employing dosemeters characterized in terms of H(p)(3), was performed in order to get the order of magnitude of the doses received by the eye lens, at least as a first guess.The survey showed that the annual dose limit can easily be reached if a proper radiation protection approach is not implemented. PMID:26052799

  16. Measurements of eye lens doses in interventional cardiology using OSL and electronic dosemeters†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, R M; Vano, E; Fernandez, J M; Ginjaume, M; Duch, M A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the appropriateness of OSL and electronic dosemeters to estimate eye lens doses at interventional cardiology environment. Using TLD as reference detectors, personal dose equivalent was measured in phantoms and during clinical procedures. For phantom measurements, OSL dose values resulted in an average difference of -15 % vs. TLD. Tests carried out with other electronic dosemeters revealed differences up to ±20 % versus TLD. With dosemeters positioned outside the goggles and when TLD doses were >20 μSv, the average difference OSL vs. TLD was -9 %. Eye lens doses of almost 700 μSv per procedure were measured in two cases out of a sample of 33 measurements in individual clinical procedures, thus showing the risk of high exposure to the lenses of the eye when protection rules are not followed. The differences found between OSL and TLD are acceptable for the purpose and range of doses measured in the survey. PMID:24464819

  17. Diagnostic radiology and nuclear cardiology. Their use in assessment of equine cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblik, P D; Hornof, W J

    1985-08-01

    Survey thoracic radiography, although limited by physical considerations in the adult horse, can supply clinically useful information about changes in cardiac size and function. The radiographic features of cardiomegaly, altered pulmonary circulation, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion as manifested in the horse are discussed. Nuclear cardiology can be performed in the standing horse. The initial transit of a radioactive tracer through the central circulation provides information about cardiac chamber size, efficiency of ventricular contraction, valvular competence, and presence of intracardiac or extracardiac shunts. Computer analysis of similar studies allows quantitation of several useful cardiac parameters including ventricular ejection fraction and shunt size (QP/QS). Gated blood pool nuclear studies are better suited to evaluate cardiac response to stress but are difficult to perform in the conscious horse with standard imaging equipment. PMID:2934115

  18. Sustancias de contraste para estudios radiográficos en cardiología intervencionista

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Roberto Llerena Rojas; Lorenzo D. Llerena Rojas

    2002-01-01

    Las sustancias de contraste (SC) radiográficas utilizadas en Cardiología se clasifican en: 1. Iónicas de osmolalidad muy alta (OMA); 2. No iónicas de osmolalidad no muy alta (ONMA); 3. Iónicas de ONMA; 4. No iónicas Isosmolares. Todas las SC de OMA son iónicas, monómeras y triyodadas: un anillo de benceno con 3 átomos de yodo. Las iónicas de ONMA son dímeras y hexayodadas: dos anillos de benceno y 6 átomos de yodo. Las no iónicas de ONMA son monómeras y triyodadas y las isosmolares dímeras y ...

  19. The importance of pre-clinical animal testing in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Yeung, Alan C; Ikeno, Fumiaki

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of cardiovascular disease has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, allowing patients to live longer and better quality lives. The introduction of new therapies has contributed much to this success. Nowhere has this been more evident than in interventional cardiology, where percutaneous cardiovascular intervention has evolved in the past 2 decades from a quirky experimental procedure to a therapeutic cornerstone for patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The development of these technologies from the earliest stages requires preclinical experiments using animal models. Once introduced into the clinical arena, an understanding of therapeutic mechanisms of these devices can be ascertained through comparisons of animal model research findings with clinical pathological specimens. This review provides an overview of the emerging role, results of preclinical studies and development, and evaluation of animal models for percutaneous cardiovascular intervention technologies for patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. PMID:19142381

  20. Evaluation of occupational and medical doses on interventional cardiology procedures by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional cardiology consists on a set of medical procedures which are mainly focused on diagnosing and treating patients who suffer cardiovascular diseases. Even though the usage of X-ray is justified on this case, it is greatly advised to evaluate the dose which professionals and patients will be exposed due to the fact that the complexity and length of the procedures often require high doses. The objective of this work is to estimate the radiation dose on both a patient and a physician through conversion coefficient (CCs) of effective dose (E) and equivalent dose (H) during a coronary angiography examination.The dose CCs was estimated using the Visual Monte Carlo code (VMC) and a pair of simulators anthropomorphic voxel (Female Adult VoXel). The CCs were normalized in terms of kerma-area product (KAP). As expected, for all situations studied, the patient in anteroposterior projection (AP) obtained the highest conversion coefficient of equivalent dose and effective dose (author)

  1. Measurements of eye lens doses in interventional cardiology using OSL and electronic dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to test the appropriateness of OSL and electronic dosemeters to estimate eye lens doses at interventional cardiology environment. Using TLD as reference detectors, personal dose equivalent was measured in phantoms and during clinical procedures. For phantom measurements, OSL dose values resulted in an average difference of 215 % vs. TLD. Tests carried out with other electronic dosemeters revealed differences up to ±20 % versus TLD. With dosemeters positioned outside the goggles and when TLD doses were >20 μSv, the average difference OSL vs. TLD was 29 %. Eye lens doses of almost 700 μSv per procedure were measured in two cases out of a sample of 33 measurements in individual clinical procedures, thus showing the risk of high exposure to the lenses of the eye when protection rules are not followed. The differences found between OSL and TLD are acceptable for the purpose and range of doses measured in the survey (authors)

  2. Skin Dose to Patients from Interventional Radiology and Cardiology Procedures with Potentially Long Fluoroscopy Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing frequency and complexity of interventional procedures means that there is an increasing potential for the patient to suffer radiation-induced skin injuries. Dose measurements were initiated in a number of radiology, neuroradiology and cardiology departments in the Northern Ireland region carry out interventional procedures with potentially long fluoroscopy times. The intention was to measure patient skin dose and thus estimate the likelihood of deterministic effects occurring from such examinations. For each patient, several thermoluminescence dosemeters were placed on the areas of skin the radiologist or cardiologist considered were most likely to receive the greatest irradiation. Results are presented which indicate that several types of procedure have the potential to produce deterministic effects to patients' skin. It was concluded that skin dose should be routinely measured for each patient undergoing an interventional radiology procedure which has potentially a long fluoroscopy time. (author)

  3. Tools for assessing quality of life in cardiology and cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlaszyńska, Karolina; Pudlo, Robert; Jaworska, Izabela; Byrczek-Godula, Kamila; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    The holistic concept of health, popularization of knowledge, as well as social and economic factors have contributed to the growing interest in research concerning quality of life in cardiovascular diseases. The value of direct measurements of the patient's well-being and the extent of their functioning in everyday life (i.e., health-related quality of life; HRQoL) has gained appreciation. Questionnaires are the most popular method of measuring quality of life. On the basis of the literature, we can conclude that the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools measuring the quality of life of patients undergoing cardiological treatment and cardiac surgery. PMID:27212988

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – Its application in cardiology and occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kurpesa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a method used to assess the exercise capacity. It is used in cardiology to define the diagnostic and prognostic information, the treatment and its effectiveness. This method is also useful in sport medicine and in occupational medicine. The cardiopulmonary exercise test involves measuring of gas exchange during exercise testing. The article presents the main parameters assessed during the test and the indications and contraindications for conducting the test. It also reveals the results of recently published clinical trials on the use of cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with cardiovascular disease and in the working population. The study included variability of respiratory parameters during the cardiopulmonary exercise test and after its completion, as well as their impact on the prognostic value. In addition, the results of a study involving an optimal choice of interval training on the basis of oxygen consumption at peak exercise are summarized. Med Pr 2014;65(5:665–674

  5. Monitoring of doses to patients in interventional cardiology: first results from three Serbian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to assess level of radiation dose to patients in interventional cardiology procedures in three large Serbian hospitals and to investigate possibility for setting of trigger levels if dose quantities exceed certain levels. Three dedicated interventional cardiology laboratories were included in the survey. Information on annual workload was estimated based on number of coronary angiography (CA) procedures and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Patients doses were assessed in terms of air kerma area product (PKA) and air kerma in international reference point (KIRP). Results were compared with internationally proposed Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) and similar surveys results. Average total annual number of procedures was 820, 1100 and 2500 in three hospitals, respectively, while total number of dose measurements was 337. All three centers reported PKA values higher than 100 Gy·cm2 and even values above 200 Gy·cm2, corresponding to 42% and 16% of all measurements. Measured KIRP value higher than 5 Gy was reported in one center, indicating that skin doses associated possibility of skin injuries were observed. PKA mean hospital values for CA ranged from 33 to 78 Gy·cm2 and for PCI from 73 to 113 Gy·cm2, while associated vales for KIRP were: 0.45-1.2 Gy and 1.1-1.8 Gy, respectively. Comparison of obtained results with international DRL indicated that significant number of procedures is not optimally performed as in some centers more than a half of patients receive doses above DRL. The presented results are valuable input for dose optimization strategies and increased awareness related to importance of dose management. With respect to high dose values, risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions, dose management methods were proposed. (Author)

  6. Patient dose assessment in various Interventional radiology and cardiology procedures in Algeria (IAEA regional project results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Purpose: To evaluate patient doses in Interventional Radiology (IR) and Cardiology (IC) procedures in Algeria, within the framework of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional project on radiation protection of patients and medical exposure control (RAF 9033). Materials and Methods: Three public hospitals (CHU Bab el Oued, CHU Parnet and CHU Mustapha) and one specialised Cardiology Service (Clinique Maouche) were chosen for the study. For Maximum Skin Dose (MSD) evaluation, gafchromic films XR type R were used, placed on patient's back before the procedure. The Dose Area Product (DAP) and MSD were measured in 57 IR and IC procedures, either diagnostic or therapeutic. Results: The results revealed large variations in MSD (0.06-3.3 Gy) and DAP (5.5-332 mGycm2). Mean MSD was 0.227 Gy in cerebral angiography, 0.202 Gy in coronary angiography, 1.162 Gy in Percutaneus Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) and 0.128 in abdominal angiography. The correlation of DAP and MSD was significant (r = 0.7). The correlation was DAP and fluoroscopy time was also significant (r = 0.8). Conclusion: The highest MSD values were found in PTCA which is a therapeutic procedure. Two PTCAs out of the 57 procedures measured in total had MSD over the threshold of 2 Gy for deterministic effects (MSD1 = 3.0 Gy and MSD2 3.3 Gy). The large variations in MSD reveal the need to continuously monitor patient doses in IR and IC procedures with special emphasis in PTCA procedure. (author)

  7. Provision of Transition Education and Referral Patterns from Pediatric Cardiology to Adult Cardiac Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Anna L; Grady, Stafford; Chi, Kevin; Fernandes, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    ACC/AHA guidelines recommend a structured preparation for and transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care for adult survivors of pediatric onset heart disease (POHD). Given this, we sought to describe the transition and transfer practices for a cohort of young adults with POHD and to determine factors associated with successful transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care. We performed a single-center, retrospective chart review on patients ≥18 years of age, with POHD likely to require lifelong cardiac care, who were seen in outpatient pediatric cardiology (PC) between 2008 and 2011. Successful transfer was defined as the subsequent attendance at adult cardiology (AC) within 2 years of PC visit. We identified 118 patients who met study criteria. Mean age 22.4 ± 2.0 years, 59 % male, 64 % white and 40 % Hispanic. Mean transition education topics noted was 3.3 ± 1.8 out of 20 and covered the underlying cardiac disease (89 %), follow-up and current medications (56 %) and exercise limitations (34 %). Recommendations for follow-up were AC (57 %) and PC (33 %). Of those told to transfer to AC, 79 % successfully transferred. Characteristics of successful transfer included: prior cardiac surgery (p = 0.008), cardiac medication use (p = 0.006) and frequency of follow-up ≤1 year (p = 0.037). One-quarter of all subjects did not follow-up within at least 2 years. Despite published guidelines, transition education appears lacking and the approach to transfer to adult cardiac care is not consistent. Given the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in this patient population, standardization of transition education and transfer processes appear warranted. PMID:26385471

  8. Use of nuclear cardiology examinations to predict slow recovery from takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is generally believed to have a good prognosis. However, there are considerable differences among individuals in the severity of abnormal left ventricular wall motion and in the time required for normalization. We investigated the usefulness of nuclear cardiology examinations for the differentiation of severe cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which are associated with long-term wall motion abnormality. The participants were 18 patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Assessment was performed using rest TL-201 or technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) (MPS); myocardial fatty acid metabolism was evaluated by using I-123 beta-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP). A polar map was constructed from SPECT short-axis views, and was divided concentrically into 3 regions: the apical, intermediate, and base areas. The ratio of the apex to the intermedia, using mean uptake percentages, was defined as the apical uptake ratio (AUR). Participants in whom local wall motion normalized in ≤28 days or >28 days, as determined by echocardiography, were grouped into the normal recovery group (13 patients) or the slow recovery group (5 patients), respectively. AUR in MPS was 0.96±0.04 in the normal recovery group and 0.80±0.05 in the slow recovery group (p=0.008). Similarly, AUR in BMIPP significantly differed: 0.81±0.03 in the normal recovery group and 0.67±0.03 in the slow recovery group (p=0.014). The use of nuclear cardiology examinations to evaluate local uptake ratio in the apex is useful for identifying severe takotsubo cardiomyopathy, in which abnormal local wall motion may persist. (author)

  9. A telemedicine network for remote paediatric cardiology services in north-east Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Sheila Maria Vieira; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Soares de Araújo, Juliana Sousa; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Moser, Lúcia Roberta Didier Nunes; Hatem, Thamine de Paula; Gomes de Freitas, Carolina Paim; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Tavares, Thiago Ribeiro; Gomes, Renata Grigório Silva; Severi, Rossana; Santos, Cícera Rocha; Ferreira da Silva, Jailson; Rezende, Juliana Landim; Vieira, Paulo Coelho; Filho, José Luiz de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Providing health care for children with congenital heart diseases remains a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Approach In October 2011, the Government of Paraíba, Brazil, established a paediatric cardiology network in partnership with the nongovernmental organization Círculo do Coração. A cardiology team supervised all network activities, using the Internet to keep in contact with remote health facilities. The network developed protocols for screening heart defects. Echocardiograms were performed by physicians under direct online supervision of a cardiologist; alternatively, a video recording of the examination was subsequently reviewed by a cardiologist. Cardiovascular surgeons came to a paediatric hospital in the state capital once a week to perform heart surgeries. Local setting Until 2011, the State of Paraíba had no structured programme to care for children with heart disease. This often resulted in missed or late diagnosis, with adverse health consequences for the children. Relevant changes From 2012 to 2014, 73 751 babies were screened for heart defects and 857 abnormalities were identified. Detection of congenital heart diseases increased from 4.09 to 11.62 per 1000 live births (P Internet. Time to diagnosis, transfers and hospital stays were greatly reduced. A total of 330 operations were carried out with 6.7% (22/330) mortality. Lessons learnt Access to an echocardiography machine with remote supervision by a cardiologist improves the detection of congenital heart disease by neonatologists; virtual outpatient clinics facilitate clinical management; the use of Internet technology with simple screening techniques allows resources to be allocated more efficiently. PMID:26668441

  10. TERAPIA ELÉCTRICA EN CARDIOLOGÍA Electrical Therapy in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Mora Pabón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La terapia eléctrica en cardiología está encaminada a transferir electrones al miocardio, su mayor utilidad está dada en la cardioversión y desfibrilación. La terapia eléctrica cumple las leyes de la electricidad y el mayor factor a vencer es la impedancia o resistencia al flujo de electrones. Para mejorar la efectividad de la terapia eléctrica se han ideado diferentes formas en la onda de choque, en la duración y la polaridad. La terapia eléctrica ha logrado consolidarse como el tratamiento de elección del paro cardiorrespiratorio secundario a fibrilación ventricular y taquicardia ventricular sin pulso. Es igualmente el tratamiento de elección en taquiarritmias con compromiso hemodinámico. Pese a sus grandes ventajas tiene efectos secundarios que se deben conocer adecuadamente para dar un tratamiento oportuno.Electrical shock in cardiology are pursuid transfer of electrons to the myocardium. Its main indications are`s cardioversion and defibrillation. The electrical shock therapy follows laws of electricity laws and consequently, its main difficulty is the impedance or resistance of electrons flow. To make better the effectiveness of this therapy, a number of improvements have been made on the shock wave, its duration, and polarity. The electric shock therapy has become the preferred treatment when dealing with cardiorespiratory arrest secondary, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Similarly, it is the preferred treatment for ventricular tachyarrhythmia associated with hemodynamic compromise. Despite its significant advantages, this treatment causes secondary effects, which should adequately be known in order to provide a timely treatment.

  11. Germany; Technical Note on Banking Sector Structure

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Note focuses on banking sector structure in Germany. Germany’s banking system comprises three “pillars†—private commercial banks, public sector banks, and cooperative banks—distinguished by the ownership structure and business orientation. The German banking system includes a large number of institutions in both absolute and relative terms. This note describes the evolution of Germany’s three-pillar banking system. It analyzes capitalization, credit and the intermed...

  12. Gender, Migration, Remittances: Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Elke; Schäfer, Andrea; Schrooten, Mechthild

    2008-01-01

    Gender-specific determinants of remittances are the subject of this study based on German SOEP data (2001-2006). In 2007, about 7.3 million foreigners were living in Germany. While the total number of foreigners has decreased over the last decade, female migration to Germany has increased. A feminization of migration is observable all over the world, and is changing gender roles in the households of origin as well. Today, women constitute 48.6% of migratory flows to Germany, although the prop...

  13. Perspectives of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only if Germany continues to use nuclear power, and develops it further, we will have a chance to make German safety standards accepted internationally. It would be irresponsible to keep German safety know-how from other countries. It is important for Germany to preserve and advance its nuclear competence, which was acquired at great industrial expense. After all, nuclear power means almost 40,000 highly qualified jobs. These people must have a perspective for their future. They will get it only if the political courage is mustered again to build an advanced nuclear reactor with improved safety features in Germany. (orig.)

  14. Farming for Health: Aspects from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, Konrad; Stephan, Ingrid; Hermanowski, Robert; Flake, Albrecht; Post, Franz-Joseph; Elsen, Thomas van

    2006-01-01

    Until now, the term ‘Farming for Health’ is unknown in Germany but it would cover a wide spectrum of different kinds of social agriculture already existing in Germany, such as farms that integrate disabled people or drug therapy into their farming system, or farms that integrate children, pupils or older people. Relevant work in Germany is done in ‘Sheltered Workshops’, where supporting and healing powers of farming and gardening are used for disabled people with a diversity of work possibili...

  15. The Munich Crisis and Pacificate of U. S.A. to Nazis of Germany%慕尼黑危机与美国对纳粹德国的绥靖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文进

    2003-01-01

    1938年9月慕尼黑危机期间,美国对纳粹德国奉行绥靖政策.它支持满足纳粹德国吞并苏台德区的愿望,企图以牺牲捷克斯洛伐克的利益来换取欧洲和平.罗斯福总统在危机期间虽有一些斥责绥靖政策的言行,但那只是一种策略.

  16. Positron emission tomography 2008 in Germany. Results of the query and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The working group on positron emission tomography (PET) of the DGN (German Society of Nuclear Medicine) initiated this first survey to collect and analyse information on the practise of PET in Germany in the year 2008. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to PET performing facilities (medical practices, hospitals, university hospitals and others) for retrospective data acquisition. Details regarding the equipment and examination procedures were examined as well as indications and number of studies. In addition, the role of PET within the diagnostic process was evaluated. Results: Responses from 65 sites were analysed. Their technical equipment consisted of 77 PET scanners (40 of them were combined PET/CT devices). About 63 500 PET studies had been performed with 86% in the field of oncology, 8% in neurology and 3% in cardiology. The radiotracers were labelled with 18F in 91% of the studies, whereas 68Ga was used in 4% and 11C in 3%. The analyses revealed lung tumours as the most investigated tumour entity, followed by malignant lymphoma, tumours of the gastro-intestinal tract and prostate cancer (about 14 000, 6000, 5000 and 2000). Corresponding to the new scanners and software procedures, the number of studies with attenuation correction by CT was high (68%) and nearly all studies were reconstructed iteratively (99%). The PET images were analysed quantitatively in the majority of cases (91%). The clinical reports, which included image documentation for the greater part, were posted regularly within 3 days. However, in 70% of the sites electronic transfer possibilities were used additionally to speed up the diagnostic process. The high standard of quality was demonstrated by the fact, that 40 facilities were engaged in a tumour board. Further on, one third of the physicians had gained a PET certification awarded by the DGN. Conclusion: Relative to the high general standard of diagnostic instrumentation in Germany, PET is less established, in particular when

  17. Management of Spent Fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation gives an overview on the inventory of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Germany, the state of commissioning of the on-site storages for spent fuel and the balance of reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  18. Has East Germany overtaken West Germany? : Recent trends in order-specific fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Goldstein, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Some 20 years after reunification, the contrast between East and West Germany offers a natural experiment for studying the degree of persistence of Communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and fertility postponement. After reunification, period fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. Since the mid-1990s, however, period fertility rates have been rising in East Germany, in contrast to the nearly constant rates seen in the West. By 2008, ...

  19. How changes to the Medicare Benefits Schedule could improve the practice of cardiology and save taxpayer money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Richard W; Nasis, Arthur; Sundararajan, Vijaya

    2015-09-21

    Rising health care costs above inflation are placing serious strains on the sustainability of the Australian Medicare system in its current structure. The Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS), which lists rebates payable to patients for private medical services provided on a fee-for-service basis, is the cornerstone of the Australian health care system. Introduced in the 1980s, the MBS has changed little despite major advances in the evidence base for the practice of cardiology. We outline how we believe sensible changes to the MBS listings for four cardiac services--invasive coronary angiography, computed tomography coronary angiography, stress testing and percutaneous coronary intervention--would improve the clinical practice of cardiology and save substantial amounts of taxpayer money. PMID:26377292

  20. Staff eye lens and extremity exposure in interventional cardiology: Results of the ORAMED project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the ORAMED project a coordinated measurement program for occupationally exposed medical staff was performed in different hospitals in Europe. The main objectives of ORAMED were to obtain a set of standardized data on doses for staff in interventional cardiology and radiology and to optimize staff protection. Doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters on the ring finger and wrist of both hands, on legs and at the level of the eyes of the main operator performing interventional procedures. In this paper an overview of the doses per procedure measured during 646 interventional cardiology procedures is given for cardiac angiographies and angioplasties (CA/PTCA), radiofrequency ablations (RFA) and pacemaker and defibrillator implantations (PM/ICD). 31% of the monitored procedures were associated with no collective protective equipment, whereas 44% involved a ceiling screen and a table curtain. Although associated with the smallest air kerma – area product (KAP), PM/ICD procedures led to the highest doses. As expected, KAP and doses values exhibited a very large variability. The left side of the operator, most frequently the closest to the X-ray scattering region, was more exposed than his right side. An analysis of the effect of parameters influencing the doses, namely collective protective equipment, X-ray tube configuration and catheter access route, was performed on the doses normalized to KAP. Ceiling screen and table curtain were observed to reduce normalized doses by atmost a factor 4, much smaller than theoretical attenuation factors typical for such protections, i.e. from 10 to 100. This observation was understood as their inappropriate use by the operators and their non-optimized design. Configurations with tube above the patient led to higher normalized doses to the operator than tube below, but the effect of using a biplane X-ray suite was more complex to analyze. For CA/PTCA procedures, the upper part of the operator’s body received

  1. Occupational doses in interventional cardiology: Experiences in obtaining worldwide data as part of the ISEMIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated in early 2009 the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research, referred to as the ISEMIR project. The project is specifically aimed at improving occupational radiation protection in those areas of radiation use in medicine, industry and research where non-trivial occupational exposures occur. Interventional Cardiology (IC) was the first such area identified and a working group was formed in February 2009 - the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology (WGIC). One of the first actions of the WGIC was to devise questionnaires to gain insight into occupational radiation protection in IC around the world. This included a questionnaire addressed to national or state radiation protection (RP) regulatory bodies (RBs), asking, inter alia: the numbers of workers with personal dosimetry involved in IC procedures in 2008; values of occupational doses (effective dose) in the national authority's database (or database accessible by the national authority); and whether the RP RB defines the number and position of dosimeters for staff monitoring in IC. Responses were received from 81 RBs (56 national RBs and 25 state RBs) out of 191 attempted contacts. About half the RBs (41 out of 81) stated that they were not able to provide occupational dose data for IC, citing reasons that included: no central dose register in the country or state; no easy access to the central dose register by the RB; the RB only had records of doses if they exceed some particular threshold (e.g. investigation or action level); no specific classification for interventional cardiologists, or other persons in IC in the database. The other RBs (40 out of 81) were able to provide some occupational dose data, ranging from detailed dose values to data that were inconsistent and/or ambiguous. Some of the dose data supplied were not suitable for further analysis for reasons that included: reported dose data were

  2. The plan. Germany is renewable. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greenpeace brochure ''Germany is renewable'' covers the following issues: Vision 1, Germany is renewable; the plan - comments -sources; phase 1: 2011-15, the nuclear phase-out; phase 2: 2016-2030 - end of the large coal-fired power plants; phase 3: 2031-2040 - complete coal phase-out; phase 4: 2041-2050 - gas phase-out, complete electricity supply from renewable energies; vision 2.

  3. Germany - no country for old workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Martin; Walwei, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    "The employment situation of older workers in Germany used to be poor. However, in recent years it has improved considerably. Germany has shifted its policies to strengthen the labor market performance of older workers. Policy has focused on less early exits of older workers and far-reaching institutional changes concerning public pension schemes and unemployment benefit systems. A better overall development of the labor market and an increased labor force participation of women contributed t...

  4. The Immigrant Wage Gap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Stephan L.; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants' wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.

  5. Contamination measurements in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on cumulative Cs-137 and Sr-90 depositions both from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in Austria, Germany, UK and USA are given as well as the time dependence of Cs-137 concentrations from 1986 to 1992 in nutrients and drinking water in Austria and Germany. Finally the dose-to-population from the Chernobyl accident is compared to the natural radiation and even to that resulting from energy-saving sealing measures in living rooms. (Quittner)

  6. Immigration, Trade and Wages in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Yaya, Mehmet-Erdem

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of several macroeconomic variables such as GDP, imports, unemployment, immigration and emigration on the real wages and salaries of German laborers. Annual data for 49 years has been used to estimate twelve different regressions, trying to capture the effect of these variables on the real wages and salaries in Germany while considering the unification of West-East Germany with a dummy variable. The results are intriguing, and contradicting with most of the e...

  7. Peritoneal tuberculosis. Also important in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the increase in the number of foreigners living in Germany and in the number of patients with AIDS, there will also be an increase in the incidence of abdominal tuberculosis in Germany. The following report describes the case of a 24-year-old female patient with peritoneal tuberculosis, the most common manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis. Computed tomography showed typical pathological alterations; the diagnosis was confirmed by intralaparascopic biopsy. (orig.)

  8. Distance education at conventional universities in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Henning Kappel; Burkhard Lehmann; Joachim Loeper

    2010-01-01

    Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established. Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University) in West G...

  9. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation). The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustra...

  10. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Bridging the Gap, Facing the Challenge—the 26th Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The joint venue of the 26th Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC) & Asia Pacific Heart Congress 2015 (APHC 2015) & International Congress Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2015 (ICCPR 2015) were held from October 29 to November 01, 2015 at the China National Convention Center (CNCC), Beijing, China. This year’s conference focused on cardiovascular disease prevention, health promotion, education and training, as well as disease management and rehabilitation.

  12. Bridging the Gap, Facing the Challenge-the 26(th) Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The joint venue of the 26(th) Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC) & Asia Pacific Heart Congress 2015 (APHC 2015) & International Congress Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2015 (ICCPR 2015) were held from October 29 to November 01, 2015 at the China National Convention Center (CNCC), Beijing, China. This year's conference focused on cardiovascular disease prevention, health promotion, education and training, as well as disease management and rehabilitation. PMID:26885499

  13. Neuropathological research at the "Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Psychiatrie" (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute). Scientific utilization of children's organs from the "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Children's Special Departments) at Bavarian State Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Florian

    2006-09-01

    During National Socialism, the politically motivated interest in psychiatric genetic research lead to the founding of research departments specialized in pathological-anatomical brain research, the two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes (KWI) in Berlin and Munich. The latter was indirectly provided with brain material by Bavarian State Hospitals, to three of which "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Special Pediatric Units) were affiliated. As children became victims of the systematically conducted child "euthanasia" in these Special Pediatric Units, this paper will address the question whether and to which extent the organs from victims of child "euthanasia" were used for (neuro-) pathological research at the KWI in Munich. By means of case studies and medical histories (with focus on the situation in Kaufbeuren-Irsee), I will argue that pediatric departments on a regular base delivered slide preparations, that the child "euthanasia" conduced in these departments systematically contributed to neuropathological research and that slide preparations from victims of child "euthanasia" were used in scientific publications after 1945. PMID:16887759

  14. Class attendance and cardiology examination performance: a study in problem-based medical curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamuhair SS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Samira S Bamuhair,1 Ali I Al Farhan,1,2 Alaa Althubaiti,1 Saeed ur Rahman,1,2 Hanan M Al-Kadri1,3 1College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background and aims: Information on the effect of students' class attendance on examination performance in a problem-based learning medical curriculum is limited. This study investigates the impact of different educational activities on students' academic performance in a problem-based learning curriculum. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on the cardiology block at the College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All students who undertook the cardiology block during the academic year 2011–2012 were included. The students' attendance was measured using their overall attendance percentage. This percentage is a product of their attendance of many activities throughout the block. The students' performance was assessed by the final mark obtained, which is a product of many assessment elements. Statistical correlation between students' attendance and performance was established. Results: A total of 127 students were included. The average lecture attendance rate for the medical students in this study was found to be 86%. A significant positive correlation was noted between the overall attendance and the accumulated students' block mark (r=0.52; P<0.001. Students' attendance to different education activities was correlated to their final mark. Lecture attendance was the most significant predictor (P<0.001, that is, 1.0% increase in lecture attendance has predicted a 0.27 increase in students' final block mark. Conclusion: Class attendance has a positive effect on students' academic performance with stronger effect for lecture attendance compared to

  15. Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: Update 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008.Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD, heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients.Results: A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment

  16. Cardiology in Brazilian scientific journals: an overview Cardiologia em revistas científicas brasileiras: um panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Kirankumar Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiology has been and is a very significant fraction of the Brazilian contribution to science. In older days, the most significant part of this work was directed to foreign periodicals, but the quasi-simultaneous emergence of SciELO and PUBMED has ordained a redirection of much of this work to Brazilian periodicals. We here survey some of this more recent contribution for the benefit of readers of Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular. This is offered as an update. Articles on the general themes of Cardiology and Pneumology published by four ISI Indexed Brazilian journals not specializing in cardiology are re-visited, after a search through 10 journals.A Cardiologia foi, e continua sendo, responsável por uma fracção muito significativa da contribuição brasileira para a ciência. No passado, os trabalhos mais importantes eram direcionados para periódicos estrangeiros, mas o surgimento quase simultâneo do SciELO e PUBMED facilitou um redirecionamento de grande parte desses trabalhos a periódicos brasileiros. Neste artigo, examinamos algumas das contribuições mais recentes em benefício aos leitores da Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular. Esta discussão é oferecida como uma atualização. Artigos sobre os temas gerais da cardiologia e pneumologia publicados por quatro revistas brasileiras indexadas no ISI - não especializadas em cardiologia - são revistos.

  17. Challenging the holy grail of hospital accreditation: A cross sectional study of inpatient satisfaction in the field of cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Subjective parameters such as quality of life or patient satisfaction gain importance as outcome parameters and benchmarks in health care. In many countries hospitals are now undergoing accreditation as mandatory or voluntary measures. It is believed but unproven that accreditations positively influence quality of care and patient satisfaction. The present study aims to assess in a defined specialty (cardiology) the relationship between patient satisfaction (as measured by the recommendation rate) and accreditation status. Methods Consecutive patients discharged from 25 cardiology units received a validated patient satisfaction questionnaire. Data from 3,037 patients (response rate > 55%) became available for analysis. Recommendation rate was used as primary endpoint. Different control variables such as staffing level were considered. Results The 15 accredited units did not differ significantly from the 10 non-accredited units regarding main hospital (i.e. staffing levels, no. of beds) and patient (age, gender) characteristics. The primary endpoint "recommendation rate of a given hospital" for accredited hospitals (65.6%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 63.4 - 67.8%) and hospitals without accreditation (65.8%, 95% CI 63.1 - 68.5%) was not significantly different. Conclusion Our results support the notion that - at least in the field of cardiology - successful accreditation is not linked with measurable better quality of care as perceived by the patient and reflected by the recommendation rate of a given institution. Hospital accreditation may represent a step towards quality management, but does not seem to improve overall patient satisfaction. PMID:20459873

  18. Challenging the holy grail of hospital accreditation: A cross sectional study of inpatient satisfaction in the field of cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbel Raimund

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective parameters such as quality of life or patient satisfaction gain importance as outcome parameters and benchmarks in health care. In many countries hospitals are now undergoing accreditation as mandatory or voluntary measures. It is believed but unproven that accreditations positively influence quality of care and patient satisfaction. The present study aims to assess in a defined specialty (cardiology the relationship between patient satisfaction (as measured by the recommendation rate and accreditation status. Methods Consecutive patients discharged from 25 cardiology units received a validated patient satisfaction questionnaire. Data from 3,037 patients (response rate > 55% became available for analysis. Recommendation rate was used as primary endpoint. Different control variables such as staffing level were considered. Results The 15 accredited units did not differ significantly from the 10 non-accredited units regarding main hospital (i.e. staffing levels, no. of beds and patient (age, gender characteristics. The primary endpoint "recommendation rate of a given hospital" for accredited hospitals (65.6%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 63.4 - 67.8% and hospitals without accreditation (65.8%, 95% CI 63.1 - 68.5% was not significantly different. Conclusion Our results support the notion that - at least in the field of cardiology - successful accreditation is not linked with measurable better quality of care as perceived by the patient and reflected by the recommendation rate of a given institution. Hospital accreditation may represent a step towards quality management, but does not seem to improve overall patient satisfaction.

  19. Paving the Road for Modern Particle Therapy – What can we Learn from the experience gained with Fast Neutron Therapy in Munich?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Martin Specht

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While neutron therapy was a highly topical subject in the 70’s and 80’s, today there are only a few remaining facilities offering fast neutron therapy. Nevertheless, up to today more than 30,000 patients were treated with neutron therapy. For some indications like salivary gland tumors and malignant melanoma there is clinical evidence that the addition of Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT leads to superior local control compared to photon treatment alone. FNT was available in Munich from 1985 until 2000 at the RENT facility (Reactor Neutron Therapy. Patient treatment continued at the new research reactor FRM II in 2007 under improved treatment conditions and today it can still be offered to selected patients as an individual treatment option. As there is a growing interest in high-linear energy transfer (LET therapy with new hadron therapy centers emerging around the globe, the clinical data generated by neutron therapy might help to develop biologically driven treatment planning algorithms. Also FNT might experience its resurgence as a combinational partner of modern immunotherapies.

  20. Comparison of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey with the Munich semi-analytical model - I. Magnitude counts, redshift distribution, colour bimodality, and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    de la Torre, S; De Lucia, G; Blaizot, J; Fèvre, O Le; Garilli, B; Cucciati, O; Mellier, Y; Pollo, A; Bottini, D; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pelló, R; Pozzetti, L; Vergani, D; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed comparison between high-redshift observations from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) and predictions from the Munich semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. In particular, we focus this analysis on the magnitude, redshift, and colour distributions of galaxies, as well as their clustering properties. We constructed 100 quasi-independent mock catalogues, using the output of the semi-analytical model presented in De Lucia & Blaizot (2007).We then applied the same observational selection function of the VVDS-Deep survey, so as to carry out a fair comparison between models and observations. We find that the semi-analytical model reproduces well the magnitude counts in the optical bands. It tends, however, to overpredict the abundance of faint red galaxies, in particular in the i' and z' bands. Model galaxies exhibit a colour bimodality that is only in qualitative agreement with the data. In particular, we find that the model tends to overpredict the number of red galaxies at lo...

  1. Neuropathology in Germany during World War II: Julius Hallervorden (1882-1965) and the Nazi programme of 'euthanasia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J T

    2007-05-01

    In Germany, during World War II, more than 120,000 handicapped children and adults were murdered for the convenience of the State. To gain scientific knowledge, the brains of many of these patients were examined by German neuropathologists. Some 698 of these specimens were examined in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Hirnforschung in Berlin-Buch by Julius Hallervorden, whose career is reviewed together with that of his superior, Hugo Spatz. Hallervorden also oversaw the examination of cases of mental handicap by W-J Eiche at a laboratory at the Hospital Brandenburg-Gorden. Also in Berlin was Berthold Ostertag, neuropathologist at the Rudolf-Virchow-Hospital, who examined cases from the Children's Ward at Wiesengrund. Smaller but significant numbers of brains were examined in Munich, Heidelberg, Hamburg and Schleswig. Some brains of similar origin were examined in Vienna and in Lubliniecz. Jürgen Peiffer has estimated that German neuropathologists examined 2097 brains arising from the Nazi Programme of 'Euthanasia'. PMID:17551614

  2. Transition from image intensifier to flat panel detector in interventional cardiology: Impact of radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan S Livingstone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat panel detector (FPD technology in interventional cardiology is on the increase due to its varied advantages compared to the conventional image intensifier (II systems. It is not clear whether FPD imparts lower radiation doses compared to II systems though a few studies support this finding. This study intends to compare radiation doses from II and FPD systems for coronaryangiography (CAG and Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA performed in a tertiary referral center. Radiation doses were measured using dose area product (DAP meter from patients who underwent CAG (n = 222 and PTCA (n = 75 performed using FPD angiography system. The DAP values from FPD were compared with earlier reported data using II systems from the same referral center where the study was conducted. The mean DAP values from FPD system for CAG and PTCA were 24.35 and 63.64 Gycm 2 and those from II system were 27.71 and 65.44 Gycm 2 . Transition from II to FPD system requires stringent dose optimization strategies right from the initial period of installation.

  3. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  4. A practical method for skin dose estimation in interventional cardiology based on fluorographic DICOM information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method for skin dose estimation for interventional cardiology patients has been developed to inform pre-procedure planning and post-procedure patient management. Absorbed dose to the patient skin for certain interventional radiology procedures can exceed thresholds for deterministic skin injury, requiring documentation within the patient notes and appropriate patient follow-up. The primary objective was to reduce uncertainty associated with current methods, particularly surrounding field overlap. This was achieved by considering rectangular field geometry incident on a spherical patient model in a polar coordinate system. The angular size of each field was quantified at surface of the sphere, i.e. the skin surface. Computer-assisted design software enabled the modelling of a sufficient dataset that was subsequently validated with radiochromic film. Modelled overlap was found to agree with overlap measured using film to within 2.2 deg. ± 2.0 deg., showing that the overall error associated with the model was <1 %. Mathematical comparison against exposure data extracted from procedural Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine files was used to generate a graphical skin dose map, demonstrating the dose distribution over a sphere centred at the interventional reference point. Dosimetric accuracy of the software was measured as between 3.5 and 17 % for different variables. (authors)

  5. Entrance surface air kerma in x-ray systems for paediatric interventional cardiology: a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this work were to report the results of a national survey on entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) values for different phantom thicknesses and operation modes in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) systems and to compare them with previous values. The national survey also offers suggested investigation levels (ILs) for ESAK in paediatric cardiac procedures. ESAK was measured on phantoms of 4-16 cm thickness of polymethyl methacrylate slabs. For low fluoroscopy mode (FM), ESAK rates ranged from 0.11 to 33.1 mGy min-1 and for high FM from 0.34 to 61.0 mGy min-1. For cine mode, values of ESAK per frame were from 1.9 to 78.2 μGy fr-1. The ILs were suggested as the third quartile of the values measured. This research showed lower ESAK values than in previous research, particularly for ESAK values in cine modes. This work represents a first step towards launching a national programme in paediatric dosimetry for IC procedures. (authors)

  6. CardioSmart365: Artificial Intelligence in the Service of Cardiologic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrosini Sourla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence has significantly contributed in the evolution of medical informatics and biomedicine, providing a variety of tools available to be exploited, from rule-based expert systems and fuzzy logic to neural networks and genetic algorithms. Moreover, familiarizing people with smartphones and the constantly growing use of medical-related mobile applications enables complete and systematic monitoring of a series of chronic diseases both by health professionals and patients. In this work, we propose an integrated system for monitoring and early notification for patients suffering from heart diseases. CardioSmart365 consists of web applications, smartphone native applications, decision support systems, and web services that allow interaction and communication among end users: cardiologists, patients, and general doctors. The key features of the proposed solution are (a recording and management of patients' measurements of vital signs performed at home on regular basis (blood pressure, blood glucose, oxygen saturation, weight, and height, (b management of patients' EMRs, (c cardiologic patient modules for the most common heart diseases, (d decision support systems based on fuzzy logic, (e integrated message management module for optimal communication between end users and instant notifications, and (f interconnection to Microsoft HealthVault platform. CardioSmart365 contributes to the effort for optimal patient monitoring at home and early response in cases of emergency.

  7. Management of stable angina: A commentary on the European Society of Cardiology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Komajda, Michel; Mugelli, Alessandro; Lopez-Sendón, José; Tamargo, Juan; Camm, John

    2016-09-01

    In 2013 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) released new guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease. These guidelines update and replace the previous ESC guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris, issued in 2006. There are several new aspects in the 2013 ESC guidelines compared with the 2006 version. This opinion paper provides an in-depth interpretation of the ESC guidelines with regard to these issues, to help physicians in making evidence-based therapeutic choices in their routine clinical practice. The first new element is the definition of stable coronary artery disease itself, which has now broadened from a 'simple' symptom, angina pectoris, to a more complex disease that can even be asymptomatic. In the first-line setting, the major changes in the new guidelines are the upgrading of calcium channel blockers, the distinction between dihydropyridines and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and the presence of important statements regarding the combination of calcium channel blockers with beta-blockers. In the second-line setting, the 2013 ESC guidelines recommend the addition of long-acting nitrates, ivabradine, nicorandil or ranolazine to first-line agents. Trimetazidine may also be considered. However, no clear distinction is made among different second-line drugs, despite different quality of evidence in favour of these agents. For example, the use of ranolazine is supported by strong and recent evidence, while data supporting the use of the traditional agents appear relatively scanty. PMID:27222385

  8. Staff lens doses in interventional urology. A comparison with interventional radiology, cardiology and vascular surgery values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E; Fernandez, J M; Resel, L E; Moreno, J; Sanchez, R M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate radiation doses to the lens of urologists during interventional procedures and to compare them with values measured during interventional radiology, cardiology and vascular surgery. The measurements were carried out in a surgical theatre using a mobile C-arm system and electronic occupational dosimeters (worn over the lead apron). Patient and staff dose measurements were collected in a sample of 34 urology interventions (nephrolithotomies). The same dosimetry system was used in other medical specialties for comparison purposes. Median and 3rd quartile values for urology procedures were: patient doses 30 and 40 Gy cm(2); personal dose equivalent Hp(10) over the apron (μSv/procedure): 393 and 848 (for urologists); 21 and 39 (for nurses). Median values of over apron dose per procedure for urologists resulted 18.7 times higher than those measured for radiologists and cardiologists working with proper protection (using ceiling suspended screens) in catheterisation laboratories, and 4.2 times higher than the values measured for vascular surgeons at the same hospital. Comparison with passive dosimeters worn near the eyes suggests that dosimeters worn over the apron could be a reasonable conservative estimate for ocular doses for interventional urology. Authors recommend that at least the main surgeon uses protective eyewear during interventional urology procedures. PMID:26583458

  9. Clustering of Enterococcus faecalis infections in a cardiology hospital neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Mara Varejão Strabelli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Early identification of an outbreak is one of the main advantages of routine epidemiological surveillance. Enterococcus spp. used to be regarded as microorganisms of low pathogenicity, because they are part of the normal microbial flora of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Recently, they have emerged as important pathogenic agents, sometimes causing infections with high mortality rates. We studied a clustering of primary bloodstream infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis in a cardiology hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Four cases of primary bloodstream infection by E. faecalis were detected from April 15 to May 13, 2004, during active infection surveillance. The isolates were sensitive to glycopeptides. Some aspects of the management of these patients, including the date of insertion and placement of a central venous catheter, prescription of a specific medication, contiguity of beds, personnel attending the patients, and occurrence of diarrhea were analyzed to look for factors that might affect the spread of the microorganisms. Measures taken to hamper the spread included contact precautions throughout the unit, cleansing and disinfection of equipment and surfaces, bathing children with 2% chlorhexidine-gluconate-containing soap, professional reeducation, and reinforcement of all measures to prevent infections. We suggest that there is a need to re-evaluate preventive infection measures and to review the strategies aimed at decreasing the nosocomial infection rate in the NICU.

  10. Radiological protection optimization derived from radiation induced lesions in interventional cardiology finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional Cardiology is one of the specialties in which patients are submitted to the greatest radiation doses with x ray systems used for diagnostic purposes and then, it is also a specialty of high occupational radiation risk. In the last years, several cases of radiation induced lesions produced on patients derived of new complex interventional procedures have been described. As consequence, different rules for avoiding this kind of incidents have been recommended by International Organisations and regulatory Bodies. Nevertheless it has been devoted relatively few attention to the evaluation of the occupational risks that inevitably are also high in these facilities. In this work, some cases of radioinduced skin lesions produced on patients submitted to cardiac ablation procedures are described. Radiological protection considerations of interest for the regulatory Bodies are made, that permit to minimize the probability of these incidents, in what to the X-rays equipment is referred as well as to the operation procedures and level of radiation protection training of the medical specialists. (author)

  11. The usefulness of the nuclear cardiology in the cellular implant in patients with severe myocardial damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent therapeutic advances as the cellular implant as well as those different protocols of image acquisition in the field of the Nuclear Cardiology its have allowed that the patient with severe myocardial damage and without some possibility of revascularization is benefited with these advances. Doubtless the Tl-201 par excellence has an important paper for standardize the more appropriate therapeutic behavior for the heart attack patient; reason by this investigation protocol was developed. The objective of the study was to identify the heart attack regions without viable tissue with SPECT in patient with important myocardial damage without some possibility of traditional revascularization; for the 'Stem cell' cellular implantation therapy. The methodology it was carried out by a study of myocardial perfusion in 10 patients with important myocardial damage previous cellular implants, with PICANUC/ SPECT methodology and using a software (Emory Tool Box) for the image processing validated by the University of Emory Atlanta GA; and using as tracer the Tl - 201 to identify the heart attack regions without presence of viable tissue with an analysis model of 17 segments standardized for the left ventricle; qualifying this way the myocardial perfusion in: 0 (normal), 1 (light), 2 (moderate), 3 (severe), 4 (absent) and x (bad technique). The conclusions were that the SPECT study with PICANUC methodology with Tl-201 is safe and effective for the precise localization for the cellular implantation via direct intra myocardial. (Author)

  12. Influence of patient thickness and operation modes on occupational and patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient and staff dose values in an interventional cardiology laboratory for different operational modes and several patient thicknesses (from 16 to 28 cm, simulated using polymethylmethacrylate) are presented. When increasing patient thicknesses and depending on fluoroscopy and cine modes, occupational doses can increase >30 times the baseline level. Scatter dose rates at the cardiologist's position with no radiation protective tools ranged from 1 to 14 mSv h-1 for fluoroscopy, and from 10 to 47 mSv h-1 during cine acquisition. Patient entrance surface air kerma rates increased by nearly 3 and staff dose rates by up to 2.6 when fluoroscopy was moved from the low to the high mode, for a typical 20 cm thickness. The respective increase factors were 6 and 4.2 when patient thickness rose from 16 to 28 cm, and by 10 and 8.3, when comparing cine acquisition with the low fluoroscopy mode. The knowledge of typical dose rates for each X-ray system in use in catheterisation laboratories is essential in order to optimise protection of patients and staff. (authors)

  13. Application of a visualization method of image data base in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical imaging is undoubtedly one of the medical branches which benefited at most by the offsprings of computer science development. We present here a visualization software of image data base, making use of the last innovations in the field of multimedia application. The objective of such a software is to provide a reference tool for a given medical specialty offering at the same time, a high quality iconography, a rigorous content of the comments and the matching of graphical interfaces. Applied to nuclear cardiology and implanted on CD ROM, it contains a given number of clinical cases (around 150) which sweep quasi-exhaustively the subject. Each case centered around scintigraphic examination (myocardial tomographs, ventriculographs, SPECT, etc) makes available 'static' pictures (series of cross sections, planispheric images, ECG), animated cartoons (synchronized series, 3D visualization, etc) and also the clinical history of the patient and the records of complementary examinations (coronary-graphic, for instance). Being independent of the image data base which it visualizes, our software is easily applicable to other nuclear medicine specialties (neurology, renal exploration) and also to other modalities. It is multilingual already (French and English) and soon will be supplemented by a code dedicated to knowledge assessment intended to be an efficient tool in education and continuous formation. A Macintosh version will be soon obtainable and a demonstration diskette is free available on request

  14. Estimation of staff lens doses during interventional procedures. Comparing cardiology, neuroradiology and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to estimate lens doses using over apron active personal dosemeters in interventional catheterisation laboratories (cardiology IC, neuroradiology IN and radiology IR) and to investigate correlations between occupational lens doses and patient doses. Active electronic personal dosemeters placed over the lead apron were used on a sample of 204 IC procedures, 274 IN and 220 IR (all performed at the same university hospital). Patient dose values (kerma area product) were also recorded to evaluate correlations with occupational doses. Operators used the ceiling-suspended screen in most cases. The median and third quartile values of equivalent dose Hp(10) per procedure measured over the apron for IC, IN and IR resulted, respectively, in 21/67, 19/44 and 24/54 μSv. Patient dose values (median/third quartile) were 75/128, 83/176 and 61/159 Gy cm2, respectively. The median ratios for dosemeters worn over the apron by operators ( protected by the ceiling-suspended screen) and patient doses were 0.36; 0.21 and 0.46 μSv Gy-1 cm-2, respectively. With the conservative approach used (lens doses estimated from the over apron chest dosemeter) we came to the conclusion that more than 800 procedures y-1 and per operator were necessary to reach the new lens dose limit for the three interventional specialties. (authors)

  15. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Rock, Thomas; Berndt, Peter; Viehmann, Anja; Reinders, Sabrina; Gesenhues, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for General Medicine, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Brix, Gunnar; Schegerer, Alexander [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  16. Recommendations to reduce extremity and eye lens doses in interventional radiology and cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the Work Package 1 (WP1) of the ORAMED project, Collaborative Project (2008–2011), supported by the European Commission within its 7th Framework Programme, was to obtain a set of standardized data on extremity and eye lens doses for staff in interventional radiology and cardiology (IR/IC) workplaces and to recommend a series of guidelines on radiation protection in order to both guarantee and optimize staff protection. Within the project, coordinated measurements were performed in 34 hospitals in 6 European countries. Furthermore, simulations of the most representative workplaces in IR and IC were performed to determine the main parameters that influence the extremity and eye lens doses. The work presented in this paper shows the recommendations that were formulated by the results obtained from both measurements and simulations. The presented guidelines are directed to operators, assistant personnel, radiation protection officers and medical physics experts. They concern radiation protection issues, such as the use of room protective equipment, as well as the positioning of the extremity and eye lens dosemeters for routine monitoring.

  17. Forecasting of Corrosion Properties of Steel Wires for Production of Guide Wires for Cardiological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents evaluation of the influence of strain in drawing process and of surface modification on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel for production of guide wires used in invasive cardiology. The results of static tensile test enabled us to determine the course of flow curve of wires made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel as well as mathematical form of flow stress function. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were performed in solution simulating human blood on samples that were electrolytically polished and samples that were polished and then chemically passivated. Exemplary anodic polarisation curves were given. It was proved that with the applied strain, corrosion properties decrease. It was found that chemical passivation improves wire corrosion characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant dependence between corrosion properties (polarisation resistance Rp and strain ε applied in drawing process. Functions that present the change Rp=f(ε were selected. The issue is of importance to guide wire manufacturers because application of the suggested methodology will enable us to forecast corrosion characteristics of wire with the required strength drawn with the applied strain.

  18. Eye dosimetry in interventional radiology and cardiology: current challenges and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M M

    2014-12-01

    Interventional radiology and cardiology are areas with high potential for risk to eye lens. Accurate assessment of eye dose is one of the most important aspects of correlating doses with observed lens opacities among workers in interventional suites and ascertaining compliance with regulatory limits. The purpose of this paper is to review current approaches and opportunities in eye dosimetry and assess challenges in particular in accuracy and practicality. The possible approaches include practical dosimetry using passive dosemeters or active dosemeters with obvious advantage of active dosimetry. When neither of these is available, other approaches are based on either retrospective dose assessment using scatter radiation dose levels or correlations between patient dose indices and eye doses to the operators. In spite of all uncertainties and variations, estimation of eye dose from patient dose can be accepted as a compromise. Future challenges include development of practical methods for regular monitoring of individual eye doses and development of better techniques to estimate eye dose from measurements at some reference points. PMID:24262928

  19. 3D-Printing in Congenital Cardiology: From Flatland to Spaceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Deferm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging has changed to a great extent over the past few decades. It has been revolutionized by three-dimensional (3D imaging techniques. Despite much of modern medicine relying on 3D imaging, which can be obtained accurately, we keep on being limited by visualization of the 3D content on two-dimensional flat screens. 3D-printing of graspable models could become a feasible technique to overcome this gap. Therefore, we printed pre- and postoperative 3D-models of a complex congenital heart defect. With this example, we intend to illustrate that these models hold value in preoperative planning, postoperative evaluation of a complex procedure, communication with the patient, and education of trainees. At this moment, 3D printing only leaves a small footprint, but makes already a big impression in the domain of cardiology and cardiovascular surgery. Further studies including more patients and more validated applications are needed to streamline 3D printing in the clinical setting of daily practice.

  20. 3D-Printing in Congenital Cardiology: From Flatland to Spaceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferm, Sébastien; Meyns, Bart; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Budts, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging has changed to a great extent over the past few decades. It has been revolutionized by three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques. Despite much of modern medicine relying on 3D imaging, which can be obtained accurately, we keep on being limited by visualization of the 3D content on two-dimensional flat screens. 3D-printing of graspable models could become a feasible technique to overcome this gap. Therefore, we printed pre- and postoperative 3D-models of a complex congenital heart defect. With this example, we intend to illustrate that these models hold value in preoperative planning, postoperative evaluation of a complex procedure, communication with the patient, and education of trainees. At this moment, 3D printing only leaves a small footprint, but makes already a big impression in the domain of cardiology and cardiovascular surgery. Further studies including more patients and more validated applications are needed to streamline 3D printing in the clinical setting of daily practice. PMID:27195174

  1. Combined cardiological and neurological abnormalities due to filamin A gene mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Marie Claire Y.; de Coo, Irenaeus F. M.; Lequin, Maarten H.; Halley, Dicky J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiac defects can be the presenting symptom in patients with mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA. Dysfunction of this gene is associated with cardiac abnormalities, especially in the left ventricular outflow tract, but can also cause a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex. We noticed that some patients diagnosed at the neurogenetics clinic had first presented to a cardiologist, suggesting that earlier recognition may be possible if the diagnosis is suspected. Methods and results From the Erasmus MC cerebral malformations database 24 patients were identified with cerebral bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) without other cerebral cortical malformations. In six of these patients, a pathogenic mutation in FLNA was present. In five a cardiac defect was also found in the outflow tract. Four had presented to a cardiologist before the cerebral abnormalities were diagnosed. Conclusions The cardiological phenotype typically consists of aortic or mitral regurgitation, coarctation of the aorta or other left-sided cardiac malformations. Most patients in this category will not have a FLNA mutation, but the presence of neurological complaints, hyperlaxity of the skin or joints and/or a family history with similar cardiac or neurological problems in a possibly X-linked pattern may alert the clinician to the possibility of a FLNA mutation. PMID:20730588

  2. Can nurses in cardiology areas prepare patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator implant and life at home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagney, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    This study explored nurses' confidence and competence in preparing patients for having an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implanted and for life at home after discharge. Whilst research has identified various physical and psychosocial effects to patients and their partners associated with device implant and subsequent lifestyle adjustments, no research has explored nurses' knowledge of the device or these effects. A survey was designed using a purposive sample of 152 nurses from cardiology areas in four large teaching hospitals and a 28-point postal questionnaire to explore knowledge of the device and its impact. Most subjects were not confident in their abilities to prepare patients for implant or life at home after implant. Knowledge of the device and its effects appeared poorly understood by all nurses, irrespective of additional qualifications, length of time since qualifying or area of work. Many participants were aware of the poor knowledge level of nurses and identified it as a weakness in current care practices. Lack of understanding may impair preparation of patients for implantation of or for living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and feasible strategies to change this situation will require careful consideration and further investment. PMID:15152752

  3. The foundation and launch of the Melbourne Interventional Group: a collaborative interventional cardiology project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, A E; Szto, G; Duffy, S J; Eccleston, D; Clark, D J; Lefkovits, J; Chew, D P; Warren, R; Black, A; New, G; Walton, A; Lew, R; Shaw, J; Horrigan, M; Sebastian, M; Yan, B P; Brennan, A; Meehan, A; Reid, C; Krum, H

    2006-02-01

    The Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG) is a voluntary collaborative venture of interventional cardiologists practicing at 12 major public and private hospitals in Victoria, designed to record data pertaining to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and perform long-term follow-up. The potential advantages of collaboration involve large-scale analysis of current interventional strategies (e.g. drug-eluting stents, evaluation of new technologies and cost-effective analysis), provide a basis for multi-centred clinical trials and allow comparison of clinical outcomes with cardiac surgery. The established registry documents demographic, clinical and procedural characteristics of consecutive patients undergoing PCI and permits analysis of those characteristics at 30 days and 12 months. The registry is co-ordinated by the Centre of Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), a research body within the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (Monash University, Melbourne). The eventual goal of MIG is to provide a contemporary appraisal of Australian interventional cardiology practice, with opportunities to improve in-hospital and long-term outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:16473790

  4. Length of Hospital Stay Prediction at the Admission Stage for Cardiology Patients Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Fang (Jennifer Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For hospitals’ admission management, the ability to predict length of stay (LOS as early as in the preadmission stage might be helpful to monitor the quality of inpatient care. This study is to develop artificial neural network (ANN models to predict LOS for inpatients with one of the three primary diagnoses: coronary atherosclerosis (CAS, heart failure (HF, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI in a cardiovascular unit in a Christian hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 2,377 cardiology patients discharged between October 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011, were analyzed. Using ANN or linear regression model was able to predict correctly for 88.07% to 89.95% CAS patients at the predischarge stage and for 88.31% to 91.53% at the preadmission stage. For AMI or HF patients, the accuracy ranged from 64.12% to 66.78% at the predischarge stage and 63.69% to 67.47% at the preadmission stage when a tolerance of 2 days was allowed.

  5. Overcoming a perfect storm: an academic cardiology section's story of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, James E

    2007-03-01

    Increasingly, academic institutions are grappling with financial pressures that threaten the academic mission. The author presents an actual case history in which a section of cardiology in an academic health center was confronted with huge projected deficits that had to be eliminated within the fiscal year. The section used eight principles to shift from deficit to profitability (i.e., having revenue exceed costs). These principles included confronting the brutal facts, managing costs and revenue cycles, setting expectations for faculty, and quality improvement. The section accomplished deficit reduction through reducing faculty salaries (nearly $2 million) and nonfaculty salaries ($1.3 million) and reducing operational costs while maintaining revenues by increasing individual faculty productivity and reducing accounts receivable. In the face of these reductions, clinical revenues were maintained, but research revenue and productivity fell (but research is being fostered now that clinical services are profitable again). These principles can be used to stabilize the financial position of clinical practices in academic settings that are facing financial challenges. PMID:17327712

  6. [Personalized therapy in cardiology. Biomarkers, pharmacogenetics and therapy of monogenic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenhagen, T; Blankenberg, S

    2013-02-01

    Improved therapy and prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases have contributed to an increase in life expectancy like no other field of medicine. However, many cardiological diseases remain untreatable and standard therapies often work only in a minority of patients or cause more harm than benefit. Personalized approaches appear to be a promising solution. Monogenic heart diseases are paradigmatic for this approach and can in rare cases be treated mutation specifically. Overall, however, success remains limited. Next generation sequencing will facilitate the identification of mutations causing diseases. Cell culture models based on induced pluripotent stem cells open the perspective of individualized testing of disease severity and pharmacological or genetic therapy. In contrast to monogenic diseases genetic testing plays no practical role yet in the management of multifactorial cardiovascular diseases. Biomarkers can identify individuals with increased cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, biomarker-guided therapy represents an attractive option with troponin-guided therapy of acute coronary syndromes as a successful example. Individual responses to drugs vary and are partly determined by genes. Simple genetic analyses can improve response prediction and minimize side effects in cases such as warfarin and high doses of simvastatin. Taken together personalized approaches will gain importance in the cardiovascular field but this requires the development of better methods and research that quantifies the true value of the new knowledge. PMID:23371262

  7. A practical method for skin dose estimation in interventional cardiology based on fluorographic DICOM information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lucy; Dixon, Matthew; Rowles, Nick; Stevens, Greg

    2016-03-01

    A practical method for skin dose estimation for interventional cardiology patients has been developed to inform pre-procedure planning and post-procedure patient management. Absorbed dose to the patient skin for certain interventional radiology procedures can exceed thresholds for deterministic skin injury, requiring documentation within the patient notes and appropriate patient follow-up. The primary objective was to reduce uncertainty associated with current methods, particularly surrounding field overlap. This was achieved by considering rectangular field geometry incident on a spherical patient model in a polar coordinate system. The angular size of each field was quantified at surface of the sphere, i.e. the skin surface. Computer-assisted design software enabled the modelling of a sufficient dataset that was subsequently validated with radiochromic film. Modelled overlap was found to agree with overlap measured using film to within 2.2° ± 2.0°, showing that the overall error associated with the model was < 1 %. Mathematical comparison against exposure data extracted from procedural Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine files was used to generate a graphical skin dose map, demonstrating the dose distribution over a sphere centred at the interventional reference point. Dosimetric accuracy of the software was measured as between 3.5 and 17 % for different variables. PMID:25994848

  8. Use of active personal dosemeters in interventional radiology and cardiology: Tests in hospitals – ORAMED project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although active personal dosemeters (APDs) are not used quite often in hospital environments, the possibility to assess the dose and/or dose rate in real time is particularly interesting in interventional radiology and cardiology (IR/IC) since operators can receive relatively high doses while standing close to the primary radiation field. A study concerning the optimization of the use of APDs in IR/IC was performed in the framework of the ORAMED project, a Collaborative Project (2008–2011) supported by the European Commission within its 7th Framework Program. This paper reports on tests performed with APDs on phantoms using an X-ray facility in a hospital environment and APDs worn by interventionalists during routine practice in different European hospitals. The behaviour of the APDs is more satisfactory in hospitals than in laboratories with respect to the influence of the tube peak high voltage and pulse width, because the APDs are tested in scattered fields with dose equivalent rates generally lower than 1 Sv.h−1. .

  9. Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric interventional cardiology systems. A national survey in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in all five X-ray fluoroscopy systems used for interventional cardiology procedures existing in Chile have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object (TO) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient thicknesses (4-16 cm of PMMA). Images from fluoroscopy (low (FL), medium and high) and cine (CI) modes have been archived in DICOM format. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), figure of merit (FOM) and high-contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) have been computed from the images. The ratio between the maximum and the minimum value of ESAK per frame for a given fluoroscopy mode between the five systems ranges from 2 to 5 and from 14 to 38 for CI mode. SNR, FOM and HCSR showed a great variability for the different acquisition modes (AMs) and PMMA thickness. In the near future, it is urgent to upgrade Chilean legislation on radiation protection to incorporate quality assurance programmes that will allow us to evaluate and optimise the X-ray systems used in medical applications. Increments in doses per frame when increasing phantom thickness and when used CI runs instead of FL runs can be considered by the cardiologist in the good management of patient dose and allow them to select the best imaging AM during clinical procedures. (authors)

  10. [The cardiology community and health reform. Some reflections to open a debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, C

    2000-01-01

    A recently introduced health care reform in Italy will modify substantially the scenario in which all physicians and also the cardiac specialists working in and out of the hospitals will operate. Therefore it is important that the cardiological community, who manages a large proportion of human and financial resources of the Italian National Health Service, knows the reform and interacts with the national and local authorities for the best implementation of the basic principles on which the reform has been founded. These principles are the following: the Italian health service will guarantee all citizens the so-called "essential levels of care" identified in accordance with four distinctive features. They must: 1) safeguard real needs of care (i.e. cosmetic surgery is not considered), 2) be evidence based, 3) be appropriate for individual patients, 4) be cost-effective. In a context of scarce resources and rapidly increasing demand of care this basic strategy seems to be the only one suitable for a National Health Service, but the application of this principle in the real world of care seems a very difficult task, and the role of medical associations is obviously crucial for a good outcome. This report illustrates some articles of the law that deal with the medical profession: guidelines and appropriateness of the criteria; accreditation, clinical competence and quality control; continuing medical education. PMID:10832116

  11. Estimation of staff lens doses during interventional procedures. Comparing cardiology, neuroradiology and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E; Sanchez, R M; Fernandez, J M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate lens doses using over apron active personal dosemeters in interventional catheterisation laboratories (cardiology IC, neuroradiology IN and radiology IR) and to investigate correlations between occupational lens doses and patient doses. Active electronic personal dosemeters placed over the lead apron were used on a sample of 204 IC procedures, 274 IN and 220 IR (all performed at the same university hospital). Patient dose values (kerma area product) were also recorded to evaluate correlations with occupational doses. Operators used the ceiling-suspended screen in most cases. The median and third quartile values of equivalent dose Hp(10) per procedure measured over the apron for IC, IN and IR resulted, respectively, in 21/67, 19/44 and 24/54 µSv. Patient dose values (median/third quartile) were 75/128, 83/176 and 61/159 Gy cm(2), respectively. The median ratios for dosemeters worn over the apron by operators (protected by the ceiling-suspended screen) and patient doses were 0.36; 0.21 and 0.46 µSv Gy(-1) cm(-2), respectively. With the conservative approach used (lens doses estimated from the over apron chest dosemeter) we came to the conclusion that more than 800 procedures y(-1) and per operator were necessary to reach the new lens dose limit for the three interventional specialties. PMID:25848117

  12. The billing process at a teaching hospital specialized in cardiology and pulmonology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Favaro Faria Guerrer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this exploratory study was to describe and map out the billing process in a public tertiary-level university hospital specialized in cardiology and pulmonology. In the period between May and June of 2012, we identified and documented the steps in the process validated by the professionals involved in the hospital bill audit service. We found that during billing pre-analysis, auditors make corrections to justify the billing of procedures and to avoid unwarranted billing and loss of revenue. Mapping out the process allowed us to propose strategies to minimize the time for presenting bills to payment sources. By bringing visibility to this process, which is fundamental for the economic-financial balance of the studied hospital, we bring such knowledge to the public domain. Thus, it is accessible to other health organizations that wish to increment their revenue and reduce divergences between patient charts and the patient’s hospital bill. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i3.23487.

  13. CHANGES OF INTERCELLULAR COOPERATION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN TREATED PATIENTS WITH CARDIOLOGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Korichkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes of intercellular cooperation in peripheral blood induced by treatment in patients with arterial hypertension (HT, ischemic heart disease (IHD and chronic heart failure (CHF.Material and methods. 610 patients were involved into the study, including 250 patients with HT of stages I-III (50 untreated patients, 150 patients with IHD and 210 patients with CHF of stages I-III. All patients were treated except 50 hypertensive ones. 80 healthy patients (40 men, 40 women were included into control group. Blood smears of patients were evaluated (Romanovsky's stain. A number of leukocyte, autorosettes and autorosettes with erythrocyte lysis was calculated. The cellular association consisting of a neutrophil, monocyte or eosinocyte with 3 or more erythrocytes skintight to their surface defined as autorosettes. Erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level determined in peripheral blood.Results. Single autorosettes in peripheral blood were observed in patients of control group and in untreated patients with HT. Treated patients with HT, IHD and CHF had increased number of autorossets and autorosettes with erythrocytes lysis. This phenomenon resulted in reduction of erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level in peripheral blood.Conclusion. Treated patients with cardiologic diseases had changes in intercellular cooperation. It should be considered at intensive and long term therapy.

  14. Eye dosimetry in interventional radiology and cardiology: current challenges and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology and cardiology are areas with high potential for risk to eye lens. Accurate assessment of eye dose is one of the most important aspects of correlating doses with observed lens opacities among workers in interventional suites and ascertaining compliance with regulatory limits. The purpose of this paper is to review current approaches and opportunities in eye dosimetry and assess challenges in particular in accuracy and practicality. The possible approaches include practical dosimetry using passive dosemeters or active dosemeters with obvious advantage of active dosimetry. When neither of these is available, other approaches are based on either retrospective dose assessment using scatter radiation dose levels or correlations between patient dose indices and eye doses to the operators. In spite of all uncertainties and variations, estimation of eye dose from patient dose can be accepted as a compromise. Future challenges include development of practical methods for regular monitoring of individual eye doses and development of better techniques to estimate eye dose from measurements at some reference points. (authors)

  15. 3D-Printing in Congenital Cardiology: From Flatland to Spaceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferm, Sébastien; Meyns, Bart; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Budts, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging has changed to a great extent over the past few decades. It has been revolutionized by three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques. Despite much of modern medicine relying on 3D imaging, which can be obtained accurately, we keep on being limited by visualization of the 3D content on two-dimensional flat screens. 3D-printing of graspable models could become a feasible technique to overcome this gap. Therefore, we printed pre- and postoperative 3D-models of a complex congenital heart defect. With this example, we intend to illustrate that these models hold value in preoperative planning, postoperative evaluation of a complex procedure, communication with the patient, and education of trainees. At this moment, 3D printing only leaves a small footprint, but makes already a big impression in the domain of cardiology and cardiovascular surgery. Further studies including more patients and more validated applications are needed to streamline 3D printing in the clinical setting of daily practice. PMID:27195174

  16. Contributions of nuclear cardiology to prognosis and risk stratification in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and stable symptoms enables not only accurate diagnosis of disease but also entails prognostic value. Myocardial perfusion SPECT contributes to assessment of future cardiac events independently of other clinical parameters. A normal stress myocardial perfusion scan is associated with a favorable prognosis in all pre-test risk subsets similar to that of the general population independent of history, symptoms, and exercise electrocardiography test variables. Cardiac risk and benefit from invasive therapeutic strategies increase in relation to the severity of the abnormality of perfusion and function assessed by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Thus, stress myocardial perfusion imaging may serve as a gatekeeper for referral to coronary angiography enabling effective risk stratification in patients with suspected or documented coronary artery disease. In severe coronary artery disease accompanied by left ventricular dysfunction preoperative prediction of reversibility of functional impairment and improvement in survival after revascularization can be achieved by viability testing using nuclear cardiology. Absence of viability is associated with no significant difference in functional and survival outcomes, irrespective of treatment strategy. Therefore, unnecessary revascularization can be avoided in cases with absent evidence of viability. (orig.)

  17. Eine studentische Wiki-Bibliothek für unterrichtsbegleitende Materialien: Konzeption, Implementierung und Evaluation für das Medizinische Curriculum München (MeCuM [A student-driven wiki-library for educational materials: Concept, implementation, and evaluation for the Medical Curriculum Munich (MeCuM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Problem: The new study regulation for medical licensing in Germany has caused significant reform of the medical curricula. At Munich University (LMU, the Medical Curriculum Munich (MeCuM was introduced in 2004. More individual responsibility of the students regarding their academic goals as well as a problem-oriented thought process are essential features of the new curriculum. Through our project, an open web based platform for the design of curriculum-specific teaching and study material has become accessible to students and faculty of the MeCuM. Methods: Students created an online library in harmony with the curricular structure of the MeCuM. The technical implementation was carried out with the MediaWiki-Open-Source software. Contents can be edited from all students or faculty of the MeCuM in an anonymous or personalized manner. An online questionnaire was carried out to evaluate the project. Results: Our online library as a wiki is the first solution of this kind in medical education in Germany. The concept was implemented without technical difficulties and is linked to the official websites of LMU Munich. The website’s contents were visited 417,808 times from December 2005 through June 2007. Online-based evaluation showed that the project is positively recognized, and students are motivated to contribute actively. Discussion: The project closely reflects the academic curriculum of the MeCuM and creates additional opportunities for interaction between students and teachers. The design as an open source project allows easy handling as well as frequent control and ability to update the contents, but integrity and accuracy of the data content require further effort. Additional evaluation will be essential for improvements. The integration of faculty as reviewers and tutors is planned. Sustainability of the project is dependent upon continued student leadership. The concept of the project has been transferred to another medical

  18. Privacy Laws and Biobanking in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Nils

    2016-03-01

    While the possibility of enacting a sui generis Biobank Act has been debated in Germany at great length, as of yet the country has not implemented any biobankspecific legislation. Instead, oversight is available via a network of research and privacy laws, including those of the European Union. The Nationale Kohorte, Germany's large-scale, population-based epidemiological research biobank, is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and there are currently 108 registered bio-banks throughout Germany. The current system, including the structure and study design of the Nationale Kohorte, privileges the protection of personal information even at the cost of socially desirable research; it remains to be seen if forthcoming legislation will shift this balance. PMID:27256122

  19. Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

  20. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  2. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  3. [Migration in Germany: 1945-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R; Ulrich, R

    1998-01-01

    "The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyze six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (¿Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East- and West Germany, foreign labor migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration, the chances on the labor market, and the opportunities for social integration were remarkably different for each of these groups. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348943

  4. A Portrait of Child Poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    CORAK, MILES; Fertig, Michael; Tamm, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a descriptive portrait of income poverty among children in Germany between the early 1980s and 2001, with a focus on developments since unification in 1991. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel are used to estimate poverty rates, rates of entry to and exit from poverty, and the duration of time spent in and out of poverty. The analysis focuses upon comparisons between East and West Germany, by family structure, and citizenship status. Child poverty rates have drifted up...

  5. Overall measurements of dose to patients in common interventional cardiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to measure peak skin dose (PSD), dose-area product (DAP), cumulative dose (CD) and fluoroscopy time (FT) for interventional cardiology procedures and to evaluate whether patient doses were higher than that in other published data. Three cardiac procedure types, including coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and radio frequency (RF) ablation, were entered into the study. Data of four special metrics (PSD, DAP, CD and FT) for these procedures were collected and measured. A total of 238 patients who underwent interventional radiology procedures participated in this study. For every procedure, data about PSD were resulted from six TLD arrays and DAP, CD and FT were collected from the displayed monitor. The mean, standard deviation (SD), range and third quartile of the distribution of PSD, DAP, CD and FT recorded and measured on spot were calculated for all procedures. High-dose cases were specifically recorded. There was wide variation in the doses observed for different instances of the same procedure. PSD for PTCA and RF ablation ranged from 0.1 Gy to more than 3 Gy. Of 238 instances, there were 22 (9.2 %) with PSDs greater than 2 Gy and 4 (1.7 %) than 3 Gy. The third quartile of the distribution for PTCA had exceeded the DIMOND preliminary reference levels by 41.1 % in DAP and 25.0 % in FT. Mean DAP was in the range of reported values for CAG procedure, but higher than all data obtained in literatures for PTCA. Data from this study are in the range of most reported values for CAG and RF ablation procedure, while higher than that obtained in some literatures for PTCA. In case of a constant delivering of high doses to patient and physician himself, thorough training of interventionalists and staff is necessary, and the legislation has to be revised and set dose constrains especially for the interventional high-dose procedures. (authors)

  6. Emergency Surgery after Failed Percutaneous Transmitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology (AFIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of emergency after PTMC. Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology (AFIC) Rawalpindi from January 2005 to June 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12 patients (2.3 percent) out of 523 who underwent PTMC and developed significant mitral regurgitation (MR) or cardiac tamponade (CT) was examined to analyze the outcome of emergency surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to select patients of MS with minimal calcification and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used to rule out left atrial (LA) clot. Inuoe balloon was used in all cases for PTMC. Results: Out of twelve who presented for surgery after failed PTMC, 9(75 percent) had significant MR and 3(25 percent) had CT. Majority of patients were female (83.3 percent) with mean age of 30.9+-5.12 years. In patients with MR, anterior mitral leaflet (AML) tear was found in 8(66.7 percent) and posterior mitral leaflet tear in 1(8.3 percent). LA clot was found in 1(8.3 percent) patient who caused cerebral infarction. All patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR) with prosthetic valve on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Two patients (16.7 percent) died; one because of cerebral infarction and one due to low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS). Conclusion: With increasing experience of PTMC the magnitude of failure cases is decreasing as was seen in our case in which failed percentage was just 2.3 percent. Moreover, percentage of success of emergency surgery was good i.e. 83.3 percent. In case of failure a well coordinated effort between cardiologist and surgical team can prevent mortality significantly. (author)

  7. Fetal cardiology: changing the definition of critical heart disease in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodki, M; Respondek-Liberska, M; Pruetz, J D; Donofrio, M T

    2016-08-01

    Infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) may require emergent treatment in the newborn period. These infants are likely to benefit the most from a prenatal diagnosis, which allows for optimal perinatal planning. Several cardiac centers have created guidelines for the management of these high-risk patients with CHD. This paper will review and compare several prenatal CHD classification systems with a particular focus on the most critical forms of CHD in the fetus and newborn. A contemporary definition of critical CHD is one which requires urgent intervention in the first 24 h of life to prevent death. Such cardiac interventions may be not only life saving for the infant but also decrease subsequent morbidity. Critical CHD cases may require delivery at specialized centers that can provide perinatal, obstetric, cardiology and cardiothoracic surgery care. Fetuses diagnosed in mid-gestation require detailed fetal diagnostics and serial monitoring during the prenatal period, in order to assess for ongoing changes and identify progression to a more severe cardiac status. Critical CHD may progress in utero and there is still much to be learned about how to best predict those who will require urgent neonatal interventions. Despite improved therapeutic capabilities, newborns with critical CHD continue to have significant morbidity and mortality due to compromise that begins in the delivery room. Fetal echocardiography is the best way to predict the need for specialized care at birth to improve outcome. Once the diagnosis is made of critical CHD, delivery at the proper time and in appropriate institution with specific care protocols should be initiated. More work needs to be done to better delineate the risk factors for progression of critical CHD and to determine which newborns will require specialized care. The most frequently described forms of critical CHD requiring immediate intervention include hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact or severely restricted

  8. Development of a tele-stethoscope and its application in pediatric cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayioglu, F L; Mattos, S S; Moser, L; de Lima, M E

    2007-01-01

    Over the years, many attempts have been made to develop special stethoscopes for the teaching of auscultation. The objective of this article is to report on the experience with the development and implementation of an electronic stethoscope and a virtual library of cardiac sounds. There were four stages to this project: (1) the building of the prototype to acquire, filter and amplify the cardiac sounds, (2) the development of a software program to record, reproduce and visualize them, (3) the testing of the prototype in a clinical scenario, and (4) the development of an internet site, to store and display the sounds collected. The first two stages are now complete. The prototype underwent an initial evaluation in a clinical scenario within the Unit and during virtual out-patient clinical sessions. One hundred auscultations were recorded during these tests. They were reviewed and discussed on-line by a panel of experience cardiologists during the sessions. Although the sounds were considered "satisfactory" for diagnostic purposes by the cardiology team, they identified some qualitative differences in the electronic recorded auscultations, such as a higher pitch of the recorded sounds. Prospective clinical studies are now being conducted to further evaluate the interference of the electronic device in the physicians' capability to diagnose different cardiac conditions. An internet site (www.caduceusvirtual.com.br/ auscultaped) was developed to host these cardiac auscultations. It is set as a library of cardiac sounds, catalogued by pathologies and already contains examples from auscultations of the majority of common congenital heart lesions, such as septal defects and valvar lesions. PMID:17249332

  9. Imaging skills for transthoracic echocardiography in cardiology fellows: The value of motion metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montealegre-Gallegos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proficiency in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE requires an integration of cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. Whereas cognitive knowledge can be quantified, psychomotor skills are implied after repetitive task performance. We applied motion analyses to evaluate psychomotor skill acquisition during simulator-based TTE training. Methods and Results: During the first month of their fellowship training, 16 cardiology fellows underwent a multimodal TTE training program for 4 weeks (8 sessions. The program consisted of online and live didactics as well as simulator training. Kinematic metrics (path length, time, probe accelerations were obtained at the start and end of the course for 8 standard TTE views using a simulator. At the end of the course TTE image acquisition skills were tested on human models. After completion of the training program the trainees reported improved self-perceived comfort with TTE imaging. There was also an increase of 8.7% in post-test knowledge scores. There was a reduction in the number of probe accelerations [median decrease 49.5, 95% CI = 29-73, adjusted P < 0.01], total time [median decrease 10.6 s, 95% CI = 6.6-15.5, adjusted P < 0.01] and path length [median decrease 8.8 cm, 95% CI = 2.2-17.7, adjusted P < 0.01] from the start to the end of the course. During evaluation on human models, the trainees were able to obtain all the required TTE views without instructor assistance. Conclusion: Simulator-derived motion analyses can be used to objectively quantify acquisition of psychomotor skills during TTE training. Such an approach could be used to assess readiness for clinical practice of TTE.

  10. Radiation doses in flat detector digital systems in Interventional Cardiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to investigate patient radiation doses in flat detector (FD) digital X-ray systems in Interventional Cardiology procedures in three of the busiest haemodynamic departments in Greece and compare the results with the corresponding reference levels (RLs). Material and method: 569 Coronary Angiography (CA) and 571 Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasties (PTCA) were investigated since these two procedures are the most frequently performed in haemodynamic units. Patient data collected were: sex, age, weight, height, Dose Area Product (DAP), fluoroscopy time (T) and total number of frames (F). Results: Median values of DAP and F in CA were: 31.0 Gycm2 and 752 in Hospital A, 35.3 Gycm2 and 487 in Hospital B and 21.1 Gycm2 and 461 in Hospital C. Median values of DAP and F in PTCA were: 63.2 Gycm2 and 1274 in Hospital A, 90.3 Gycm2 and 974 in Hospital B and 35.6 Gycm2 and 582 in Hospital C. Concerning T, the timer in Hospital C malfunctioned, whereas in hospitals A and B examination time was 4.7 and 3.6 min for CA and 10.3 and 12.7 min for PTCA, respectively. The results reveal a noted variability between hospitals especially in PTCA. However, patient dose values are lower than RLs (45 and 85 Gycm2 in CA and PTCA respectively). Conclusions: Large variations between patient dose values and main technical parameters were revealed when using FD digital systems in Greece. Dose optimization can be greatly achieved through continuous staff education in radiation protection issues. Moreover, the standardization of IC procedures in digital flat panel systems will definitely decrease patient and staff doses. (author)

  11. How electricity was discovered and how it is related to cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo; Iturralde-Torres, Pedro; Izaguirre-Ávila, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    We relate the fundamental stages of the long road leading to the discovery of electricity and its uses in cardiology. The first observations on the electromagnetic phenomena were registered in ancient texts; many Greek and Roman writers referred to them, although they provided no explanations. The first extant treatise dates back to the XIII century and was written by Pierre de Maricourt during the siege of Lucera, Italy, by the army of Charles of Anjou, French king of Naples. There were no significant advances in the field of magnetism between the appearance of this treatise and the publication of the study De magnete magneticisque corporibus (1600) by the English physician William Gilbert. Scientists became increasingly interested in electromagnetic phenomena occurring in certain fish, i.e., the so-called electric ray that lived in the South American seas and the Torpedo fish that roamed the Mediterranean Sea. This interest increased in the 18th century, when condenser devices such as the Leyden jar were explored. It was subsequently demonstrated that the discharges produced by "electric fish" were of the same nature as those produced in this device. The famous "controversy" relating to animal electricity or electricity inherent to an animal's body also arose in the second half of the 18th century. The school of thought of the physicist Volta sustained the principle of a single electrical action generated by metallic contact. This led Volta to invent his electric pile, considered as the first wet cell battery. Toward the middle of the XIX century, the disciples of the physiologist Galvani were able to demonstrate the existence of animal electricity through experiments exploring the so-called current of injury. On the path of Volta's approach, many characteristics of electricity were detailed, which ultimately led to their usage in the industrial field. The route followed by Galvani-Nobili-Matteucci led to the successes of Waller, Einthoven, etcetera, enabling the

  12. Management of diabetes by a healthcare team in a cardiology unit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonieta P. de Moraes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of healthcare team guidance in the implementation of a glycemic control protocol in the non-intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital. METHODS: This was a randomized clinical trial comparing 9 months of intensive guidance by a healthcare team on a protocol for diabetes care (Intervention Group, n = 95 with 9 months of standard care (Control Group, n = 87. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01154413. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 61.7±10 years, and the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 71±23 mmol/mol (8.7±2.1%. The mean capillary glycemia during hospitalization was similar between the groups (9.8±2.9 and 9.1±2.4 mmol/l for the Intervention Group and Control Group, respectively, p = 0.078. The number of hypoglycemic episodes (p = 0.77, hyperglycemic episodes (47 vs. 50 in the Intervention Group and Control Group, p = 0.35, respectively, and the length of stay in the hospital were similar between the groups (p = 0.64. The amount of regular insulin administered was 0 (0-10 IU in the Intervention Group and 28 (7-56 IU in the Control Group (p<0.001, and the amount of NPH insulin administered was similar between the groups (p = 0.16. CONCLUSIONS: While guidance on a glycemic control protocol given by a healthcare team resulted in a modification of the therapeutic strategy, no changes in glycemic control, frequency of episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, or hospitalization duration were observed.

  13. Spatial and temporal overview of research in pediatric and congenital cardiology: trends and global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Martina; Kempny, Aleksander; Radke, Robert; Baumgartner, Helmut; Diller, Gerhard-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Available information on the global distribution of research output in pediatric cardiology (PC) is sparse. This study took a bibliometric approach to characterize research output, assess the level of competition, describe the geographic distribution of the leading research centers in the field, and investigate determinants of research output. In addition, the study characterized the journals publishing PC research and identified temporal trends in research interest over time. Publications presenting original research in PC between 1995 and 2011 were identified. A total of 9,410 relevant articles were identified based on a PubMed search followed by subsequent electronic filtering and manual review. A dramatic increase in PC publications was seen during the study period (from 309 in 1995 to 1,075 in 2011). This was accompanied by an increase in impact factors and an overproportional rise in PC contributions relative to the general PubMed trend. Research in PC was shown to be highly competitive and becoming increasingly so (Herfindahl-Hirschman index of 1.64%). Research output correlated with gross domestic product, national levels of corruption, education, urbanization, geography, and presence of national centers of excellence. The data presented in this report allow benchmarking of different cities and countries and provide insights into the potential determinants of high-quality publications and the spectrum of publishing journals. The report also highlights the central role of subspecialty journals and shows that PC research output is related to national wealth, surrogates of appropriate use of resources, an adequate workforce, and education. Additionally, it emphasizes the potential beneficial effects of establishing centers of excellence in the field. PMID:24584212

  14. Appropriate use criteria in clinical routine practice: implications in a nuclear cardiology lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Rovai, Ilaria; Liga, Riccardo; Pasanisi, Emilio Maria; Marzullo, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The efforts for a broad application of the appropriate use criteria to reduce inappropriate nuclear stress testing have frequently been unsuccessful and the reported rates of inappropriateness have varied widely between studies. We sought to analyze the criteria of clinical appropriateness of a cohort of consecutive patients referred to our nuclear cardiology laboratory to perform stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and to assess the relationships between test appropriateness and the evaluation of ischaemia. A cohort of 251 consecutive patients, admitted to our Institute from January to March 2015, who underwent stress/rest MPI on a dedicated cardiac camera equipped with cadmium-zinc-telluride detectors, was selected. The level of clinical appropriateness of each MPI test was categorized in each patient according to the AUC criteria. According to the accepted criteria, the majority of the MPI stress-tests could be classified as clinically appropriate (218 of 251, 87 % of the tests), while only 16 (6 %) and 17 (7 %) resulted of uncertain appropriateness or clearly inappropriate, respectively. Of the 251 appropriate tests, 22 (10 %), 65 (30 %), and 131 (60 %) showed the presence of a mild (SDS < 4), moderate (4 ≥ SDS < 7), and severe (SDS ≥ 7) ischemic burden, respectively, while none of the inappropriate test showed moderate-to-severe ischaemia (P < 0.001 for comparisons). The rate of inappropriate MPI tests is considerably low in a high-volume laboratory. Appropriate and inappropriate studies identify patients at high and low probability of significant ischemia, respectively, providing insights on the effects of the level of appropriateness on stress-test results. PMID:26961179

  15. Dose assessment during the commissioning of flat detector imaging systems for cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incident air kerma (IAK) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) have been measured for a range of copper (Cu) absorbers (1-10 mm) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slabs (12-28 cm) with kilovolt values ranging from 61 to 120 during the commissioning of an X-ray system equipped with a flat detector used in interventional cardiology procedures. Numerical parameters on image quality have also been measured for different X-ray beam qualities using the plastic wall of the ionisation chamber. When moving from 1 to 10 mm of Cu, IAK per frame increased to a factor of 38 for cine and 27 for fluoroscopy. A cine frame requires 60-116 times more IAK than a fluoroscopy frame. As for PMMA, when the backscatter factor is included (simulating real conditions with patients), and when moving from 12 to 28 cm, the increases in ESAK are 16 times for cine and 10 times for fluoroscopy. Because of the differences in X-ray beam quality for cine and fluoroscopy modes, the Cu thicknesses necessary to drive the generator to equivalent kilovolts resulted in the following values (cine and fluoroscopy, respectively): 12 cm of PMMA (1 and 1.5 mm Cu), 20 PMMA (2.5 and 3.5 mm Cu) and 28 cm PMMA (4.5 and 8.5 mm Cu). With the analysis of IAK, ESAK and image quality, one can verify the appropriate settings of the X-ray system and obtain baseline information for constancy checks and help cardiologists in the management of patient doses by knowing the dose increase factors and image quality changes when increasing patient thickness or using different C-arm projections. (authors)

  16. Single-photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging procedures are well-established diagnostic tools in clinical cardiology, providing noninvasive information about myocardial perfusion, cardiac function and metabolism. Scintigraphic parameters provide relevant information that aids in everyday clinical decision making for referring physicians. During the past two decades the clinical role of nuclear medicine procedures in cardiology has evolved significantly. At the beginning, the diagnostic role of nuclear medicine in detecting myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease has been emphasized and myocardial perfusion imaging with exercise or pharmacological stress testing is a widely accepted technique for the detection and localization of coronary artery disease. The development of Tc-99m labeled perfusion tracers permits combined myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function studies at a single testing interval. Thus, the potential advantages of simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion ad LV function have been recently outlined. Gated imaging of the perfused myocardium is a well-established technique for this purpose, with a single injection of a Tc-99m labeled perfusion tracer. Recent data have demonstrated the impact and clinical role of these studies in the diagnosis of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. The addition of functional information to perfusion data has shown to improve the detection of multi-vessel disease. Subsequently, cardiac radionuclide imaging has made significant advances in the determination of prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease, preoperative risk assessment for patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery and assessment of the efficacy of revascularization in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery or interventional procedures. A key role of myocardial perfusion imaging has been its ability to provide prognostic information in patients after acute myocardial infarction, in patients with

  17. Cardiac troponins-Translational biomarkers in cardiology: Theory and practice of cardiac troponin high-sensitivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcova, Michaela; Popelova-Lencova, Olga; Jirkovsky, Eduard; Simko, Fedor; Gersl, Vladimir; Sterba, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Tn is a unique translational biomarker in cardiology whose potential has not been diminished in the new era of high sensitive assays. cTns can be valuable markers in cardiac diseases as well as in infectious diseases and respiratory diseases. Furthermore, the role of cTns is growing in the routine evaluation of cardioxicity and in determining the efficacy/safety ratio of novel cardioprotective strategies in clinical settings. cTns can detect myocardial injury not only in a wide spectrum of laboratory animals in experimental studies in vivo, but also in isolated heart models or cardiomyocytes in vitro. The crucial issue regarding the cross-species usage of cardiac troponin investigation remains the choice of cardiac troponin testing. This review summarizes the recent proteomic data on aminoacid sequences of cTnT and cTnI in various species, as well as selected analytical characteristics of human cardiac troponin high-sensitivity assays. Due to the highly phylogenetically conserved structure of troponins, the same bioindicator can be investigated using the same method in both clinical and experimental cardiology, thus contributing to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases as well as to increased effectiveness of troponin use in clinical practice. Measuring cardiac troponins using commercially available human high-sensitivity cardiac troponin tests with convenient antibodies selected on the basis of adequate proteomic knowledge can solve many issues which would otherwise be difficult to address in clinical settings for various ethical and practical reasons. Our survey could help elaborate the practical guidelines for optimizing the choice of cTns assay in cardiology. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(2):133-148, 2016. PMID:26876101

  18. [Distance methods of cardiologic monitoring in diagnostics of high loading effects on organism of sportsman and cosmonaut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V I; Ryzhakov, N I; Tarakanov, S A; Nikitenko, A N; Rassadina, A A; Kozlenok, A V; Moroshkin, V S

    2012-01-01

    Increase of cardiovascular tension is a common thing for professional athletic training. Cardiovascular pathologies can be prevented by permanent physiological monitoring using, among others, the methods of cardiologic monitoring so far available in stationary diagnostic centers. On-line remote diagnostics during training is potent to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of sporting people's health management. In addition, RD will also enable extensive investigations of the bodily responses of individually determined training loads. The paper gives an overview of the current RM technologies. PMID:23457962

  19. Impact of Sterilisation and Strain Hardening in Drawing Process on Resistance to Electrochemical Corrosion of Wires Intended in Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przondziono J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents results of tests of impact of work hardening in cold drawing process, surface treatment and sterilisation on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel X2CrNiMo 17-12-2 intended for cardiology. Potentiodynamic tests were performed on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves in artificial plasma solution. Static uniaxial tension test made the ground for determination of strength characteristics of wires and the flow curve. Functions presenting the change of polarisation resistance according to strain applied in drawing process were selected.

  20. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  1. Fluoroquinolone Resistance and Clostridium difficile, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiß, Henning; Witte, Wolfgang; Nübel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We characterized 670 Clostridium diffi cile isolates collected from patients in 84 hospitals in Germany in 2008. PCR ribotyping showed high prevalence of ribotype 001 and restricted dissemination of ribotype 027 strains. Fluoroquinolone resistance and associated gyrase mutations were frequent in various ribotypes, but no resistance to metronidazole or vancomycin was noted.

  2. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  3. Thuringia (Germany): uranium makes Cat radiant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In eastern Germany, near Chemnitz, the closure in 1991 of the huge surface and underground uranium mines has left important contaminated surfaces which have to be rehabilitated. This paper gives a general overview of the remedial action in progress in this region and of the equipments required. (J.S.)

  4. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.;

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent of the...

  5. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  6. Status of fast reactor research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a short survey of fast reactor activities in Germany. The fast reactor activities of FZK are part of the Nuclear Safety Projects. The R and D program include neutron physical and safety calculated, and post-irradiated examination of structural materials. The key issues and tasks of the program concerned safety and transmission of minor activities and fission products. (author)

  7. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  8. France, Germany drop out of ITER race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The list of countries willing to host a multi-billion dollar fusion facility got much shorter when France and Germany effectively took themselves out of the competition, making Japan the odd-on favorite as the site for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) if it is built. This article describes the history and the possible future for the ITER

  9. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  10. Radon risks from uranium mining in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soviet mining for uranium in Germany after World War II caused widespread environmental damage and also a considerable number of lung cancers and other diseases amongst the workforce. Epidemiological studies of workers and of the general population are being set up to try to obtain information about the risks of radon exposure. (UK)

  11. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  12. Salmonella Agona Outbreak from Contaminated Aniseed, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Judith; Schrauder, Annette; Alpers, Katharina; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Prager, Rita; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Broll, Susanne; Feil, Fabian; Roggentin, Peter; Bockemühl, Jochen; Tschäpe, Helmut; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona caused by aniseed-containing herbal tea occurred from October 2002 through July 2003 among infants in Germany. Consumers should adhere strictly to brewing instructions, although in exceptional cases this precaution may not be protective, particularly when preparing tea for vulnerable age groups.

  13. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  14. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing the

  15. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  16. Macroeconomic trends and reforms in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sabbatini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the main macroeconomic developments in the German economy from national unification. Its performance is compared with that of the rest of the euro area and its largest economies. The study documents as GermanyÕs modest growth in the later 1990s was due to the restrictive impact on domestic demand coming from the deep restructuring and modernization of the production system, followed by sweeping reforms after the turn of the century. Rapid productivity increases and prolonged wage moderation, especially in industry, fuelled a large and mounting current account surplus in Germany, that compares with the deficits registered in most European countries. The study retraces the recent debate on how to correct those imbalances, recalling the arguments for and against the thesis that the countries with a current payments surplus, above all Germany, must also play an active role in fostering the adjustment of the deficit countries. A possible synthesis is proposed, based on an analysis of the formation of national income and the use of resources according to the national accounts system. The implication is that Germany may contribute to the correction of imbalances within the euro area not so much by altering the wage formation mechanism as by creating incentives for domestic investment, hence fostering employment creation, in the service sectors that are currently lagging behind the extraordinary perfomance of a number of core activities in the industry.

  17. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany. PMID:27112761

  18. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  19. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  20. Is Germany a model for managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success. PMID:10121315

  1. East Germany: Transition With Unification - Experiments and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Strauch, Rolf; von Hagen, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    East Germany remains unique among the transition economies. Soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, it became part of the Federal Republic of Germany. German Union meant the transplantation of West Germany's legal, administrative and economic infrastructure to the five new Länder. The paper traces the economic changes since 1989 and assesses the convergence between West and East Germany during the last decade. We reach three main conclusions: First, there has been significant converge...

  2. East Germany overtakes West Germany: recent trends in order-specific fertility dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R. Goldstein; Michaela Kreyenfeld

    2010-01-01

    Some 20 years after unification, the contrast between East and West Germany provides a unique natural experiment for studying the persistence of communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and the complexities of the process of fertility postponement. After unification, fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. The number of births per year fell 60 percent. The period total fertility rate (TFR) reached a low of 0.8. Since the middle of the 1...

  3. General cost analysis for scholarly communication in Germany : results of the "Houghton Report" for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, John W.; Dugall, Berndt; Bernius, Steffen; Krönung, Julia; König, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Management Summary: Conducted within the project “Economic Implications of New Models for Information Supply for Science and Research in Germany”, the Houghton Report for Germany provides a general cost and benefit analysis for scientific communication in Germany comparing different scenarios according to their specific costs and explicitly including the German National License Program (NLP). Basing on the scholarly lifecycle process model outlined by Björk (2007), the study compared the f...

  4. Hmong of Germany: Preliminary Report on the Resettlement of Lao Hmong Refugees in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tou T. Yang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the resettlement of Lao Hmong refugees in Germany since the fall of Laos in 1975. Data for this paper were collected during my two visits to the Hmong community of Gammertingen in southern Germany. Although, it has been known that there are Lao Hmong refugees living in Germany, literature about their resettlement in academic journals and the western media has been nonexistent. Therefore, information about their population, social, educational and economic status has not been available. While serving in the U.S. Army, I was fortunate to be stationed in Germany and had several opportunities to visits and interact with this isolate Hmong community. Therefore, I would like to share what little information I have gathered about this forgotten Hmong community. This paper provides a preliminary report on the resettlement process, population, social, educational and economic status of this community. Data were collected primarily through informal direct interviews with the head of household from four families of the original five families that resettled in Germany. As of the writing of this paper, there is no other known Hmong community in Germany other than this Gammertingen Hmong community.

  5. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  6. Baron von Zach's business relations with the Munich entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider (German Title: Geschäftsbeziehungen des Barons von Zach zu dem Münchner Unternehmer Joseph von Utzschneider)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ivo

    The relationship between the astronomer von Zach on the one side and the entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider and his partner Georg von Reichenbach on the other dates presumably from the year 1807 when Zach spent two months in Munich. Already in the same year Zach had ordered an instrument for himself and began to solicit business for the institute of Reichenbach, Utzschneider, and Liebherr, which was founded in 1804. One of the clients canvassed by Zach was the director of the observatory in Naples Zuccari. Zuccari had ordered the whole equipment for the new observatory from this institute in 1813. The instruments for Naples, which were completed in 1814, were sent accompanied by Reichenbach by land and sea to their destination where Reichenbach supervised their setup. At that time Reichenbach had separated from Utzschneider who kept the optical institute in Benediktbeuern with his new partner Joseph von Fraunhofer whereas Reichenbach became owner of the mathematical-mechanical institute in Munich. For personal and economical reasons Utzschneider began soon after to produce not only optical glass but also optical devices similar to those offered by Reichenbach. As soon as two institutes in Munich competed against each other on the market for sophisticated geodetical and astronomical instruments Zach sided with Utzschneider. Zach's main professional argument for this decision was that both competitors got the optical glass for their instruments from Utzschneider's optical institute in Benediktbeuern. This meant that Utzschneider had first choice and so the optical part of his instruments could be considered as better than that of Reichenbach`s instruments. Zach's role as an agent in Italy and France for the sale of products coming from Utzschneider's manufactories is highlighted by three of Zach's letters to Utzschneider from 1817 and 1818, two of which are reproduced here for the first time.

  7. Pediatric cardiology. Clinical and practical experiences with heart diseases of children, juveniles and young adults; Kinderkardiologie. Klinik und Praxis der Herzerkrankungen bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Nikolaus A. [Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany). Klinik fuer angeborene Herzfehler; Kleideiter, Ulrich [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Coesfeld (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The book on pediatric cardiology covers the following chapters: (I) Fundamentals and diagnostics: pediatric cardiologic anamnesis, electrocardiograms, thorax X-radiography, MRT and CT of the heart, nuclear medical diagnostics, exercise tests, heart catheter examination, electrophysiological tests. (II) Leading symptoms: Cyanosis, cardiac murmur, thorax pain, palpitation, syncopes. (III) Disease pictures: congenital heart defects, acquired heart defects, cardiomyopathies, heart rhythm disturbances, heart insufficiency, arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, other heart involving syndromes. (IV) Therapy: Catheter interventional therapy, post-surgical pediatric cardiac therapy, surgery involving the life-support machine, mechanical cardiovascular support systems, initial treatment of newborns with critical heart defects, heart transplantation, vaccination of children with heart diseases, medicinal therapy.

  8. Patient Dose Values during Interventional Cardiology Examinations in Yazd Hospitals, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verginia Tsapaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The number of interventional cardiology (IC procedures has increased rapidly. Coronary angiography (CA and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA are now widely performed as a matter of routine and they are considered safe procedures for experienced cardiologists. However, it is also known that these procedures are associated with high radiation doses due to long fluoroscopy time (T, and large number of cineradiography frames (F. These levels of radiation may even lead to radiation skin injuries under certain conditions. "nPatients and Methods: A detailed study of radiation doses received by 168 patients who underwent CA, and 84 patients who underwent PTCA using 3 angiography x-ray systems in two hospitals of Yazd-Iran is presented. An air kerma-area product (KAP meter was used for patient dosimetry. KAP, fluoroscopy time and total number cine frames for CA and PTCA procedures were recorded for each patient. "nResults: Mean ± SD of KAP in CA and PTCA were 33 Gy.cm2 ± 18.8 Gy.cm2 and 80.3 Gy.cm2 ± 65.6 Gy.cm2, respectively. The comparison showed that CA KAP (33Gy.cm2, fluoroscopy time (2.7±2.4min, and cine frames number (571±149 except of on case, were lower than (P<0.001 the results of other studies and mean KAP due to PTCA procedures, except for three cases, were not significantly different from the other references' results. "nConclusion: The high-level expert cardiologists could not have a significant effect on the decrease of patient dose since they should also teach angiography examinations to medicine students. With increasing patient BMI the value of KAP increased, but the fluoroscopy time and cine frames number did not change significantly. In addition, the results showed that the use of flat panel detector was not sufficient for decreasing patient dose and the system's adjustment was more important.

  9. Dose assessment with radiochromic film in interventional cardiology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional Cardiology (IC) is considered a practice with important benefits but also with the potential of high radiation doses (and radiation injuries) for patients and staff. Dosimetric data for this practice are still scarce in Latin America (LA). Radiation protection (RP) training for interventionalists and support of Medical Physicists are also scarce in the Region. The IAEA has promoted a large scale programme on RP of Patients in Medical Exposures (RLA/9/057) including as one of the objectives the avoidance of radio-injuries in interventional radiology. This paper presents the methodology of the project including the use of radiochromic films during IC procedures in a sample of LA centres. Skin dose distributions and peak skin dose have been measured with radiochromic films. These films have a dynamic range of 0.1 to 15 Gy. Films were positioned over the table and below the patient and the mattress. Manufacturer includes a calibration strip with each set of films. This standard strip allows to estimate the doses through comparing the optical densities of the strip and the film used during the clinical procedures. Results from 8 Centres in LA have been obtained for Coronary Angiography (CA), Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA), and combined PTCA+CA. In 54.6% of the procedures, one or more factors that could enhance the risk of skin lesions were identified. For PTCA the measured peak skin doses are higher than during CA. When procedures are combined (CA+PTCA), in almost all the cases, the maximum doses are higher than 1 Gy (but the sample of the procedures was not selected at random). We conclude that procedures with CA+PTCA with large fluoroscopy time or large number of cine frames, carried out on patients with large body mass index, are the target group to investigate the risk of skin injuries. It is difficult to propose trigger levels for these parameters considering the lack of direct relation with the real peak skin dose, but 60

  10. Fluoroscopy time - an overestimated factor for patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to analyze the effects of an optimized fluoroscopy time on patient radiation exposure in the course of coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PTCA), in comparison to those with consistent collimation to the region of interest (ROI). Furthermore, to analyze efforts concerning reduction of radiographic frames as well as concerning adequate instead of best possible image quality. Material and methods: for 3,115 elective CAs and 1,713 PTCA performed by one interventionist since 1997, we documented the radiographic dose-area products (DAPR) and fluoroscopic dose-area products (DAPF), the number of radiographic frames and the fluoroscopy times during selected 2-month intervals. Under conditions of constant image intensifier entrance dose, levels of DAPR/frame and DAPF/s represent valid parameters for consistent collimation. Results: in 1997, the mean baseline values of DAP for elective CA and PTCA amounted to 37.1 and 31.6 Gy x cm2, respectively. A reduction of mean fluoroscopy times from 264 to 126 seconds for CA and from 630 to 449 seconds for PCI, both resulted in an overall DAP-reduction of merely 20%. Optimization of mean radiographic frames from 543 to 98 for CA and from 245 to 142 for PTCA enabled reductions of 53 and 13%, respectively. By restriction to adequate instead of best-possible image quality for coronary angiography in clinical routine, we achieved an optimized radiographic DAP/frame of 30.3 to 13.3 mGy x cm2, which enabled a 45% reduction of overall DAP. Most efficient however was a consistent collimation to the ROI, which resulted in a remarkable radiation reduction by 46% for CA and by 65% for PTCA. Conclusions: radiation-reducing educational efforts in the clinical routine of invasive cardiology should - against widely held opinion - focus less exclusively toward a reduction of fluoroscopy time but more efficiently toward consistent collimation to the region of interest, reduction of radiographic frames and

  11. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koelen Jurrijn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65. The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement. Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders. The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more

  12. "When are you seeing my patient?"--an analysis of the cardiology consultation service in a teaching hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, E

    2010-05-01

    The provision of an efficient consultation service is essential to the efficient functioning of any hospital. Surprisingly little is known about this activity. We present the first reported evaluation of a cardiology consultation service in an attempt to determine the characteristics, efficiency and workload implications of such a service. We performed an audit of the in-patient cardiology consultation service over a four week period. During this period, 125 consultations were seen, of which 85 (68%) were requested by medical specialties. Consultations were seen in a timely fashion, with 76 (61%) being seen on the same day that the request was received. The most common problem was chest pain, (49 patients; 38%) which was felt to be of cardiac origin in only a minority (20; 40%) of cases. Consultations had significant resource implications for our department, with 35 (28%) procedures being performed, 25 (20%) patients\\' care being taken over, and a further 27 (21.6%) new out-patient referrals generated. Our results indicate that the consultation service considered was efficiently delivered but contributed significantly to the department\\'s workload. The most frequent consultation request was for chest pain that was often non-cardiac in nature.

  13. Eye lens dosimetry in interventional cardiology: Results of staff dose measurements and link to patient dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers involved in interventional cardiology procedures receive high eye lens dose if protection is not used. Currently, there is no suitable method for routine use for the measurement of eye dose. Since most angiography machines are equipped with suitable patient dosemeters, deriving factors linking staff eye doses to the patient doses can be helpful. In this study the patient kerma-area product, cumulative dose at an interventional reference point and eye dose in terms of Hp(3) of the cardiologists, nurses and radiographers for interventional cardiology procedures have been measured. Correlations between the patient dose and the staff eye dose were obtained. The mean eye dose was 121 mSv for the first operator, 33 mSv for the second operator/nurse and 12 mSv for radiographer. Normalised eye lens doses per unit kerma-area product were 0.94 mSv Gy-1 cm-2 for the first operator, 0.33 mSv Gy-1 cm-2 for the second operator/nurse and 0.16 mSv Gy-1 cm-2 for radiographers. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a weak but significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the eye dose and the kerma-area product for all three staff categories. These values are based on a local practice and may provide useful reference for other studies for validation and for wider utilisation in assessing the eye dose using patient dose values. (authors)

  14. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  15. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy 2008 in Germany. Results of the fourth query

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The working group Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine in cooperation with the working group Nuclear Cardiology of the German Cardiac Society herewith present the results of the 4th survey on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) of the year 2008. Method: 310 questionnaires (191 private practices (PP), 93 hospitals (HO), 31 university hospitals (UH)) were evaluated. Results: MPS of 98 947 patients were reported. 15% of them were younger than 50 y, 57% between 50 and 70 y and 28% older than 70 y. 88% [2007: 83%] of all were studied with Tc-99m perfusion tracers. The patient radiation exposure of a stress and rest protocol considering German standard recommended doses was 8.5 mSv, of a stress-only protocol 1.9 mSv. 77% [2007: 76%] of the MPS were performed in PP, 15% [2007: 15%] in HO and 8% [2007: 9%] in UH. From 2005 to 2008 there was a mild increase in the MPS numbers by 1.2% (PP +7.1%, HO -5.5%, UH -31.4%). The type of stress was pharmacological in 30% [2007: 27%]; 68% adenosine (of these 22% with exercise), 29% dipyridamole (of these 64% with exercise), and <1% dobutamine. Gated SPECT was performed in 46% [2007: 47%] of all rest and in 42% [2007: 44%] of all stress MPS. 62% [2007: 61%] of all institutions did not use perfusion scores. Conclusion: The MPS numbers from 2005 to 2008 in Germany can be regarded as stable. However, there are considerable shifts from HO and UH to PP. The well known potential of MPS considering risk stratification and functional analysis has not been tapped so far. Both gated SPECT and a quantitative perfusion analysis should be performed routinely in every patient.

  16. Stress Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: A New Topic in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitun, Sara; Castiglione Morelli, Margherita; Budaj, Irilda; Boccalini, Sara; Galletto Pregliasco, Athena; Valbusa, Alberto; Cademartiri, Filippo; Ferro, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Since its introduction about 15 years ago, coronary computed tomography angiography has become today the most accurate clinical instrument for noninvasive assessment of coronary atherosclerosis. Important technical developments have led to a continuous stream of new clinical applications together with a significant reduction in radiation dose exposure. Latest generation computed tomography scanners (≥ 64 slices) allow the possibility of performing static or dynamic perfusion imaging during stress by using coronary vasodilator agents (adenosine, dipyridamole, or regadenoson), combining both functional and anatomical information in the same examination. In this article, the emerging role and state-of-the-art of myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging are reviewed and are illustrated by clinical cases from our experience with a second-generation dual-source 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens; Erlangen, Germany). Technical aspects, data analysis, diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose and future prospects are reviewed. PMID:26774540

  17. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut. PMID:27281981

  18. Safe Operation of Research Reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, experience was gained in the field of safe operation of research reactors during the last five decades. In this time, in total 46 research reactors were built and operated safely. Concerning the design, there is, or has been, a very broad range of different types of research reactors. The variety of facilities includes large pool or tank reactors with a thermal power of several tens of megawatt as well as small educational reactors with a negligible thermal power and critical assemblies. At present, 8 research reactors are still in operation. The other facilities are permanently shutdown, in decommissioning or have already been dismantled completely and released from regulatory control. In this paper, four selected facilities still being operated are presented as examples for safe operation of research reactors in Germany, including especially a description of the safety reviews and safety upgrades for the older facilities. (author)

  19. Germany: National approach to ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Accidents have led to fundamental changes in the usage of nuclear power in Germany. On August 1, 2011, an amendment of the German Atomic Energy Act came into force. It consists basically of an accelerated step-by-step phase-out until 2022. Eight older NPPs were shut down immediately. The remaining NPP will be stepwise shut down so that the last one will stop commercial operation at the end of 2022. Against this background, long-term operation is not an issue anymore in Germany. However, for the NPPs in operation it is necessary to ensure the required quality of safety-related SSCs by an AM process, though the specified operational lifetime is not enlarged. The new nuclear safety standard KTA 1403 was established and issued in December 2010 specifies the German Reactor Safety Commission’s recommendation on AM of 2004 and is also considered to fulfil the related IAEA guidelines and WENRA safety levels

  20. Year 2 of Germany's Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a decade characterised by the take-off of renewable energies, Germany decided in 2010 to make them the top priority. At the same time, it decided to make exemplary efforts in terms of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The audacious nature of this policy was strengthened by the 'turn' taken in 2011 to give up nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima accident. Given the initial results for 2012, Germany seems to be on target for reaching its national objective, of 18% renewable energy within total consumption by 2020. Germany is also well placed to reduce its planned cut in electricity consumption of 10%. The country will also meet its commitments, both international and European, concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, recent trends suggest it will be increasingly difficult for Germany to meet its own, domestic goal of cutting emissions by 40%, by 2020. Furthermore, it is hard to see how Germany will be able to bring down total energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (from 2008 levels), or increase the share of renewables in electricity production above 35%. Success with this latter objective is largely dependent on reinforcing networks, both for transmission over long distances and for local distribution. It is not sure that the delays accumulated in both areas will be made up for by 2020, despite the rapid legislative adjustments that have already been made. By favouring intermittent energy sources - wind and solar power - Germany also faces problems of managing frequent production fluctuations. The long term solution to this lies in storing electricity. However, despite the considerable efforts in research and development, the technologies necessary for this will doubtless not be available on a large scale before the end of the present decade. These efforts could nevertheless provide German industry with interesting advantages in sectors of high potential, such as electric vehicles. Measures to promote renewable energies are