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Sample records for cardio-pulmonary exercise test

  1. Exercise and NO production: relevance and implications in the cardio-pulmonary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V Nosarev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the existing knowledge about the effects of physical exercise on nitric oxide (NO production in the cardiopulmonary system. The authors review the sources of NO in the cardiopulmonary system; involvement of three forms of NO synthases (eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS in exercise physiology; exercise-induced modulation of NO and/or NOS in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in human subjects and animal models in the absence and presence of pharmacological modulators; and significance of exercise-induced NO production in health and disease. The authors suggest that physical activity significantly improves functioning of the cardiovascular system through an increase in NO bioavailability, potentiation of antioxidant defense, and decrease in the expression of reactive oxygen species-forming enzymes. Regular physical exercises are considered a useful approach to treat cardiovascular diseases. Future studies should focus on detailed identification of (i the exercise-mediated mechanisms of NO exchange; (ii optimal exercise approaches to improve cardiovascular function in health and disease; and (iii physical effort thresholds.

  2. Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

    Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

  3. 心肺运动试验比较三种肺动脉高压患者心肺功能状态的价值%Value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in comparing cardio-pulmonary function among patients with three kinds of pulmonary artery hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青; 柳志红; 马秀平; 赵智慧; 罗勤; 顾晴; 熊长明; 张洪亮; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨心肺运动试验(CPET)比较3种肺动脉高压(PAH)患者心肺功能状态的价值.方法 入选2012年12月至2013年5月入住阜外心血管病医院肺血管病诊治中心确诊的特发性PAH(特发组)、先天性心脏病性PAH(先心组)和结缔组织病相关性PAH(免疫组),均进行CPET,同时收集3组的一般资料、常规检查、氨基末端B型脑钠肽原(NT-proBNP)及6 min步行距离(6MWD)等结果并进行比较分析.结果 共入选特发组32例、先心组38例、免疫组25例.特发组、先心组、免疫组峰值氧耗量与体重的比值(VO2 max/kg)分别为(12.3±2.3)、(14.9±4.0)、(11.1±2.5)ml·min-1·kg-1,3组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),其中先心组显著高于其他两组(P=0.003,P<0.001);峰值氧脉搏(VO2与心率比值的峰值)分别为(5.8±1.4)、(6.4±1.8)、(5.3±1.7)ml·次-1·min-,3组间差异亦有统计学意义(P =0.034),其中先心组显著高于免疫组(P=0.012);峰值心率分别为(136.1±21.4)、(140.8±19.9)、(124.5 ±21.6)次/min,3组间差异有统计学意义(P =0.011),其中免疫组最低且显著低于先心组(P =0.009).免疫组6MWD均显著低于特发组、先心组(P =0.006、0.010);免疫组Nt-proBNP显著高于先心组(P =0.012).VO2 max/kg与峰值氧脉搏、峰值心率、峰值收缩压、6MWD、Nt-proBNP、左心室舒张末内径、右心室舒张末内径均显著相关(r=0.477、0.518、0.387、0.465、-0.350、0.349、-0.259).结论 CPET可以客观、定量地评价PAH的心肺功能状态和运动耐量.%Objective To assess the exercise capacity of three kinds of pulmonary artery hypertension using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET).Methods In the Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease Diagnosis and Treatment of Fuwai Hospital, idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), congenital heart disease associated pulmonary artery hypertension (CHD-PAH), connective tissue disease associated pulmonary artery hypertension (CTD-PAH) were

  4. Acute mesenteric ischemia after cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude

    2008-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a highly-lethal surgical emergency.Several pathophysiologic events (arterial obstruction,venous thrombosis and diffuse vasospasm) lead to a sudden decrease in mesenteric blood flow.Ischemia/reperfusion syndrome of the intestine is responsible for systemic abnormalities,leading to multi-organ failure and death.Early diagnosis is difficult because the clinical presentation is subtle,and the biological and radiological diagnostic tools lack sensitivity and specificity.Therapeutic options vary from conservative resuscitation,medical treatment,endovascular techniques and surgical resection and revascularization.A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis,and prompt treatment is the only hope of reducing the mortality rate.Studies are in progress to provide more accurate diagnostic tools for early diagnosis.AMI can complicate the post-operative course of patients following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB).Several factors contribute to the systemic hypo-perfusion state,which is the most frequent pathophysiologic event.In this particular setting,the clinical presentation of AMI can be misleading,while the laboratory and radiological diagnostic tests often produce inconclusive results.The management strategies are controversial,but early treatment is critical for saving lives.Based on the experience of our team,we consider prompt exploratory laparotomy,irrespective of the results of the diagnostic tests,is the only way to provide objective assessment and adequate treatment,leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate.

  5. Modelos para predição da carga máxima no teste clínico de esforço cardiopulmonar Maximal workload prediction models in the clinical cardio-pulmonary effort test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando dos Santos Nogueira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo buscou derivar equações generalizadas para predição da carga máxima para homens e mulheres jovens. MÉTODOS: O método da ergoespirometria direta (Aerosport® TEEM 100, Estados Unidos da América do Norte foi empregado para determinar o VO2máx e a carga máxima (Wmáx, no cicloergômetro (Monark®, Brasil, de 30 homens (25 ± 5 anos, 75,0 ± 10,7 kg; 48,4 ± 8,8 mL . kg -1 . min -1 e 243 ± 51 Watts e 30 mulheres (26 ± 5 anos, 56,7 ± 5,9 kg, 39,8 ± 7,6 mL . kg -1 . min -1 e 172 ± 37 Watts. A idade e a massa corporal foram empregadas como variáveis independentes. Para todos os testes estatísticos aceitou-se o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: This study sought to derive generalized equations for predicting maximal workload for young men and women. METHODS: Direct ergospirometry (Aerosport® TEEM 100, USA was used to determine VO2máx and the maximal work load (Wmax on the cycle ergometer test (Monark®, Brazil of thirty men (25 ± 5 years, 75.0 ± 10.7 kg; 48.4 ± 8.8 mL . kg -1 . min -1 and 243 ± 51 Watts and thirty women (26 ± 5 years, 56.7 ± 5.9 kg, 39.8 ± 7.6 mL . kg -1 . min -1 and 172 ± 37 Watts. Age and body mass were used as independent variables. For all statistic tests, a p < 0.05 significance level was adopted. RESULTS: In the multiple linear adjustment, the maximal workload was explained by age and body mass as 54% (r = 0.73 for men, and as 76% (r = 0.87 for women, with standard errors of 0.66 W . kg -1 and 25 Watts. The proposed equations were cross-validated using another sample with similar age and VO2máx characteristics comprised of fifteen men and fifteen women. The intraclass correlation between the predicted Wmax values and those measures by ergospirometry were 0.70 and 0.69, with standard errors of 28.4 and 15.8 Watts, respectively, for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study exhibits valid generalized equations for determining the maximal cycle ergonometer workload for men and

  6. Awareness and knowledge of pediatric cardio- pulmonary resuscitation in the community of Al-Khobar city

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The history of resuscitation going back thousands of years has been reported in literature throughout history. This concept has undergone several decisive revolutionary changes particularly in pediatrics. Although the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively new in pediatrics, progress has been remarkable in the last a few decades. As it becomes more popular, especially under the influence of globalizing media, CPR also becomes a life requirement that is not restricted t...

  7. Motivational change towards physical activity participation from physiological testing in cancer survivors attending rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Arnesen, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Aim: Stimulating physical activity (PA) participation is particularly important to cancer survivors, to reduce late effects from cancer and medical treatment and promote health. Physiological tests are procedures that aim to assess the individuals’ level of cardio-pulmonary fitness or performance, and are commonly integrated in rehabilitation programs, to specify exercise programs and motivate to PA participation. Still there is limited research to the field motivational changes fro...

  8. Stenting of critical tracheal stenosis with adjuvant cardio-pulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe and critical central airway obstruction causing impaired ventilation and/or oxygenation can impose tremendous challenges on the interventional pulmonologist. Near total airway obstruction can rapidly evolve into potentially fatal complete airway occlusion during bronchoscopic airway manipulation under moderate sedation; as well as during the induction of the general anesthesia. Although there are currently interventional pulmonary procedures available to tackle the critical airway obstruction in extreme situations, cardio-pulmonary bypass should be considered prior to the intervention to maintain the adequate gas exchange during the procedure. Orotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation in this situation can be fatal itself if the obstructing airway lesion functions as a “one way valve” allowing air to follow distally during inspiration but impeding expiratory flow leading to gas trapping, high intrathoracic pressure, tension pneumothorax, and ultimately a cardiac arrest.

  9. Analysis of red blood cell aggregation in cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaff, R; Gu, Y J; Boonstra, P W; van Oeveren, W; Rakhorst, G

    2004-06-01

    Not much is known about red cell aggregation during cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Blood samples from 19 patients undergoing CPB were anticoagulated with EDTA. Hematocrit was adjusted to 40%. A red blood cell aggregometer (LORCA) measured changes in light reflection from each blood sample after cessation of the rotation, and calculated an aggregation index (AI). Reflection measurements were stored. Because LORCA software failed for 87 of 171 samples, we developed new software, and applied it to the stored reflection measurements. This software failed only in 7 out of 171 cases and showed that all LORCA failures occurred for AI CPB and recovered to 37.1 +/- 13.5 at day 1. It is concluded that the new software can be used to study decreased red cell aggregation during CPB.

  10. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to recommend more effective CPR strategies for Botswana’s hospitals. Interviews, comprising two quantitative sections with closed ended questions and one qualitative section with semi-structured questions, were conducted with 22 unit managers. The quantitative data indicated that all unit managers had at least eight years’ nursing experience, and could identify CPR shortcomings in their hospitals. Only one interviewee had never performed CPR. The qualitative data analysis revealed that the hospital units sometimes had too few staff members and did not have fully equipped emergency trolleys and/or equipment. No CPR teams and no CPR policies and guidelines existed. Nurses and doctors reportedly lacked CPR knowledge and skills. No debriefing services were provided after CPR encounters. The participating hospitals should address the following challenges that might affect CPR outcomes: shortages of staff, overpopulation of hospital units, shortcomings of the emergency trolleys and CPR equipment, absence of CPR policies and guidelines, absence of CPR teams, limited CPR competencies of doctors and nurses and the lack of debriefing sessions after CPR attempts.

  11. An Empirical Study on the lnfluence of Weight Lifting Training on Children’s Cardio-Pulmonary Function%举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙玉萍

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of weight lifting training on children’s cardio-pulmonary function, this study tests cardio-pulmonary function index of newly-recruited male athletes from 10 to 12 before and after the experiment. The result shows that after a period of weight lifting training, teenagers demonstrate no difference in physical index such as heart rate or blood pressure, which suggests that weight lifting can improve teenagers’ pulmonary function and enhance their vital capacity.%为了解举重运动训练对儿童心肺功能影响。文章在实验前后对10-12岁新招进的男性运动员进行心肺功能指标测试,结果显示:经过一段时间举重运动训练后,少年身体机能心率、血压等指标未表现出差异,肺活量方面有着显著提高,表明举重运动能有效改善少年肺功能,提高肺活量。

  12. Exercise stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart disease - treadmill References Balady GJ, Morise AP. Exercise testing. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...

  13. Practice and enlightenment of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation emergency training%心肺复苏急救培训实践与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海娟; 杨桂涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:以国际标准化心肺复苏课程为基础,探讨分层式心肺复苏急救培训的有效性和重要性。方法选取临床技能培训中心2013年6~7月参与培训的临床科室医务人员、医技科室医务人员和规范化培训医务人员共219名医生的培训资料,培训方式包括看视频、分组训练、集体讨论。比较培训前后的理论成绩和操作成绩。理论成绩的比较采用配对t检验;考试通过率的比较采用卡方检验。结果规范化培训医务人员、医技科室医务人员、临床科室医务人员培训前后的理论考核平均成绩得分分别为[(66.60±7.82)vs.(88.60±6.37);(61.60±7.44)vs.(86.90±5.80);(73.45±6.83)vs.(94.75±5.04)],均有统计学差异。规范化培训医务人员、医技科室医务人员、临床科室医务人员培训前后操作考核的通过率分别为[31.1%/85.2%;32.0%/90.7%;59.0%/96.4%],均有统计学差异。结论不同层次医务人员在心肺复苏培训前后理论与操作成绩均存在差异,分层式、有针对性的培训模式能有效提高不同层次医务人员的心肺复苏急救培训效果。%Objective Based on the international standard cardio-pulmonary resuscitation curriculum, the aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness and importance of the layered cardio-pulmonary resuscitation emergency training. Method A total of 219 trainee including clinical medical personnel , auxiliary medical personnel and medical staff with standardized training were enrolled . Training included watching course video, team practice and class discussion, and the theoretical score and operation marks before and after layered cardio-pulmonary resuscitation training were compared. Theoretical score were compared by paired T-test, and operation pass ratio was determined byχ2 analy-sis. Results The pre- and post-training theoretical score of medical staff with standardized training, auxiliary

  14. Awareness and knowledge of pediatric cardio- pulmonary resuscitation in the community of Al-Khobar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim K. Al-Turkistani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The history of resuscitation going back thousands of years has been reported in literature throughout history. This concept has undergone several decisive revolutionary changes particularly in pediatrics. Although the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR is relatively new in pediatrics, progress has been remarkable in the last a few decades. As it becomes more popular, especially under the influence of globalizing media, CPR also becomes a life requirement that is not restricted to health professionals. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based survey of 753 individuals of both sexes, visiting the first Pediatric Health Awareness Week held at Dammam University Hospital in April 2013. Data were collected by a personal face-to-face interview during which a short history was taken and a check list of sociodemographic data and questions related to infants′ CPR was completed. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS. Results: The study was carried out on 753 subjects (602 Saudis, 151 non-Saudis, 483 females, and 270 males. The mean age of participants was 33.3 ± 10.9 years. The postsecondary school level of education was 37.5% among females versus 21.9% among males. Of the participants, 80.8% of the females and 86.5% of males were totally unaware of CPR. The mean number of children among participants was 3.5 ± 2.5 children. There were 150 participants (19.9% with disabled children; 32% of them (6.4% of all participants were completely unaware of CPR despite having disabled children. Overall, 15.5% of all female participants had attended some CPR course (s compared with 6.1% of the males; 18.7% of the females had watched CPR program (s/video (s on TV or online compared to 11.1% of the males, and 59.4% of the females were willing and eager to participate in any CPR course compared with 29.3% of the males. The reasons for not wanting to attend CPR courses were as follows: 48.6% indicated that it was because

  15. Cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes affecting cats in Europe: unravelling the past, depicting the present and predicting the future

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    Donato eTraversa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes infecting cats have recently been fascinating and stimulating the attention of the Academia, pharma companies and veterinary practitioners. This is the case of the metastrongyloids: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, the trichuroid: Capillaria aerophila (syn. Eucoleus aerophilus, and the filarioid: Dirofilaria immitis. Apparently, these parasites have been emerging in several European countries, thus gaining an important role in feline parasitology and clinical practice. Under a practical standpoint, a sound knowledge of the biological, epidemiological and clinical impact of cardio-respiratory parasitoses affecting cats, in addition to a potential risk of introduction, establishment and spreading of new parasites in Europe is mandatory in order to understand the present and future impact for feline medicine and to address new strategies of control and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to review the current knowledge of heartworm and lungworm infections in cats, discussing and comparing past and present issues, and predicting possible future scenarios.

  16. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stickland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference. In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.

  17. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Baty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The six-minute walk test (6MWT is commonly used to quantify exercise capacity in patients with several cardio-pulmonary diseases. Oxygen uptake ( V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics during 6MWT typically follow 3 distinct phases (rest, exercise, recovery that can be modeled by nonlinear regression. Simultaneous modeling of multiple kinetics requires nonlinear mixed models methodology. To the best of our knowledge, no such curve-fitting approach has been used to analyze multiple V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics in both research and clinical practice so far. Methods In the present study, we describe functionality of the R package medrc that extends the framework of the commonly used packages drc and nlme and allows fitting nonlinear mixed effects models for automated nonlinear regression modeling. The methodology was applied to a data set including 6MWT V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics from 61 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (disease severity stage II to IV. The mixed effects approach was compared to a traditional curve-by-curve approach. Results A six-parameter nonlinear regression model was jointly fitted to the set of V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics. Significant differences between disease stages were found regarding steady state V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 during exercise, V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 level after recovery and V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 inflection point in the recovery phase. Estimates obtained by the mixed effects approach showed standard errors that were consistently lower as compared to the curve-by-curve approach. Conclusions Hereby we demonstrate the novelty and usefulness of this methodology in the context of physiological exercise testing.

  18. Exercise Testing in Hypertension Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    Chinese Version) before the exercise testing. According to the daily mobility, existing symptoms and physiological adaptability, physical function of the...completed the WHOQOL-BREF and the physical function questionnaire, and the form of general information, includ- ing age, sex and etc. All...sys- tem. During the exercising testing the function of symp a- thetic nerve and parasympathetic nerve will be more active than that in the resting

  19. Sport climbing with pre-existing cardio-pulmonary medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, T; Morrison, A; Gieseler, U; Schoeffl, V

    2009-06-01

    Over the past 25 years sport climbing has developed from an elite extreme sport subculture pursued by few into a mainstream recreational sport enjoyed globally by climbers of all ages, climbing abilities, and with pre-existing health conditions. As the demands and grades of climbing difficulty have increased over this period, most scientific literature on sport climbing focused on acute injuries and overuse syndromes, or performance physiology in healthy adult males. The physiological response to sport climbing is more similar to that of resistance training (i.e., body building) rather than a predominantly aerobic sport (i.e., running, cycling), so that heart rate and blood pressure during a climb will be disproportionately high relative to the 'exercise' of climbing, and breathing may be irregular. Therefore this review sought evidence-based recommendations for recreational sport climbing participation by those individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary medical conditions including coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, pulmonary diseases (i.e., asthma) or hypertension. This review defines the criteria that must be fulfilled for safe sport climbing by those with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions or those with hypertension.

  20. Proprioceptive isokinetic exercise test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, P. T.; Bernauer, E. M.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Proprioception, the reception of stimuli within the body that indicates position, is an important mechanism for optimal human performance. People exposed to prolonged bed rest, microgravity, or other deconditioning situations usually experience reduced proprioceptor and kinesthetic stimuli that compromise body balance, posture, and equilibrium. A new proprioceptive test is described that utilizes the computer-driven LIDO isokinetic ergometer. An overview of the computer logic, software, and testing procedure for this proprioceptive test, which can be performed with the arms or legs, is described.

  1. Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on exercise adaptations in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Julia; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Flore, Patrice; Nespoulet, Hugo; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Tamisier, Renaud

    2011-12-15

    Reduced exercise tolerance has been reported in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients, although the associated hypertension, obesity and/or metabolic disorder may underlie this reduction. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in 12 healthy subjects on exercise capacity, cardio-respiratory responses, and substrate oxidation during maximal and sub-maximal exercise. Subjects were exposed to 30 cycles of hypoxia-reoxygenation per hour for 14 nights. Although exercise capacity was unaltered PETCO(2) was reduced and V˙E/V˙CO(2) increased during both maximal and submaximal exercise tests, indicating a hyperventilatory response. Maximal heart rate was lower and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) was higher in the 1st min of recovery after submaximal exercise. Subjects reached maximal lipid oxidation at a higher power output and had decreased blood lactate for a given power output. This suggests that although the metabolic adaptations to CIH in healthy subjects may improve exercise performance, the cardio-pulmonary modifications are similar to those observed in OSAS patients and could limit exercise capacity.

  2. Metabolic Cost of Experimental Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James T.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Although the type and duration of activity during decompression was well documented, the metabolic cost of 1665 subject-exposures with 8 activity profiles from 17 altitude decompression sickness (DCS) protocols at Brooks City-Base, TX from 1983-2005 was not determined. Female and male human volunteers (30 planned, 4 completed) performed activity profiles matching those 8 activity profiles at ground level with continuous monitoring of metabolic cost. A Cosmed K4b2 Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing device was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during the profiles. The results show levels of metabolic cost to the females for the profiles tested varied from 4.3 to 25.5 ml/kg/min and from 3.0 to 12.0 ml/kg/min to the males. The increase in VO2 from seated rest to the most strenuous of the 8 activity profiles was 3.6-fold for the females and 2.8-fold for the males. These preliminary data on 4 subjects indicate close agreement of oxygen uptake for activity performed during many subject-exposures as published earlier. The relatively low average oxygen uptake required to perform the most strenuous activity may imply the need for adjustment of modeling efforts using metabolic cost as a risk factor. Better definition of metabolic cost during exposure to altitude, a critical factor in DCS risk, may allow refinement of DCS prediction models.

  3. Pediatric exercise testing. In health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) during progressive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) up to maximal exertion is widely recognized as the best single measure of aerobic exercise capacity. It is an important determinant of health, even in childhood and adolescence. Measuring VO2peak facili

  4. Eccentric exercise testing and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    1994-01-01

    Some researchers and practitioners have touted the benefits of including eccentric exercise in strength training programs. However, others have challenged its use because they believe that eccentric actions are dangerous and lead to injuries. Much of the controversy may be based on a lack of understanding of the physiology of eccentric actions. This review will present data concerning eccentric exercise in strength training, the physiological characteristics of eccentric exercise, and the possible stimulus for strength development. Also a discussion of strength needs for extended exposure to microgravity will be presented. Not only is the use of eccentric exercise controversial, but the name itself is fraught with problems. The correct pronunciation is with a hard 'c' so that the word sounds like ekscentric. The confusion in pronunciation may have been prevented if the spelling that Asmussen used in 1953, excentric, had been adopted. Another problem concerns the expressions used to describe eccentric exercise. Commonly used expressions are negatives, eccentric contractions, lengthening contractions, resisted muscle lengthenings, muscle lengthening actions, and eccentric actions. Some of these terms are cumbersome (i.e., resisted muscle lengthenings), one is slang (negatives), and another is an oxymoron (lengthening contractions). Only eccentric action is appropriate and adoption of this term has been recommended by Cavanagh. Despite the controversy that surrounds eccentric exercise, it is important to note that these types of actions play an integral role in normal daily activities. Eccentric actions are used during most forms of movement, for example, in walking when the foot touches the ground and the center of mass is decelerated and in lowering objects, such as placing a bag of groceries in the car.

  5. Exercise stress testing in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giallauria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise stress testing is an important diagnostic tool for evaluating patient’s cardiovascular performance. The present review describes the accuracy and the value of exercise stress testing in different settings: after an acute coronary event, after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft; in patients risk assessment before non-cardiac surgery; in diabetic population; in patients with baseline electrocardiographic abnormalities. Moreover, this review provides insights relating to test accuracy in women and geriatric patients. Finally, this review explores new variables/parameters (dyspnea, chronotropic incompentence, heart rate recovery, functional capacity, integrated scores that in the last few years added an incremental value to conventional analysis of exercise-induced angina or electrocardiographic changes.

  6. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test: Background, Applicability and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdy, Artur Haddad; Ritt, Luiz Eduardo Fonteles; Stein, Ricardo; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Milani, Mauricio; Meneghelo, Romeu Sérgio; Ferraz, Almir Sérgio; Hossri, Carlos; de Almeida, Antonio Eduardo Monteiro; Fernandes-Silva, Miguel Morita; Serra, Salvador Manoel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) has been gaining importance as a method of functional assessment in Brazil and worldwide. In its most frequent applications, CPET consists in applying a gradually increasing intensity exercise until exhaustion or until the appearance of limiting symptoms and/or signs. The following parameters are measured: ventilation; oxygen consumption (VO2); carbon dioxide production (VCO2); and the other variables of conventional exercise testing. In addition, in specific situations, pulse oximetry and flow-volume loops during and after exertion are measured. The CPET provides joint data analysis that allows complete assessment of the cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular and metabolic systems during exertion, being considered gold standard for cardiorespiratory functional assessment.1-6 The CPET allows defining mechanisms related to low functional capacity that can cause symptoms, such as dyspnea, and correlate them with changes in the cardiovascular, pulmonary and skeletal muscle systems. Furthermore, it can be used to provide the prognostic assessment of patients with heart or lung diseases, and in the preoperative period, in addition to aiding in a more careful exercise prescription to healthy subjects, athletes and patients with heart or lung diseases. Similarly to CPET clinical use, its research also increases, with the publication of several scientific contributions from Brazilian researchers in high-impact journals. Therefore, this study aimed at providing a comprehensive review on the applicability of CPET to different clinical situations, in addition to serving as a practical guide for the interpretation of that test. PMID:27982272

  7. [Exercise tests in unstable angina suspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The review is devoted to exercise tests (ET) potential in patients with different forms of coronary heart disease (CHD) exacerbation and suspected unstable angina. It is well known that unstable angina untreated pharmacologically is a contraindication for ET. Of interest in clinical practice is diagnosis, risk assessment and treatment policy in patients with chest pain. The main focus is on ET conduction in unstable angina suspects with low and intermediate risk, on safety and validity of ET conduction in these patients.

  8. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY BUILD AND ENDURANCE ON TREADMILL EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalathadevi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The type of the body build, efficacy of energy and oxygen supply mechanisms and utilization are the chief determinants of various forms of exertional endurance and achievement in various sporting activities. Therefore, the relationship between these varia bles of physique, fuel supply and aerobic capacity 6 and the endurance on treadmill stress test are chosen for study. MATERIALS & METHODS: Two groups (20 each of subjects (18 - 20 years were chosen based on body weight differences 9 60 kg BW for the study. They were further sub grouped based on BMI. DISCUSSION: When the body mass Index (BMI is at the range of 20 - 25, the endurance was better. However, when the BMI increased to very high value like 30, the endurance decreased. Such individual s with disproportionally high body weight could not endure a longer duration of exercise. This perhaps may be explained on the ground that such very high weight individuals (BMI > 30 may have more body fat than muscles. Excess body fat is dead weight that adds directly to the energy cost of running. In both groups of individuals with BMI of 20 or slightly above could run for longer periods than at extreme lower or higher ends of the BMI scale. OBSERVATIONS: The subjects with greater BMI could run for great er length of times, greater distances and achieved greater METs, glucose utilization and oxygen usage (aerobic capacity. The percentage of oxygen saturation (Pulse oxymetry after exercise fell to a greater degree in high body mass (BMI subjects indicati ng better cardio pulmonary function and greater degree of oxygen utilization. Finally, the resting heart rate and magnitude of heart rate rise during exercise are found to be somewhat lower in high body mass index subjects

  10. Clinical value of exercise testing in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pool (Jan); M.G. Scheffer; M.L. Simoons (Maarten); N. Patijn

    1984-01-01

    textabstractBetween 1978 and 1983, 1391 exercise tests were performed by 1083 males and 308 females over 64 years of age. This represents 17% of the total number of 8213 exercise tests. A history of myocardial infarction was present in 53% of the males and 30% of the females, while 12% of patients h

  11. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test: Background, Applicability and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdy, Artur Haddad; Ritt, Luiz Eduardo Fonteles; Stein, Ricardo; Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de; Milani, Mauricio; Meneghelo, Romeu Sérgio; Ferraz, Almir Sérgio; Hossri, Carlos; Almeida, Antonio Eduardo Monteiro de; Fernandes-Silva, Miguel Morita; Serra, Salvador Manoel

    2016-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) has been gaining importance as a method of functional assessment in Brazil and worldwide. In its most frequent applications, CPET consists in applying a gradually increasing intensity exercise until exhaustion or until the appearance of limiting symptoms and/or signs. The following parameters are measured: ventilation; oxygen consumption (VO2); carbon dioxide production (VCO2); and the other variables of conventional exercise testing. In addition, in specific situations, pulse oximetry and flow-volume loops during and after exertion are measured. The CPET provides joint data analysis that allows complete assessment of the cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular and metabolic systems during exertion, being considered gold standard for cardiorespiratory functional assessment.1-6 The CPET allows defining mechanisms related to low functional capacity that can cause symptoms, such as dyspnea, and correlate them with changes in the cardiovascular, pulmonary and skeletal muscle systems. Furthermore, it can be used to provide the prognostic assessment of patients with heart or lung diseases, and in the preoperative period, in addition to aiding in a more careful exercise prescription to healthy subjects, athletes and patients with heart or lung diseases. Similarly to CPET clinical use, its research also increases, with the publication of several scientific contributions from Brazilian researchers in high-impact journals. Therefore, this study aimed at providing a comprehensive review on the applicability of CPET to different clinical situations, in addition to serving as a practical guide for the interpretation of that test. Resumo O teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE) vem ganhando importância crescente como método de avaliação funcional tanto no Brasil quanto no Mundo. Nas suas aplicações mais frequentes, o teste consiste em submeter o indivíduo a um exercício de intensidade gradativamente crescente até a exaustão ou o

  12. ENERGY SYSTEM CONTRIBUTIONS DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET. Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER and glycolytic (WGLYCOL system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95% was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14% throughout the IET (p < 0.05. In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the "anaerobic threshold" concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity

  13. The Utility of Exercise Testing in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duc; Mazzone, Peter J; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul; Fuster, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The harm associated with lung cancer treatment include perioperative morbidity and mortality and therapy-induced toxicities in various organs, including the heart and lungs. Optimal treatment therefore entails a need for risk assessment to weigh the probabilities of benefits versus harm. Exercise testing offers an opportunity to evaluate a patient's physical fitness/exercise capacity objectively. In lung cancer, it is most often used to risk-stratify patients undergoing evaluation for lung cancer resection. In recent years, its use outside this context has been described, including in nonsurgical candidates and lung cancer survivors. In this article we review the physiology of exercise testing and lung cancer. Then, we assess the utility of exercise testing in patients with lung cancer in four contexts (preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection, after lung cancer resection, lung cancer prognosis, and assessment of efficiency of exercise training programs) after systematically identifying original studies involving the most common forms of exercise tests in this patient population: laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise testing and simple field testing with the 6-minute walk test, shuttle walk test, and/or stair-climbing test. Lastly, we propose a conceptual framework for risk assessment of patients with lung cancer who are being considered for therapy and identify areas for further studies in this patient population.

  14. Hitos sobre el test cardiopulmonar de ejercicio Cardiopulmonary exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO SOTO F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El test cardiopulmonar de ejercicio TCPE (CPET en la literatura anglosajona evalúa aspectos dinámicos de la la fisiología cardiorespiratoria, en contraste, las pruebas funcionales estáticas no reproducen la condición activa de un individuo. No obstante su complejo montaje e interpretación, en el último decenio ha habido un creciente interés en aplicarlo en la detección de mecanismos de disnea. Al respecto, la curva flujo/volumen dinámica permite demostrar limitación de flujos e hiperinflación dinámica, también esta prueba permite profundizar en el análisis del intercambio gaseoso en ejercicio. La utilidad de estas pruebas en la evaluación funcional pre-operatoria compleja es destacada. Dada su alta reproducibilidad, el TCPE continúa siendo un alto referente en pruebas cardíacas de esfuerzo. Publicaciones cardiológicas enfatizan su valor pronóstico como indicador de sobrevida, seguimiento de terapias y enlistado para trasplante en insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva, utilizando parámetros máximos y submáximos. Entre los primeros el consumo cumbre o punta de oxígeno, y en los submáximos el equivalente ventilatorio de anhídrido carbónico y el consumo de oxígeno en el umbral lácticoCardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET evaluates cardiorespiratory function in dynamic conditions, in contrast to static pulmonary function tests which can not reproduce the dynamic situation of an individual. Despite its complex implementation there has been growing interest in CPET in evaluating the mechanisms of dyspnoea With this respect dynamic flow/volume curve is useful in identifying expiratory airflow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation. Besides gas exchange analysis during exercise deepens the quality of information in that subject. Its utility for decision making in complex perioperative evaluation can not be overemphasized. Considering its high reproducibility, this method is a highly valuable tool in cardiac stress testing. Several

  15. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotarska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women who had received a liver transplantation (LT at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI. The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5% had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04. A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  16. Difference in Physiological Components of VO2 Max During Incremental and Constant Exercise Protocols for the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junshiro; Harada, Tetsuya; Okada, Akinori; Maemura, Yuko; Yamamoto, Misaki; Tabira, Kazuyuki

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] VO2 is expressed as the product of cardiac output and O2 extraction by the Fick equation. During the incremental exercise test and constant high-intensity exercise test, VO2 results in the attainment of maximal O2 uptake at exhaustion. However, the differences in the physiological components, cardiac output and muscle O2 extraction, have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that constant exercise would result in higher O2 extraction than incremental exercise at exhaustion. [Subjects] Twenty-five subjects performed incremental exercise and constant exercise at 80% of their peak work rate. [Methods] Ventilatory, cardiovascular, and muscle oxygenation responses were measured using a gas analyzer, Finapres, and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] VO2 was not significantly different between the incremental exercise and constant exercise. However, cardiac output and muscle O2 saturation were significantly lower for the constant exercise than the incremental exercise at the end of exercise. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that if both tests produce a similar VO2 value, the VO2 in incremental exercise would have a higher ratio of cardiac output than constant exercise, and VO2 in constant exercise would have a higher ratio of O2 extraction than incremental exercise at the end of exercise.

  17. Pediatric Exercise Testing: Value and Implications of Peak Oxygen Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo T. Pianosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peak oxygen uptake (peak V ˙ O 2 measured by clinical exercise testing is the benchmark for aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness, estimated from maximal treadmill exercise, is a predictor of mortality in adults. Peak V ˙ O 2 was shown to predict longevity in patients aged 7–35 years with cystic fibrosis over 25 years ago. A surge of exercise studies in young adults with congenital heart disease over the past decade has revealed significant prognostic information. Three years ago, the first clinical trial in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension used peak V ˙ O 2 as an endpoint that likewise delivered clinically relevant data. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides clinicians with biomarkers and clinical outcomes, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response hidden at rest. Momentum from these pioneering observations in multiple disease states should impel clinicians to employ similar methods in other patient populations; e.g., sickle cell disease. Advances in pediatric exercise science will elucidate new pathways that may identify novel biomarkers. Our initial aim of this essay is to highlight the clinical relevance of exercise testing to determine peak V ˙ O 2 , and thereby convince clinicians of its merit, stimulating future clinical investigators to broaden the application of exercise testing in pediatrics.

  18. Pediatric Exercise Testing: Value and Implications of Peak Oxygen Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Liem, Robert I; McMurray, Robert G; Cerny, Frank J; Falk, Bareket; Kemper, Han C G

    2017-01-24

    Peak oxygen uptake (peak V ˙ O 2 ) measured by clinical exercise testing is the benchmark for aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness, estimated from maximal treadmill exercise, is a predictor of mortality in adults. Peak V ˙ O 2 was shown to predict longevity in patients aged 7-35 years with cystic fibrosis over 25 years ago. A surge of exercise studies in young adults with congenital heart disease over the past decade has revealed significant prognostic information. Three years ago, the first clinical trial in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension used peak V ˙ O 2 as an endpoint that likewise delivered clinically relevant data. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides clinicians with biomarkers and clinical outcomes, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response hidden at rest. Momentum from these pioneering observations in multiple disease states should impel clinicians to employ similar methods in other patient populations; e.g., sickle cell disease. Advances in pediatric exercise science will elucidate new pathways that may identify novel biomarkers. Our initial aim of this essay is to highlight the clinical relevance of exercise testing to determine peak V ˙ O 2 , and thereby convince clinicians of its merit, stimulating future clinical investigators to broaden the application of exercise testing in pediatrics.

  19. Strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh H. Malek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients. Currently, there are no standardized methods for assessing cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in this population; therefore, making comparisons across studies is difficult if not impossible. These strategies are intended for physicians, pulmonary technicians, exercise physiologists, and other healthcare professionals who conduct cardiopulmonary exercise testing on pectus excavatum patients. By using the strategies outlined in this report, comparisons across studies can be made, and the effects of pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function can be assessed with greater detail.

  20. The value of exercise tests after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Nielsen, S L; Knudsen, F

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the clinical course in patients after a first acute myocardial infarction with the response to exercise-tests performed one month after discharge. 90 consecutive patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarction for the first time were followed-up after...... (W) were predictive with respect to mortality, heart failure, and angina pectoris requiring drug treatment. Exercise tests following acute myocardial infarction could not predict the chances of returning to work....

  1. Exercise Testing and Stress Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Henri, Christine; Pierard, Luc; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Mongeon, Francois-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe; Basmadjian, Arsene J.

    2014-01-01

    The role of exercise testing and stress imaging in the management of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) is reviewed in this article. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology/European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery have recently put emphasis on the role of exercise testing to clarify symptom status and the use of stress imaging to assess the dynamic component of valvular abnormalities and unmask subclinical myocardial d...

  2. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Patrizia; De Filippis, Francesca; Fraioli, Francesco; Cinquanta, Alessandra; Valli, Gabriele; Laveneziana, Pierantonio; Vaccaro, Francesco; Martolini, Dario; Palange, Paolo

    2011-12-15

    In patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiopulmonary response to exercise was never related to the severity of emphysema (E) measured by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Sixteen patients (age=65±8 yrs; FEV(1)=54±18%pred; RV=160±28%pred) with moderate to severe E (quantified by lung HRCT as % voxels cycle-ergometer to exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (V˙(O2)), carbon dioxide output (V˙(CO2)), ventilation (V˙(E)), tidal volume (V(T)), and end-tidal P(CO2) (PET(CO2)) derived variables were measured breath-by-breath. The % of E correlated with: (1) the ratio V(Tpeak) (r=0.74; p=0.001); (2) the V˙(E)/V˙(CO2) slope (r=-0.77; p=0.0004); (3) PET(CO2) values at peak exercise (r=0.80; p=0.0001). Also, the %E was strongly predicted by the following exercise equation: %E(EST) = 58.1 + 11.9 × ΔV˙(E)/V˙(CO2) (r=0.94; p1 is typically observed in severe E patients; furthermore, the V˙(E)/V˙(CO2) slope and the PET(CO2peak) values decrease and increase respectively as more as the emphysema is severe.

  3. Transient global amnesia: a complication of incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R S; Leek, B T; Wagner, P D; Kritchevsky, M

    1998-10-01

    Incremental exercise testing is routinely used for diagnosis, rehabilitation, health screening, and research. We report the case of a 71-yr-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffered an episode of transient global amnesia (TGA) several minutes after successfully completing an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. TGA, which is known to be precipitated by physical or emotional stress in about one-third of cases, is a transient neurological disorder in which memory impairment is the prominent deficit. TGA has a benign course and requires no treatment although 24-h observation is recommended. Recognition of TGA as a potential complication of incremental graded exercise testing is important to both aid diagnosis of the amnesia and to spare a patient unnecessary evaluation.

  4. [VO2 max, a true exercise test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Carole

    2013-01-01

    VO2 max is nowadays an essential examination performed in the monitoring of heart failure. The nurse has a role to play during the test and in supporting the patient, although this test remains highly technical and complex.

  5. Validity of the Eating Attitude Test among Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen J; Lane, Andrew M; Matheson, Hilary

    2004-12-01

    Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT) is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items), oral control (7-items), and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items). The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10), the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09) showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10) and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08) showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06). Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among

  6. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  7. Negative Exercise Stress Test: Does it Mean Anything? Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low sensitivity and specificity (67% and 72%, respectively, exercise testing has remained one of the most widely used noninvasive tests to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected or established coronary disease.As a screening test for coronary artery disease, the exercise stress test is useful in that it is relatively simple and inexpensive. It has been considered particularly helpful in patients with chest pain syndromes who have moderate probability for coronary artery disease, and in whom the resting electrocardiogram (ECG is normal. The following case presentation and discussion will question the predictive value of a negative stress testing in patients with moderate probability for coronary artery disease.

  8. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  9. Development and implementation of treadmill exercise testing protocols in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Cooper

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher B Cooper1, Marlon Abrazado1, Daniel Legg2, Steven Kesten21David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ingelheim, GermanyBackground: Because treadmill exercise testing is more representative of daily activity than cycle testing, we developed treadmill protocols to be used in various clinical settings as part of a two-year, multicenter, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD trial evaluating the effect of tiotropium on exercise.Methods: We enrolled 519 COPD patients aged 64.6 ± 8.3 years with a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 1.25 ± 0.42 L, 44.3% ± 11.9% predicted. The patients performed symptom-limited treadmill tests where work rate (W was increased linearly using speed and grade adjustments every minute. On two subsequent visits, they performed constant W tests to exhaustion at 90% of maximum W from the incremental test.Results: Mean incremental test duration was 522 ± 172 seconds (range 20–890, maximum work rate 66 ± 34 watts. For the first and second constant W tests, both at 61 ± 33 watts, mean endurance times were 317 ± 61 seconds and 341 ± 184 seconds, respectively. The mean of two tests had an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.85 (P < 0.001. During the second constant W test, 88.2% of subjects stopped exercise because of breathing discomfort; 87.1% for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD Stage II, 88.5% for GOLD Stage III, and 90.2% for GOLD Stage IV.Conclusion: The symptom-limited incremental and constant work treadmill protocol was well tolerated and appeared to be representative of the physiologic limitations of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise testing, endurance, tiotropium

  10. Exercise testing, limitation and training in patients with cystic fibrosis. A personalized approach

    OpenAIRE

    Werkman, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise testing and training are cornerstones in regular CF care. However, no consensus exists in literature about which exercise test protocol should be used for individual patients. Furthermore, divergence exists in insights about both the dominant exercise limiting mechanisms and the possibilities to aim and institute exercise training strategies, based on these individual limitations. Therefore, this thesis intends to expand current knowledge in [1] alternative exercise test procedures i...

  11. Submaximal Exercise Testing Treadmill and Floor Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Association, 65(Suppl 1): 18-25, 1969. 35. Traugh, G. H., Corcoran, P. J., and Reyes , R. L., "Energy Expenditure of Ambulation in Patients with Above Knee...subjects were measured over three walking velocities. 1 No comments were offered on the subjects attire during the testa or the experimental conditions...Testing," Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association, 65(Suppl 1): 18- ,- _19-69.7 .. i 35. Traugh, G. H., Corcoran, P. J., and Reyes , R. L

  12. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Alawi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health.

  13. [Exercise test and ventricular tachycardia: the French experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, H; Mora, B; Broustet, J P

    1987-03-01

    The incidence of severe ventricular arrhythmia requiring electric shock or prompt intravenous therapy was evaluated during or immediately after 458,000 exercise tests performed in 46 french centres between 1975 and 1985; 177,000 tests were performed exclusively in cardiac patients during supervised exercise training sessions. Sixty cases of severe arrhythmia (ventricular fibrillation 23, ventricular tachycardia 35, asystole 2) occurred (1/7600 tests). One or several electric shocks were necessary in 35 cases. Six patients died (1/76,333 tests), 2 of them during training sessions; 5 had phase II or III myocardial infarction, and the 6th patient had moderately tight valvular aortic stenosis. The five coronary patients were taking various anti-arrhythmic drugs. Among the 54 survivors, 14 were lost sight of and 4 died, 2 of these suddenly including one who passed away during a bicycle ride. All others are alive after a 3.25 +/- 2.9 years follow-up. The association of a multiple-vessel disease with an extensive fibrous plaque is a syndrome that is highly sensitive but fortunately little specific in predicting severe arrhythmia during exercise tests.

  14. VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS

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    Hilary Matheson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients

  15. A comparison of methods of analysing exercise tests for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Deckers (Jaap); B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); J.G.P. Tijssen (Jan); R.V.H. Vinke (Ruud); A.J. Azar (Aida); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic accuracy of the following methods of analysing exercise tests were evaluated: (a) the cumulative area of ST segment depression during exercise normalised for workload and heart rate (exercise score); (b) discriminant analysis of electrocardiographic exercise variables, wor

  16. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome – a case study exercise testing in master cyclists

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    Rüst CA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandAbstract: The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery, a 40%–50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery. The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect

  17. Exercise testing and stress imaging in valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christine; Piérard, Luc A; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2014-09-01

    The role of exercise testing and stress imaging in the management of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) is reviewed in this article. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology/European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery have recently put emphasis on the role of exercise testing to clarify symptom status and the use of stress imaging to assess the dynamic component of valvular abnormalities and unmask subclinical myocardial dysfunction that could be missed at rest. Recent studies have demonstrated the incremental prognostic value of exercise echocardiography for asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, moderate-severe mitral stenosis, and severe primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis, dobutamine stress echocardiography is recommended to differentiate true severe from pseudosevere aortic stenosis. Data on the prognostic value of stress echocardiography in aortic regurgitation and functional mitral regurgitation are less robust. Data are sparse on the use of stress imaging in right-sided VHD, however recent studies using stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging offer some prognostic information. Although the strongest recommendations for surgical treatment continue to be based on symptom status and resting left ventricular repercussions, stress imaging can be useful to optimize risk stratification and timing of surgery in VHD. Randomized clinical trials are required to confirm that clinical decision-making based on stress imaging can lead to improved outcomes.

  18. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

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    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  19. Testing the effects of message framing, kernel state, and exercise guideline adherence on exercise intentions and resolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Out, K.; Rhodes, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of framed messages on exercise intention and resolve. Design Two (type of frame: gain or loss) × 2 (type of kernel state: desirable or undesirable outcome) post-test study. Methods Participants were recruited online and questioned about their previous exercise behavio

  20. Exercise testing, limitation and training in patients with cystic fibrosis. A personalized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise testing and training are cornerstones in regular CF care. However, no consensus exists in literature about which exercise test protocol should be used for individual patients. Furthermore, divergence exists in insights about both the dominant exercise limiting mechanisms and the possibiliti

  1. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – Its application in cardiology and occupational medicine

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    Małgorzata Kurpesa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a method used to assess the exercise capacity. It is used in cardiology to define the diagnostic and prognostic information, the treatment and its effectiveness. This method is also useful in sport medicine and in occupational medicine. The cardiopulmonary exercise test involves measuring of gas exchange during exercise testing. The article presents the main parameters assessed during the test and the indications and contraindications for conducting the test. It also reveals the results of recently published clinical trials on the use of cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with cardiovascular disease and in the working population. The study included variability of respiratory parameters during the cardiopulmonary exercise test and after its completion, as well as their impact on the prognostic value. In addition, the results of a study involving an optimal choice of interval training on the basis of oxygen consumption at peak exercise are summarized. Med Pr 2014;65(5:665–674

  2. Evaluation of automated blood pressure measurements during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, K F; Gross, B W; Ritterman, J B; Kusumi, F; Bruce, R A

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were made at rest and during symptom-limited exercise with an automated blood pressure measuring device (EBPM). Comparisons were made between the EBPM readings and those made with mercury manometer. Correlations were high (SBP r = 0.92, DBP r = 0.80) when readings were made in the same arm, but were less satisfactory when the cuffs were on different arms (SBP r = 0.80, DBP r = 0.46). The correlation between two mercury manometer readings was SBP r = 0.90, and DBP r = 0.75. Comparison between EBPM and intra-arterial measurements were similar (SBP r = 0.74, DBP r = 0.79) to comparison between mercury manometer and intra-arterial measurements (SBP r = 0.81, DBP r = 0.61). The EBPM detected SBP at consistently higher levels than did physicians, which may be an advantage in the noisy environment of an exercise test. There was a definite tendency for physicians to record blood pressure to the nearest 10 mm Hg, whereas the frequency distribution curve for EBPM measurements was smoother. The EBPM operated satisfactorily at rest and during maximal exercise and gave as reliable measurements as a physician using a mercury manometer and, in the small number of available cases, detected exertional hypotension more often than the physician.

  3. Responsiveness of Various Exercise-Testing Protocols to Therapeutic Interventions in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Borel; Steeve Provencher; Didier Saey; François Maltais

    2013-01-01

    Exercise intolerance is a key element in the pathophysiology and course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). As such, evaluating exercise tolerance has become an important part of the management of COPD. A wide variety of exercise-testing protocols is currently available, each protocol having its own strengths and weaknesses relative to their discriminative, methodological, and evaluative characteristics. This paper aims to review the responsiveness of several exercise-testing pro...

  4. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

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    Akram Sardari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001 and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001 measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.

  5. Predicting utility of exercise tests based on history/holter in patients with premature ventricular contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brad; Xie, Li; Temple, Joel; Octavio, Jenna; Srayyih, Maytham; Thacker, Deepika; Kharouf, Rami; Davies, Ryan; Gidding, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are considered benign in patients with structurally normal hearts, particularly if they suppress with exercise. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) requires exercise testing to unmask the malignant phenotype. We studied risk factors and Holter monitor variables to help predict the necessity of exercise testing in patients with PVCs. We retrospectively reviewed 81 patients with PVCs that suppressed at peak exercise and structurally normal hearts referred to the exercise laboratory in 2011. We reviewed 11 patients from 2003 to 2012 whose PVCs were augmented at peak exercise (mean age 13 ± 4 years; 52 % male, 180 exercise studies). We recorded clinical risk factors and comorbidities (family history of arrhythmia or sudden unexpected death [SUD], presence of syncope) and Holter testing parameters. Family history of VT or SUD (P = 0.011) and presence of VT on Holter (P = 0.011) were significant in predicting failure of PVCs to suppress at peak heart rate on exercise testing. Syncope was not statistically significant in predicting suppression (P = 0.18); however, CPVT was diagnosed in four patients with syncope during exercise. Quantity of PVCs, Lown grade, couplets on Holter, monomorphism, and PVC elimination at peak heart rate on Holter were not predictors of PVC suppression on exercise testing. Patients with syncope during exercise, family history of arrhythmia or SUD, or a Holter monitor showing VT warrant exercise testing to assess for CPVT.

  6. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines, an exercise program can help maintain good health. Physical activity Exercise doesn't have to be a rigorous cardiovascular workout to provide benefits. Physical activity in general ...

  7. Refined Exercise testing can aid DNA-based Diagnosis in Muscle Channelopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, S V; Matthews, E.; Barber, M.; Burge, J. A.; Rajakulendran, S; Fialho, D; Sud, R.; Haworth, A; Koltzenburg, M.; Hanna, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To improve the accuracy of genotype prediction and guide genetic testing in patients with muscle channelopathies we applied and refined specialized electrophysiological exercise test parameters.Methods: We studied 56 genetically confirmed patients and 65 controls using needle electromyography, the long exercise test, and short exercise tests at room temperature, after cooling, and rewarming.Results: Concordant amplitude-and-area decrements were more reliable than amplitude-only mea...

  8. Usefulness of myocardial perfusion imaging with exercise testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brad; Goudie, Brett; Remmert, Jenna; Gidding, Samuel S

    2012-10-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) provides additional clinical information on children with cardiac disease but will not benefit children with chest pain and normal cardiac studies. This study reviewed all technetium-99 m ((99m)Tc) sestamibi stress MPI studies between 2004 and 2010 performed in association with graded exercise testing (86% with bicycle ergometer, 14% with treadmill). A positive test was defined as a perfusion defect or abnormal ventricular function response. Clinical records were reviewed, including follow-up assessment to determine accuracy of MPI interpretation. False-positive and false-negative rates were recorded. A total of 197 patients (mean age, 13.4 ± 3.6 years, 70% male) underwent 218 MPI studies. Group A had 42 patients (43 studies) with isolated chest pain and normal studies. Of the 43 studies, 39 had negative results, and 4 had false-positive results. Group B had 155 patients (175 studies) with known or suspected cardiac disease, and 39 tests (33 patients) had positive results. Whereas 32 studies were considered true-positive, 7 were false-positive. There was one false-negative test. According to the findings, (99m)Tc sestamibi MPI studies are clinically useful but not perfect tests in the setting of known or suspected cardiac disease based on clinical evaluation, electrocardiography (ECG), or echocardiography. Children who had isolated chest pain with a normal ECG and echocardiogram often have false-positive studies.

  9. Application of exercise testing in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Sánchez, Darío

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent developments have added exercise testing and training as part of the clinical practice in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of diseased populations. Exercise testing has been used widely in cardiovascular disease and in some circumstances in pulmonary disease. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing has been used in the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension patients. However, no many studies have tried to evaluate functional capacity, explore prediction of cardio...

  10. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinas, Inés Vidal; Beretta, Mario; Alonso, Omar; Mut, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. Objectives In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. Methods In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Results Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). Conclusions The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP. PMID:26039661

  11. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

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    Inés Vidal Cortinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR has reduced sensitivity.Objectives:In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols.Methods:In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection.Results:Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP. They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43. For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35. Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001.Conclusions:The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  12. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortinas, Inés Vidal, E-mail: invi@montevideo.com.uy; Beretta, Mario; Alonso, Omar; Mut, Fernando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital ‘Asociación Española’, Br. Artigas 1515, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-08-15

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  13. Nonsustained wide QRS tachycardia during an exercise ECG stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of a nonsustained wide QRS tachycardia in a life insurance applicant's exercise test presents a special challenge to the medical director because of the unpredictable and potentially lethal nature of these arrhythmias. Ventricular tachycardia accounts for up to 80% of wide QRS tachycardias in unselected populations and more than 95% of cases with a prior myocardial infarction. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias usually occur in the presence of significant structural heart disease. In this setting, ventricular arrhythmias carry a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Less commonly, ventricular tachycardia occurs in hearts that appear normal. In many such cases, however, the heart is in fact not normal, but rather has less visible abnormalities including derangements of cardiac ion channels or structural proteins. In these individuals, ventricular arrhythmias also carry a high risk of sudden cardiac death. There are, however, some ventricular tachycardia syndromes which occur in normal hearts that have a more benign prognosis.

  14. Predicting functional capacity during treadmill testing independent of exercise protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C; Crowe, A J; Daines, E; Dumit, M; Green, M A; Lettau, S; Thompson, N N; Weymier, J

    1996-06-01

    Clinically useful estimates of VO2max from treadmill tests (GXT) may be made using protocol-specific equations. In many cases, GXT may proceed more effectively if the clinician is free to adjust speed and grade independent of a specific protocol. We sought to determine whether VO2max could be predicted from the estimated steady-state VO2 of the terminal exercise stage. Seventy clinically stable individuals performed GXT with direct measurement of VO2. Exercise was incremented each minute to optimize clinical examination. Measured VO2max was compared to the estimated steady-state VO2 of the terminal stage based on ACSM equations. Equations for walking or running were used based on the patient's observed method of ambulation. The measured VO2max was always less than the ACSM estimate, with a regular relationship between measured and estimated VO2max. No handrail support: VO2max = 0.869.ACSM -0.07; R2 = 0.955, SEE = 4.8 ml.min-1.kg-1 (N = 30). With handrail support: VO2max = 0.694.ACSM + 3.33; R2 = 0.833, SEE = 4.4 ml.min-1.kg-1 (N = 40). The equations were cross-validated with 20 patients. The correlation between predicted and observed values was r = 0.98 and 0.97 without and with handrail support, respectively. The mean absolute prediction error (3.1 and 4.1 ml.min-1.kg-1) were similar to protocol-specific equations. We conclude that VO2max can be predicted independent of treadmill protocol with approximately the same error as protocol-specific equations.

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic implications of exercise testing in coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical indications for exercise testing as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the assessment of patients with ischemic heart disease have gradually evolved since Master introduced the two-step exercise test in 1929 (1). New information from correlations between electrocardiographi

  16. Six-minute stepper test: a valid clinical exercise tolerance test for COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosbois JM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available JM Grosbois,1,2 C Riquier,3 B Chehere,4 J Coquart,5 H Béhal,6 F Bart,2 B Wallaert,2,3 C Chenivesse3 1FormAction Santé, Pérenchies, France; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Germon et Gauthier, Béthune, France; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine Immunology and Allergy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Competence Center for rare lung diseases, University Lille 2, Lille, France; 4EA 7369, URePSSS, Multidisciplinary Research Unit in Sport Health Society, University Lille 2, Lille, France; 5Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sports and Physical Activity, Center for Ecology and Transformation, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France; 6Department of Statistical Methods and Biostatistics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, University of Lille Nord, Lille, France Introduction: Exercise tolerance testing is an integral part of the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The 6-minute stepper test (6MST is a new, well-tolerated, reproducible exercise test, which can be performed without any spatial constraints.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 6MST to those obtained during a 6-minute walk test (6MWT and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in a cohort of COPD patients.Methods: Ninety-one COPD patients managed by outpatient PR and assessed by 6MST, 6MWT, and CPET were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations between the number of steps on the 6MST, the distance covered on the 6MWT, oxygen consumption, and power at the ventilatory threshold and at maximum effort during CPET were analyzed before starting PR, and the improvement on the 6MST and 6MWT was compared after PR.Results: The number of steps on the 6MST was significantly correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (r=0.56; P<0.0001, the power at maximum effort (r=0.46; P<0.0001, and oxygen consumption at maximum effort (r=0.39; P<0

  17. DIMENSIONS OF COMPULSIVE EXERCISE ACROSS EATING DISORDER DIAGNOSTIC SUBTYPES AND THE VALIDATION OF THE SPANISH VERSION OF THE COMPULSIVE EXERCISE TEST.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Sauchelli; Jon Arcelus; Roser Granero; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Zaida Aguera; Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez; Fernando Fernandez-Aranda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives o...

  18. Exercise testing and exercise rehabilitation for patients with peripheral arterial disease: status in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regensteiner, J G; Gardner, A; Hiatt, W R

    1997-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is a common manifestation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patients with claudication are limited in terms of work, housework and leisure activities so that functional status is very impaired. Therefore, the goals for treatment should focus on improving the functional impairment as well as on modifying risk factors. Evaluation of the functional status is of critical importance before beginning any therapy so that any resultant changes can be assessed. A validated graded treadmill protocol and validated questionnaires are used for this purpose. Three questionnaires that are currently used include the Walking Impairment Questionnaire, the PAOD Physical Activity Recall and the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. Exercise rehabilitation is a method that has been particularly efficacious for treating the functional impairment associated with intermittent claudication. Exercise rehabilitation has been shown to improve pain-free treadmill walking distance by 44% to 300% and absolute walking distance by 25% to 442%. In addition, improvements have also been reported (using questionnaire data) in the ability to walk distances and speeds, in amount of habitual physical activity and in physical functioning. Thus, exercise rehabilitation has caused improvements not only in exercise capacity but also in community-based functional status. Because of the benefits of this treatment, in addition to the low associated morbidity, exercise therapy is recommended as an important treatment option for people with intermittent claudication due to PAOD.

  19. The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory recognition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rattray

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.

  20. Flow for Exercise Adherence: Testing an Intrinsic Model of Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. Lingyak; Holtz, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health behavior theory generally does not include intrinsic motivation as a determinate of health practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the flow theory of exercise adherence. Flow theory posits that exercise can be intrinsically rewarding if the experiences of self/time transcendence and control/mastery are achieved…

  1. Understanding exercise behavior among Korean adults: a test of the transtheoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHo; Cardinal, Bradley J; Lee, JongYoung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the theorized association of Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change constructs by stage of change for exercise behavior among Korean adults. A total of 1,335 Korean adults were recruited and surveyed from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to identify the stage of exercise behavior and psychological attributes of adolescents. Data were analyzed by frequency analysis, MANOVA, correlation analysis, and discriminant analysis. Multivariate F tests indicated that behavioral and cognitive processes of change, exercise efficacy, and pros differentiated participants across the stages of exercise behavior. Furthermore, the findings revealed that adults' exercise behavior was significantly correlated with the TTM constructs and that overall classification accuracy across the stages of change was 50.6%. This study supports the internal and external validity of the TTM for explaining exercise behavior.

  2. The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory recognition test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Rattray; Disa J. Smee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable intensities on a simple memory recognition task during exercise. Methods: Twenty active participants took part in initial testing, a familiarization trial and then four 60 min cycling interventions in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of no exercise (control), constant exercise at 90%ventilatory threshold (constant) and 2 trials that initially mimicked the constant trial, but then included periods of high (∼90%VO2peak) and low intensities (∼50%VO2peak). Cardiorespiratory measures and capillary blood samples were taken throughout. A short tablet-based cognitive task was completed prior to and during (50 and 55 min into exercise) each intervention. Results: The exercise conditions facilitated response time (p=0.009), although the extent of this effect was not as strong in the variable exercise conditions (p = 0.011–0.089). High intensity exercise periods resulted in some cognitive regression back towards control trial performance. Elevations in cardiorespiratory measures and periods of hypocapnia could not explain changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion: Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.

  3. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  4. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  5. Narrative and framing: a test of an integrated message strategy in the exercise context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer B; Harrington, Nancy G

    2011-03-01

    Health communication interventions encouraging exercise may aid in mitigating the obesity crisis in the United States. Although much research has investigated behavioral predictors of exercise, little work has explored message characteristics most persuasive in the exercise context. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to test a message strategy drawing on previous work in health behavior theory combined with persuasion theories (exemplification theory and prospect theory) to encourage positive exercise attitudes, control beliefs, and intentions. The authors report the results of a controlled experiment testing messages using gain or loss frames and narrative or statistical evidence. Results indicate that gain-framed messages are significantly more successful in promoting positive exercise variables and are perceived as more effective than are loss-framed or control messages. The authors discuss the implications of the results for future research.

  6. Effect of enteral nutrition on cardio-pulmonary function and immunity function in elderly patients with AE-COPD complicated with respiratory failure%肠内营养支持对老年慢阻肺急性加重期合并呼吸衰竭患者心肺功能及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭顺刚; 卢建刚; 曾秋蓉; 余灿; 刘仁海; 刘洪; 刘晓春

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of enteral nutrition on cardio-pulmonary function and immu-nity function in elderly patients with AECOPD complicated with respiratory failure who had received non-invasive pos-itive pressure ventilation ( NIPPV) . Methods 127 elderly patients with AECOPD and respiratory failure who had received NIPPV were randomly divided into the enteral nutrition group (n=68) and the control group (n=59, regu-lar diet) . All patients were given antibiotics and other symptomatic treatment, and nutritional support treatment peri-od was two weeks. Results After the treatment, the nutrition indicators were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0. 05), and the cardio-pulmonary and immunity function in the enteral nutrition group were better than in the control group (P<0. 05). After the treatment, the levels of hs-CRP and TNF-αpresen-ted earlier downward trend in the treatment group while compared with those in the control group (P<0. 05). Con-clusion The enteral nutrition combined with conventional treatment can improve the nutrition status, cardio-pulmo-nary function and immunity function in elderly patients with AECOPD complicated with respiratory failure.%目的:探讨肠内营养支持对老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期( AECOPD)并呼吸衰竭患者的心肺功能及营养免疫状况等的影响。方法127例机械通气AECOPD并呼吸衰竭的老年患者随机分为两组,肠内营养组68例和对照组59例(常规饮食),两组患者均给予抗感染、相关对症治疗,营养支持治疗期为2周。结果肠内营养组治疗后,营养指标较治疗前及对照组明显提高(P<0.05)。肠内营养组治疗后心肺功能及免疫功能指标均较治疗前及对照组显著改善,hs-CRP和TNF-α等炎症指标提前降低(P<0.05)。结论老年AECOPD合并呼吸衰竭患者,在常规治疗的同时给予早期肠内营养治疗,可以改善患者营养状况、心肺功能、免疫功能。

  7. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run test

  8. Exercise stress testing before and after successful multivessel percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Chalela

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding the diagnostic accuracy, optimal technique, and timing of exercise testing after percutaneous coronary intervention. The objectives of the present study were to analyze variables and the power of exercise testing to predict restenosis or a new lesion, 6 months after the procedure. Eight-four coronary multi-artery diseased patients with preserved ventricular function were studied (66 males, mean age of all patients: 59 ± 10 years. All underwent coronary angiography and exercise testing with the Bruce protocol, before and 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention. The following parameters were measured: heart rate, blood pressure, rate-pressure product (heart rate x systolic blood pressure, presence of angina, maximal ST-segment depression, and exercise duration. On average, 2.33 lesions/patient were treated and restenosis or progression of disease occurred in 46 (55% patients. Significant increases in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022, rate-pressure product (P = 0.045 and exercise duration (P = 0.003 were detected after the procedure. Twenty-seven (32% patients presented angina during the exercise test before the procedure and 16 (19% after the procedure. The exercise test for the detection of restenosis or new lesion presented 61% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 62% accuracy, and 67 and 57% positive and negative predictive values, respectively. In patients without restenosis, the exercise duration after percutaneous coronary intervention was significantly longer (460 ± 154 vs 381 ± 145 s, P = 0.008. Only the exercise duration permitted us to identify patients with and without restenosis or a new lesion.

  9. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun OO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga O Abiodun, Michael O Balogun, Anthony O Akintomide, Rasaaq A Adebayo, Olufemi E Ajayi, Suraj A Ogunyemi, Valentine N Amadi, Victor O Adeyeye Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria Background: Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods: One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: The maximal heart rate (P<0.001, peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02, rate pressure product (P<0.001, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001, and exercise capacity (P<0.001 in metabolic equivalents were significantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion: Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. Keywords: maximal exercise, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, hypertension, Nigerians

  10. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  11. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  12. Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction: Comparison between cardiopulmonary exercise test and methacholine challenging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction is a condition in which the physical activity causes constriction of airways in patients with airway hyper- responsiveness. In this study, we tried to study and evaluate any relationship between the findings of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the response to methacholine challenge test (MCT in patients with dyspnea after activity. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with complaints of dyspnea following activity referred to "Lung Clinic" of Baqiyatallah Hospital but not suffering from asthma were entered into the study. The subjects were excluded from the study if: Suffering from any other pulmonary diseases, smoking more than 1 cigarette a week in the last year, having a history of smoking more than 10 packets of cigarettes/year, having respiratory infection in the past 4 weeks, having abnormal chest X-ray or electrocardiogram, and cannot discontinue the use of medicines interfering with bronchial provocation. Baseline spirometry was performed for all the patients, and the values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and FEV/FVC were recorded. The MCT and then the CPET were performed on all patients. Results: The mean VO 2 (volume oxygen in patients with positive methacholine test (20.45 mL/kg/min was significantly lower than patients with negative MCT (28.69 mL/kg/min (P = 0.000. Respiratory rates per minute (RR and minute ventilation in the group with positive MCT (38.85 and 1.636 L were significantly lower than the group with negative methacholine test (46.78 and 2.114 L (P < 0.05. Also, the O 2 pulse rate in the group with negative methacholine test (116.27 mL/beat was significantly higher than the group with positive methacholine test (84.26 mL/beat (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Pulmonary response to exercise in patients with positive methacholine test is insufficient. The dead space ventilation in these patients has increased. Also, dynamic

  13. Exercise stress testing in healthy subjects during cholinergic stimulation after a single dose of pyridostigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador M. Serra

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The evaluation, by exercise stress testing, of the cardiorespiratory effects of pyridostigmine (PYR, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison of hemodynamic and ventilation variables of 10 healthy subjects who underwent three exercise stress tests (the first for adaptation and determination of tolerance to exercise, the other two after administration of placebo or 45mg of PYR. RESULTS: Heart rate at rest was: 68±3 vs 68±3bpm before and after placebo, respectively (P=0.38; 70±2 vs 59±2bpm, before and after pyridostigmine, respectively (P<0.01. During exercise, relative to placebo: a significantly lower heart rate after PYR at, respectively, 20% (P=0.02, 40% (P=0.03, 80% (P=0.05 and 100% (P=0.02 of peak effort was observed. No significant differences were observed in arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption at submaximal and maximal effort, exercise duration, respiratory ratio, CO2 production, ventilation threshold, minute ventilation, and oxygen pulse. CONCLUSION: Pyridostigmine, at a dose of 45mg, decreases heart rate at rest and during exercise, with minimal side effects and without interfering with exercise tolerance and ventilation variables.

  14. Do muscle strengthening exercises improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia G. Reis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking speed seems to be related to aerobic capacity, lower limb strength, and functional mobility, however it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between improvement in muscle strength and gait performance in early postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the performance of the 6-minute walk test in women within 5 years of menopause. METHODS: The women were randomized into control group (n=31, which performed no exercise, and exercise group (n=27, which performed muscle strengthening exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 3 months. The exercise protocol consisted of warm-up, stretching, and strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, calf, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, and abdominal muscles, followed by relaxation. Muscular strength training started with 60% of 1MR (2 series of 10-15 repetitions, reaching 85% until the end of the 3-month period (4 series of 6 repetitions each. RESULTS: The between-group comparisons pre- and post-intervention did not show any difference in distance walked, heart rate or blood pressure (p>0.05, but showed differences in muscle strength post-intervention, with the exercise group showing greater strength (p CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle strengthening of the lower limbs did not improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in this population of postmenopausal women.

  15. Estimation of VO2 Max: A Comparative Analysis of Five Exercise Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiren, Linda D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-eight healthy females measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on the cycle ergometer and treadmill to compare five exercise tests (run, walk, step, and two tests using heart-rate response on the bicycle ergometer) in predicting VO2max. Results indicate that walk and run tests are satisfactory predictors of VO2max in 30- to 39-year-old…

  16. Predischarge maximal exercise test identifies risk for cardiac death in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M

    1990-01-01

    A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...... capacity and systolic blood pressure increase in AMI patients was 59% that of control subjects (p less than 0.001). Seventeen AMI patients had significant ST-segment shifts, 13 with ST depression and 4 with ST elevation. In AMI patients experiencing a cardiac death during follow-up the maximal work...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...

  17. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  18. The effect of regular Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and Stroop test in undergraduate student

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngil

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the Stroop test in undergraduate students. [Methods] Fourteen male subjects participated in this study. They were separated into a Control group (N = 7) and an Exercise group (N = 7). Subjects participated in Taekwondo exercise training for 8 weeks. They underwent to Taekwondo exercise training for 85 minutes per day, 5 times a week at RPE of 11~15. The taekwondo ex...

  19. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.;

    2015-01-01

    and after exercise, PPTs increased to the same degree in active and inactive subjects, and the CPM and EIH responses were correlated (P aerobic exercise caused......). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...... at the dominant arm and leg before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after conditioning and exercise as well as before and after rest. PPTs were also recorded during conditioning. RESULTS: At baseline, PPTs in inactive men were increased compared with inactive women (P 

  20. Effect of Semirecumbent and Upright Body Position on Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander; Antonishen, Kevin; Johnston, Chris; Pearce, Terri; Ryan, Michael; Sheel, A. William; McKenzie, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of upright-posture (UP) versus semirecumbent (SR) cycling on commonly used measures of maximal and submaximal exercise capacity. Nine healthy, untrained men (M age = 27 years, SD = 4.8 years) underwent steady-state submaximal aerobic testing followed by a ramped test to determine maximal oxygen…

  1. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  2. What is the real practice of exercise echocardiographic testing inasymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun Jeong Cho; Sung-Ji Park; Jung-Eun Song; Seol-Hwa Kim; Yung-Joo Lee; Ji-Hye Gak; Sung-A Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background Although exercise testing has been suggested to help predict clinical outcome,limited data are available to guide how exercise Doppler echocardiography (ECG) can be used clinically in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS).The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of exercise echocardiographic testing in asymptomatic patients with severe AS.Methods Symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing using the modified Bruce protocol was performed in 31 asymptomatic patients (mean age (62±11) years) with severe AS (aortic valve area <1 cm2,peak aortic velocity (AV Vmax) >4 m/sec,or a mean transaortic pressure gradient (AV mean PG) >40 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)) with normal left ventricular (LV)systolic function (LV ejection fraction (EF) >50%).Clinical symptoms,vital signs,ECG,and Doppler hemodynamics were obtained during and/or immediately after exercise.Results Aortic valve replacement (AVR) was performed in 18 patients during follow-up.The patients who had AVR exhibited higher baseline AV mean PG (51 (35-84) vs.44 (25.2-57.0) mmHg; P=0.031).There were no significant differences between the AVR group and non-AVR group including exercise duration (7.47 (2.32-11.59) vs.7.25 (4.06-10.52) minutes,P=0.917),exercise capacity (10.1 (4.6-12.8) vs.10.1 (7.0-12.8) metabolic equivalents,P=0.675),and an increment in AV mean PG by exercise (18.5 (3.2-48.0) vs.12.6 (4.4-32.1) mmHg,P=0.366).Univariate regression analysis revealed that independent determinant of AVR was the baseline AV mean PG (P=0.031).Conclusions Although additional value of exercise ECG was demonstrated,baseline transaortic mean pressure gradient is the major determinant of AVR.Further large-scale prospective studies are required to determine whether surgery should be recommended in the presence of an abnormal exercise ECG in asymptomatic severe AS.

  3. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – the gold standard in physical performance assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX is a modern procedure that allows us to evaluate the global performanceof a subject. Because CPX devices are expensive and less popular due to a less amount of specialists in this field, many oflaboratories uses the more common ECG stress tests for physical performance assessment. Aim: to demonstrate theimportance and accuracy of cardiopulmonary exercise testing comparing with traditional maximal electrocardiographic (ECGstress test without gas exchange analysis. Methods: 18th elite soccer players (age 22.7±6 years, body mass 74.6±9.5 kg,height 175.4±9.8 cm participated in the study. The subjects accomplished two treadmill effort tests with and without gasanalyses, in 2 consecutive days interval. Results: At the end of the study we noticed a highly significant statistical difference(p<0.0001 between the investigated testing methods. In gas exchange testing method we found a decreased level of all theparameters evaluated comparing to stress ECG: VO2 peak (ml*kg-1*min-1 = 55.4±5.2 vs. 67.8±5.7; AT (ml*kg-1*min-1 =41.2±7.6 vs. 47.4±6.9; VO2/HR (ml = 23.8±2.5 vs. 23.8±2.5. Conclusions: Asessment of exercise performance based solelyon a maximal stress ECG without gas analyzing is inaccurate. Furthermore, estimation of peak exercise responses based uponcalculation of VO2 peak from peak work rate are inappropriate in sportsman. The study demonstrate once again that CPXremain the most accurate and reliable test for detection of AT and for a comprehensive physical performance assessment andcannot be replace by other surrogate laboratory exercise tests like stress ECG.

  4. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  5. Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise testing in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, E. F.; Owen, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Clinically healthy male executives who participate in a long-term physical conditioning program have demonstrated cardiac arrhythmia during and after periodic ergometric testing at submaximal and maximal levels. In 1,385 tests on 248 subjects, it was found that 34% of subjects demonstrated an arrhythmia at some time and 13% of subjects developed arrhythmia on more than one test. Premature systoles of ventricular origin were most common, but premature systoles of atrial origin, premature systoles of junctional origin, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular block, wandering pacemaker, and pre-excitation were also seen. Careful post-test monitoring and pulse rate regulated training sessions are suggested for such programs.

  6. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger;

    2016-01-01

    and possible asthma referred over 6 months. All subjects received comprehensive assessment including a detailed clinical evaluation; pulmonary function testing, indirect and direct bronchial provocation testing, and CLE testing. Results Out of 37 subjects, moderate or severe EILO was diagnosed in 8 subjects......Introduction Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed...... to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. Methods We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnoea...

  7. Impairment on cardiovascular and autonomic adjustments to maximal isometric exercise tests in offspring of hypertensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francica, Juliana V; Heeren, Marcelo V; Tubaldini, Márcio; Sartori, Michelle; Mostarda, Cristiano; Araujo, Rubens C; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic responses to a mental stress test and to a maximal isometric exercise test between offspring of normotensive (ON, n = 10) and hypertensive parents (OH, n = 10). Subjects underwent a 3-min Stroop Color Word Test and a maximal isometric exercise test performed in an isokinetic dynamometer with continuous RR interval monitoring. At rest, arterial pressure and heart rate were similar between groups, but there was a significant reduction in total RR interval variance (ON: 5933 ± 493 vs. OH: 2967 ± 390 ms(2)) and an increase in low-high frequency components ratio of heart rate variability (ON: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs. OH: 4.6 ± 0.8) in OH group. In the first minute of the mental stress test and after both tests, the OH group presented increased heart rate as compared with the ON group. After both tests, only the ON group presented an increase in sympathetic component, thus reaching resting values similar to those of the OH group. Our data demonstrated increased resting cardiac sympathetic modulation in offspring of hypertensive parents at similar levels to that observed in offspring of normotensive parents after a mental stress test or a maximal isometric exercise test. Additionally, the exacerbated heart rate responses to these physiological tests in OH subjects may be associated with resting autonomic dysfunction, thus reinforcing these evaluations as important tools for detecting early dysfunctions in this genetically predisposed population.

  8. Genetic research and testing in sport and exercise science: a review of the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerhage, Henning; Miah, Andy; Harris, Roger C; Montgomery, Hugh E; Williams, Alun G

    2009-09-01

    This review is based on the BASES position stand on "Genetic Research and Testing in Sport and Exercise Science". Our aims are first to introduce the reader to research in sport and exercise genetics and then to highlight ethical problems arising from such research and its applications. Sport and exercise genetics research in the form of transgenic animal and human association studies has contributed significantly to our understanding of exercise physiology and there is potential for major new discoveries. Researchers starting out in this field will have to ensure an appropriate study design to avoid, for example, statistically underpowered studies. Ethical concerns arise more from the applications of genetic research than from the research itself, which is assessed by ethical committees. Possible applications of genetic research are genetic performance tests or genetic tests to screen, for example, for increased risk of sudden death during sport. The concerns are that genetic performance testing could be performed on embryos and could be used to select embryos for transplantation or abortion. Screening for risk of sudden death may reduce deaths during sporting events but those that receive a positive diagnosis may suffer severe psychological consequences. Equally, it will be almost impossible to keep a positive diagnosis confidential if the individual tested is an elite athlete.

  9. The Role of Exercise Testing in the Modern Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

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    Martin K. Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A culture of exercise testing is firmly embedded in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH but its clinical relevance and utility have recently been under some debate. The six minute walk test (6MWT has been used as a primary outcome measure to enable the licensing of many of the medications used for this condition. Recent reviews have questioned the validity of this test as a surrogate of clinical outcomes. At the same time, other questions are emerging where exercise testing may be the solution. With the rise in understanding of genetic markers of idiopathic PAH (IPAH, the screening of an otherwise healthy population for incipient pulmonary hypertension (PH will be required. The proliferation in treatment choices and identification of populations with PH where PAH treatment is not indicated, such as left heart and lung disease, requires more definitive differentiation from patients with PAH. There is a continuing question about the existence and clinical relevance of exercise induced PAH as a cause of unexplained dyspnoea and fatigue and as a latent phase of resting PH. This review presents a summary and critical analysis of the current role of exercise testing in PAH and speculates on future trends.

  10. Protective effect of D-ribose against inhibition of rats testes function at excessive exercise

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    Chigrinskiy E.A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of research studies point to participation in endurance exercise training as having significant detrimental effects upon reproductive hormonal profiles in men. The means used for prevention and correction of fatigue are ineffective for sexual function recovery and have contraindications and numerous side effects. The search for substances effectively restoring body functions after overtraining and at the same time sparing the reproductive function, which have no contraindications precluding their long and frequent use, is an important trend of studies. One of the candidate substances is ribose used for correction of fatigue in athletes engaged in some sports.We studied the role of ribose deficit in metabolism of the testes under conditions of excessive exercise and the potentialities of ribose use for restoration of the endocrine function of these organs.45 male Wistar rats weighing 240±20 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into 3 groups (n=15: control; excessive exercise; excessive exercise and received ribose treatment. Plasma concentrations of lactic, β-hydroxybutyric, uric acids, luteinizing hormone, total and free testosterone were measured by biochemical and ELISA methods. The superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and uric acids, malondialdehyde, glutathione, ascorbic acids, testosterone levels were estimated in the testes sample.Acute disorders of purine metabolism develop in rat testes under conditions of excessive exercise. These disorders are characterized by enhanced catabolism and reduced reutilization of purine mononucleotides and activation of oxidative stress against the background of reduced activities of the pentose phosphate pathway and antioxidant system. Administration of D-ribose to rats subjected to excessive exercise improves purine reutilization, stimulates the pentose phosphate pathway work

  11. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  12. Electrophysiological predictors of sudden cardiac death on physical exercise test in young athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykova, L. A.; Kotlyarov, A. A.; Ivyanskiy, S. A.; Shirokova, A. A.; Miheeva, K. A.; Makarov, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of sudden death of young athletes continues to be actual. Among its reasons, primary electric myocardium diseases along with organic heart troubles (cardiomyopathies, cordites, anomalies of coronary arteries) take an important place. The most frequent variant of channelopathesis long QT syndrome (LQTS). Both inherited and acquired LQTS may be the reason of sudden cardiac death during physical activity and have to be revealed prior to sports admission. LQTS diagnostics in young athletes become problematic due to secondary exercise-related QT prolongation. Physical load test may reveal myocardium electric instability and enhance LQTS diagnostics accuracy without genetic testing. The aim was to study electrophysiological parameters of myocardium repolarization and reveal the signs of electrical instability as predictors of the life-threatening arrhythmias in young athletes during physical exercise test. In conclusion, electrophysiological myocardium parameters during physical exercise test noted to be markers of electrical myocardial instability and in combination with the other Schwartz criteria, was evidenced the inherited or acquired LQTS. QTc prolongation in athletes at the peak of exercise as well as in early recovery period were noted to be additional predictor life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in young athletes

  13. The impact of discussing exercise test results of young asthmatic children on adherence to maintenance medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Brusse-Keizer, M.; Palen, van der J.; Klok, T.; Thio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parents’ awareness of their child’s asthma may improve by discussing an exercise challenge test (ECT) result with them. We investigated the influence of discussing an ECT result with parents on adherence to inhaled maintenance medication, parental illness perceptions and medication belief

  14. Non-invasive prediction of blood lactate response to constant power outputs from incremental exercise tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C S; Casaburi, R; Storer, T W; Wasserman, K

    1995-01-01

    We determined the ability of gas exchange analyses during incremental exercise tests (IXT) to predict blood lactate levels associated with a range of constant power output cycle ergometer tests. Twenty-seven healthy young men performed duplicate IXT and four 15-min constant power output tests at intensities ranging from moderate to very severe, before and after a training program. End-exercise blood lactate levels were approximated from superficial venous samples obtained 60 s after each constant power output test. From IXT, the power outputs corresponding to peak oxygen uptake (Wmax) and lactic acidosis threshold (WLAT), were determined. We examined the ability of four measures of exercise intensity to predict blood lactate levels for power outputs above the LAT: (1) power output (W), (2) power difference (W-WLAT), (3) power fraction (W/Wmax) and (4) power difference to delta ratio [(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)]. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.38, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.81, respectively. The best linear regression prediction equation was: lactate (mmol.l-1) = 12.2[(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)] + 0.7 mmol.l-1. This relationship was not significantly affected by training, despite increased values of LAT and peak oxygen uptake. Normalizing exercise intensity to the range of power outputs between WLAT and Wmax provided an estimate of blood lactate response to constant power outputs with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 mmol.l-1.

  15. Exercise persistence in the face of varying exercise challenges: a test of self-efficacy theory in working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2011-07-01

    Self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) should influence persistence towards goals. Mothers attempting to exercise while managing work and young children (N = 49, M(age) = 35.69, M(children) = 1.88) were stratified into high or low concurrent SRE groups, then randomized to read a hypothetical scenario detailing numerous or minimal exercise barrier conditions. Consistent with self-efficacy theory, when exercise barriers were numerous, mothers with higher concurrent SRE demonstrated greater persistence towards exercise goals, and perceived concurrent management of exercise with their other valued goals as more positively challenging, than mothers with lower concurrent SRE.

  16. Comparison of exercise tests in French trotters under training track, racetrack and treadmill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroucé, A; Geffroy, O; Barrey, E; Auvinet, B; Rose, R J

    1999-07-01

    Standardised exercise tests were performed at 2 different tracks and on an uninclined treadmill during the same week to determine the influence of exercise surface on different measured variables such as heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume, stride frequency, stride length, gait symmetry and regularity and on different derived physiological variables such as the speed at a HR of 200 beats/min (V200), the speed at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l (V4), the speed at a maximal HR (VHRmax). Five French Trotters, age 3 years, in training for 3 months prior to the test, performed 3 exercise tests on a training track (Test 1), a racetrack (Test 2) and an uninclined treadmill (Test 3). Test 1 utilised 3 steps each of 3 min at speeds of 490, 560 and 630 m/min. Tests 2 and 3 utilised the same speeds and a fourth step in which the horse was accelerated for 30 s to speed approaching maximal. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for the physiological and locomotor variables between the 2 tracks. In contrast, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) for these variables between the tracks and the treadmill, horses showing lower heart rate and blood lactate response, reduced stride frequency and increased stride length and regularity on the uninclined treadmill. We concluded that this standardised exercise test was repeatable on various tracks even when the surface and geometry vary. In contrast, both physiological and locomotor variables were different when comparing the tracks with the uninclined treadmill.

  17. ROLE OF EXERCISE STRESS TEST IN DETECTING UNDERLYING MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA

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    Sachin N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD is the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized countries. In India also there is increasing trends of death and disability due to IHD. The prevalence of IHD in India is 96.7/1000 in urban and 27.1/1000 in rural areas. Main risk factors for IHD are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking and hyperlipidemia. AIM: The present study aims at early detection of IHD which can prevent death and disability in persons with risk factors. DESIGN: The present study is cross sectional observational study carried out in the govt. medical college of rural Indian set-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was carried out on 70 asymptomatic patients of age group 30-70 years with any of the above mentioned risk factors for IHD. The treadmill test was performed in these patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The analysis was done using MS office excel 2007 software. RESULTS: 24.22% patients showed positive treadmill test. This means 24.22% of patients were having underlying IHD though they were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Thus treadmill test is a valuable, non-invasive tool for early detection of myocardial ischemia among the asymptomatic patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease.

  18. QT hysteresis in long-QT syndrome children with exercise testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dong-sheng; FANG Wei-yi; Christine Chiu-Man; Joel Kirsh; Gil Gross; Robert M.Hamilton

    2007-01-01

    Background Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited ion channel disorder resulting in abnormal cardiac repolarization that can cause syncope and sudden death associated with a prolonged rate-corrected QT interval and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Several studies in adults showed that LQTS patients have altered QT adaptation to heart rate changes compared with normal subjects which forming a "hysteresis loop" in the QT-circle length plot. This study was to observe the QT interval changing during exercise testing in children long QT syndrome (LQTS) patients,explore the new diagnosis methods of LQTS.Methods The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to 1993 LQTS diagnostic criteria. Group 1: LQTS group(n=17) who scored > or = 4 points indicating definite LQTS. Group 2: Middle group (n=16), patients who have prolonged QT interval but scored 1.5 to 3.5. Group 3: Normal control group (n=18). The average age of all study population is (12.3±5.8) years. No case had beta-adrenergic antagonists administration before exercise testing. All subjects were underwent tread mill exercise testing and electrocardiograph in whole exercise testing and recovery were recorded. QT and heart rate changing during whole exercise testing period were recorded. △QT, the QT interval at 1, 2, 4, 6 minutes into recovery subtract from the QT interval at a similar heart rate during exercise, were calculated.Results In all three groups, QT intervals were shortening with the increasing of heart rate, but QTc had no significant change. △QT at 1 minute ((45±11) ms), 2 minutes ((37±15) ms), 4 minutes ((23±12) ms) into recovery in LQTS group were significantly greater than that of the other two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). There was no△QT significant difference between middle group and normal control group at recovery time. During the recovery phase in LQTS group, the QT interval remained shortened despite a decelerating heart rate, forming a

  19. Predictors of cardio pulmonary resuscitation outcome in postoperative cardiac children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bana Agha Nasser

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Higher heart rate, lower core body temperature, lower O2 saturation, and higher lactic acid measured 6 hours before arrest are possible predictors of poorer outcome and mortality following CPR in postoperative cardiac children.

  20. Blunted heart rate recovery is associated with exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Umuttan; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2013-11-01

    Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are the proposed mechanisms underlying exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise (EBPR). However, data regarding heart rate behavior in patients with EBPR are lacking. We hypothesized that heart rate recovery (HRR) could be impaired in patients with EBPR. A total of 75 normotensive subjects who were referred for exercise treadmill test examination and experienced EBPR were included to this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group consisted of 75 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects without EBPR. EBPR was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; abnormal HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. These parameters were compared with respect to occurrence of EBPR. Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP at baseline, peak exercise, and the first minute of the recovery were significantly higher in the subjects with EBPR. Mean HRR values were significantly lower (P recovery and degree of HRR in individuals without EBPR (r = 0.42, P recovery period. However, such a correlation was not found in subjects with EBPR. Our data suggest that mechanisms underlying the blunting of the HRR might be associated with the genesis of EBPR. The association between the extent of HRR and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with EBPR needs to be investigated in detail in future research.

  1. Exponential protocols for cardiopulmonary exercise testing on treadmill and cycle ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J P; Megarry, J; Riley, M

    2010-01-01

    An extended exponential exercise protocol was validated by comparing submaximal and maximal parameters with those obtained by linear protocol. Normal subjects (n = 16, 20-69 years) undertook maximal exercise tests on treadmill and cycle ergometer. The subjects had a wide range of exercise capacity, and all were accommodated by the protocol. Mean oxygen uptake (V(O2)) agreed between protocols at gas exchange anaerobic threshold (theta) (95% CI of difference -0.1 to +0.06 l min(-1)) and at peak (95% CI of difference -0.1 to +0.1 l min(-1)). Mean pre-thetaDeltaV(O2)/Deltawork rate (W) slope on the cycle ergometer agreed between protocols (95% CI of the difference -0.9 to +0.25 ml min(-1) W(-1)). Post-thetaDeltaV(O2)/DeltaW slope was steeper than pre-theta, and steeper by linear than by exponential protocol (P = 0.0001). It is concluded that the exponential protocol is valid for the measurement of submaximal and maximal exercise parameters in subjects with a wide range of exercise capacity.

  2. THE EVALUATION OF CLONIDINE, INSULIN, L- DOPA, EXERCISE TESTS ON GROWTH HORMONE IN SHORT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rabbani.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone stimulation tests have been used to assess the growth hormone reserve of the pituitary gland in both children and adults. We have assessed the effect of clonidine, insulin, L-Dopa and exercise on growth hormone secretion in 261 short children. The" results found in this study revealed that there are no significant differences in these stimulation tests (P=0.28 .

  3. The serum protein carbonyl content level in relation to exercise stress test

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    Titiporn Mekrungruangwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein carbonyl (P is oxidatively-modified protein with diagnostic potential for acute myocardial infarction. However, many findings indicated the elevation of serum PC content level related to exercise, which could cause false positive results and limiting the specificity for acute coronary syndrome diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the level of serum protein carbonyl content in healthy volunteers subjected to exercise stress test (EST. Materials and Methods: Serum from healthy volunteers was collected 5-10 min before performing EST and 1 hour after the EST was achieved. The serum was collected, and the serum PC content level was determined by spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Results: The serum PC content level after exercise stress test was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.373 ± 0.05 nM/mg vs. 0.275 ± 0.02 nM/mg, P < 0.0001. The results demonstrated that in both male and female, serum PC content level after EST was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.29 ± 0.03 nM/mg vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in male, 0.27 ± 0.02 nM/mg vs. 0.38 ± 0.06 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in female, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that exercise stress test could result in non-specificity and false positive increasing in serum PC content level in healthy subjects, which may cause misinterpretation when using PC as cardiac marker, especially in patients, who underwent exercise stress test or patients who performing heavy physical activities.

  4. Limited value of recovery phase-limited ST segment depression of treadmill exercise test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hongbo; Huang Zheyong; Lou Yi; Shen Yunli; Qian Juying; Ge Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical meaning of recovery phase limited ST segment depression of a treadmill exercise test is controversial.The aim of this study was to re-assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of ST segment depression during the recovery phase with the active phase of a treadmill exercise test in suspected coronary artery disease patients.Methods Clinical,exercise and angiographic data were retrospectively collected from 602 patients in the study.Five hundred and seventy-six patients developed ST segment depression during the active phase of the treadmill exercise test (group 1) and 26 patients developed ST segment depression only during the recovery phase (group 2).Results With similar major clinical features,the prevalence of significant coronary artery stenosis and average Gensini scores were lower in the recovery phase-limited depression patients (group 2 vs.group 1,50.0% vs.66.9%,P=0.031 and group 2 vs.group 1,1.5 vs.8.5,P=0.04).At a median follow up of 50.9 months for 22 group 2 and 34.8 months for 438 group 1 patients,the prevalence of total cardiac events was higher in group 1 than in group 2 patients (RR 1.60,95% Cl 1.00-2.54,P=0.049).Conclusion The present study provides preliminary evidence that the diagnostic and prognostic value of recovery phaselimited ST segment depression of treadmill exercise test is limited.

  5. Mechanism Development, Testing, and Lessons Learned for the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Christopher D.; Landeck, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) has been developed at NASA Johnson Space Center, for the International Space Station (ISS) program. ARED is a multi-exercise, high-load resistive exercise device, designed for long duration, human space missions. ARED will enable astronauts to effectively maintain their muscle strength and bone mass in the micro-gravity environment more effectively than any other existing devices. ARED's resistance is provided via two, 20.3 cm (8 in) diameter vacuum cylinders, which provide a nearly constant resistance source. ARED also has a means to simulate the inertia that is felt during a 1-G exercise routine via the flywheel subassembly, which is directly tied to the motion of the ARED cylinders. ARED is scheduled to fly on flight ULF 2 to the ISS and will be located in Node 1. Presently, ARED is in the middle of its qualification and acceptance test program. An extensive testing program and engineering evaluation has increased the reliability of ARED by bringing potential design issues to light before flight production. Some of those design issues, resolutions, and design details will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Exertional dyspnoea in COPD: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E. O'Donnell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond. Since dyspnoea is provoked or aggravated by physical activity, its concurrent measurement during standardised laboratory exercise testing is clearly important. Combining measurement of perceptual and physiological responses during exercise can provide valuable insights into symptom severity and its pathophysiological underpinnings. This review summarises the abnormal physiological responses to exercise in COPD, as these form the basis for modern constructs of the neurobiology of exertional dyspnoea. The main objectives are: 1 to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in uncovering the physiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD; 2 to examine the escalating negative sensory consequences of progressive respiratory impairment with disease advancement; and 3 to build a physiological rationale for individualised treatment optimisation based on CPET.

  7. Unexplained exertional dyspnea caused by low ventricular filling pressures: results from clinical invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gregory D.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Systrom, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine whether low ventricular filling pressures are a clinically relevant etiology of unexplained dyspnea on exertion, a database of 619 consecutive, clinically indicated invasive cardiopulmonary exercise tests (iCPETs) was reviewed to identify patients with low maximum aerobic capacity (V̇o2max) due to inadequate peak cardiac output (Qtmax) with normal biventricular ejection fractions and without pulmonary hypertension (impaired: n = 49, V̇o2max = 53% predicted [interquartile range (IQR): 47%–64%], Qtmax = 72% predicted [62%–76%]). These were compared to patients with a normal exercise response (normal: n = 28, V̇o2max = 86% predicted [84%–97%], Qtmax = 108% predicted [97%–115%]). Before exercise, all patients received up to 2 L of intravenous normal saline to target an upright pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≥5 mmHg. Despite this treatment, biventricular filling pressures at peak exercise were lower in the impaired group than in the normal group (right atrial pressure [RAP]: 6 [IQR: 5–8] vs. 9 [7–10] mmHg, P = 0.004; PCWP: 12 [10–16] vs. 17 [14–19] mmHg, P < 0.001), associated with decreased stroke volume (SV) augmentation with exercise (+13 ± 10 [standard deviation (SD)] vs. +18 ± 10 mL/m2, P = 0.014). A review of hemodynamic data from 23 patients with low RAP on an initial iCPET who underwent a second iCPET after saline infusion (2.0 ± 0.5 L) demonstrated that 16 of 23 patients responded with increases in Qtmax ([+24% predicted [IQR: 14%–34%]), V̇o2max (+10% predicted [7%–12%]), and maximum SV (+26% ± 17% [SD]). These data suggest that inadequate ventricular filling related to low venous pressure is a clinically relevant cause of exercise intolerance. PMID:27162614

  8. Identification of patients at low risk of dying after acute myocardial infarction, by simple clinical and submaximal exercise test criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S; A'Hern, R; Quigley, P; Vincent, R; Jewitt, D; Chamberlain, D

    1988-09-01

    A consecutive series of 559 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction aged less than 66 years were studied; 93 were designated prospectively as low-risk because they were suitable for early submaximal exercise testing and had none of the following clinical or exercise test 'risk factors': (1) angina for at least one month prior to infarction; (2) symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias, or (3) recurrent ischaemic pain, both after the first 24 h of infarction; (4) cardiac failure; (5) cardiomegaly; and (6) an abnormal exercise test (angina, ST-depression or poor blood pressure response). Altogether 301 patients were exercised; their mortality over a median follow-up of 2.4 years was 10.2%, versus 24.6% in the 258 patients not exercised (P = 0.0005). Absence of clinical 'risk factors' alone, in the exercised patients, identified 156 with a mortality of 5.4% versus 15.6% in the 145 with at least one clinical 'risk factor' (P = 0.004). The fully defined low-risk group comprised 93 of the former patients who had neither clinical nor exercise test 'risk factors'. None of these patients died compared with 19 of those with at least one 'risk factor' (mortality = 14.7%; P = 0.002). Their respective rates of non-fatal reinfarction were similar and never exceeded 5% per annum. Therefore, simple clinical and exercise test criteria can positively identify low-risk patients after infarction in whom secondary prevention may be inappropriate.

  9. Motivation contagion when instructing obese individuals: a test in exercise settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Johan Y Y; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    We examined motivation contagion in a hypothetical exercise setting. Exercise science students (n = 164) were provided with quotes of hypothetical male and female obese exercisers displaying different quality of motivation to start an exercise program. We used a 3 (exerciser motivation) × 2 (exerciser gender) × 2 (student gender) between-subjects experimental design to examine students' (a) motivation to instruct, (b) interpersonal style, (c) perception of barrier efficacy of the exerciser, and (d) effort to identify factors that could maximize the effectiveness of an exercise program for the exerciser. Results showed that students displayed less controlled motivation and rated the exerciser as more capable of overcoming barriers to exercise when they perceived the exerciser to be autonomously motivated. However, students, particularly females, reported more autonomy support and invested more effort toward female exercisers with controlled motivation. Our findings indicate that motivation contagion effects are plausible in exercise settings and may affect interactions between fitness instructors and obese clients.

  10. A perceptually regulated, graded exercise test predicts peak oxygen uptake during treadmill exercise in active and sedentary participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, Roger; Evans, Harrison; Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Al-Rahamneh, Harran; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2012-10-01

    The validity of predicting peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) in sedentary participants from a perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET) is limited to two cycle ergometry studies. We assessed the validity of a treadmill-based PRET. Active (n = 49; 40.7 ± 13.8 years) and sedentary (n = 26; 33.4 ± 13.2 y) participants completed two PRETS (PRET 1 and PRET2), requiring a change in speed or incline corresponding to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) 9, 11, 13 and 15. Extrapolation of RPE: [Formula: see text] data to RPE 19 and 20 from the RPE 9-13 and 9-15 ranges were used to estimate [Formula: see text], and compared to [Formula: see text] from a graded exercise test (GXT). The [Formula: see text] :heart rate (HR) data (≥RPE 15) from the GXT were also extrapolated to age-predicted maximal HR (HRmax(pred)) to provide further estimation of [Formula: see text]. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between [Formula: see text] predictions from the RPE 9-15 range for PRET 1 and PRET 2 when extrapolated to RPE 19 in both active (54.3 ± 7.4; 52.9 ± 8.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and sedentary participants (34.1 ± 10.2; 34.2 ± 9.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and no difference between the HRmax(pred) method and measured [Formula: see text] from the GXT for active (53.3 ± 10.0; 53.9 ± 7.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) and sedentary participants (33.6 ± 8.4, 34.4 ± 7.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively). A single treadmill-based PRET using RPE 9-15 range extrapolated to RPE 19 is a valid means of predicting [Formula: see text] in young and middle to older-aged individuals of varying activity and fitness levels.

  11. Motivation Contagion When Instructing Obese Individuals: A Test in Exercise Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, J

    2012-01-01

    We examined motivation contagion in a hypothetical exercise setting. Exercise science students (n = 164) were provided with quotes of hypothetical male and female obese exercisers displaying different quality of motivation to start an exercise program. We used a 3 (exerciser motivation) × 2 (exerciser gender) × 2 (student gender) between-subjects experimental design to examine students’ (a) motivation to instruct, (b) interpersonal style, (c) perception of barrier efficacy of the exerciser, a...

  12. Reference values for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in healthy volunteers: the SHIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B; Schäper, C; Ittermann, T; Spielhagen, T; Dörr, M; Völzke, H; Opitz, C F; Ewert, R; Gläser, S

    2009-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a widely applied clinical procedure. The aim of the present study was to acquire a comprehensive set of reference values for cardiopulmonary responses to exercise and to evaluate possible associations with sex, age and body mass index (BMI). A standardised progressive incremental exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer was applied to 1,708 volunteers of a cross-sectional epidemiologic survey, called "Study of Health in Pomerania". Individuals with cardiopulmonary disorders, or echocardiographic or lung function pathologies, were excluded. The influence of potential confounding factors, such as smoking, taking beta-blockers, hypertension, diastolic dysfunction, BMI and physical activity, were analysed for their influencing power. Reference values of CPET parameters were determined by regression analyses. Of the volunteers, 542 current smokers and obese individuals were excluded for not being representative of a healthy population. The final sample size was 534 (253 males), with age 25-80 yrs. The current study provides a representative set of reference values for CPET parameters based on age and weight. Sex and age have a significant influence on exercise parameters. While addressing the problem of a selection bias, the current study provides the first comprehensive set of reference values obtained in a large number of healthy volunteers within a population-based survey.

  13. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1 or positive (G2 for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%. During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016. The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022 and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.

  14. Reference value of long-time exercise test in the diagnosis of primary periodic paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zeyu; Liu Mingsheng; Cui Liying

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-time exercise test (ET) is used to diagnose the primary periodic paralyses (PPs).However the reference values of ET are many and various.This study aimed to investigate the reference value of long-time ET in the diagnosis of PPs.Methods We recruited 108 healthy subjects,68 patients with PPs,and 72 patients with other diseases for the study.The procedure of ET was made on the basis of the McManis' method.Electrical responses were recorded from right abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle when stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist.After the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was monitored,subjects were then asked to contract the muscle as strongly as possible for 5 minutes.CMAPs were recorded for 2 seconds immediately after cessation of exercise,then every 5 minutes for 10 minutes,and finally every 10 minutes for 50 minutes.In general,the CMAP amplitudes will fall below the pre-exercise levels in an hour.The largest decrease was calculated and used as results of ET.Results The CMAP amplitude decreases had no significant differences between groups when the healthy adults were grouped according to age,gender,height,weight and test time.Decreases in PPs patients (57.76%) were significantly more than in healthy subjects (15.21%) and other disease patients (18.10%,P <0.001).Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the best threshold is 35.50%.Conclusions In the long-time exercise test,threshold of 35.50% for the CMAP amplitude decrease was identified for abnormal.The result is not influenced by age,gender,height,weight,and test time.About 7.4% of healthy subjects were abnormal in ET.

  15. Clinical and pathological characteristics of mitochondrial myopathy and the screening value of simplified serum lactic acid exercise test

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    Xiao-fen ZHU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze clinical and pathological characteristics of mitochondrial myopathy (MM in 15 patients, and to study the value of simplified serum lactic acid exercise test in the screening of mitochondrial myopathy.  Methods A total of 15 patients with mitochondrial myopathy diagnosed clinically and pathologically, 11  patients with other muscular diseases (OM, and 21 normal controls were collected. All subjects went up and down stairs for 5 min with medium effort. Blood samples for serum lactic acid detection were collected from all subjects before exercise, immediately after exercise and 10 min after exercise. Serum lactic acid levels were compared among 3 groups and among 3 time points. Results Patients with mitochondrial myopathy mainly presented as paroxysmally progressive muscular   soreness and weakness. Histopathological examination showed there were 8 cases with the proportion of ragged red fibers (RRF more than 5%. Serum lactic acid level before exercise, immediately after exercise and 10 min after exercise were (3.57 ± 1.88, (10.98 ± 4.84 and (7.87 ± 4.38 mmol/L in MM group, (1.89 ± 0.98, (6.05 ± 4.07 and (4.13 ± 3.14 mmol/L in OM group, (1.91 ± 0.53, (3.37 ± 1.22 and (2.52 ± 0.89 mmol/L in control group. Serum lactic acid level in MM group was significantly higher than that in control and OM groups before exercise (P = 0.000, 0.001, immediately after exercise (P = 0.000, 0.001, and 10 min after exercise (P = 0.000, 0.003. Serum lactic acid level in OM group was significantly higher than that in control group immediately after exercise (P = 0.042. Serum lactic acid level in 3 groups immediately after exercise (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.003 and 10 min after exercise (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.013 was significantly higher than that before exercise. Serum lactic acid level immediately after exercise was significantly higher than that 10 min after exercise in 3 groups (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.003. Serum lactic acid level had most

  16. Health Evaluation for Hypertensive Population Using Exercise Testing and Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to assess the impacts of hypertension on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as well as cardiovascular functional status (CVFS). Methods An instrument was presented based on WHOQOL-BREF and SP-16 questionnaire and exercise testing. 57 normotensive and 76 hypertensive subjects aged 35-65 year-old participated the health survey using this instrument.Based on the exercise testing results of the two groups, a discriminate function was established and used to investigate cardiovascular risk factors for hypertensive population. Results The results showed that persons with hypertension rated significantly lower scores on physical health (i.e. limitation in performing daily activities and problems with work or mobility) than did normotensives (P < 0.01). The discriminant score obtained from the exercise testing results was capable of reflecting the impacts of hypertension on CVFS. Conclusions The method presented in this paper provides a more powerful tool to estimate the effects of health interventions and medical therapy for hypertensive population than just self-rated HRQOL questionnaire.

  17. The mathematical analysis of the heart rate and blood lactate curves during incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Mirko; Ilic, V; Obradovic, Z; Pantovic, S; Rosic, G

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a new mathematical approach for the analysis of HR (heart rate) and BL (blood lactate) curves during incremental exercise testing using a HR/BL curve and its derivatives, taking into account the native shape of all curves, without any linear approximation. Using this approach the results indicate the appearance of three characteristic points (A, B and C) on the HR/BL curve. The point A on the HR/BL curve which is the value that corresponds to the load (12.73 ± 0.46 km h-1) at which BL starts to increase above the resting levels (0.9 ± 0.06 mM), and is analogous to Lactate Turn Point 1 (LTP1). The point C on the HR/BL curve which corresponds to a BL of approximately 4mM, and is analogous to LTP2. The point B on the HR/BL curve, which corresponds to the load (16.32 ± 0.49 km h-1) at which the moderate increase turns into a more pronounced increase in BL. This point has not been previously recognized in literature. We speculate this point represents attenuation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, accompanied by the decrease in diastolic time duration during incremental exercise testing. Proposed mathematical approach allows precise determination of lactate turnpoints during incremental exercise testing.

  18. Comparing core stability and traditional trunk exercise on chronic low back pain patients using three functional lumbopelvic stability tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mohammad Bagher; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Jamshidi, Aliashraf

    2015-02-01

    It is a matter of controversy whether core stability exercise is preferred to other types of exercise for chronic low back pain. Lumbopelvic stability is an important element in low back pain. No study was found using lumbopelvic stability tests in comparing core stability and other exercises. The single leg squat, dip test, and runner pose test appear to be suitable as tests for lumbopelvic stability. The aim of this study was to compare "core stability" and "traditional trunk exercise" using these tests and also the Oswestry disability questionnaire and pain intensity. Twenty-nine non-specific chronic low back pain subjects were alternately allocated in one of the two exercise groups. For both groups, a 16-sessions exercise program was provided. Before and after training: (1) video was recorded while subjects performed the tests; (2) Oswestry disability questionnaire was completed; and (3) pain intensity was measured by visual analogue scale. The test videos were scored by three physiotherapists. Statistical analysis revealed a significant improvement in stability test scores (p = 0.020 and p = 0.041) and reduction in disability (p stability or equal effectiveness of TTE and CSE on improving LPS. The non-significant differences may also be attributable to the lack of sensitivity of our tests to assess stability change in two groups after training given the relatively small sample size.

  19. NASA's Functional Task Test: High Intensity Exercise Improves the Heart Rate Response to a Stand Test Following 70 Days of Bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Phillips, Tiffany R.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Urban, Randall J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Stenger, Michael B.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular adaptations due to spaceflight are modeled with 6deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR) and result in decreased orthostatic tolerance. We investigated if high-intensity resistive and aerobic exercise with and without testosterone supplementation would improve the heart rate (HR) response to a 3.5-min stand test and how quickly these changes recovered following BR. During 70 days of BR male subjects performed no exercise (Control, n=10), high intensity supine resistive and aerobic exercise (Exercise, n=9), or supine exercise plus supplemental testosterone (Exercise+T, n=8; 100 mg i.m., weekly in 2-week on/off cycles). We measured HR for 2 min while subjects were prone and for 3 min after standing twice before and 0, 1, 6, and 11 days after BR. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to evaluate group, time, and interaction effects. Compared to pre-bed rest, prone HR was elevated on BR+0 and BR+1 in Control, but not Exercise or Exercise+T groups, and standing HR was greater in all 3 groups. The increase in prone and standing HR in Control subjects was greater than either Exercise or Exercise+T groups and all groups recovered by BR+6. The change in HR from prone to standing more than doubled on BR+0 in all groups, but was significantly less in the Exericse+T group compared to the Control, but not Exercise group. Exercise reduces, but does not prevent the increase in HR observed in response to standing. The significantly lower HR response in the Exercise+T group requires further investigation to determine physiologic significance.

  20. Treadmill exercise testing of asymptomatic men and women without evidence of heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Chalela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of differences in performance including differences in ST-T wave changes between healthy men and women submitted to an exercise stress test. Two hundred (45.4% men and 241 (54.6% women (mean age: 38.7 ± 11.0 years were submitted to an exercise stress test. Physiologic and electrocardiographic variables were compared by the Student t-test and the chi-square test. To test the hypothesis of differences in ST-segment changes, data were ranked with functional models based on weighted least squares. To evaluate the influence of gender and age on the diagnosis of ST-segment abnormality, a logistic model was adjusted; P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Rate-pressure product, duration of exercise and estimated functional capacity were higher in men (P < 0.05. Sixteen (6.7% women and 9 (4.5% men demonstrated ST-segment upslope ≥0.15 mV or downslope ≥0.10 mV; the difference was not statistically significant. Age increase of one year added 4% to the chance of upsloping of segment ST ≥0.15 mV or downsloping of segment ST ≥0.1 mV (P = 0.03; risk ratio = 1.040, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.002-1.080. Heart rate recovery was higher in women (P < 0.05. The chance of women showing an increase of systolic blood pressure ≤30 mmHg was 85% higher (P = 0.01; risk ratio = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.1-3.05. No significant difference in the frequency of ST-T wave changes was observed between men and women. Other differences may be related to different physical conditioning.

  1. [A study of cardiac dynamics during multistage exercise tests performed on a bycicle ergometer (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbato, F; Fiorito, A; Cornelio, G

    1977-05-01

    The authors analysed the behaviour of the mechanical systole (electromechanical systole; tension time, left ventricular ejection time), as well as of the diastole (both cardiac and hemodynamic diastole) during exercise tests performed on a bycicle ergometer, with 40, 80, 120 watt workloads. The mechanical systole--as well as its components--duration is influenced, during exercise test, by both heart rate and stroke volume--pulse pressure being assumed as an indirect index of the latter. The study of the correlation between the two above mentioned parameters has a great importance in evaluating the cardiac pump efficiency both in health and disease. The study of the behaviour of diastole is likewise very important, as it provides useful information concerning: a) the length of the cardiac muscle post-exercise recovery phase; b) the coronary available perfusion time; c) the Windkessel (arterial bellows) emptying time. Moreover, the blood pressure fall rate in diastole is an useful indirect measure of the peripheral resistance changes during muscular work. A statistical analysis is made and the correlation coefficients and the regression equations between the various parameters are defined.

  2. Do We Need Exercise Tests to Detect Gas Exchange Impairment in Fibrotic Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias?

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    Benoit Wallaert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (f-IIP, the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO has been used to predict abnormal gas exchange in the lung. However, abnormal values for arterial blood gases during exercise are likely to be the most sensitive manifestations of lung disease. The aim of this study was to compare DLCO, resting PaO2, P(A-aO2 at cardiopulmonary exercise testing peak, and oxygen desaturation during a 6-min walk test (6MWT. Results were obtained in 121 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n=88 and fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonias (NSIP, n=33. All but 3 patients (97.5% had low DLCO values (35 mmHg and 100 (83% demonstrated significant oxygen desaturation during 6MWT (>4%. Interestingly 27 patients had low DLCO and normal P(A-aO2, peak and/or no desaturation during the 6MWT. The 3 patients with normal DLCO also had normal PaO2, normal P(A-aO2, peak, and normal oxygen saturation during 6MWT. Our results demonstrate that in fibrotic IIP, DLCO better defines impairment of pulmonary gas exchange than resting PaO2, exercise P(A-aO2, peak, or 6MWT SpO2.

  3. Exercise as a provocative test in early renal disease in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Baker, L; Deckert, T

    1985-01-01

    The value of exercise as a provocative test for early renal disease in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was re-evaluated. Three carefully characterized groups of males were studied: 10 non-diabetic controls, 16 diabetic patients (group 1) with normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 15...... micrograms/min) and 14 Albustix-negative diabetics (group 2) with increased urinary albumin excretion (15-122 micrograms/min). Assignment to a study group was made on the basis of three 24-h urine collections, and the groups were well matched for age, weight, height, and serum creatinine concentration....... The two diabetic groups were similar with regard to duration of disease (13 +/- 6 versus 16 +/- 3 years), metabolic control (HbA1c: 8.4 +/- 1.4 versus 8.7 +/- 1.3%) and degree of diabetic complications (beat-to-beat variation and retinopathy). An exercise protocol of 450 and 600 kpm/min workloads...

  4. Exercise testing in hypertensive patients taking different angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela M. Q. Carreira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in hypertensive patients taking trandolapril or captopril. METHODS: We carried out a prospective, randomized, blinded study with 40 patients with primary hypertension and no other associated disease. The patients were divided into 2 groups (n=20, paired by age, sex, race, and body mass index, and underwent 2 symptom-limited exercise tests on a treadmill before and after 30 days of treatment with captopril (75 to 150 mg/day or trandolapril (2 to 4 mg/day. RESULTS: The groups were similar prior to treatment (p<0.05, and both drugs reduced blood pressure at rest (p<0.001. During treatment, trandolapril caused a greater increase in functional capacity (+31% than captopril (+17%; p=0.01 did, and provided better blood pressure control during exercise, observed as a reduction in the variation of systolic blood pressure/MET (trandolapril: 10.7±1.9 mmHg/U vs 7.4±1.2 mmHg/U, p=0.02; captopril: 9.1±1.4 mmHg/U vs 11.4±2.5 mmHg/U, p=0.35, a reduction in peak diastolic blood pressure (trandolapril: 116.8±3.1 mmHg vs 108.1±2.5 mmHg, p=0.003; captopril: 118.2±3.1 mmHg vs 115.8±3.3 mmHg, p=0.35, and a reduction in the interruption of the tests due to excessive elevation in blood pressure (trandolapril: 50% vs 15%, p=0.009; captopril: 50% vs 45%, p=0.32. CONCLUSION: Monotherapy with trandolapril is more effective than that with captopril to control blood pressure during exercise in hypertensive patients.

  5. The relation between BMI with exercise test in individuals with cardiac ischemic pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanbakhsh Esmaeili1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 19 Nov, 2008; Accepted 28 Jan, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Prevalence of over weight and obesity is increasing in the world. Those over weight are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases than other individual's. Studies indicate that body fat distribution has a determining role in the identification of risk factors. Also, the relation between BMI, cardiac ischemic pains and exercise test condition in such patients, is in need further investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between BMI with exercise tolerance test in patients with cardiac ischemic pains, who were referred to the Cardiac Center of Mazandaran Province, in Sari Township.Materials and methods: In this case control study considering the BMI in ischemic patients, 65 were selected as case and 65 persons as control using Tread mill and according to Bruce Protocol, results and tolerance test time was recorded. Independent T test was used for comparison of quantitative indexes mean, while x2 test using SPSS soft ware was used for comparison of the ratio of persons with the qualitative features.Results: Data indicated mean weight of 57.1 kg and height of 1.64m in the case group. Also, 58.5% had history of hyperlipidemia (Cholesterol higher than 200mg/dl and 78.8% with history of blood sugar (higher than 120mg/dl (P<0.001. Even 63.6% had hypertension of 140/9o mm Hg. Our findings showed that BMI in the case and control groups were (26.95±3.94 and (25.95±3.49 respectively. Moreover, a significant relationship between high BMI with cardiac ischemic pains and exercise tolerance test (P<0.001 were demonstrated.Conclusion: Cardiac ischemic pains in individuals with high BMI is common. Exercise tolerance test as one of the non invasive and less expensive procedures, can be an indicator of cardiac ischemic disease.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68: 64-69 (Persian

  6. The testing effect on skills learning might last 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, C B; Bohnstedt, C; Jensen, M L

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research...... question was: does testing as a final activity in a cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills course increase learning outcome when assessed after half a year, compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing? The study was an assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial. A convenient sample of 7......th semester medical students attending a mandatory CPR course was randomised to intervention course or control course. Participants were taught in small groups. The intervention course included 3.5 h skills training plus 30 min of skills testing. The practice-only control course lasted 4 h. Both...

  7. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes.

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    Jennifer M Petrosino

    Full Text Available Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT. Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/- models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or

  8. Swim training does not protect mice from skeletal muscle oxidative damage following a maximum exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tatiane Oliveira; Cleto, Lorena Sabino; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Silva, Renata Sabino; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Sousa-Franco, Junia; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Penaforte, Claudia Lopes; Pinto, Kelerson Mauro de Castro; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2012-07-01

    We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (± 1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.

  9. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  10. Sex differences in response to maximal exercise stress test in trained adolescents

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    Fomin Åsa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex comparisons between girls and boys in response to exercise in trained adolescents are missing and we investigated similarities and differences as a basis for clinical interpretation and guidance. Methods A total of 24 adolescent females and 27 adolescent males aged 13–19 years underwent a maximal bicycle exercise stress test with measurement of cardiovascular variables, cardiac output, lung volumes, metabolic factors/lactate concentrations and breath-by-breath monitoring of ventilation, and determination of peak VO2. Results Maximum heart rate was similar in females (191 ± 9 bpm and males (194 ± 7 bpm, cardiac index at maximum exercise was lower in females (7.0 ± 1.0 l/min/m2 than in males (8.3 ± 1.4 l/min/m2, P 2 was lower in females (2.37 ± 0.34 l/min than in males (3.38 ± 0.49 l/min, P 2 was normalized to leg muscle mass sex differences disappeared (females: 161 ± 21 ml/min/kg vs. males: 170 ± 23 ml/min/kg. The increase in cardiac index during exercise is the key factor responsible for the greater peak VO2 in adolescent boys compared to girls. Conclusions Differences in peak VO2 in adolescent boys and girls disappear when peak VO2 is normalized to estimated leg muscle mass and therefore provide a tool to conduct individual and intersex comparisons of fitness when evaluating adolescent athletes in aerobic sports.

  11. Dimensions of Compulsive Exercise across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Subtypes and the Validation of the Spanish Version of the Compulsive Exercise Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchelli, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to validate the Spanish version of the CET; (2) to compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; (3) to explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder [40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS)] and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. BN and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control, and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the BN and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales avoidance and rule

  12. DIMENSIONS OF COMPULSIVE EXERCISE ACROSS EATING DISORDER DIAGNOSTIC SUBTYPES AND THE VALIDATION OF THE SPANISH VERSION OF THE COMPULSIVE EXERCISE TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sauchelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET; a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: 1 To validate the Spanish version of the CET; 2 To compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; 3 To explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder (40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa, 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. Bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales

  13. A Reduction in Maximal Incremental Exercise Test Duration 48 h Post Downhill Run Is Associated with Muscle Damage Derived Exercise Induced Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrismas, Bryna C. R.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and muscle soreness reduce treadmill maximal incremental exercise (MIE) test duration, and true maximal physiological performance as a consequence of exercise induced pain (EIP) and perceived effort. Methods: Fifty (14 female), apparently healthy participants randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10), or experimental group (EXP, n = 40) visited the laboratory a total of six times: visit 1 (familiarization), visit 2 (pre 1), visit 3 (pre 2), visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post). Both groups performed identical testing during all visits, except during visit 4, where only EXP performed a 30 min downhill run and CON performed no exercise. During visits 2, 3, and 6 all participants performed MIE, and the following measurements were obtained: time to exhaustion (TTE), EIP, maximal oxygen consumption (V·O2max), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximum blood lactate (BLamax), and the contribution of pain to terminating the MIE (assessed using a questionnaire). Additionally during visits 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 the following markers of EIMD were obtained: muscle soreness, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), creatine kinase (CK). Results: There were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.32) between any trials for any of the measures obtained during MIE for CON. In EXP, TTE decreased by 34 s (3%), from pre 2 to 48 h post (p MVC, and VA. The exact mechanisms responsible for this require further investigation. PMID:28337151

  14. EFFECTS OF MAXIMAL SQUAT EXERCISE TESTING ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximal strength and power testing are common assessments that are used to evaluate strength/power athletes. The validity and reliability of these tests have been well established (Hoffman, 2006, however the order of testing may have a profound effect on test performance outcome. It is generally recommended that the least fatiguing and highly-skilled tests are performed first, while highly fatiguing tests are performed last (Hoffman, 2006. Recent research has demonstrated that maximal isometric contractions and maximal or near- maximal dynamic exercise can augment the rate of force development, increase jump height and enhance sprint cycle performance (Chiu et al., 2003; French et al., 2003. The use of a maximal or near-maximal activity to enhance strength and power performance has been termed "muscle postactivation potentiation", and appears to be more common in the experienced resistance-trained athletes than in the recreationally-trained population (Chiu et al., 2003. It is believed that postactivation potentiation can enhance muscle performance by increasing the neural signal that activates the muscle (Hamada et al., 2000. Since heavy loading in a similar movement pattern of exercise appears to enhance maximal strength and power performance in the experienced resistance-trained athlete, it may be hypothesized that the postactivation potentiation associated with heavy loading has the potential to augment subsequent performance of tests utilizing similar motion. Therefore, consideration of an appropriate sequence of athletic performance testing in strength and power athletes is warranted. We would like to share our experience on the effect of performing a maximal lower body strength test on vertical jump performance in experienced resistance-trained strength/power athletes.We examined 64 NCAA Division III American collegiate football players (age = 20.1 ± 1.9 yr; body mass = 97.5 ± 17.8 kg; height = 1.80 ± 0.12 m. All testing was performed

  15. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the evaluation of high risk patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO You-sheng; WANG Yong-gang; HUANG Jin-feng; HE Jie; YAN Shao-ping; Dong Jing-si; CHENG Gui-yu; SUN Ke-lin; LIU Xiang-yang; FANG De-kang; LI Jian

    2010-01-01

    Background It is still unclear whether pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are sufficient for predicting perioperative risk,and whether all patients or only a subset of them need a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) for further assessment.Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the CPET and compare the results of CPET and conventional PFTs to identify which parameters are more reliable and valuable in predicting perioperative risks for high risk patients with lung cancer.Methods From January 2005 to August 2008, 297 consecutive lung cancer patients underwent conventional PFTs (spirometry + single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lungs (DLCOsb) for diffusion capacity) and CPET preoperatively. The correlation of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications with the parameters of PFT and CPET was retrospectively analyzed using the chi-square test, independent sample t test and binary Logistic regression analysis.Results Of the 297 patients, 78 did not receive operation due to advanced disease stage or poor cardiopulmonary function. The remaining 219 underwent different modes of operations. Twenty-one cases were excluded from this study due to exploration alone (15 cases) and operation-related complications (6 cases). Thus, 198 cases were eligible for evaluation. Fifty of the 198 patients (25.2%) had postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. Three patients (1.5%)died of complications within 30 postoperative days. The patients were stratified into groups based on VO2max/pred respectively. The rate of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications was significantly higher in the group with cardiopulmonary complications were significantly correlated with age, comorbidities, and poor PFT and CPET results.used to stratify the patients' cardiopulmonary function status and to predict the risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary predicting perioperative risk. If available, cardiopulmonary exercise testing is strongly suggested for high-risk lung cancer patients in

  16. Progress of cardiopulmonary exercise testing%心肺运动试验研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永前; 苏建奎; 桂星雨; 王芳利; 李建国; 王二鹏

    2015-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides a global assessment of the integrative exercise responses involving the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems by testing the gas exchange in airway. CPET is commonly used to evaluate the presence and severity of coronary ischemia, as well as exertional symptoms, heart rate and blood pressure responses and estimated aerobic capacity. CPET has become an important global clinical detection tool, while fewer related researches are carried out in China. The parameters, methods, exercise protocol, equipment, cardiopulmonary function evaluation and clinical application of CPET are introduced in this review.%心肺运动试验(CPET)是在一定运动负荷下,通过检测代谢与生理指标反映心、肺储备能力以及2者的协调性,进而同步、整体评估运动状态下呼吸系统、心血管系统、神经系统、骨骼肌肉系统等多器官、系统的功能。 CPET综合各种工程及医学技术,具有相对无创、客观定量等优点,目前已成为国际上用于评价心肺储备能力和心肺协调性水平的普遍且重要的临床检测手段,但我国的相关研究较少。从测量参数、试验方法、运动方案、试验设备、评价指标及临床应用等方面对CPET作一综述。

  17. Consensus evaluation of radioactivity-in-soil reference materials in the context of an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Collins, Sean; Garcia Miranda, Maria; Ivanov, Peter; Larijani, Cyrus; Woods, Selina

    2017-01-25

    The development of two radioactivity-in-soil reference materials is described - one for peat and one for soil with high sand content. Each bulk material was processed, subdivided and measured before being sent to participants in an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in each material were determined by 'consensus' evaluations of participants' results using two weighted mean methods. The project demonstrated the use of such exercises in delivering reference materials to the user community.

  18. Prospective evaluation of a new protocol for the provisional use of perfusion imaging with exercise stress testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvall, W.L. [Hartford Hospital, Division of Cardiology (Henry Low Heart Center), Hartford, CT (United States); Mount Sinai Medical Center, Division of Cardiology (Mount Sinai Heart), New York, NY (United States); Savino, John A.; Levine, Elliot J.; Croft, Lori B.; Henzlova, Milena J. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Division of Cardiology (Mount Sinai Heart), New York, NY (United States); Hermann, Luke K. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Previous literature suggests that myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) adds little to the prognosis of patients who exercise >10 metabolic equivalents (METs) during stress testing. With this in mind, we prospectively tested a provisional injection protocol in emergency department (ED) patients presenting for the evaluation of chest pain in which a patient would not receive an injection of radioisotope if adequate exercise was achieved without symptoms and a negative ECG response. All patients who presented to the ED over a 5-year period who were referred for stress testing as part of their ED evaluation were included. Patients considered for a provisional protocol were: exercise stress, age <65 years, no known coronary artery disease, and an interpretable rest ECG. Criteria for not injecting included a maximal predicted heart rate ≥85 %, ≥10 METs of exercise, no anginal symptoms during stress, and no ECG changes. Groups were compared based on stress test results, all-cause and cardiac mortality, follow-up cardiac testing, subsequent revascularization, and cost. A total of 965 patients were eligible with 192 undergoing exercise-only and 773 having perfusion imaging. After 41.6 ± 19.6 months of follow-up, all-cause mortality was similar in the exercise-only versus the exercise plus imaging group (2.6 % vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.59). There were no cardiac deaths in the exercise-only group. At 1 year there was no difference in the number of repeat functional stress tests (1.6 % vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.43), fewer angiograms (0 % vs. 4.0 %, p = 0.002), and a significantly lower cost (65 ± 332 vs 506 ± 1,991, p = 0.002; values are in US dollars) in the exercise-only group. The radiation exposure in the exercise plus imaging group was 8.4 ± 2.1 mSv. A provisional injection protocol has a very low mortality, few follow-up diagnostic tests, and lower cost compared to standard imaging protocols. If adopted it would decrease radiation exposure, save time and decrease health-care costs

  19. Effect of different oils administration on oleic and linoleic serum profile in horses during standardised exercise test on treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Battista Liponi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its energy density, fat is often added to the diet for exercising horses; however, little attention has been given to the effect of dietary fatty acid composition. The aims of this study were to compare the effect of two diets containing different oils on the fatty acids haematic profile during and after an aerobic exercise test on treadmill. Four adult trained gelding Standardbred (mean BW=481±27 kg were used in a two replicated 2x2 Latin Square design. Mixed hay-concentrate diets contained corn oil (CORN or a mix of mono-di and triglycerides of olive oil (MDTO were administrated. The horses received the diets for a period of four weeks. At the end of the adaptation period an aerobic exercise test on treadmill (30-min long was carried on. Blood samples were collected at rest, after 15’ and 30’ of exercise and during recovery period (at 10’, 30’ and 60’. Serum fatty acid concentration was determined. MDTO supplemented horses showed an higher percentage of Oleic acid during and after the exercise test; whereas Linoleic acid showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between groups with the highest value at 10’ and 30’ after exercise in the CORN supplemented group.

  20. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Reza Ahmadian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62% and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P<0.001. Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  1. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, H Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J; Emmons, Ethan E; Morris, Michael J; Leclerc, Kenneth M; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  2. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, Daphne; de Haan, Arnold; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Houdijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to dete

  3. Non-invasive haemodynamic assessments using Innocor during standard graded exercise tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Piero; Boutellier, Urs; Toigo, Marco

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac output (Q) and stroke volume (V(S)) represent primary determinants of cardiovascular performance and should therefore be determined for performance diagnostics purposes. Since it is unknown, whether measurements of Q and V(S) can be performed by means of Innocor during standard graded exercise tests (GXTs), and whether current GXT stages are sufficiently long for the measurements to take place, we determined Q and V(S) at an early and late point in time on submaximal 2 min GXT stages. 16 male cyclists (age 25.4 +/- 2.9 years, body mass 71.2 +/- 5.0 kg) performed three GXTs and we determined Q and V(S) after 46 and 103 s at 69, 77, and 85% peak power. We found that the rebreathings could easily be incorporated into the GXTs and that Q and V(S) remained unchanged between the two points in time on the same GXT stage (69% peak power, Q: 18.1 +/- 2.1 vs. 18.2 +/- 2.3 l min(-1), V(S): 126 +/- 18 vs. 123 +/- 21 ml; 77% peak power, Q: 20.7 +/- 2.6 vs. 21.0 +/- 2.3 l min(-1), V(S): 132 +/- 18 vs. 131 +/- 18 ml; 85% peak power, Q: 21.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 21.8 +/- 2.7 l min(-1), V(S): 131 +/- 17 vs. 131 +/- 22 ml). We conclude that Innocor may be a useful device for assessing Q and V(S) during GXTs, and that the adaptation of Q and V(S) to exercise-to-exercise transitions at moderate to high submaximal power outputs is fast enough for 1 and 2 min GXT stage durations.

  4. Safety, feasibility, and results of exercise testing for stratifying patients with chest pain in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Machado Macaciel

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess safety, feasibility, and the results of early exercise testing in patients with chest pain admitted to the emergency room of the chest pain unit, in whom acute myocardial infarction and high-risk unstable angina had been ruled out. METHODS: A study including 1060 consecutive patients with chest pain admitted to the emergency room of the chest pain unit was carried out. Of them, 677 (64% patients were eligible for exercise testing, but only 268 (40% underwent the test. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients studied was 51.7±12.1 years, and 188 (70% were males. Twenty-eight (10% patients had a previous history of coronary artery disease, 244 (91% had a normal or unspecific electrocardiogram, and 150 (56% underwent exercise testing within a 12-hour interval. The results of the exercise test in the latter group were as follows: 34 (13% were positive, 191 (71% were negative, and 43 (16% were inconclusive. In the group of patients with a positive exercise test, 21 (62% underwent coronary angiography, 11 underwent angioplasty, and 2 underwent myocardial revascularization. In a univariate analysis, type A/B chest pain (definitely/probably anginal (p<0.0001, previous coronary artery disease (p<0.0001, and route 2 (patients at higher risk correlated with a positive or inconclusive test (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: In patients with chest pain and in whom acute myocardial infarction and high-risk unstable angina had been ruled out, the exercise test proved to be feasible, safe, and well tolerated.

  5. The single-bout forearm critical force test: a new method to establish forearm aerobic metabolic exercise intensity and capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mikhail Kellawan

    Full Text Available No non-invasive test exists for forearm exercise that allows identification of power-time relationship parameters (W', critical power and thereby identification of the heavy-severe exercise intensity boundary and scaling of aerobic metabolic exercise intensity. The aim of this study was to develop a maximal effort handgrip exercise test to estimate forearm critical force (fCF; force analog of power and establish its repeatability and validity. Ten healthy males (20-43 years completed two maximal effort rhythmic handgrip exercise tests (repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVC; 1 s contraction-2 s relaxation for 600 s on separate days. Exercise intensity was quantified via peak contraction force and contraction impulse. There was no systematic difference between test 1 and 2 for fCF(peak force (p = 0.11 or fCF(impulse (p = 0.76. Typical error was small for both fCF(peak force (15.3 N, 5.5% and fCF(impulse (15.7 N ⋅ s, 6.8%, and test re-test correlations were strong (fCF(peak force, r = 0.91, ICC = 0.94, pfCF(peak force. TTE predicted by W' showed good agreement with actual TTE during the TTE tests (r = 0.97, ICC = 0.97, P<0.01; typical error 0.98 min, 12%; regression fit slope = 0.99 and y intercept not different from 0, p = 0.31. MVC did not predict fCF(peak force (p = 0.37, fCF(impulse (p = 0.49 or W' (p = 0.15. In conclusion, the poor relationship between MVC and fCF or W' illustrates the serious limitation of MVC in identifying metabolism-based exercise intensity zones. The maximal effort handgrip exercise test provides repeatable and valid estimates of fCF and should be used to normalize forearm aerobic metabolic exercise intensity instead of MVC.

  6. A single electromyographic testing point is valid to monitor neuromuscular fatigue during continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Sujay S; Malek, Moh H

    2014-10-01

    Two different protocols for estimating the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) have been proposed in the literature. These protocols are distinguished by the number of visits required to determine the EMGFT. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to statistically compare the estimated EMGFT from the single-visit incremental test and the multiple-visit constant workload tests for single-leg knee-extensor exercise. Seven healthy college-aged men [mean ± SEM; age = 25.0 ± 0.7 years] performed the incremental test and on separate occasions also performed 4 constant workload tests to voluntary exhaustion. The EMG amplitude was recorded from the rectus femoris muscle during all the testing sessions. For the single-visit test, the EMG amplitude vs. time relationship for each power output was examined using linear regression. For the multiple-visit tests, the EMG amplitude vs. time relationship was calculated for each constant power output. Thereafter, the power outputs were plotted as a function of the slope coefficient for the EMG amplitude vs. time relationships, and linear regression was performed. The EMGFT was defined as the intersection of the regression line with the y-intercept of the power output vs. slope coefficient plot. The results indicated that the estimated EMGFT from the single-visit test was significantly (p = 0.012) lower than the estimate from the multiple-visit tests. Because this test is performed during a single visit and concludes within 20 minutes, it may also have application in clinical rehabilitation settings and not merely for an athletic population.

  7. Effect of Exercise Testing on Short-term Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Dai-Fu; Liang, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET.Results It sh......Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET...

  8. Physiological responses to a tap dance choreography: comparisons with graded exercise test and prescription recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Samantha M L; Simões, Herbert G; Moreira, Sergio R; Lima, Ricardo M; Almeida, Jeeser A; Ribeiro, Fabiana M R; Puga, Guilherme M; Campbell, Carmen S G

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physiological responses to a tap dance choreography and to compare with those observed during a maximal treadmill exercise test, in tap dancers. Eight women (19.6 +/- 2.4 years; 162.3 +/- 4.4 cm; 54.0 +/- 2.3 kg; 20.5 +/- 1.4 kg.m; and 5.1 +/- 2.6 years of tap dance training) were submitted to the following procedures: (a) graded exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion with 0.8 km.h of increment at each 3 and 1 minute of interval between stages and (b) tap dance choreography (TAP)-"The Shim Sham Shimmy"-consisting of 9 stages of 3 minutes with 1-minute rest between stages. Expired gas analyses were performed in all experimental sessions, providing breath-by-breath values for respiratory exchange rate (RER), oxygen uptake (VO(2)), and carbon dioxide production (CO2). Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. During the rest period between stages, blood samples (25 microl) were collected from the ear lobe for lactate threshold (LT) determination. It was observed that at the end of the TAP, subjects achieved an average of 83.8 +/- 6.2% of the HRmax and 68.9 +/- 11.3% of the VO(2)max, both previously identified in the GXT. The choreography demanded 204.7 +/- 31.3 kcal, an average RER of 0.88 +/- 0.05 and mean RPE of 13 +/- 2. The VO(2), HR, and RPE values did not significantly differ from those at the LT intensity identified during the GTX. Based on the present results, it was concluded that the TAP performance in the "The Shim Sham Shimmy" choreography elicited acute physiologic responses similar to those observed at the LT intensity, thus suggesting that Tap Dance constitutes a useful exercise modality for aerobic fitness and cardiovascular health improvements.

  9. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing early after stroke using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: test-retest reliability and repeatability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoller, O.; de Bruin, E.D.; Schindelholz, M.; Schuster-Amft, C.; de Bie, R.A.; Hunt, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise capacity is seriously reduced after stroke. While cardiopulmonary assessment and intervention strategies have been validated for the mildly and moderately impaired populations post-stroke, there is a lack of effective concepts for stroke survivors suffering from severe motor lim

  10. Hemodynamic Changes After Static and Dynamic Exercises and Treadmill Stress Test; Different Patterns in Patients with Primary Benign Exertional Headache?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rostami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15 and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12 were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  11. Prognostic significance of cardiopulmonary exercise testing for 10-year survival in patients with mild to moderate heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, A; Koyama, Y; Itoh, H; Adachi, H; Marumo, F; Hiroe, M

    2000-12-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated the prognostic significance of exercise variables, they have focused only on short-term prognosis in relatively severe heart failure. This study was carried out to determine whether the indices obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing have prognostic significance during a 10-year follow-up in mild to moderate heart failure. Three hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients with cardiac disease performed 4 min of 20-W warm-up, followed by a symptom-limited incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. In addition to the measurements of peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and gas exchange (anaerobic) threshold, the time constant of VO2 kinetics during the onset of warm-up exercise was calculated using a single exponential equation. Data on mortality were available for follow-up in 260 patients. After 3,331+/-610 days of follow-up, 29 cardiovascular-related deaths occurred. The time constant of VO2 in the nonsurvivors was 76.7+/-43.3 s and was significantly prolonged compared with that of survivors (55.3+/-30.6 s, p=0.001). Peak VO2 and gas exchange threshold were both significantly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for 10 years of follow-up demonstrated a survival rate of 89.0% for patients with a normal VO2 time constant ( or = 80 s), showing a significant difference in survival (p=0.0028). Respiratory gas parameters obtained during exercise testing, particularly the time constant of VO2 kinetics, were found to be useful for predicting long-term prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. These results suggest that cardiopulmonary exercise testing could be more applicable in ambulatory patients with minimal symptoms or minimal functional impairment.

  12. Prognosis of patients with positive exercise test and normal myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(Ex-MPI) is regarded as a predictive technique particularly in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) capable of performing exercise testing. In clinical practice, we encounter equivocal situations of discordant findings between exercise ECG and MPI. We evaluated the prognosis of subjects with positive ECG and normal MPI findings, and predictive factors for cardiac events. 2571 Ex-MPI studies were reviewed over a period of 3 years. Subjects were followed for more than 2 years(24-56 months, mean 35{+-}10months) for cardiac events after study. The cardiac events were defined as hard events(cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction(MI)) and soft events(aggravation of CAD necessitating revascularization, congestive heart failure necessitating hospital admission). We evaluated age, sex, typical angina pain, rest ECG, hypertension, diabetes mellitus(DM), serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, smoking history, history of cerebrovascular disease(CVD) and peripheral artery disease(PAD), and rest left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) as clinical variables. Of 83 subjects with positive ECG and normal MPS findings, 6 were considered as false negative results confirmed with coronary angiography. There were 77 patients (mean age 52{+-}10 years, 39 males) with positive ECG and normal MPI results. During the follow-up period, of 77 there were 3 cardiac events (annual rate 1.9%), no cardiac death, 2 nonfatal MIs (annual rate 1.3%) and 1 soft event (annual rate 0.6%). 2/39 males(5.1%), and 1/38 females(2.6%) had cardiac events. All cardiac events were observed within 2 years. 1-year cardiac event rate was 0.6% and 2-year cardiac event rate was 1.9%. Among clinical factors, male sex, typical chest pain and smoking history at the time of MPI were predictive of cardiac events. Patients with positive ECG and negative EX-MPI results have low risk for cardiac events. Nevertheless, the cardiac events cannot be excluded totally in some

  13. Problematic Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa: Testing Potential Risk Factors against Different Definitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Rizk

    Full Text Available "Hyperactivity" has a wide prevalence range of 31% to 80% in the anorexia nervosa literature that could be partly due to the plethora of definitions provided by researchers in this field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1 To assess the variance across prevalence rates of problematic exercise encountered in patients with anorexia nervosa, in relation to seven different definitions found in the literature. 2 To examine how core eating disorder symptoms and the dimensions of emotional profile are associated with these different definitions and the impact of these definitions on the assessment of patients' quality of life. Exercise was evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, type and compulsion using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 women suffering from severe anorexia nervosa. Seven different definitions of problematic exercise were identified in the literature: three entailing a single dimension of problematic exercise (duration, compulsion or intensity and four combining these different dimensions. Emotional profile scores, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, eating disorder symptomatology, worries and concerns about body shape, self-esteem and quality of life were assessed using several established questionnaires. The prevalence of problematic exercise varied considerably from, 5% to 54%, depending on the number of criteria used for its definition. The type and level of eating disorder symptomatology was found to be associated with several definitions of problematic exercise. Surprisingly, a better self-reported quality of life was found among problematic exercisers compared to non-problematic exercisers in three of the definitions. The different definitions of problematic exercise explain the broad prevalence ranges and the conflicting associations generally reported in the literature between problematic exercise and eating disorder-related psychological parameters. There is an urgent need for a valid consensus on the

  14. Problematic Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa: Testing Potential Risk Factors against Different Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Melissa; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie; Kern, Laurence; Godart, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    "Hyperactivity" has a wide prevalence range of 31% to 80% in the anorexia nervosa literature that could be partly due to the plethora of definitions provided by researchers in this field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) To assess the variance across prevalence rates of problematic exercise encountered in patients with anorexia nervosa, in relation to seven different definitions found in the literature. 2) To examine how core eating disorder symptoms and the dimensions of emotional profile are associated with these different definitions and the impact of these definitions on the assessment of patients' quality of life. Exercise was evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, type and compulsion using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 women suffering from severe anorexia nervosa. Seven different definitions of problematic exercise were identified in the literature: three entailing a single dimension of problematic exercise (duration, compulsion or intensity) and four combining these different dimensions. Emotional profile scores, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, eating disorder symptomatology, worries and concerns about body shape, self-esteem and quality of life were assessed using several established questionnaires. The prevalence of problematic exercise varied considerably from, 5% to 54%, depending on the number of criteria used for its definition. The type and level of eating disorder symptomatology was found to be associated with several definitions of problematic exercise. Surprisingly, a better self-reported quality of life was found among problematic exercisers compared to non-problematic exercisers in three of the definitions. The different definitions of problematic exercise explain the broad prevalence ranges and the conflicting associations generally reported in the literature between problematic exercise and eating disorder-related psychological parameters. There is an urgent need for a valid consensus on the definition of

  15. Use of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions for assessing indices of gas exchange during exercise testing.

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    Carter, R; Banham, S W

    2000-04-01

    The slow response characteristics of the combined transcutaneous electrode have been viewed as a major disadvantage when compared with other types of non-invasive assessment of gas exchange during exercise testing. We have previously shown that by using the highest recommended temperature of 45 degrees C to reduce response times, and combining this with an exercise protocol of gradual work load increments, that this allows changes in arterial blood gases to be closely followed by transcutaneous values. In the present study we have validated the use of a transcutaneous electrode for estimation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaO2) and dead space to tidal volume ratio (V(D)/V(T)) during exercise, against values calculated from direct arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred measurements were made in 20 patients with various cardiopulmonary disorders who underwent exercise testing. Exercise testing was performed by bicycle ergometry with a specific protocol involving gradual work load increments at 2 min intervals. Transcutaneous gas tensions were measured by a heated combined O2 and CO2 electrode. Arterial blood was sampled at the midpoint of each stage of exercise and transcutaneous tensions noted at the end of each stage. The mean difference of the AaO2 gradient calculated from blood gas tensions obtained by the two methods was 0.14 kPa. The limits of agreement were -0.26 and 0.63 kPa. The same values for V(D)/V(T) calculated from gas tensions measured by the two methods were: mean difference 0001; limits of agreement -0.0242 and 0.0252. For both these parameters there was an even scatter around the mean value on Bland and Altman analysis. The findings of this study suggest that estimation of parameters of gas exchange using transcutaneous values during exercise testing is reliable, provided the electrode is heated to a slightly higher temperature than usual and the work load increments are gradual, allowing for the latency in the response time of the system

  16. Relative power of clinical, exercise test, and angiographic variables in predicting clinical outcome after myocardial infarction: the Newham and Tower Hamlets study.

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    de Belder, M A; Pumphrey, C W; Skehan, J D; Rimington, H; al Wakeel, B; Evans, S J; Rothman, M; Mills, P G

    1988-11-01

    The interrelations of clinical, exercise test, and angiographic variables and their relative values in predicting specific clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction have not been fully established. Of 302 consecutive stable survivors of infarction, 262 performed a predischarge submaximal exercise test. In the first year after infarction patients with a "positive" exercise test were 13 times more likely to die, 2.8 times more likely to have an ischaemic event, and 2.3 times more likely to develop left ventricular failure than patients with negative tests. Patients with positive exercise tests underwent cardiac catheterization. Features of the history, 12 lead electrocardiogram, in-hospital clinical course, exercise test, and left ventricular and coronary angiograms that predicted these clinical end points were identified by univariate analysis. Then multivariable analysis was used to assess the relative powers of all variables in predicting end points. Certain features of the exercise test remained independent predictors of future ischaemic events and the development of overt left ventricular failure, but clinical and angiographic variables were more powerful predictors of mortality. Because the exercise test is also used to select patients for angiography, however, the results of this study strongly support the use of early submaximal exercise testing after infarction.

  17. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Using Cycle Ergometry: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Imboden, Mary T; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established. This report provides newly developed standards for CRF reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) using cycle ergometry in the United States. Ten laboratories in the United States experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed to the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry from April 2014 through May 2016. Data from 4494 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.1) cycle ergometer tests from men and women (20-79 years) from 27 states, without cardiovascular disease, were used to develop these references values. Percentiles of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from age 20 years through age 79 years. Comparisons of VO2max were made to reference data established with CPX data from treadmill data in the FRIEND Registry and previously published reports. As expected, there were significant differences between sex and age groups for VO2max (Pstandard differences from treadmill testing reference values.

  18. N-acetylcysteine modifies the acute effects of isosorbide-5-mononitrate in angina pectoris patients evaluated by exercise testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Klarlund, K; Aldershvile, J

    1989-01-01

    , given together with a single oral dose of the long-acting nitrate, isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN, 60 mg), would modify the nitrate effect evaluated by exercise testing before and after additional sublingual doses of nitroglycerin (NTG). Ten patients with angina pectoris and angiographically proven...... significant coronary artery disease were included. All patients received a baseline therapy with beta blockers. None of the patients had developed nitrate tolerance at inclusion. NAC/5-ISMN treatment significantly prolonged the total exercise time as compared with placebo/5-ISMN (7.7 +/- 2.1 min vs. 6.8 +/- 1...

  19. Hypoalgesia after exercise and the cold pressor test is reduced in chronic musculuskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In chronic pain patients, impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) have been reported. No studies have compared CPM and EIH in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity (HPS) and low pain sensitivity (LPS). MATERIALS.......005). Pain tolerance increased after the cold pressor test and exercise in both groups (PCPM and EIH were partly impaired in chronic pain patients with high versus less pain sensitivity, suggesting that the CPM and EIH responses depend on the degree of pain sensitivity. This has clinical...

  20. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.

  1. Myocardial perfusion quantification in patients suspected of cardiac syndrome X with positive and negative exercise testing : A [N-13]ammonia positron emission tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jessica; DeJongste, Mike J. L.; Jessurun, Gillian A. J.; Jager, Pieter L.; Staal, Michiel J.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background The combination of angina pectoris, angiographically normal coronary arteries, and a positive exercise stress test (EST) is referred to as cardiac syndrome X. However, a large group of patients suspected of syndrome X reveals a normal exercise stress test and weakens the diagnosis of synd

  2. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  3. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mieczkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8 and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: 54±3.6. There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce’s protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity.

  4. Usefulness of predischarge exercise electrocardiographic testing in detecting the late patency status of the infarct-related artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouris, Evaggelos; Pappa, Eugenia; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Pappas, Kostas; Karanikis, Paulos; Dimitroula, Vasiliki; Ntatsis, Anastasios; Siogas, Kostas

    2004-05-01

    Predischarge exercise electrocardiographic testing (PEET) represents a widely accepted clinical tool for prognostic and functional assessment of patients who experience an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, there are no data suggesting any relation between PEET results and patency status of the infarct-related artery (IRA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ST and/or QT-dispersion (QTD) changes induced by a low-level PEET, after uncomplicated ST-elevation AMI, are related to the late patency status of the IRA. We prospectively evaluated 61 consecutive patients who had suffered a first uncomplicated ST-elevation AMI. All of them successfully carried out four stages of the modified Bruce protocol exercise testing before discharge, and thereafter were subjected to coronary angiography. Exercise-induced ST elevation and QTD shortening were found significantly more frequently in patients with persistently occluded IRA, as compared to patients with patent IRA (ST elevation 65% vs 27%, P = 0.006; QTD shortening 80% vs 29%, P positive predictive value of 75%, whereas the absence of both predicted the patency of IRA with a negative predictive value of 100%. These results indicate that ST-elevation and QT-dispersion changes induced by a predischarge exercise testing after a first ST-elevation AMI may effectively predict the late patency status of the infarct-related artery.

  5. Prognostic value of QTc interval dispersion changes during exercise testing in hypertensive men

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    Đorđević Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The prognostic significance of QTc dispersion changes during exercise testing (ET in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy is not clear. OBJECTIVE The aim was to study the dynamics of QTc interval dispersion (QTcd in patients (pts with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH during the exercise testing and its prognostic significance. METHOD In the study we included 55 men (aged 53 years with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy and a negative ET (LVH group, 20 men (aged 58 years with a positive ET and 20 healthy men (aged 55 years. There was no statistically significant difference in the left ventricular mass index (LVMI between LVH group and ILVH group (160.9±14.9 g/m2 and 152.8±22.7 g/m2. The first ECG was done before the ET and the second one was done during the first minute of recovery, with calculation of QTc dispersion. The patients were followed during five years for new cardiovascular events. RESULTS During the ET, the QTcd significantly increased in LVH group (56.8±18.0 - 76.7±22.6 ms; p<0.001. A statistically significant correlation was found between the amount of ST segment depression at the end of ET and QTc dispersion at the beginning and at the end of ET (r=0.673 and r=0.698; p<0.01. The QTc dispersion was increased in 35 (63.6% patients and decreased in 20 (36.4% patients during the ET. Three patients (5.4% in the first group had adverse cardiovascular events during the five-year follow-up. A multiple stepwise regression model was formed by including age, LVMI, QTc interval, QTc dispersion and change of QTc dispersion during the ET. There was no prognostic significance of QTc interval and QTc dispersion during five-year follow-up in regard to adverse cardiovascular events, but prognostic value was found for LVMI (coefficient β=0.480; p<0.001. CONCLUSION The increase of QTc interval dispersion is common in men with positive ET for myocardial ischemia and there is a correlation between QTc dispersion and

  6. MRC chronic Dyspnea Scale: Relationships with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-minute walk test in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a prospective study

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    Roussos Charis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exertional dyspnea is the most prominent and disabling feature in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The Medical Research Chronic (MRC chronic dyspnea score as well as physiological measurements obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT are shown to provide information on the severity and survival of disease. Methods We prospectively recruited IPF patients and examined the relationship between the MRC score and either CPET or 6MWT parameters known to reflect physiologic derangements limiting exercise capacity in IPF patients Results Twenty-five patients with IPF were included in the study. Significant correlations were found between the MRC score and the distance (r = -.781, p 2 at the initiation and the end (r = -.542, p = 0.005 and r = -.713, p VO2 peak/kg (r = -.731, p 2 at peak exercise (r = -. 682, p 2 slope (r = .731, p 2 at AT (r = .630, p = 0.002 and the Borg scale at peak exercise (r = .50, p = 0.01 for the CPET. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the only variable independently related to the MRC is the distance walked at the 6MWT. Conclusion In this population of IPF patients a good correlation was found between the MRC chronic dyspnoea score and physiological parameters obtained during maximal and submaximal exercise testing known to reflect ventilatory impairment and exercise limitation as well as disease severity and survival. This finding is described for the first time in the literature in this group of patients as far as we know and could explain why a simple chronic dyspnea score provides reliable prognostic information on IPF.

  7. Dobutamine stress echo is superior to exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate among patients on beta blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Adam; Pack, Michael; Markiewicz, Richard; John, Jooby; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven; Thai, Hoang

    2005-01-01

    Published guidelines recommend continuing beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in patients undergoing stress testing. We evaluated the role of pharmacological versus exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate (THR) among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade. We compared data from 140 patients who underwent dobutamine stress echo (DSE) and 143 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing (ETT). In both groups, beta-adrenergic blocker was continued at the time of stress testing. Overall, patients undergoing DSE achieved THR more frequently than ETT. With beta-adrenergic blockade, DSE patients met THR more frequently than ETT patients (p < 0.001). Without beta-adrenergic blockade, there was no difference between either modality in achieving THR. In both DSE and ETT patients, absence of beta-adrenergic blockade increased the odds of achieving THR [odds ratio (OR): 2.46, p = 0.042 and OR: 7.44, p < 0.001, respectively]. Atropine use with DSE increased the odds of achieving THR (OR: 3.76, p = 0.006). In conclusion, pharmacological stress testing appears to be superior to exercise stress testing in achieving THR among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade.

  8. Serial High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Post-Primary Angioplasty Exercise Test

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    Vaz, Humberto Andres, E-mail: humbertovaz@cardiol.br; Vanz, Ana Paula; Castro, Iran [Instituto de Cardiologia - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The kinetics of high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT) release should be studied in different situations, including functional tests with transient ischemic abnormalities. To evaluate the release of hscTnT by serial measurements after exercise testing (ET), and to correlate hscTnT elevations with abnormalities suggestive of ischemia. Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary angioplasty were referred for ET 3 months after infarction. Blood samples were collected to measure basal hscTnT immediately before (TnT{sub 0h}), 2 (TnT{sub 2h}), 5 (TnT{sub 5h}), and 8 hours (TnT{sub 8h}) after ET. The outcomes were peak hscTnT, TnT{sub 5h}/TnT{sub 0h} ratio, and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) for hscTnT levels. Log-transformation was performed on hscTnT values, and comparisons were assessed with the geometric mean ratio, along with their 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of covariance with no adjustment, and then, adjusted for TnT{sub 0h}, age and sex, followed by additional variables (metabolic equivalents, maximum heart rate achieved, anterior wall STEMI, and creatinine clearance). This study included 95 patients. The highest geometric means were observed at 5 hours (TnT{sub 5h}). After adjustments, peak hscTnT, TnT{sub 5h}/TnT{sub 0h} and AUC were 59% (p = 0.002), 59% (p = 0.003) and 45% (p = 0.003) higher, respectively, in patients with an abnormal ET as compared to those with normal tests. Higher elevations of hscTnT may occur after an abnormal ET as compared to a normal ET in patients with STEMI.

  9. Serial High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Post-Primary Angioplasty Exercise Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Andres Vaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The kinetics of high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT release should be studied in different situations, including functional tests with transient ischemic abnormalities. Objective: To evaluate the release of hscTnT by serial measurements after exercise testing (ET, and to correlate hscTnT elevations with abnormalities suggestive of ischemia. Methods: Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty were referred for ET 3 months after infarction. Blood samples were collected to measure basal hscTnT immediately before (TnT0h, 2 (TnT2h, 5 (TnT5h, and 8 hours (TnT8h after ET. The outcomes were peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h ratio, and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC for hscTnT levels. Log-transformation was performed on hscTnT values, and comparisons were assessed with the geometric mean ratio, along with their 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of covariance with no adjustment, and then, adjusted for TnT0h, age and sex, followed by additional variables (metabolic equivalents, maximum heart rate achieved, anterior wall STEMI, and creatinine clearance. Results: This study included 95 patients. The highest geometric means were observed at 5 hours (TnT5h. After adjustments, peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h and AUC were 59% (p = 0.002, 59% (p = 0.003 and 45% (p = 0.003 higher, respectively, in patients with an abnormal ET as compared to those with normal tests. Conclusion: Higher elevations of hscTnT may occur after an abnormal ET as compared to a normal ET in patients with STEMI.

  10. Attitudes and exercise adherence: test of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Biddle, S J

    1999-04-01

    Three studies of exercise adherence and attitudes are reported that tested the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In a prospective study of adherence to a private fitness club, structural equation modelling path analysis showed that attitudinal and social normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action accounted for 13.1% of the variance in adherence 4 months later, although only social norm significantly predicted intention. In a second study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to predict both physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Path analyses showed that attitude and perceived control, but not social norm, predicted total physical activity. Physical activity was predicted from intentions and control over sedentary behaviour. Finally, an intervention study with previously sedentary adults showed that intentions to be active measured at the start and end of a 10-week intervention were associated with the planned behaviour variables. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant multivariate effects for time on the planned behaviour variables measured before and after intervention. Qualitative data provided evidence that participants had a positive experience on the intervention programme and supported the role of social normative factors in the adherence process.

  11. Mathematical analysis of the heart rate performance curve during incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, G; Pantovic, S; Niciforovic, J; Colovic, V; Rankovic, V; Obradovic, Z; Rosic, Mirko

    2011-03-01

    In this study we performed laboratory treadmill protocols of increasing load. Heart rate was continuously recorded and blood lactate concentration was measured for determination of lactate threshold by means of LTD-max and LT4.0 methods.Our results indicate that the shape of heart rate performance curve (HRPC) during incremental testing depends on the applied exercise protocol (change of initial speed and the step of running speed increase, with the constant stage duration). Depending on the applied protocol, the HRPC can be described by linear, polynomial (S-shaped), and exponential mathematical expression.We presented mathematical procedure for estimation of heart rate threshold points at the level of LTD-max and LT4.0, by means of exponential curve and its relative deflection from the initial trend line (tangent line to exponential curve at the point of starting heart rate). The relative deflection of exponential curve from the initial trend line at the level of LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be defined, based on the slope of the initial trend line. Using originally developed software that allows mathematical analysis of heart rate-load relation, LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be estimated without direct measurement of blood lactate concentration.

  12. ST segment elevation in lead aVR during exercise testing is associated with LAD stenosis

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    Neill, Johanne; Harbinson, Mark [Royal Victoria Hospital, Regional Medical Cardiology Centre, Belfast (United Kingdom); Queens University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Shannon, Heather J.; Morton, Amanda; Muir, Alison R.; Adgey, Jennifer A. [Royal Victoria Hospital, Regional Medical Cardiology Centre, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    To evaluate, in patients with chest pain, the diagnostic value of ST elevation (STE) in lead aVR during stress testing prior to {sup 99m} Tc-sestamibi scanning correlating ischaemic territory with angiographic findings. Consecutive patients attending for {sup 99m} Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) completed a treadmill protocol. Peak exercise ECGs were coded. STE {>=}0.05 mV in lead aVR was considered significant. Gated perfusion images and findings at angiography were assessed. STE in lead aVR occurred in 25% (138/557) of the patients. More patients with STE in aVR had a reversible defect on imaging compared with those who had no STE in aVR (41%, 56/138 vs 27%, 114/419, p=0.003). Defects indicating a left anterior descending artery (LAD) culprit lesion were more common in the STE in aVR group (20%, 27/138 vs 9%, 39/419, p=0.001). There was a trend towards coronary artery stenosis (>70%) in a double vessel distribution involving the LAD in those patients who had STE in aVR compared with those who did not (22%, 8/37 vs 5%, 4/77, p=0.06). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that STE in aVR (OR 1.36, p=0.233) is not an independent predictor of inducible abnormality when adjusted for STD >0.1 mV (OR 1.69, p=0.026). However, using anterior wall defect as an end-point, STE in aVR (OR 2.77, p=0.008) was a predictor even after adjustment for STD (OR 1.43, p=0.281). STE in lead aVR during exercise does not diagnose more inducible abnormalities than STD alone. However, unlike STD, which is not predictive of a territory of ischaemia, STE in aVR may indicate an anterior wall defect. (orig.)

  13. Noninvasive assessment of normality of VD/VT in clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing utilizing incremental cycle ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Michael A; Casaburi, James D; Porszasz, Janos; Casaburi, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Dead space to tidal volume ratio (V(D)/V(T)), a measure of pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, cannot be accurately calculated without arterial blood sampling. We sought to determine, in patients presenting for diagnostic cardiopulmonary exercise tests, whether there are ranges of the ratio of exhaled ventilation to carbon dioxide output (V(E)/VCO(2)) measured at the lactate threshold that are highly predictive of normality or abnormality of exercise V(D)/V(T) (below or above 0.3) and whether other demographic or physiologic variables aid in this prediction. We reviewed 691 incremental cycle ergometer cardiopulmonary exercise tests featuring breath-by-breath gas exchange measurement and serial arterial blood sampling that were performed for patients with a range of disorders. When V(E)/VCO(2) at the lactate threshold was ≤28, 96 % of subjects had normal V(D)/V(T). For V(E)/VCO(2) 29-32, V(D)/V(T) was normal in 83 % of cases. V(E)/VCO(2) of 33-38 provided no useful information; V(D)/V(T) was normal and abnormal in 50 % of cases each. When V(E)/VCO(2) was ≥39, V(D)/V(T) was abnormal in 87 % of cases. For V(E)/VCO(2) ≥ 39, when FEV(1)/VC was VCO(2) range. Our results reveal that certain values of V(E)/VCO(2) at LT (V (E)/VCO(2) ≤ 28 and V(E)/VCO(2) ≥ 39), but not others (V(E)/VCO(2) 29-32 and especially V(E)/VCO(2) of 33-38), can be helpful in determining normality of V(D)/V(T) during exercise in patients presenting for cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

  14. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p ecocardiografia com estresse físico na doença arterial coronária, mas a predição de mortalidade e de eventos cardíacos maiores, em pacientes com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica, é limitada. Objetivo: Avaliar a predição de mortalidade e de eventos cardíacos maiores pela

  15. Stress Echocardiography and Major Cardiac Events in Patients with Normal Exercise Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasans, Flávia Ricci; Santos, Bruno Fernandes de Oliveira; Silveira, Débora Consuelo Rocha; de Araújo, Ana Carla Pereira; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise test (ET) is the preferred initial noninvasive test for the diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD), however, its lower sensitivity may fail to identify patients at greater risk of adverse events. Objective To assess the value of stress echocardiography (SE) for predicting all-cause mortality and major cardiac events (MACE) in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD and a normal ET. Methods 397 patients with intermediate CAD pretest probability, estimated by the Morise score, and normal ET who underwent SE were studied. The patients were divided into two groups according to the absence (G1) or presence (G2) of myocardial ischemia on SE .End points evaluated were all-cause mortality and MACE, defined as cardiac death and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Results G1 group was comprised of 329 (82.8%) patients. The mean age of the patients was 57.37 ± 11 years and 44.1% were male. During a mean follow-up of 75.94 ± 17.24 months, 13 patients died, three of them due to cardiac causes, and 13 patients suffered nonfatal AMI. Myocardial ischemia remained an independent predictor of MACE (HR 2.49; [CI] 95% 1.74-3.58). The independent predictors for all-cause mortality were male gender (HR 9.83; [CI] 95% 2.15-44.97) and age over 60 years (HR 4.57; [CI] 95% 1.39-15.23). Conclusion Positive SE for myocardial ischemia is a predictor of MACE in the studied sample, which helps to identify a subgroup of patients at higher risk of events despite having normal ET. PMID:23765384

  16. Exercise physiology, testing, and training in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur

    2015-08-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research.

  17. Measurement of coronary calcium scores by electron beam computed tomography or exercise testing as initial diagnostic tool in low-risk patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geluk, Christiane A.; Perik, Patrick J.; Tio, Rene A.; Goette, Marco J.W.; Hillege, Hans L.; Zijlstra, Felix [University Medical Center Groningen, Thoraxcenter, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Dikkers, Riksta; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Houwers, Janneke B.; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    We determined the efficiency of a screening protocol based on coronary calcium scores (CCS) compared with exercise testing in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), a normal ECG and troponin levels. Three-hundred-and-four patients were enrolled in a screening protocol including CCS by electron beam computed tomography (Agatston score), and exercise testing. Decision-making was based on CCS. When CCS{>=}400, coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. When CCS<10, patients were discharged. Exercise tests were graded as positive, negative or nondiagnostic. The combined endpoint was defined as coronary event or obstructive CAD at CAG. During 12{+-}4 months, CCS{>=}400, 10-399 and <10 were found in 42, 103 and 159 patients and the combined endpoint occurred in 24 (57%), 14 (14%) and 0 patients (0%), respectively. In 22 patients (7%), myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was performed instead of exercise testing due to the inability to perform an exercise test. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test result was found in 37, 76 and 191 patients, and the combined endpoint occurred in 11 (30%), 15 (20%) and 12 patients (6%), respectively. Receiver-operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93) for CCS was superior to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.78) for exercise testing (P<0.0001). In conclusion, measurement of CCS is an appropriate initial screening test in a well-defined low-risk population with suspected CAD. (orig.)

  18. Transient myocardial ischemia after a first acute myocardial infarction and its relation to clinical characteristics, predischarge exercise testing and cardiac events at one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1993-01-01

    recording 11 +/- 5 days after AMI 23 patients (19%) had 123 ischemic episodes (group 1), whereas 100 patients demonstrated no ischemia (group 2). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression was more prevalent in group 1 (83%) than in group 2 (47%) (p ... as judged from a shorter exercise duration before significant ST-segment depression (5.5 +/- 2.4 vs 7.7 +/- 4.1 minutes; p depression on exercise testing (4.1 +/- 2.6 vs 2.6 +/- 1.6 mm; p exercise test results revealed an impaired hemodynamic......The relation between early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST-segment monitoring, clinical characteristics, predischarge maximal exercise testing and cardiac events was determined in 123 consecutive men (age 55 +/- 8 years) with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). During 36 hours of ambulatory...

  19. Testing the recovery of stellar rotation signals from Kepler light curves using a blind hare-and-hounds exercise

    CERN Document Server

    Aigrain, S; Ceillier, T; Chagas, M L das; Davenport, J R A; Garcia, R A; Hay, K L; Lanza, A F; McQuillan, A; Mazeh, T; de Medeiros, J R; Nielsen, M B; Reinhold, T

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a blind exercise to test the recoverability of stellar rotation and differential rotation in Kepler light curves. The simulated light curves lasted 1000 days and included activity cycles, Sun-like butterfly patterns, differential rotation and spot evolution. The range of rotation periods, activity levels and spot lifetime were chosen to be representative of the Kepler data of solar like stars. Of the 1000 simulated light curves, 770 were injected into actual quiescent Kepler light curves to simulate Kepler noise. The test also included five 1000-day segments of the Sun's total irradiance variations at different points in the Sun's activity cycle. Five teams took part in the blind exercise, plus two teams who participated after the content of the light curves had been released. The methods used included Lomb-Scargle periodograms and variants thereof, auto-correlation function, and wavelet-based analyses, plus spot modelling to search for differential rotation. The results show that th...

  20. IEA Common Exercise 4: ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models for thermal performance characterization of the test box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this report results of applying time series models for assessing the thermal performance of the IEA Annex 58 test box based on data given in the Common Exercise 4 (CE4), which was measured in Almeria, Spain. Both ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models are applied. Finally, the same models are fitted...... for the Common Exercise 3b (CE3) data measured in Belgium and the results are compared. The focus in this report is on model selection and validation enabling a stable and reliable performance assessment. Basically, the challenge is to find a procedure for each type of model, which can give un...... radiation is present data), these aspects are discussed. Furthermore, new models for enhancing the description of the effect of solar radiation on the test box is presented....

  1. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - breath-functional characterization and disease severity assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühle, A; Obst, A; Winkler, J; Ewert, R

    2015-09-01

    COPD is a heterogeneous disease with a wide range of clinical phenotypes and breath-functional dysfunctions. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) allows describing all component parts of breathing and determining exercise capacity and the mechanisms of exercise limitation. From these aspects 64 COPD patient stages II, III and IV according to the conventional GOLD classification were examined by means of CPET to evaluate whether CPET can provide a better functional characterization of COPD than the standard investigation procedures in pulmonary practice.We could show that in pulmonary practice CPET is safely and effectively practicable in stable COPD patients of all GOLD stages. This method allowed a clinical and prognostic disease severity assessment of all patients, proving important differences of peak oxygen uptake in each GOLD stage, so that patients in spite of identical GOLD disease severity were to be assigned to different prognostic groups according CPET criteria. Furthermore, we found relevant differences of individual breath-functional patterns in exercise, which can neither be objectified nor be prognosticated by standard investigation procedures at rest.Therefore CPET allows, aside from an objective clinical and prognostic disease severity assessment, also a breath-functional evaluation in a subtly way in COPD patients reflecting the multidimensional background of the disease with variable dysfunctions in pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, circulation and muscular function as well as associated cardio vascular comorbidities. The breath-functional phenotyping of the COPD patient seems to be meaningful in particular for an individualised therapy management.

  2. Physiological parameters during the initial stages of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure - Their value in the assessment of clinical severity and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, RJM; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Dunselman, PHJM; van der Veer, N; Crijns, HJGM

    1997-01-01

    Aims To analyse the relationship between initial exercise parameters and peak oxygen consumption and prognosis in 96 patients with congestive heart failure. Methods and Results Comparison of responses during the initial 6 min of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (Naughton modified protocol) in patien

  3. Identification of a core set of exercise tests for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy : a Delphi survey of researchers and clinicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Keefer, Daniel; Wright, Virginia; Butler, Jane; Ada, Louise; Maher, Carol; Reid, Siobhan; Wright, Marilyn; Dalziel, Blythe; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Unnithan, Viswanath; Maltais, Desiree B.; Van Den Berg-Emons, Rita; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    AIM Evidence-based recommendations regarding which exercise tests to use in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) are lacking. This makes it very difficult for therapists and researchers to choose the appropriate exercise-related outcome measures for this group. This study aimed to ident

  4. An investigation into a contactless photoplethysmographic mobile application to record heart rate post-exercise: Implications for field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peart Daniel J.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a contactless photoplethysmographic mobile application (CPA to record post-exercise heart rate and estimate maximal aerobic capacity after the Queen’s College Step Test. It was hypothesised that the CPA may present a cost effective heart rate measurement tool for educators and practitioners with limited access to specialised laboratory equipment.

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exercise can improve or maintain some aspects of cognitive function, such as your ability to shift quickly ... activity, and ignore irrelevant information. For more on cognitive function and exercise, see "Do Exercise and Physical ...

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  9. The clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing: results of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Jalusic-Gluncic

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the main reasons for cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET referrals in our hospital over the last two years; to evaluate clinical usefulness of CPET. Methods: We included 207 patients between 17 and 76 years of age. For every patient, we measured electrocardigraphy (ECG, arterial blood gases, spirometry, maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV and diffusing capacity. CPET was then performed; using a treadmill, according to the modified Bruce protocol; then spirometry and diffusing capacity were repeated. Results: The most common reason for sending patients for CPET was dyspnea during exertion (85%, then preoperative assessment of lung cancer patients (11.6%, and preoperative assessment of heart transplant candidates (3.4%. After CPET in a dyspnea group, 33.5% had normal findings, 22.2% had pulmonary limitation, 31.8% had non pulmonary pathology, and 12.5% reached submaximal effort due to subjective problems (poor condition, feeling discomfort but no objective reasons to stop. From a lung cancer group, 25% were deemed unsuitable surgical candidates, and 14.29% of a heart transplant group was recommended immediate surgery, the remainder needed re-evaluation. Conclusion: Dyspnea of unknown cause is optimally investigated with CPET, allowing us to differentiate between the major causes of limitation (lung, heart, cardiovascular, muscular and, within each area, the specific causes of limitation. The most common diagnoses after CPET are pulmonary and cardiac diagnoses. CPET helps us to detect concurrent cardiovascular disease at respiratory impaired patients. CPET is the gold standard for evaluation of morbidity and mortality risk of lung cancer surgery and for selection of patients for heart transplant. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 297-303

  10. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in improving the rehabilitation of patients with heart failure and anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guşetu G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is known to be recurrent in heart failure patients and its presence is an unfavorable prognostic factor (1,2. However, treatment with iron supplements or erythropoietin has proven to improve the health of this category of patients (1,3. Except in cases when hemoglobin value is below 8g %, anemia does not exclude patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and/or heart failure from rehabilitation programs, but patients with anemia have lower exercise capacity and significantly lower VO2 peak increase than patients without anemia (4,5. Anemia associated with sedentary lifestyle complicates the situation, since they both decrease exercise capacity, and makes the choice of rehabilitation programs and exercise intensity more difficult, chiefly in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, which has a considerable impact on the beneficial effects of physical activity.

  11. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  12. Determining The Electromyographic Fatigue Threshold Following a Single Visit Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Sujay S; Guffey, Darren R; Coburn, Jared W; Malek, Moh H

    2015-07-27

    Theoretically, the electromyographic (EMG) fatigue threshold is the exercise intensity an individual can maintain indefinitely without the need to recruit more motor units which is associated with an increase in the EMG amplitude. Although different protocols have been used to estimate the EMG fatigue threshold they require multiple visits which are impractical for a clinical setting. Here, we present a protocol for estimating the EMG fatigue threshold for cycle ergometry which requires a single visit. This protocol is simple, convenient, and completed within 15-20 min, therefore, has the potential to be translated into a tool that clinicians can use in exercise prescription.

  13. The standardization of results on hair testing for drugs of abuse: An interlaboratory exercise in Lombardy Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramesi, C; Vignali, C; Groppi, A; Caligara, M; Lodi, F; Pichini, S; Jurado, C

    2012-05-10

    Hair testing for drugs of abuse is performed in Lombardy by eleven analytical laboratories accredited for forensic purposes, the most frequent purposes being driving license regranting and workplace drug testing. Individuals undergoing hair testing for these purposes can choose the laboratory in which the analyses have to be carried out. The aim of our study was to perform an interlaboratory exercise in order to verify the level of standardization of hair testing for drugs of abuse in these accredited laboratories; nine out of the eleven laboratories participated in this exercise. Sixteen hair strands coming from different subjects were longitudinally divided in 3-4 aliquots and distributed to participating laboratories, which were requested to apply their routine methods. All the participants analyzed opiates (morphine and 6-acetylmorphine) and cocainics (cocaine and benzoylecgonine) while only six analyzed methadone and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA) and five Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The majority of the participants (seven labs) performed acidic hydrolysis to extract the drugs from the hair and analysis by GC-MS, while two labs used LC-MS/MS. Eight laboratories performed initial screening tests by Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) or Cloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay (CEDIA). Results demonstrated a good qualitative performance for all the participants, since no false positive results were reported by any of them. Quantitative data were quite scattered, but less in samples with low concentrations of analytes than in those with higher concentrations. Results from this first regional interlaboratory exercise show that, on the one hand, individuals undergoing hair testing would have obtained the same qualitative results in any of the nine laboratories. On the other hand, the scatter in quantitative results could cause some inequalities if any interpretation of the data is

  14. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Michaelides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET. The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients ( years, 103 males with MVP (according to echocardiographic study, and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD. Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET while the rest 128 (group B presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60% while only in 14 patients of group B (11%, . Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP.

  15. Preoperative hypoalgesia after cold pressor test and aerobic exercise is associated with pain relief six months after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Emmeluth, Claus

    2017-01-01

    PPT) and subsequently the pain tolerance threshold (cPTT). 2) Manual pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the legs, arm and shoulder. Clinical pain intensity (numerical rating scale) and psychological distress (questionnaires) were assessed. RESULTS: Clinical pain intensity, psychological distress, cPPT and PPT...... investigated the association between exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and CPM on post-TKR pain relief. METHODS: Before and six months post-TKR, 14 patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis performed the cold pressor test on the non-affected leg and two exercise conditions (bicycling and isometric knee...... post-TKR (Passociated with pain relief six months after TKR. EIH as a novel preoperative screening tool should be further investigated...

  16. On Exercise Value of South American Zumba%南美尊巴健身价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华玲; 黄国龙

    2013-01-01

    To study exercise value of South American Zumba by means of literature survey,experimentation and so on.The result shows that the music and actions of Zumba link closely to each other.The actions of Zumba are funny,interesting,easy to learn,strong in interaction and moderate in exercise intensity,so it can effectively enhance cardio-pulmonary function,develop muscle strength of lower limbs and promote the balance ability and coordination of body as well as the extensibility and elasticity of muscle and ligament.Besides,it also can burn fat,shape figure,improve self-esteem,promote affective interaction and social adaptation ability of practicers.Therefore,Zumba is a totally new and modern group aerobic exercise and popularly suit for nationwide body-building.%运用文献法、实验法等,对南美尊巴的健身价值进行研究,结果表明:尊巴的音乐与动作联系紧密,动作滑稽、有趣、易学,互动性强,运动强度适中,能有效增强练习者的心肺功能和下肢的肌肉力量,提高身体的平衡能力和协调性,发展肌肉、韧带的伸展性和弹性.还能消耗练习者的脂肪、塑造形体,改善身体自尊水平,促进情感的交流,增强其社会适应能力,是一项全新、时尚的集体有氧运动,适合在全民健身中推广.

  17. Food Microbiology--Design and Testing of a Virtual Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Steve; Stewart, Terry

    2010-01-01

    A web-based virtual laboratory exercise in identifying an unknown microorganism was designed for use with a cohort of 3rd-year university food-technology students. They were presented with a food-contamination case, and then walked through a number of diagnostic steps to identify the microorganism. At each step, the students were asked to select 1…

  18. Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ratter

    2014-09-01

    [Ratter J, Radlinger L, Lucas C (2014 Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 144–150

  19. Physiological responses to maximal exercise testing and the modified incremental shuttle walk test in adults after thermal injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kellie Anne; Davis, Mark John; Brown, Michael Graeme; Boots, Robert; Paratz, Jennifer Davida

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing hypermetabolic response associated with burn injury contributes significantly to loss of function, morbidity, and mortality. Exercise is strongly recommended to assist recovery and overall functional outcome. To date, there have been limited studies investigating the validity and practicality of both maximal laboratory and field tests in adult burns survivors. The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic and ventilatory response to cardiopulmonary maximal exercise testing (CPET) and the modified shuttle walk test (MSWT) in adult burns patients. Fifteen people (13 male) with a mean TBSA of 38.5% (16.0%) underwent both MSWT and CPET within a 5-day period in random order. The majority of participants demonstrated a normal response to CPET. Two participants with a history of inhalation burns demonstrated a respiratory limitation to exercise with desaturation (91 and 89%) at the end of the CPET, which returned to normal within 2 minutes after exercise. The correlation between VO(2peak) as measured via CPET and distance as measured in MSWT was 0.7. Mean results measured in MSWT for maximal heart rate and perceived exertion scores were lower than those achieved with CPET results: 91 and 88%, respectively. There were no adverse events during both the MSWT and CPET. This study demonstrates that after burn injury, CPET and MSWT can be performed safely in the majority of patients early in the postdischarge rehabilitation period. MSWT is likely to be submaximal at 80 to 90% of CPET results but is easy to replicate and cost-effective, thus a viable mechanism for monitoring aerobic capacity.

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  1. Surgical Placement of Catheters for Long-term Cardiovascular Exercise Testing in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijs-Meijler, Daphne P M; Stam, Kelly; van Duin, Richard W B; Verzijl, Annemarie; Reiss, Irwin K; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2016-02-09

    This protocol describes the surgical procedure to chronically instrument swine and the procedure to exercise swine on a motor-driven treadmill. Early cardiopulmonary dysfunction is difficult to diagnose, particularly in animal models, as cardiopulmonary function is often measured invasively, requiring anesthesia. As many anesthetic agents are cardiodepressive, subtle changes in cardiovascular function may be masked. In contrast, chronic instrumentation allows for measurement of cardiopulmonary function in the awake state, so that measurements can be obtained under quiet resting conditions, without the effects of anesthesia and acute surgical trauma. Furthermore, when animals are properly trained, measurements can also be obtained during graded treadmill exercise. Flow probes are placed around the aorta or pulmonary artery for measurement of cardiac output and around the left anterior descending coronary artery for measurement of coronary blood flow. Fluid-filled catheters are implanted in the aorta, pulmonary artery, left atrium, left ventricle and right ventricle for pressure measurement and blood sampling. In addition, a 20 G catheter is positioned in the anterior interventricular vein to allow coronary venous blood sampling. After a week of recovery, swine are placed on a motor-driven treadmill, the catheters are connected to pressure and flow meters, and swine are subjected to a five-stage progressive exercise protocol, with each stage lasting 3 min. Hemodynamic signals are continuously recorded and blood samples are taken during the last 30 sec of each exercise stage. The major advantage of studying chronically instrumented animals is that it allows serial assessment of cardiopulmonary function, not only at rest but also during physical stress such as exercise. Moreover, cardiopulmonary function can be assessed repeatedly during disease development and during chronic treatment, thereby increasing statistical power and hence limiting the number of animals

  2. Measurement of coronary calcium scores or exercise testing as initial screening tool in asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on the resting ECG: An evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Geluk (Christiane); R. Dikkers (Riksta); J.A. Kors (Jan); R.A. Tio (René); R.H.J.A. Slart (Riemer); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); H.L. Hillege (Hans); T.P. Willems (Tineke); P. de Jong (Paul); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); F. Zijlstra (Felix)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Asymptomatic subjects at intermediate coronary risk may need diagnostic testing for risk stratification. Both measurement of coronary calcium scores and exercise testing are well established tests for this purpose. However, it is not clear which test should be preferred as in

  3. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher R; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Romer, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities.

  4. Perspective: Does laboratory-based maximal incremental exercise testing elicit maximum physiological responses in highly-trained athletes with cervical spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R West

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push. In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardised exercise intensities.

  5. Chronic exercise prevents repeated restraint stress-provoked enhancement of immobility in forced swimming test in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Jang-Kyu; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    We assessed whether chronic treadmill exercise attenuated the depressive phenotype induced by restraint stress in ovariectomized mice (OVX). Immobility of OVX in the forced swimming test was comparable to that of sham mice (CON) regardless of the postoperative time. Immobility was also no difference between restrained mice (exposure to periodic restraint for 21 days; RST) and control mice (CON) on post-exposure 2nd and 9th day, but not 15th day. In contrast, the immobility of ovariectomized mice with repeated stress (OVX + RST) was profoundly enhanced compared to ovariectomized mice-alone (OVX), and this effect was reversed by chronic exercise (19 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks; OVX + RST + Ex) or fluoxetine administration (20 mg/kg, OVX + RST + Flu). In parallel with behavioral data, the immunoreactivity of Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in OVX was significantly decreased by repeated stress. However, the reduced numbers of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in OVX + RST were restored in response to chronic exercise (OVX + RST + Ex) and fluoxetine (OVX + RST + Flu). In addition, the expression pattern of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) was similar to that of the hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis markers (Ki-67 and DCX, respectively). These results suggest that menopausal depression may be induced by an interaction between repeated stress and low hormone levels, rather than a deficit in ovarian secretion alone, which can be improved by chronic exercise.

  6. Core stability for dancers - testing the effect of an exercise program

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create a targeted tool, a three-month exercise program, for an advanced group of dancers to improve their core stability. The second purpose was to increase awareness of the importance of deep abdominal activation among dancers. The thesis was implemented in cooperation with a local dance school in Pori, Tanssikoulu Tiina ja heimo, which provided the target group of research: an advanced group of dancers, called LeikistiVakavasti. The research methods of this...

  7. Angina pectoris during daily activities and exercise stress testing: The role of inducible myocardial ischemia and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mark D; Ciechanowski, Paul S; Russo, Joan E; Spertus, John A; Soine, Laurie A; Jordan-Keith, Kier; Caldwell, James H

    2008-10-31

    Physicians often consider angina pectoris to be synonymous with myocardial ischemia. However, the relationship between angina and myocardial ischemia is highly variable and we have little insight into the sources of this variability. We investigated the relationship of inducible myocardial ischemia on SPECT stress perfusion imaging to angina reported with routine daily activities during the previous four weeks (N=788) and to angina reported during an exercise stress test (N=371) in individuals with confirmed or suspected coronary disease referred for clinical testing. We found that angina experienced during daily life is more strongly and consistently associated with psychological distress and the personal threat associated with angina than with inducible myocardial ischemia. In multivariable models, the presence of any angina during routine activities over the prior month was significantly associated with age, perceived risk of myocardial infarction, and anxiety when compared to those with no reported angina in the past month. Angina during daily life was not significantly associated with inducible myocardial ischemia on stress perfusion imaging in bivariate or multivariable models. In contrast, angina experienced during exercise stress testing was significantly related to image and ECG ischemia, though it was also significantly associated with anxiety. These results suggest that angina frequency over the previous four weeks is more strongly associated with personal threat and psychosocial distress than with inducible myocardial ischemia. These results lend support to angina treatment strategies that aim to reduce threat and distress as well as to reduce myocardial ischemia.

  8. Badminton Specific Testing and Development of Physical On-Court Exercise Capacity in Elite Youth Badminton Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Ole Møller

    in adult players only. This thesis aims to enhance the existing research within the field by also evaluating badminton-specific speed and endurance in elite youth players in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner, and with reference to the physiological capacities of world top-50 single players.......This thesis describes the development of two badminton-specific tests to evaluate players' maximum movement speed and the endurance capacity using game-like movement patterns and intermittent game-like conditions. The badminton speed test (B-SPEED) is used to assess maximal movements during...... specific on-court actions. It can distinguish between groups of players with different badminton skills, but similar sprint abilities The badminton-specific endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) is applicable for evaluation of badminton-specific endurance. Previous studies have tended to examine exercise capacity...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUB - MAXIMAL EXERCISE TEST IN A GROUP OF 20 COLLEGE STUDENTS IN THE AGE GROUP OF 18 - 21 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Devi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : This study aims to compa re two widely applied tests such as step - test and bicycle ergometer. It was seen that body - weight has significant influence on the validity of sub - maximal exercise test [1]. In the development of exercise prescription knowing the actual energy expenditure with prescribed activity is essential particularly in weight loss programmes [2]. Recovery heart - rate from standardized stepping exercise, can classify people on cardiovascular fitness and VO 2 max with reasonable acceptable accuracy. Post - exercise heart - ra te is the primary parameter for estimating aerobic capacity [3], these evaluations are based on the regression among resting heart - rate, load intensity and maximum O 2 uptake. In the present study, the influence of body weight VO 2 max, BMI and speed were ta ken into consideration. The results showed the reliability & sensitivity of two tests are remarkably different. Evaluation of maximal O 2 consumption was determined by Astrand’s evaluation test on Bicycle Ergometer [4] and the step - test evaluated by Von Dob len formula, results seen were significantly different. The participants had a higher O 2 consumption rate in the step - test. The assessment of cardiovascular fitness commonly assessed by the measurements of maximum O 2 uptake can be a useful tool in promotin g health. It enables the baseline of the fitness to be established, it enables an exercise programme to be more individually prescribed, the assessment of aerobic capacity is becoming more common in medical screening.

  10. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-04-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population.

  11. Validity and Reproducibility of an Incremental Sit-To-Stand Exercise Test for Evaluating Anaerobic Threshold in Young, Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakamura, Masayoshi Ohira, Yoshiharu Yokokawa, Yuya Nagasawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand exercise (STS is a common activity of daily living. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to assess the validity of aerobic fitness measurements based on anaerobic thresholds (ATs, during incremental sit-to-stand exercise (ISTS with and without arm support compared with an incremental cycle-ergometer (CE test; and 2 to examine the reproducibility of the AT measured during the ISTSs. Twenty-six healthy individuals randomly performed the ISTS and CE test. Oxygen uptakes at the AT (AT-VO2 and heart rate at the AT (AT-HR were determined during the ISTSs and CE test, and repeated-measures analyses of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to evaluate the differences between these variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationship between AT-VO2 and AT-HR during the ISTSs and CE test. Data analysis yielded the following correlations: AT-VO2 during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.77 (p < 0.05; AT-VO2 during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.70 (p < 0.05; AT-HR during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.80 (p < 0.05; and AT-HR during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.66 (p < 0.05. The AT-VO2 values during the ISTS with arm support (18.5 ± 1.9 mL·min-1·kg-1 and the CE test (18.4 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1 were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (16.6 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1; p < 0.05. The AT-HR values during the ISTS with arm support (126 ± 10 bpm and the CE test (126 ± 13 bpm were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (119 ± 9 bpm; p < 0.05. The ISTS with arm support may provide a cardiopulmonary function load equivalent to the CE test; therefore, it is a potentially valid test for evaluating AT-VO2 and AT-HR in healthy, young adults.

  12. Asymptomatic ST-depression during exercise testing in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and autonomic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Nikitich Laptev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac autonomic function as assessed by ST dynamics during and post-exercise in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and methods. The study included 71 young patients with T1DM. The patients were aged 9–18 years and had no history of macrovascular disease or renal disease, including microalbuminuria. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed using cardiovascular tests and 24-h ECG monitoring with automatic calculation of QT interval and heart rate variability parameters. Each patient underwent the physical working capacity 170 test.Results. The prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN was 30.9%. The frequency of asymptomatic ST-segment depression increased during exercise in 10 (45.5% patients with CAN (CAN+ compared with 9 (18.4% patients without CAN (CAN-; p=0.042. During the recovery period, asymptomatic ST-segment depression was present in the first minute in 8 (36.4% CAN+ patients compared with 1 (2% CAN- patient (p=0.0003 and in the second minute in 5 (22.7% CAN+ patients compared with 1 (2% CAN- patient (p=0.0095.Conclusion. Children and adolescents with T1DM and impaired autonomic function have increased prevalence of asymptomatic ST-segment depression during and post-exercise. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with T1DM and CAN may contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during adulthood in patients with T1DM.

  13. Intensity and physiological responses to the 6-minute walk test in middle-aged and older adults: a comparison with cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Sperandio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The 6-minute walk test (6MWT is a simple field test that is widely used in clinical settings to assess functional exercise capacity. However, studies with healthy subjects are scarce. We hypothesized that the 6MWT might be useful to assess exercise capacity in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 6MWT intensity in middle-aged and older adults, as well as to develop a simple equation to predict oxygen uptake (V˙O2 from the 6-min walk distance (6MWD. Eighty-six participants, 40 men and 46 women, 40-74 years of age and with a mean body mass index of 28±6 kg/m2, performed the 6MWT according to American Thoracic Society guidelines. Physiological responses were evaluated during the 6MWT using a K4b2 Cosmed telemetry gas analyzer. On a different occasion, the subjects performed ramp protocol cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET on a treadmill. Peak V˙O2 in the 6MWT corresponded to 78±13% of the peak V˙O2 during CPET, and the maximum heart rate corresponded to 80±23% of that obtained in CPET. Peak V˙O2 in CPET was adequately predicted by the 6MWD by a linear regression equation: V˙O2 mL·min-1·kg-1 = -2.863 + (0.0563×6MWDm (R2=0.76. The 6MWT represents a moderate-to-high intensity activity in middle-aged and older adults and proved to be useful for predicting cardiorespiratory fitness in the present study. Our results suggest that the 6MWT may also be useful in asymptomatic individuals, and its use in walk-based conditioning programs should be encouraged.

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do Like most people, ... active on a regular basis is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies ...

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  17. Valor del test de dobutamina comparado con la ergometría en la evaluación de riesgo coronario Comparison between electrocardiographic test with dobutamine and exercise stress testing on coronary risk stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La ergometría es el método de elección para estratificar el riesgo de eventos luego de un infarto agudo de miocardio, pero el 20-40% de la población no puede realizarla. La utilización de dobutamina con control electrocardiográfico es una propuesta segura, fácil de realizar y reproducible. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la utilidad de dicho test para predecir los resultados de la ergometría en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio. Se incluyeron en forma prospectiva y consecutiva 210 pacientes (49 mujeres, edad: 60.5±11.7 años con primer infarto agudo de miocardio no complicado. Se realizó al quinto día el test de dobutamina con control electrocardiográfico y al sexto día la ergometría. Se consideró positiva la presencia de angor y/o infradesnivel del segmento ST > 1mV en ambas pruebas. Se determinó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo del test de dobutamina, test de concordancia y valor kappa, con pThe exercise testing is still the most common test used to stratify the patients’s risk of new events following an acute myocardial infarction, but about 20 to 40% of the patients can not perform it appropriately. Since the electrocardiographic test with dobutamine has proved to be easy and safe, our aim was to evaluate its capacity to predict the results of the exercise testing on patients after an acute myocardial infarction. A total of 210 patients (average of age 60.5±11.7 years old and 23.3% females recovering from a first uncomplicated myocardial infarction, were consecutively included. An electrocardiographic test with dobutamine was performed during the fifth day of admission, and an exercise test during the sixth. The development of chest pain and/or a descending ST segment > 1 mm during a test qualified it as positive for ischemia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both tests were determinated, as well as the congruence on their results, a p-value <0

  18. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

  19. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  20. Graded Exercise Testing Protocols for the Determination of VO2max: Historical Perspectives, Progress, and Future Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Beltz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graded exercise testing (GXT is the most widely used assessment to examine the dynamic relationship between exercise and integrated physiological systems. The information from GXT can be applied across the spectrum of sport performance, occupational safety screening, research, and clinical diagnostics. The suitability of GXT to determine a valid maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max has been under investigation for decades. Although a set of recommended criteria exists to verify attainment of VO2max, the methods that originally established these criteria have been scrutinized. Many studies do not apply identical criteria or fail to consider individual variability in physiological responses. As an alternative to using traditional criteria, recent research efforts have been directed toward using a supramaximal verification protocol performed after a GXT to confirm attainment of VO2max. Furthermore, the emergence of self-paced protocols has provided a simple, yet reliable approach to designing and administering GXT. In order to develop a standardized GXT protocol, additional research should further examine the utility of self-paced protocols used in conjunction with verification protocols to elicit and confirm attainment of VO2max.

  1. Graded Exercise Testing Protocols for the Determination of VO2max: Historical Perspectives, Progress, and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ann L.; Janot, Jeffrey M.; Kravitz, Len; Dalleck, Lance C.

    2016-01-01

    Graded exercise testing (GXT) is the most widely used assessment to examine the dynamic relationship between exercise and integrated physiological systems. The information from GXT can be applied across the spectrum of sport performance, occupational safety screening, research, and clinical diagnostics. The suitability of GXT to determine a valid maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) has been under investigation for decades. Although a set of recommended criteria exists to verify attainment of VO2max, the methods that originally established these criteria have been scrutinized. Many studies do not apply identical criteria or fail to consider individual variability in physiological responses. As an alternative to using traditional criteria, recent research efforts have been directed toward using a supramaximal verification protocol performed after a GXT to confirm attainment of VO2max. Furthermore, the emergence of self-paced protocols has provided a simple, yet reliable approach to designing and administering GXT. In order to develop a standardized GXT protocol, additional research should further examine the utility of self-paced protocols used in conjunction with verification protocols to elicit and confirm attainment of VO2max. PMID:28116349

  2. Responsiveness of the double limb lowering test and lower abdominal muscle progression to core stabilization exercise programs in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladay, Douglas E; Miller, Sayers J; Challis, John H; Denegar, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and expensive health care problems in the United States. Studies suggest that stabilization exercise may be effective in the management of people with LBP. To accurately assess the effect of stabilization programs on muscle performance, clinicians need an objective measure that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double limb lowering test (DLLT) and lower abdominal muscle progression (LAMP) can detect a change in abdominal muscle performance after stabilization exercises. Eleven healthy participants (4 men and 7 women) were randomly assigned to either a specific stabilization exercise (SSE) or general stabilization exercise (GSE) group and were evaluated by the DLLT and LAMP before, during, and at the end of 8 weeks of training. Subjects attended exercise sessions twice per week over 8 weeks. No significant difference in pretest performance existed between the 2 groups. No significant difference was detected with the DLLT for either the SSE or GSE over time or when groups were combined. The LAMP detected a significant difference for the combined groups and GSE but not SSE over time. These data indicate that the LAMP is sensitive to change after a spinal stabilization program, whereas the DLLT does not detect a change after these programs. Furthermore, the GSE was more effective in producing these changes. Additional testing of these assessments is necessary to further validate these tests and to identify specific populations for which these tests may be most appropriate.

  3. Exercise testing and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the clinical evaluation of patients with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, M.E.; Suarez, L.; Lerman, J.; Guibourg, H.; Camps, J.; Perosio, A.

    1986-10-01

    In 58 patients with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome (WPW), we performed exercise stress testing in order to investigate the incidence of normalization of the auriculo-ventricular conduction and the ST-segment changes. For a more accurate evaluation of the latter, exercise and redistribution radionuclide images with Thallium-201 were obtained in 18 cases. Forty-nine had type A and nine had type B of WPW. Forty-eight had permanent, four had alternant and six had no pre-excitation (PE) when they started the test. Mean maximal functional capacity, mean maximal heart rate and mean maximal double product were not different when compared to an age-matched control group. Of the 48 patients who began the test with PE, in 23 (48%) it disappeared while PE persisted in 25 (52%). In 16 cases the disappearance of the PE was sudden and in seven it was progressive. Pre-excitation persisted in 39.5% of patients with type A and in 88.8% with type B (p less than 0.01). ST-segment depression was observed in 76.6% of patients with PE and in 28.6% of cases without PE (p less than 0.01). ST-segment depression occurred in 44.8% of patients with type A and in 100% of cases with type B (p less than 0.05). Transient abnormal Thallium-201 scans were observed in 62.5% of patients without PE and in 20% with PE. No patients showed exertional arrhythmias. This study suggests the possibility of measuring the duration of the refractory period of the accessory pathway in those patients n which the PE disappears suddenly, at a given heart rate.

  4. Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data

  5. Clinical Significance of Abnormal Heart Rate Recovery after Treadmill Exercise Test in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-feng HONG; Hao ZHANG; Ye-xin MA; He-song ZENG; Yuan WEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the values of abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) after treadmill exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods One hundred and seventy-eight consecutive cases of suspected CAD who underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise test (TET) and coronary angiography (CAG) were enrolled and di-vided into normal and abnormal HRR group based on the status of the values of HRR one or two minutes after TET. The clinical characteristics, TET parameters and CAG results of the two groups were compared attempted to assess the value of HRR on patients with CAD. Results (1) The cases of smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM) and ST segment de-viation at rest in abnormal HRR group were more significantly than those in normal HRR group (all P < 0. 05). (2) The subjects of abnormal HRR usually had higher basal heart rate, more cases exhibited ST segment abnormality and or exercise-limited angina during or after TET(P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), but lower level of peak heart rate attained (P<0.05) than those in normal group. The values of metabolism equivalents and duration of TET between the two groups displayed phenomenal difference (P<0.05). There were more samples acquired moderate to high level of Duke test score and chronotropic incompetence in the group of abnormal HRR, compared to the normal HRR group (P<0.01). (3) The cases of negative CAG results in the group of normal and abnormal HRR group were 73 (66.97 % ) and 24 (34.78 %). Cases of significant coronary lesions (at least one major coronary vessel ≥ 50 % stenosis) a-mongst the subgroup of positive CAG were 36 (33.03 % ) and 45 (65.22 %), severe coronary lesions (three-vessel, left main or the equivalents of left main) were 10 (9.17 % ) and 17 (24.64 %) for normal and abnormal HRR respec-tively (P<0.01). Accordingly, the Gensini scores in the subunit of abnormal HRR increased. (4)Linear correlation analysis indicate there was a negative correlation between the values of HRR in

  6. Teste de esforço cardioplumonar na avaliação de doenças musculares Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for evaluation of muscle diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELGA C. ALMEIDA SILVA

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP no diagnóstico de miopatias. MÉTODOS: 27 pacientes com miopatia realizaram TECP (protocolo de bicicleta em rampa, máximo, interrompido por sintoma. RESULTADOS: Pacientes distróficos e pacientes com mitocondriopatias mostraram diferenças significativas em relação aos controles para as variáveis potência do trabalho desenvolvido (watt e pico do consumo de oxigênio (VO2 máx. Pacientes com mitocondriopatias mostraram diminuição significativa do limiar anaeróbio em relação aos controles, além de elevação dos valores do quociente respiratório (QR do pico do exercício em relação aos demais grupos. CONCLUSÕES: TECP pode ser útil na avaliação evolutiva do grau de limitação física dos pacientes com miopatia. As variáveis potência do trabalho desenvolvido, VO2 máx, limiar anaeróbio e QR do pico do exercício podem sugerir o diagnóstico de miopatia e seus subtipos, excluindo quadros psicológicos.PURPOSE: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX for the diagnosis of myopathies. METHODS: 27 patients with myopathy were submitted to CPX testing (symptom limited bike protocol. RESULTS: Dystrophic patients and patients with mitochondrial disease, compared with controls, showed significant differences for the power of work perfomed (watt and the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max. Patients with mitochondrial disease presented significantly lower values of anaerobic threshold when compared to controls and elevation of exercise peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER values when compared to the others groups. CONCLUSIONS: CPX testing may be useful in evaluating degree of physical limitation of patients with myopathy at inicial stage as well on follow-up examinations. Power of work performed, VO2 max, anaerobic threshold and RER at exercise peak may suggest the diagnosis of myopathy and its sub-types and therefore exclude psychologic causes of limitation.

  7. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  8. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing responses to different external portable drivers in a patient with a CardioWest Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Vincenzo; Braccioni, Fausto; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Buratto, Edward; Gallo, Michele; Bottio, Tomaso; Vianello, Andrea; Gerosa, Gino

    2016-06-01

    Management of patients treated with CardioWest Total Artificial Heart (CW-TAH) as a bridge to heart transplantation (HTx) is complicated by difficulties in determining the optimal timing of transplantation. We present a case of a 53-year-old man supported as an outpatient with a CW-TAH, whose condition deteriorated following exchange of the portable driver. The patient was followed-up with serial cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) which demonstrated a fall of peak VO2 to below 12 ml/kg/min following driver substitution, and the patient was subsequently treated with urgent orthotopic HTx. This case highlights the potential utility of CPET as a means for monitoring and indicating timing of HTx in patients with CW-TAH, as well as the potential for clinical deterioration following portable driver substitution.

  9. Value of standardised exercise tests and blood biochemistry in the selection and training of breeding stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Wensing, T; Barneveld, A; Breukink, H J

    1991-10-19

    Stallions selected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society were submitted to a standardised lungeing test at the beginning and at the end of a 100-day test of performance and ability. The heart rate, haematology and biochemistry values obtained in the first lungeing test showed no significant differences between the 15 stallions which were rejected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society during the first month of the 100-day test, the 15 stallions rejected during the last month and the 11 stallions which were approved for registration in the studbook. The 26 stallions submitted to the second lungeing test had significantly lower heart rates and blood lactate concentrations than in the first test. The standardised lungeing test had no value in predicting the rejection or approval of the stallions, and the fitness of a stallion at the beginning of the 100-day test did not influence its chance of being approved as a breeding stallion. The differences between the results of the first and the second tests suggest that the fitness of the stallions improved during the 100-day test.

  10. Unique Testing Capabilities of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, an Exercise in Aeroelastic Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is the world's most capable aeroelastic test facility. Its large size, transonic speed range, variable pressure capability, and use of either air or R-134a heavy gas as a test medium enable unparalleled manipulation of flow-dependent scaling quantities. Matching these scaling quantities enables dynamic similitude of a full-scale vehicle with a sub-scale model, a requirement for proper characterization of any dynamic phenomenon, and many static elastic phenomena. Select scaling parameters are presented in order to quantify the scaling advantages of TDT and the consequence of testing in other facilities. In addition to dynamic testing, the TDT is uniquely well-suited for high risk testing or for those tests that require unusual model mount or support systems. Examples of recently conducted dynamic tests requiring unusual model support are presented. In addition to its unique dynamic test capabilities, the TDT is also evaluated in its capability to conduct aerodynamic performance tests as a result of its flow quality. Results of flow quality studies and a comparison to a many other transonic facilities are presented. Finally, the ability of the TDT to support future NASA research thrusts and likely vehicle designs is discussed.

  11. Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of racehorses performed in Japan during the 1930s using recovery rate as an index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Atsushi; Sugano, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The history of research on the exercise physiology of racehorses in Japan dates back to the 1930s. A research report entitled "Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of the racehorse", published in 1933 by Shigeo Matsuba and Torao Shimamura of The University of Tokyo, was epoch-making and the most important study in the history of equine exercise physiology in Japan. Research results were reported from 92 Thoroughbred racehorses in a large-scale project during the period of 1928 to 1932 at the Shimofusa Imperial Farm and the Koiwai Farm, which were the two greatest racehorse farms at that time. A total of 20 physiological variables were measured to evaluate the fitness of Thoroughbred racehorses before exercise (Pre), just after exercise (Post), 1 hr after exercise (1 hr), 2 hr after exercise (2 hr), and 3 hr after exercise (3 hr) in order to calculate their recovery rates as an index of fitness and performance. The percentage of the Pre value at 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr was calculated. When the percentage of a variable reached 95-105% of the Pre value, the variable was considered to be recovered. The percentage of the total number of variables that were recovered for each time period was calculated, and an overall average was calculated from them; Matsuba and Shimamura proposed calling this overall average the "recovery rate", which could then be applied to evaluate each horse. The effects of training on racehorses were subsequently evaluated by measuring the various physiological variables and the recovery rate.

  12. Residual myocardial ischaemia in first non-Q versus Q wave infarction: maximal exercise testing and ambulatory ST-segment monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1993-01-01

    the infarction. The prevalence of exercise-induced ischaemic manifestations in the infarct types was similar: chest pain 14% vs 16% and ST-segment depression 54% vs 54%. The ischaemic threshold did not differ either (heart rate at 1 mm of ST-segment depression 120 +/- 27 vs 119 +/- 25 beats.min-1). During early...... in non-Q wave infarction (51%) as compared to Q wave infarction (31%) (P depression on ambulatory recording and exercise testing significantly predicted the development of future angina pectoris, whereas patients at increased risk for subsequent......In a prospective study of 123 consecutive survivors of a first myocardial infarction (43 non-Q wave, 80 Q wave), we determined the total residual ischaemic burden by use of pre-discharge maximal exercise testing and post-discharge 36 h ambulatory ST-segment monitoring initiated 11 +/- 5 days after...

  13. A 12-Week Vigorous Exercise Protocol in a Healthy Group of Persons over 65: Study of Physical Function by means of the Senior Fitness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todde, Francesco; Melis, Franco; Mura, Roberto; Pau, Massimiliano; Fois, Francesco; Magnani, Sara; Ibba, Gianfranco; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vigorous exercise on functional abilities by means of a Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in a group of elderly adults. Twenty healthy and inactive people performed vigorous exercise (VE: 12 men and 8 women, aged 69.6 ± 3.9 years). At the beginning of the study (T0) and after 3 months (T1), each subject's functional ability was tested for muscular strength, agility, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and balance. The VE was designed with continuous and interval exercise involving large muscle activities. Functional exercises were performed between 60% and 84% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a duration of 65 minutes. Five out of the 6 SFTs performed were found significantly improved: Chair Stand (T0 12.4 ± 2.4, T1 13.5 ± 2.6, p exercises can improve functional mobility and muscle endurance in those over 65 years of age. SFTs are an effective method for assessing improvements in the functional capacity of elderly adults.

  14. Measurement of coronary calcium scores by electron beam computed tomography or exercise testing as initial diagnostic tool in low-risk patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Christiane A.; Dikkers, Riksta; Perik, Patrick J.; Tio, Rene A.; Gotte, Marco J. W.; Hillege, Hans L.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Houwers, Janneke B.; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix

    2008-01-01

    We determined the efficiency of a screening protocol based on coronary calcium scores (CCS) compared with exercise testing in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), a normal ECG and troponin levels. Three-hundred-and-four patients were enrolled in a screening protocol including CCS b

  15. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  16. Health Locus of Control Predicts Free-living, but Not Supervised, Physical Activity: A Test of Exercise-Specific Control and Outcome-Expectancy Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Steinhardt, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a study that compared internal health locus of control (IHLOC) with internal exercise locus of control for predicting college students' activity. Results indicate an independent influence of IHLOC on free-living physical activity and suggest that testing adjust for fitness, barriers to physical activity, and outcome-expectancy values.…

  17. Aerobic exercise in adolescents with obesity: preliminary evaluation of a modular training program and the modified shuttle test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Baan-Slootweg Olga H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing activity levels in adolescents with obesity requires the development of exercise programs that are both attractive to adolescents and easily reproducible. The aim of this study was to develop a modular aerobic training program for adolescents with severe obesity, with a focus on variety, individual targets and acquiring physical skills. We report here the effects on aerobic fitness from a pilot study. Furthermore, we examined the feasibility of the modified shuttle test (MST as an outcome parameter for aerobic fitness in adolescents with severe obesity. Methods Fifteen adolescents from an inpatient body weight management program participated in the aerobic training study (age 14.7 ± 2.1 yrs, body mass index 37.4 ± 3.5. The subjects trained three days per week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting 30–60 minutes. The modular training program consisted of indoor, outdoor and swimming activities. Feasibility of the MST was studied by assessing construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Results Comparing pretraining and end of training period showed large clinically relevant and significant improvements for all aerobic indices: e.g. VO2 peak 17.5%, effect size (ES 2.4; Wmax 8%, ES 0.8. In addition, a significant improvement was found for the efficiency of the cardiovascular system as assessed by the oxygen pulse (15.8%, ES 1.6. Construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change of the MST were very good. MST was significantly correlated with VO2 peak (r = 0.79 and Wmax (r = 0.84 but not with anthropometric measures. The MST walking distance improved significantly by 32.5%, ES 2.5. The attendance rate at the exercise sessions was excellent. Conclusion This modular, varied aerobic training program has clinically relevant effects on aerobic performance in adolescents with severe obesity. The added value of our aerobic training program for body weight management programs

  18. 心肺复苏后血浆肾素活性与醛固酮分离现象的再研究%An analysis about the separation of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in patients with cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽; 黄佳; 袁琦松; 周厚荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of separation of plasma renin activity and aldo⁃sterone on return of spontaneous circulation(ROSC)in patients with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Method Thirty patients whose physical examinations were normal were randomly divided into group N; a total of 60 patients with sudden cardiac arrest who were treated with CPR were divided into two groups according to the effect of CPR, 28 patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation were group S, and 32 patients without restoration of spontaneous circulation were group U, at the Guizhou Province People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2015. Peripheral venous blood of patients with CA 30 minites after CPR was collected, in order to test the plasma renin activity, aldosterone, serum potassium and sodium concentration and to compare each index between different groups. Results ①Compared to group N, plasma renin activity and aldosterone were obviously increased in group S and group U; and plasma renin activity and aldosterone in group U were higher than group S; the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). ②The proportion of the separation of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in group S was lower than that in group U; the rate of ROSC in the group without separation of aldosterone was higher than the group with separation of aldosterone(2=4.63, P<0.05); and the level of serum potassium concentration in group with separation of aldosterone was higher than that in group with⁃out separation of aldosterone(P<0.01); the level of plasma sodium concentration in group without sepa⁃ration of aldosterone was lower than group with separation of aldosterone(P<0.01). Conclusion The phenomenon of the separation of renin activity and aldosterone exists in the patients who are treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the separation of plasma renin activity and aldosterone might induce hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, which is the disadvantage of

  19. Effects of submaximal steady -state aerobic exercise and fitness in random number generation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIOS K. TRAVLOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was two-fold. Firstly we wanted to quantify the relationship of isokinetic muscle strength (IMS and long jump performance (LJP in young jumpers, and secondly to compare males and females in IMS. Our measurements in 7 males and 7 females showed that the LJP was correlated with the normalized peak joint moment of the concentric knee extensions and the concentric ankle plantar flexions. A low correlation was observed between the LJP and the eccentric knee extensions. The t-test showed significant gender differences in joint peak moment of concentric knee extensions and in normalized peak joint moment of concentric plantar flexions and eccentric plantar flexions at120 deg/sec. Although, our findings suggest that IMS is a major contributor to LJP, it is suggested that training intervention should not be based exclusively on isokinetic tests because of the differences in musculoskeletal function between the two movements.

  20. The Neuromatrix Theory of Pain and Angina during Exercise Stress Testing: Results from the PIMI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    al., 1988; Glusman et al., 1996). In these individuals, the opioid reactivity would produce stronger analgesia of pain from most inputs, including...pain thresholds in silent ischemics might generalize to other areas as well. Pain tests in areas such as the toe, finger or dental pain thresholds...induced opioid Angina and the Neuromatrix 20 analgesia . Indeed, perhaps people who genetically have greater β-endorphin reactivity to stress

  1. Serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T after exercise stress test in stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Ruwald, Martin Huth; Dalsgaard, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  2. Pre-discharge exercise test for evaluation of patients with complete or incomplete revascularization following primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a DANAMI-2 sub-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, N.; Clemmensen, P.; Grande, P.

    2008-01-01

    revascularization had lower exercise capacity [6.5 (95% CI: 1.9-12.8) vs. 7.0 (95% CI: 2.1-14.0) METs, p = 0.004] and more frequently ST depression [43 (20%) vs. 39 (13%), p = 0.02] compared to patients with complete revascularization. ST depression was not predictive of outcome in either groups, while...... with complete revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise capacity was prognostic of reinfarction and/or death in patients with incomplete revascularization, but not in completely revascularized patients. ST segment depression alone did not predict residual coronary stenosis or dismal prognosis Udgivelsesdato......OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the completeness of revascularization impacts on the prognostic value of an exercise test after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The DANAMI-2 trial included patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction randomized to primary PCI...

  3. Immediate effects of active cranio-cervical flexion exercise versus passive mobilisation of the upper cervical spine on pain and performance on the cranio-cervical flexion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Enrique; Schomacher, Jochen; Gizzi, Leonardo; Petzke, Frank; Seegar, Dagmar; Falla, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the immediate effects of an assisted plus active cranio-cervical flexion exercise (exercise group) versus a passive mobilisation plus assisted cranio-cervical flexion (mobilisation group) on performance of the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT), cervical range of motion (ROM) and pain in patients with chronic neck pain. Eighteen volunteers with chronic idiopathic neck pain participated in the study and were randomised to one of the two intervention groups. Current level of pain, cervical ROM and pain perceived during movement, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and surface electromyography (EMG) during performance of the CCFT were measured before and immediately after the intervention. A significant reduction in resting pain and PPT measured over cervical sites was observed immediately following both interventions, although a greater change was observed for the exercise group. No change in cervical ROM was observed after either intervention. Reduced sternocleidomastoid and anterior scalene EMG amplitude were observed during stages of the CCFT but only for the participants in the active exercise group. Although both active and passive interventions offered pain relief, only the exercise group improved on a task of motor function highlighting the importance of specific active treatment for improved motor control of the cervical spine.

  4. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for inactive people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Marion M P; Pouwer, Francois; Romeijnders, Arnold C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient exercise is important for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), as it can prevent future health problems. Despite, it is estimated that only 30-40% of people with T2DM are sufficiently active. One of the psychosocial constructs that is believed to influence physical...... activity behaviour, is exercise self-efficacy. The goal of this study is to evaluate a patient-tailored exercise intervention for people with T2DM that takes exercise self-efficacy into account. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is conducted as a non-randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients are eligible...... when they are diagnosed with T2DM, exercise less than advised in the ADA guideline of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, have an BMI >25 and are between 18 and 80 years old. Recruitment takes place at a Primary care organization of general practitioners and practice nurses...

  5. The use of the standard exercise test to establish the clinical significance of mild echocardiographic changes in a Thoroughbred poor performer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meyer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding racehorse was referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH with a history of post-race distress and collapse. In the absence of any obvious abnormalities in the preceding diagnostic work-up, a standard exercise test was performed to determine an underlying cause for the post-race distress reported. In this particular case oxygen desaturation became evident at speeds as slow as 6 m/s, where PO2 was measured at 82.3 mm Hg. Similarly at a blood pH of 7.28, PCO2 had dropped to 30.0mm Hg indicating a combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the distress was attributed to a severe hypoxia, with an associated hypocapnoea, confirmed on blood gas analyses, where PO2 levels obtained were as low as 56.6 mm Hg with a mean PCO2 level of 25.4 mm Hg during strenuous exercise. Arterial oxygenation returned to normal immediately after cessation of exercise to 106.44 mm Hg, while the hypocapnoeic alkalosis, PCO2 25.67 mm Hg, persisted until the animal's breathing normalized. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise. The combination of an aortic stenosis and a mitral valve insufficiency may have resulted in a condition similar to that described as high-altitude pulmonary oedema, with respiratory changes and compensation as for acute altitude disease. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise and substantiate the fact that an extensive diagnostic regime may be required to establish a cause for poor performance and that the standard exercise test remains an integral part of this work-up.

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of medicines for a variety of illnesses. Prevent or Delay Disease Scientists have found that staying physically active and exercising regularly can help prevent or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some ...

  7. The critical power function is dependent on the duration of the predictive exercise tests chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D; Jenkins, D G; Howard, A

    1998-02-01

    The linear relationship between work accomplished (W(lim)) and time to exhaustion (t(lim)) can be described by the equation: W(lim) = a + CP x t(lim). Critical power (CP) is the slope of this line and is thought to represent a maximum rate of ATP synthesis without exhaustion, presumably an inherent characteristic of the aerobic energy system. The present investigation determined whether the choice of predictive tests would elicit significant differences in the estimated CP. Ten female physical education students completed, in random order and on consecutive days, five all-out predictive tests at preselected constant-power outputs. Predictive tests were performed on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer and power loadings were individually chosen so as to induce fatigue within approximately 1-10 mins. CP was derived by fitting the linear W(lim)-t(lim) regression and calculated three ways: 1) using the first, third and fifth W(lim)-t(lim) coordinates (I135), 2) using coordinates from the three highest power outputs (I123; mean t(lim) = 68-193 s) and 3) using coordinates from the lowest power outputs (I345; mean t(lim) = 193-485 s). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that CPI123 (201.0+/-37.9W) > CPI135 (176.1+/-27.6W) > CPI345 (164.0+/-22.8W) (P<0.05). When the three sets of data were used to fit the hyperbolic Power-t(lim) regression, statistically significant differences between each CP were also found (P<0.05). The shorter the predictive trials, the greater the slope of the W(lim)-t(lim) regression; possibly because of the greater influence of 'aerobic inertia' on these trials. This may explain why CP has failed to represent a maximal, sustainable work rate. The present findings suggest that if CP is to represent the highest power output that an individual can maintain "for a very long time without fatigue" then CP should be calculated over a range of predictive tests in which the influence of aerobic inertia is minimised.

  8. Comparison of usefulness of exercise testing versus coronary computed tomographic angiography for evaluation of patients suspected of having coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovrehus, Kristian A; Jensen, Jesper K; Mickley, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    In patients suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD), we compared the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of exercise testing using ST-segment changes alone and ST-segment changes, angina pectoris, and hemodynamic variables compared to coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA...... performance of CTA for the detection and exclusion of significant CAD might favor CTA as the first-line diagnostic test in patients suspected of having CAD....

  9. Cognitive Aging and Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ellen; Sharps, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Younger (n=58) and older (n=49) adults completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and recall tests of verbal and visual stimuli with maximum and minimum semantic support. Category support did not help young adults who exercised less. Older adults' exercise had no effect on use of category support; less-frequent exercisers had poorer results…

  10. Cardio-pulmonary anatomy in theropod dinosaurs: Implications from extant archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Devon E; Ruben, John A

    2009-10-01

    Although crocodilian lung and cardiovascular organs are markedly less specialized than the avian heart and lung air-sac system, all living archosaurs possess four-chambered hearts and heterogeneously vascularized, faveolar lungs. In birds, normal lung function requires extensive, dorsally situated nonvascularized abdominal air-sacs ventilated by an expansive sternum and specially hinged costal ribs. The thin walled and voluminous abdominal air-sacs are supported laterally and caudally to prevent inward (paradoxical) collapse during generation of negative (inhalatory) pressure: the synsacrum, posteriorly directed, laterally open pubes and specialized femoral-thigh complex provide requisite support and largely prevent inhalatory collapse. In comparison, theropod dinosaurs probably lacked similarly enlarged abdominal air-sacs, and skeleto-muscular modifications consistent with their ventilation. In the absence of enlarged, functional abdominal air-sacs, theropods were unlikely to have possessed a specialized bird-like, air-sac lung. The likely absence of bird-like pulmonary function in theropods is inconsistent with suggestions of cardiovascular anatomy more sophisticated than that of modern crocodilians.

  11. Vital capacity and COPD: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Torén K; Olin AC; Lindberg A; Vikgren J; Schiöler L; Brandberg J; Johnsson Å; Engström G; Persson HL; Sköld M; Hedner J; Lindberg. E.; Malinovschi A; Piitulainen E; Wollmer P

    2016-01-01

    Kjell Torén,1 Anna-Carin Olin,1 Anne Lindberg,2 Jenny Vikgren,3 Linus Schiöler,1 John Brandberg,3 Åse Johnsson,3 Gunnar Engström,4 H Lennart Persson,5 Magnus Sköld,6 Jan Hedner,7 Eva Lindberg,8 Andrei Malinovschi,8 Eeva Piitulainen,9 Per Wollmer,9 Annika Rosengren,10 Christer Janson,8 Anders Blomberg,2 Göran Bergström10 1Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institut...

  12. Vital capacity and COPD: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kjell Torén,1 Anna-Carin Olin,1 Anne Lindberg,2 Jenny Vikgren,3 Linus Schiöler,1 John Brandberg,3 Åse Johnsson,3 Gunnar Engström,4 H Lennart Persson,5 Magnus Sköld,6 Jan Hedner,7 Eva Lindberg,8 Andrei Malinovschi,8 Eeva Piitulainen,9 Per Wollmer,9 Annika Rosengren,10 Christer Janson,8 Anders Blomberg,2 Göran Bergström10 1Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 2Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine/Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, 3Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 4Department of Clinical Science, Malmö, Lund University, Lund, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine and Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 6Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 7Department of Internal Medicine/Lung Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 8Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology and Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 9Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, 10Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Background: Spirometric diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/vital capacity (VC, either as a fixed value <0.7 or below the lower limit of normal (LLN. Forced vital capacity (FVC is a proxy for VC. The first aim was to compare the use of FVC and VC, assessed as the highest value of FVC or slow vital capacity (SVC, when assessing the FEV1/VC ratio in a general population setting. The second aim was to evaluate the characteristics of subjects with COPD who obtained a higher SVC than FVC.Methods: Subjects (n=1,050 aged 50–64 years were investigated with FEV1, FVC, and SVC after bronchodilation. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD COPDFVC was defined as FEV1/FVC <0.7, GOLDCOPDVC as FEV1/VC <0.7 using the maximum value of FVC or SVC, LLNCOPDFVC as FEV1/FVC below the LLN, and LLNCOPDVC as FEV1/VC below the LLN using the maximum value of FVC or SVC.Results: Prevalence of GOLDCOPDFVC was 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2–12.0 and the prevalence of LLNCOPDFVC was 9.5% (95% CI 7.8–11.4. When estimates were based on VC, the prevalence became higher; 16.4% (95% CI 14.3–18.9 and 15.6% (95% CI 13.5–17.9 for GOLDCOPDVC and LLNCOPDVC, respectively. The group of additional subjects classified as having COPD based on VC, had lower FEV1, more wheeze and higher residual volume compared to subjects without any COPD.Conclusion: The prevalence of COPD was significantly higher when the ratio FEV1/VC was calculated using the highest value of SVC or FVC compared with using FVC only. Subjects classified as having COPD when using the VC concept were more obstructive and with indications of air trapping. Hence, the use of only FVC when assessing airflow limitation may result in a considerable under diagnosis of subjects with mild COPD. Keywords: obstructive, epidemiology, general population, air trapping, spirometry, slow vital capacity, asthma

  13. Comparação entre a prescrição de intensidade de treinamento físico baseada na avaliação ergométrica convencional e na ergoespirométrica Comparison between exercise intensity prescription based on a standard exercise test and cardiopulmonary exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Urbana Pinto Brandão Rondon

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os limites inferiores (L.inf. e superiores (L.sup. da prescrição de treinamento físico aeróbio determinada pelo teste ergométrico convencional (60-70% do VO2máx estimado ou 70-85% da FCmáx atingida, com a prescrição obtida pelo teste ergoespirométrico [limiar anaeróbio (LA e ponto de compensação respiratória (PCR]. MÉTODOS: Realizaram teste ergoespirométrico progressivo até a exaustão 47 homens (30±5 anos, divididos em subgrupos, de acordo com a velocidade da esteira durante o teste (4 ou 5mph e a capacidade física medida [baixa (BCF e moderada (MCF]. RESULTADOS: Os L.inf. de prescrição indireta apresentaram valores de VO2 e FC significantemente maiores que os valores de VO2 e FC no LA (4mph= 34,4±4,5 vs 19,6±4,6 e 5mph= 28,9±2 vs 18,9±5,4, e BCF= 32,0±4,1 vs 17,2±2,8 e MCF= 31,6±4,9 vs 21,1±5,7(mlO2.kg-1.min-1 e (4mph = 128,9±7,8 vs 113,1± 15,6 e 5mph= 130,3±5,2 vs 114,1± 18,9, e BCF= 127,6±7,2 vs 109,3±13,2 e MCF= 131,2± 5,7 vs 117,4± 19,2bpm. Os L.sup. de prescrição indireta no grupo de 4mph e BCF apresentaram valores de VO2 significantemente maiores que os valores medidos no PCR (40,1±5,3 vs 32,2±4,3 e 37,4±4,8 vs 30,6±2,5 mlO2.kg-1.min-1, respectivamente, e valores de FC semelhantes aos medidos no PCR. CONCLUSÃO: Os L.inf. da prescrição indireta de treinamento físico superestimam o LA, enquanto os L.sup. parecem adequados somente para indivíduos ativos com MCF.PURPOSE: To compare the lower (LL and upper limits (UL of exercise intensity prescription based on standard exercise test (60-70% of estimated VO2max or 70-85% of HRmax measured with exercise intensity prescription based on cardiopulmonary exercise test [anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP]. METHODS: Fourty seven men (30±5 years who were submitted to a progressive cardiopulmonary exercise test until exhaustion were divided in subgroups according to treadmill speed during exercise test (4

  14. Preliminary testing of the role of exercise and predator recognition for bonytail and razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Krapfel, Robert; Figiel, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile, suckers appeared curious and showed no sign of predator avoidance when initially placed with large (>45-cm TL) flathead catfish. Predator-naïve juveniles (20- to 25-cm TL) exhibited no discernable preference when provided areas with and without (52 percent and 48 percent, n = 16 observations; 46 percent and 54 percent, n = 20 observations) large flathead catfish. However, once predation occurred, use of predator-free areas nearly doubled in two trials (36 percent and 64 percent, n = 50 observations; 33 percent and 67 percent, n = 12 observations). A more stringent test examining available area indicated predator-savvy razorback suckers used predator-free areas (88 percent, n = 21) illustrating predator avoidance was a learned behavior.

  15. A panel priority rating exercise for the British Forces Germany Health Services Market test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, T O; Demicheli, V

    1995-02-01

    We report on the application to the BFG Health Services Market Testing (MT) study of the response to a users' questionnaire and panel discussions to determine in which priority and how services should be provided. The questionnaire served to inform lay and health care panel members on users' views on the relative importance of future health services and the way they will be provided. Based on the questionnaire results and data contained in the BAOR Report of Public Health for 1992/93 the panel assigned the highest priorities to emergency services, followed by routine General Practitioner services and essential hospital services. The lowest ranking were non-essential hospital services, health care for children with special needs and provision of designated transport. There was a high consistency in views between the lay and health care members of the panel.

  16. PREDICTION OF VO2PEAK USING OMNI RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION FROM A SUBMAXIMAL CYCLE EXERCISE TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Ryan J.; Goss, Fredric L.; Nagle-Stilley, Elizabeth F.; Gallagher, Michael; Schafer, Mark A.; Kim, Kevin H.; Robertson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The primary aim of this study was to develop statistical models to predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) using OMNI Ratings of Perceived Exertion measured during submaximal cycle ergometry. Men (mean ± standard error: 20.90 ± 0.42 yrs) and women (21.59 ± 0.49 yrs) participants (n = 81) completed a load-incremented maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to develop separate VO2peak statistical models using submaximal ratings of perceived exertion for the overall body, legs, and chest/breathing as predictor variables. VO2peak (L·min−1) predicted for men and women from ratings of perceived exertion for the overall body (3.02 ± 0.06; 2.03 ± 0.04), legs (3.02 ± 0.06; 2.04 ± 0.04) and chest/breathing (3.02 ± 0.05; 2.03 ± 0.03) were similar with measured VO2peak (3.02 ± 0.10; 2.03 ± 0.06, ps > .05). Statistical models based on submaximal OMNI Ratings of Perceived Exertion provide an easily administered and accurate method to predict VO2peak. PMID:25068750

  17. A proximal change experiment testing two communication exercises with intimate partner violent men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Julia C; Graham, Katherine; Canady, Brittany; Ross, Jody M

    2011-06-01

    This study tests the immediate impact of two interventions for intimate partner violent (IPV) men in affecting behavioral and emotional change during arguments with their partners. Couples with an abusive male partner (N=100) discussed an area of conflict twice, interrupted by a brief intervention. Men were randomly assigned to receive (a) an editing-out-the-negative skills training, (b) an accepting influence skills training, or (c) a time-out. IPV men in both skills-training conditions showed greater decreases in aggressive feelings than IPV men in the time-out condition based on their self-report and observed affective behavior. Women also reported feeling less aggressive when their husbands were assigned to one of the skills-training conditions as compared to the control (time-out) condition. Results suggest that IPV men can learn to adopt new communication skills and that they do appear to have a positive impact on the emotional tone of their arguments. Clinically, communication skills training may be a useful addition to battering intervention programs, although these skills may need to be taught to both men and women involved in violent relationships.

  18. The Risks of Exercise Stress Test for Hypertensive Patients%高血压患者运动试验风险因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁辰; 桑立红; 马云; 赵亮; 高璨; 宋小波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risks of exercise stress test for hypertensive patients. Methods Data of ninety eight hypertensive patients who performed graded exercise test on treadmill were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into habitual exercise group(E,n = 52) and lack of exercise group (less than 3 times per a week,NE,re = 46) according to iheir daily activity. Meanwhile the patients were categorized as SBP exaggerated response group (the SBP during exercise test >220 mmHg,n = 28) and normal SBP response group (n = 70),exaggerated DBP response group (the DBP during exercise test > 110 mmHg.n = 30) and the normal DBP response groups (n = 68) .depressed ST segment group (ST segment depression during exercise test ^1 mm,n = 20) and normal ST segment group(n = 78). Results (1 )The DBP before exercise and the maximum DBP during exercise in group E were significantly lower than in group NE (P = 0.019,P = 0.029). (2)The DBP before exercise in the SBP exaggerated response group and the DBP exaggerated response group were significantly higher than in the respective control groups (P = 0.00 and P = 0.00). The average values of the DBP before exercise in the SBP exaggerated response group and DBP exaggerated response group was abnormal (≥90 mmHg). (3)The SBP 2 minute after exercise in the group ST was significantly higher than in respective control group (P = 0.006). Conclusions (l)The hypertensive patients with habitual exercise have lower DBP at rest and the lower DBP response during exercise test. (2)The hypertensive patients with higher resting DBP could be at higher risks during exercise test. (3)The SBP 2 minutes after exercise test could be used as a risk indicator for hypertensive patients.%目的:初步探讨高血压患者运动试验中的风险因素.方法:选取国家体育总局运动医学研究所体育医院门诊高血压患者98例,进行心电图平板运动试验.将患者按照既往运动习惯分为运动组(n=52)和运

  19. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ceci

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, the adherence to an EMRT protocol is able to induce a cellular adaptation allowing healthy elderly trained subjects to cope with the oxidative stress induced by an acute exercise more effectively than the aged-matched sedentary subjects.

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Smokers are prone to develop Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD than non-smokers. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD includes chronic bronchitis, bronchial Asthma, and emphysema. Pulmonary function test is a routine procedure for assessment and monitoring diseases. OBJECTIVE To estimate the Pulmonary function test like Forced Vital Capacity(FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in one second(FEV₁, FEV₁/FVC ratio and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFRamong smokers and non-smokers. Also, to study the effect of age and body mass index (BMI on the pulmonary function of these groups of people. MATERIAL AND METHOD It is a cross sectional study. The study was conducted among students and staff of Silchar Medical College and Hospital 121 subjects were selected, among them 60 were smokers and 61 non-smokers. Spirometric tests were carried out to assess pulmonary function. EXCLUSIONS CRITERIA Subjects having cardio pulmonary diseases. RESULT Mean FVC, FEV₁ and PEFR were found to be of lower value in smokers than non-smokers. There were significant differences between mean spirometric values among smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function declines in smokers.

  1. Respiratory muscle training with normocapnic hyperpnea improves ventilatory pattern and thoracoabdominal coordination, and reduces oxygen desaturation during endurance exercise testing in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bernardi,1 Luca Pomidori,1 Faisy Bassal,1 Marco Contoli,2 Annalisa Cogo11Biomedical Sport Studies Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 2Respiratory Section, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Cona (FE, ItalyBackground: Few data are available about the effects of respiratory muscle training with normocapnic hyperpnea (NH in COPD. The aim is to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of NH (Spirotiger® on ventilatory pattern, exercise capacity, and quality of life (QoL in COPD patients.Methods: Twenty-six COPD patients (three females, ages 49–82 years, were included in this study. Spirometry and maximal inspiratory pressure, St George Respiratory Questionnaire, 6-minute walk test, and symptom-limited endurance exercise test (endurance test to the limit of tolerance [tLim] at 75%–80% of peak work rate up to a Borg Score of 8–9/10 were performed before and after NH. Patients were equipped with ambulatory inductive plethysmography (LifeShirt® to evaluate ventilatory pattern and thoracoabdominal coordination (phase angle [PhA] during tLim. After four supervised sessions, subjects trained at home for 4 weeks – 10 minutes twice a day at 50% of maximal voluntary ventilation. The workload was adjusted during the training period to maintain a Borg Score of 5–6/10.Results: Twenty subjects completed the study. After NH, maximal inspiratory pressure significantly increased (81.5±31.6 vs 91.8±30.6 cmH2O, P<0.01; exercise endurance time (+150 seconds, P=0.04, 6-minute walk test (+30 meters, P=0.03, and QoL (-8, P<0.01 all increased. During tLim, the ventilatory pattern changed significantly (lower ventilation, lower respiratory rate, higher tidal volume; oxygen desaturation, PhA, and dyspnea Borg Score were lower for the same work intensity (P<0.01, P=0.02, and P<0.01, respectively; one-way ANOVA. The improvement in tidal volume and oxygen saturation after NH were significantly related (R2=0.65, P<0.01.Conclusion: As

  2. 运动负荷试验在糖尿病量化运动处方中的应用%Application of Exercise Tolerance Test on Quantitative Exercise Prescription in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘琼华; 秦映芬; 陈青云; 何涛; 周爱民; 黎莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of the method of anaerobic threshold heartbeat guide exercise training which combined with the heart rate and blood lactic acid on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus , providing a personalization exercise prescription. Methods Fifty cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus accepted electrocardiogram exercise test in power 40 r/min with uniform motion , each added 2 min 20 W exercise power, whose plasma lactic acids of every levels were detected at the end, and their 12-lead electrocardiogram and blood pressure were recorded automaticly. The exercise terminating standard accorded with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines. Results The blood lactic acids of 50 cases diabetes mellitus for testing power 80 W and 100 W was( 3. 95 ± 1. 56 )mmol/L and ( 4. 43 ±2. 28 )mmol/L, respectively. The targeting heart rate ranged from ( 126. 95 ± 18. 5 )beat/min to( 125. 85 ± 19. 22 )beat/min. The subjective fatigue grade was( 15. 79 ± 1. 78 )points.There were positive correlations between blood lactic acia and exercise power, heart rate and exercise power, blood lactic acia and heart rate , their correlation coefficients of were 1. 000 ,0. 943 and 0. 983 , respectively. In ECG exercise treadmill test,there were 44cases with negative and 6 cases with positive. In the movement of the power of 100 W, the heart rate of negative group was higher than that of positive group , the difference was statistically significant( P <0. 05 ).At the end of the test, subjective fatigue grade was no statistical difference( P > 0. 05 ). The lactic acid, heart rate,systolic blood pressure, diastolic pressure of negative group increased with the the increasing power. There was a downward trend in the blood pressure of the positive group at the end of test. Conclusion Combining the heart rate and blood lactic acid to assess exercise intensity is a sensitive,feasible and safe method. It can not only overcome the actual

  3. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise headaches if you: Exercise in hot weather Exercise at high altitude Have a personal or family history of migraine You're likely ... verify that you have the harmless variety of exercise headache, rather than the type ... images of the structures within your brain. Magnetic resonance ...

  4. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Fontan Patients With and Without Isomerism (Heterotaxy) as Compared to Patients With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and Subjects With Structurally Normal Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Danduran, Michael; Nielsen, Kim G;

    2016-01-01

    Isomerism, also known as heterotaxy, is a clinical entity that impacts multiple organ systems both anatomically and functionally. The airways and lungs are involved in a great number of these patients, leading to increased sinopulmonary symptoms, increased need for oxygenation, and increased post...... isomerism. The results are likely limited by selection bias and highlight the need for multicentric efforts to characterize cardiopulmonary exercise testing in those patients with pulmonary isomerism.......Isomerism, also known as heterotaxy, is a clinical entity that impacts multiple organ systems both anatomically and functionally. The airways and lungs are involved in a great number of these patients, leading to increased sinopulmonary symptoms, increased need for oxygenation, and increased...... postoperative ventilatory support. Additionally, these patients often have congenital heart disease requiring Fontan palliation. What has not been previously described, and is the focus of this study, is the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in those who have undergone Fontan palliation...

  5. Test-retest reliability of skeletal muscle oxygenation measurements during submaximal cycling exercise in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Victor M; Spee, Ruud F; Jansen, Jasper P; Buskermolen, Antonetta B C; van Dijk, Thomas; Wijn, Pieter F F; Kemps, Hareld M C

    2017-01-01

    The potential purpose of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a clinical application in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is the identification of limitations in O2 delivery or utilization during exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate absolute and relative test-retest reliability of skeletal muscle oxygenation measurements in patients with CHF. Thirty patients with systolic heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 8%) performed 6-min constant-load cycling tests at 80% of the anaerobic threshold (AT) with tissue saturation index (TSI) measurement at the vastus lateralis. Tests were repeated after 10 ± 5 days to evaluate reliability. Absolute reliability was assessed with limits of agreement (LoA, expressed as bias ± random error) and coefficients of variation (CV) for absolute values (LoA range: 0·4 ± 6·2% to 0·6 ± 7·9%; CV range: 4·7-7·1%), amplitudes (LoA range -0·5 ± 5·8% to -0·7 ± 6·8%; CV range: 26·2-42·1%), onset and recovery kinetics (mean response times; LoA 0·4 ± 9·5 s, CV 23·5% and LoA -5·8 ± 50·8 s, CV 67·4% respectively) and overshoot characteristics (CV range 45·7-208·6%). Relative reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute values (range 0·74-0·90), amplitudes (range 0·85-0·92), onset and recovery kinetics (0·53 and 0·51, respectively) and overshoot characteristics (range 0·17-0·74). In conclusion, absolute reliability of absolute values and onset kinetics seems acceptable for serial within-subject comparison, and as such, for evaluation of treatment effects. Absolute reliability of amplitudes and recovery kinetics is considered unsatisfactory. Relative reliability of absolute values and amplitudes is sufficient for purposes of physiological distinction between patients with CHF. Despite lower relative reliability, kinetics may still be useful for clinical application.

  6. Use of the Wasserman equation in optimization of the duration of the power ramp in a cardiopulmonary exercise test: a study of Brazilian men

    OpenAIRE

    COSTA,D. C.; de Santi, G. L.; J. C. Crescêncio; Seabra, L. P.; E.E.V. Carvalho; Papa, V.; Marques, F.,; GALLO JUNIOR, L; Schmidt, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the agreement between measurements of unloaded oxygen uptake and peak oxygen uptake based on equations proposed by Wasserman and on real measurements directly obtained with the ergospirometry system. We performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), which was applied to two groups of sedentary male subjects: one apparently healthy group (HG, n=12) and the other had stable coronary artery disease (n=16). The mean age in the HG was 47±4 years and that...

  7. What the exercise of the SPICE source inversion validation BlindTest 1 did not tell you

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guangfu; Ji, Chen

    2012-04-01

    Uncertainties of earthquake finite-fault inversions based upon strong motion data are investigated using the source inversion validation BlindTest 1 exercise of the SPICE (Seismic Wave Propagation and Imaging in Complex Media: A European Network) project, motivated by previous counterintuitive results. The distribution of slip and the shapes of asymmetric slip rate functions are simultaneously inverted by matching 10 or 33 broad-band three-component velocity waveforms within the period ranging from 0.02 to 2 Hz, using a finite-fault method that carries out the waveform inversion in the wavelet domain. The effects of subfault size, data noise and the number of stations have been explored. Our results suggest: (1) Although there are inevitable discrepancies between the inverted model and the target model because of ignoring the spatial slip variations within individual subfaults, the fault slip and rise-time distributions can be well constrained even with the data including large Gaussian noise. (2) It is crucial for source studies to develop new inversion schemes that can properly honour the frequency- and time-dependent energy distribution of seismic radiation and data noise. For instance, inversions using the variance reduction function of velocity waveforms as the objective function have low sensitivities to the total seismic moment and peak slip. (3) Although the relative value of the objective function is guided in the inversion, the absolute value of the objective function cannot be used to evaluate the quality of an inverted model. (4) Because the source inversion is based on surface observations, the spatiotemporal resolution of source inversion is affected not only by the data quality but also by the earthquake itself. For vertical strike-slip faults, the along-strike resolution is better than that along the downdip direction.

  8. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceci, R.; Beltran Valls, M.R.; Duranti, G.

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the impact of EMRT on oxidative stress biomarkers induced in old people (70-75 years) by a single bout of acute, intense exercise. Sixteen subjects randomly assigned to either a control, not exercising group ( n=8) or a trained group performing EMRT protocol for 12-weeks ( n=8), were submitted...... as PBMCs cellular damage (Comet assay, apoptosis) and stress-protein response (Hsp70 and Hsp27 expression) were evaluated. The use of multiple biomarkers allowed us to confirm that EMRT per se neither affected redox homeostasis nor induced any cellular and oxidative damage. Following the GXT, the EMRT...

  9. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  10. Catsius Clay Project. Calculation and Testing of Behaviour of Unsaturated Clay as Barrier in Radioactive Waste Repositories. Stage 2: Validation Exercises at Laboratory scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E. E.; Alcoverro, J.

    1999-07-01

    Stage 2 of CATSIUS CLAY Project: Validation Exercises at Laboratory Scale includes two Benchmarks, Benchmark 2.1: Oedometer Suction Controlled Tests on Samples of compacted Boom Clay and Benchmark 2.2: Small Scale Weltting-Heating Test on Compacted Bentonite. BM 2.1 had two parts: BM 2.1A (volumetric deformation upon wetting-drying cycles) and BM 2.1 B (swelling pressure test). In BM 2.1A, participants were asked to model the results of a series of five tests on samples of compacted Boom clay. In BM 2.1B, a swelling pressure test in which suction, vertical and horizontal stresses were monitored, was proposed as a blind exercise. Participants were asked to use, without further changes, the models calibrated in BM 2.1A. This exercise provides an evaluation of the capabilities of current mechanical constitutive models for unsaturated clay behaviour. It was found that, even if a calibration exercise on the basis of known experimental data is satisfactory, blind predictions of tests involving different paths may prove difficult. The test set up for BM 2.2 consisted of a stainless stell cell filled with highly expansive compacted bentonite (S2 clay from Almeria, Spain). The clay was subjected to a simultaneous central heating and a progressive water inflow through the botton plate. Temperature at various locations within the sample and the boundary radial stress were monitored throughout the test. Water content distribution was also measured at the end of the experiment. Predictions for this benchmark required the solution of field equations for flow, temperature distribution and mechanical analysis. Model parameters were derived from the extensive set of available experiments on this clay. Comparison between model predictions and measurements revealed the significance of water transport in vapour phase, the difficulties to predict boundary stresses and the general good agreement between measured and calculated temperatures. The report provides a detailed accojnt of the

  11. Turbulent mixing in a rod bundle with vaned spacer grids: OECD/NEA–KAERI CFD benchmark exercise test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seok-Kyu; Kim, Seok; Song, Chul-Hwa, E-mail: chsong@kaeri.re.kr

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Detailed velocity profiles have been examined in a rod bundle with mixing spacer grids. • Mixing characteristics strongly depend on the type of the mixing vane on a spacer grid. • The swirl in subchannels is elliptic and the cross-flow in gaps is vigorous in the split-type. • Swirl-type vanes generate a circular swirl in a subchannel and a weak cross-flow in gaps. • Mixing performance is superior in the case of the split-type compared to the swirl-type. - Abstract: An experimental study titled the 2nd International Benchmark Exercise (IBE-2) has been conducted to provide high-precision data of detailed turbulent flow mixing in a rod bundle for validating the CFD codes being used widely in the nuclear power industry. A 5 × 5 rod bundle having mixing spacer grids was adopted as a test rig, and was contained in a square flow housing with a 170 mm side length and 4670 mm length. The 25 rods in a bundle have dimensions of 25.4 mm in outer diameter and a 3863 mm length. The benchmark experiments have been performed at the MATiS-H water loop facility in KAERI. The axial bulk velocity in a rod bundle was maintained at about 1.50 m/s (equivalent to Re ∼50,000) with loop conditions of 35 °C and 1.57 bar measured upstream of the spacer during the experiments. Detailed measurements of the turbulent flow in the subchannels were accomplished using 2-D LDA at four different distances (0.5, 1, 4 and 10 D{sub H}) from the downstream of the mixing spacer grid. The upstream flow profiles also have been measured at the inlet of the mixing spacer grid for the inlet boundary condition. Precise measurements of the lateral and axial velocities in the subchannels are presented at four downstream distances, as well as the inlet from the mixing spacer grid of two types. Turbulence intensities and vorticities in the subchannels are also evaluated from the velocity measurements.

  12. Simulation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Pat

    1976-01-01

    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  13. Time-of-day variation in cardiovascular response to maximal exercise testing in coronary heart disease patients taking a beta-blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour Doiron, Monique; Prud'homme, Denis; Boulay, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a beta-blocker (atenolol and metoprolol) on exercise heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during a morning and afternoon maximal exercise test (maxET) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Twenty-one CHD patients (59.9 +/- 8.9 years of age) treated with either atenolol or metoprolol participated in this study. All subjects underwent a morning and afternoon symptom-limited maximal exercise test (maxET) 2-3 h and 8-10 h after medication intake. No significant differences in exercise capacity (atenolol: 8.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 8.3 +/- 2.1 metabolic equivalents (METs); metoprolol: 8.8 +/- 2.0 vs. 8.7 +/- 2.0 METs) or rate of perceived exertion (atenolol: 7.4 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.4 +/- 1.7 METs; metoprolol: 7.2 +/- 1.5 vs. 6.8 +/- 0.9 METs) were observed between the 2 maxETs in either group. However, there was a discrepancy in cardiovascular and ischemic responses between morning and afternoon maxET. Subjects treated with atenolol demonstrated better overall control of HR and RPP during the afternoon maxET. The difference between morning and afternoon HRmax (11 +/- 8 vs. 19 +/- 9 beats.min-1; p = 0.05) was significantly higher in the metoprolol group, but did not attain significance for RPP (31 +/- 30 vs. 54 +/- 28 mmHg.beats.min-1.10-2; p = 0.09). Also, nearly one quarter of our subjects who had a normal morning maxET demonstrated an abnormal electrocardiogram response and (or) ischemia when exercise testing was done in the late afternoon. These changes were more prevalent in subjects taking metoprolol. The results of this study suggest that there is considerable time-of-day variation in the cardiovascular response to a maxET in CHD patients treated with a beta-blocker.

  14. Factors affecting estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity by treadmill test in students of medical emergencies in Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heydari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max can be used to evaluate the cardio-pulmonary condition and to provide physiological balance between a person and his job. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the maximum aerobic capacity and its associated factors among students of medical emergencies in Qazvin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 male students of medical emergencies in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2015. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. The participants meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Gerkin treadmill protocol. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis. Findings: Mean maximum aerobic capacity was 1.94±0.27 L/min. The maximum aerobic capacity was associated with weight and height groups. There was significant positive correlation between maximal aerobic capacity and height, weight and body mass index. Conclusion: The Gerkin treadmill test is useful for estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity and the maximum working ability in students of medical emergencies.

  15. Limited influence of aspirin intake on mast cell activation in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: comparison using skin prick and histamine release tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hideki; Tanaka, Mami; Kikuzawa, Ayuko; Tsujimoto, Mariko; Sekimukai, Akiko; Yamashita, Junji; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-09-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a severe systemic syndrome induced by physical exercise after ingesting causative food. Aspirin is a well-known trigger for anaphylaxis in patients with FDEIA. Possible mechanisms by which symptoms are aggravated by aspirin include enhanced antigen absorption and mast cell activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin intake has an influence on mast cell/basophil activation in patients with FDEIA. Provocation tests revealed that adding aspirin to the causative food challenge in 7 of 9 (77.8%) patients with FDEIA provoked symptoms. In most cases, pretreatment with aspirin did not enhance skin tests (71.4%) or histamine release tests (88.9%) with food allergen challenges. The study confirms that histamine release and skin prick tests can be adjunctive tools for diagnosing FDEIA. In addition, our results suggest that exacerbation of FDEIA symptoms by aspirin is not mediated by direct effects of aspirin on mast cell/basophil activation.

  16. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  17. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels......Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing cardiopulmonary exercise test values obtained from the arm cycle and the leg cycle respectively in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across...

  19. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS COMPARING CARDIOPULMONARY EXERCISE TEST VALUES OBTAINED FROM THE ARM CYCLE AND THE LEG CYCLE RESPECTIVELY IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across...

  20. [Appearance of pathologic diastolic impedance wave during exercise test as a sign of physical exertion intolerance in patients in the early period of myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'khimovich, V M

    1988-07-01

    A review of the results of bicycle ergometry under continuous electrocardiographic monitoring and chest rheograms in 316 males of able age, including 115 patients with early myocardial infarction, demonstrated that inadequate hemodynamic support (transitory heart failure), emerging during exercise in 45.2% of patients with early myocardial infarction, was reflected in considerably increased diastolic wave amplitude. Since some of the patients exhibited no electrocardiographic ischemic changes at testing, the emergence of an abnormal diastolic impedance wave may serve as an objective indicator of stress intolerance.

  1. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  2. Exercise and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  3. Triggering for submaximal exercise level in gastric exercise tonometry: serial lactate, heart rate, or respiratory quotient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Johannes A; Oostveen, Ellie; Mensink, Peter B F; Geelkerken, Robert H; Kolkman, Jeroen J

    2007-08-01

    Gastric exercise tonometry is a functional diagnostic test in chronic gastrointestinal ischemia. As maximal exercise can cause false-positive tests, exercise buildup should be controlled to remain submaximal. We evaluated three parameters for monitoring and adjusting exercise levels (heart rate [HR], respiratory quotient [RQ], and serial lactate measurements) in 178 tests in both healthy volunteers and patients suspected of gastrointestinal ischemia. Exercise levels above submaximal occurred in 20% of HR-, 2% of RQ-, and 5% of lactate-monitored tests (Pnegatives (5% vs. 6%). Although RQ monitoring yielded the greatest proportion of optimal exercise tests, serial lactate monitoring is our method of choice, combining optimal diagnostic accuracy, low cost, and simplicity.

  4. Chronotropic response in obesity patients undergoing treadmill exercise test%肥胖患者运动试验中的心脏变时性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露; 胡伟国; 任颖; 张洁; 李冰晓

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察不同体质指数(BMI)的患者行平板运动试验时心脏变时性变化.方法:根据BMI将333例患者分为对照组(BMI<25)224例,肥胖组(BMI≥25)109例.统一行平板运动实验检查,分别比较2组之间心脏变时性的差别.结果:肥胖组患者运动结束后第1分钟心率下降减慢,运动峰值最大代谢当量减小,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:肥胖患者心脏变时性变化异常,提示肥胖患者心脏自主神经功能紊乱.%Objective:To study the chronotropic response (CR) during treadmill exercise test in patients with different body mass index (BMI). Method:Thcrc were 224 patients in control group (BMIexercise test? And were compared with the chronotropic response. Result;In obesity groups heart rate recovery during the first minute after exercise and the maximum metabolic equivalent of energy reduced significantly (compared to the other groups P

  5. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baty, Florent; Ritz, Christian; van Gestel, Arnoldus

    2016-01-01

    regression. Simultaneous modeling of multiple kinetics requires nonlinear mixed models methodology. To the best of our knowledge, no such curve-fitting approach has been used to analyze multiple [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics in both research and clinical practice so far. METHODS: In the present study, we...... differences between disease stages were found regarding steady state [Formula: see text]O2 during exercise, [Formula: see text]O2 level after recovery and [Formula: see text]O2 inflection point in the recovery phase. Estimates obtained by the mixed effects approach showed standard errors that were...

  6. 运动筛查与生长激素激发试验在儿童矮小症中的应用%Application of the exercise test and growth hormone provocation test on growth hormone deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静华; 谢国锦; 陈小琴; 钟天鹰; 陈红兵

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价生长激素(GH)运动筛查试验和GH激发试验对矮小症儿童生长激素分泌的影响.方法 选取360例身材矮小患儿,进行GH运动筛查试验及GH激发试验.GH激发试验包括左旋多巴激发试验、精氨酸激发试验及胰岛素激发试验,该研究中所有患儿在3种GH激发试验中任选2种,2种试验均采用全自动化学发光免疫分析法进行检测.结果 矮小儿童行GH运动试验和GH激发试验的GH峰值强度分别为(11.38±6.08) μg/L和(12.98±5.89) μg/L,二者GH峰值比较差异无统计学意义(t=1.76,P>0.05).360例患儿运动试验较GH激发试验存在2.7%假阳性率.2种试验方法之间阳性率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.44,P>0.05).结论 GH运动筛查试验具有操作简单、安全等优点,是身材矮小患儿的首选筛查试验.GH激发试验可获得较高的准确性,是必不可少的确证试验.%Objective To evaluate the influence of growth hormone; (OH) exercise test and growth hormone provocation test on growth hormone deficiency in children .Methods 360 rases of short stature children were enrolled with OH exercise test and OH provocation test .OH provocation test with the 2 respective agents (by levodopa,arginine or insulin) were performed in all children . Serum OH levels were detected with chemoluminescent immunoassay (OLIA) .Results The peak values of serum OH after OH exercise test and OH provocation test with respective agents were (11 .38i6.08)ug/L and (12 .98i5 .89)f^g/L,and there was no significant difference between two tests(t=1.76,P>0 .05) .OH exercise test compared OH provocation test with false positive rate was 2 .7% .There were no significant difference between the positive rate of the two tests (x2=0 .44, P>0 .05 ) .Conclusion OH exercise test is safe and simple for screening of growth hormone deficiency during childhood .OH provocation test is necessarily can-firmatory test for its higher accuracy .

  7. The integral pulse frequency modulation model with time-varying threshold: application to heart rate variability analysis during exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Raquel; Laouini, Ghailen; Grao, César; Orini, Michele; Laguna, Pablo; Meste, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, an approach for heart rate variability analysis during exercise stress testing is proposed based on the integral pulse frequency modulation (IPFM) model, where a time-varying threshold is included to account for the nonstationary mean heart rate. The proposed technique allows the estimation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulating signal using the methods derived for the IPFM model with constant threshold plus a correction, which is shown to be needed to take into account the time-varying mean heart rate. On simulations, this technique allows the estimation of the ANS modulation on the heart from the beat occurrence time series with lower errors than the IPFM model with constant threshold (1.1% ± 1.3% versus 15.0% ± 14.9%). On an exercise stress testing database, the ANS modulation estimated by the proposed technique is closer to physiology than that obtained from the IPFM model with constant threshold, which tends to overestimate the ANS modulation during the recovery and underestimate it during the initial rest.

  8. Resposta cronotrópica ao teste cardiopulmonar após o uso de cimetidina Effects of cimetidine on chronotropic response to cardiopulmonary exercise t esting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicela Risso Rocha

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar a hipótese, por meio de ensaio clínico randomizado, de que a administração de cimetidina altera a resposta cronotrópica ao exercício. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 24 indivíduos saudáveis, com idade entre 20 e 68 anos, não-atletas, os quais concordaram em ser submetidos a testes cardiopulmonares, após uso de placebo e de cimetidina, 400 mg, duas vezes ao dia, durante uma semana. Os testes foram realizados em esteira rolante, com protocolo de rampa com análises diretas dos gases expirados. Foi avaliada freqüência cardíaca máxima atingida, além da freqüência cardíaca de repouso e do limiar anaeróbico. RESULTADOS: Os indivíduos estudados foram igualmente distribuídos por sexo, com idade média (± desvio padrão de 43 ±11 anos. Os exames com placebo e com cimetidina tiveram igual duração (578±90 seg vs 603±131 seg e igual VO2 pico (35±8 ml/kg.min vs 35±8 ml/kg.min. A administração de cimetidina não apresentou efeito significativo na freqüência cardíaca de repouso (75±10 vs 74±8 bpm, no pico do esforço (176±12 vs 176±11 bpm e, da mesma forma, também não houve diferença entre as variações das freqüências cardíacas (pico - repouso, nos dois estudos (101±14 vs 101±13 bpm. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de cimetidina por sete dias não altera a resposta cronotrópica ao exercício.OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the administration of cimetidine will modify the chronotropic response to exercise testing through a random clinical trial. METHODS: The study selected 24 eligible healthy subjects, ages between 20 and 68 years, not athletes, who agreed to undergo cardiopulmonary exercise testing after the administration of placebo and 400 mg of cimetidine twice a day for one week. The tests were performed on a treadmill using a ramp protocol and direct analysis of the expired gases. Peak, resting and anaerobic threshold heart rate were recorded. RESULTS: The twenty subjects studied were

  9. Exercises in analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasiński, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    This second of two Exercises in Analysis volumes covers problems in five core topics of mathematical analysis: Function Spaces, Nonlinear and Multivalued Maps, Smooth and Nonsmooth Calculus, Degree Theory and Fixed Point Theory, and Variational and Topological Methods. Each of five topics corresponds to a different chapter with inclusion of the basic theory and accompanying main definitions and results, followed by suitable comments and remarks for better understanding of the material. Exercises/problems are presented for each topic, with solutions available at the end of each chapter. The entire collection of exercises offers a balanced and useful picture for the application surrounding each topic. This nearly encyclopedic coverage of exercises in mathematical analysis is the first of its kind and is accessible to a wide readership. Graduate students will find the collection of problems valuable in preparation for their preliminary or qualifying exams as well as for testing their deeper understanding of the ...

  10. The Basic Cardiovascular Responses to Postural Changes, Exercise, and Cold Pressor Test: Do They Vary in Accordance with the Dual Constitutional Types of Ayurveda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Kumar Tripathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Ayurveda, the native Indian system of healthcare, three Doshas, namely, Vata, Pitta, and Kapha, are the basic mutually reciprocal mechanisms that are responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis in human beings. Ayurveda classifies entire human population into seven constitutional types (Prakriti, based on the dominance of any single or a combination of two or three Doshas. Considering the fact that, in the recent past there have been several studies that have proposed some important genetic, biochemical and haematological bases for Prakriti, we conducted the present study in 90 randomly selected clinically healthy volunteers belonging to dual constitutional types (Dvandvaja Prakriti to evaluate the variability of heart rate and arterial blood pressure in response to specific postural changes, exercise, and cold pressor test. The results of this study, in general, suggest that these basic cardiovascular responses do not vary significantly as per the dual constitutional types. However, we noted a significant fall in the diastolic blood pressure immediately after performing the isotonic exercise for five minutes, in Vata-Kapha individuals in comparison to the other two groups, namely, Pitta-Kapha and Vata-Pitta.

  11. 高血压飞行人员运动负荷试验研究%Research of exercise load test in hypertensive aircrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 王露今; 刘玉华; 徐先荣; 刘红巾; 徐蜀宣; 崔丽; 付兆君; 熊巍

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨影响高血压飞行人员心肺储备能力的主要因素. 方法 根据《中国高血压防治指南2010》选择高血压和非高血压飞行人员各17例,进行心肺运动试验,测量并比较两组的每千克体重峰值摄氧量(peak oxygen uptake per kilogram,VO2peak/kg)、无氧阈(anaerobic threshold,AT)时的摄氧量(oxygen uptate per kilogram at AT,VO2/kg@AT)、峰值氧脉搏(peak oxygen pulse,O2 pulsepeak)、血压、心率、运动时间等指标. 结果 高血压组与正常组的VO2peak、VO2@AT、O2 pulsepeak差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组的运动峰值收缩压、舒张压、峰值心率、运动前后收缩压变化值、心率变化值、运动后6 min血压、运动时间比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.622~4.945,P<0.01或P<0.05). 结论 高血压飞行人员运动耐量的气体代谢指标变化不明显,血压的运动反应更敏感.在飞行人员高血压病的诊治、鉴定和随访中,运动血压应作为诊室血压和动态血压的补充.%Objective To investigate the main factors influencing cardiac pulmonary reserve of hypertensive aircrews.Methods The aircrews were divided into hypertension group (n=17) and normal group (n=17) by the diagnosis of hypertension that defined in Chinese Hypertension Guideline 2010.Such parameters as peak oxygen uptake per kilogram (VO2peak/kg),VO2/kg at anaerobic threshold (VO2/kg@AT),peak oxygen pulse (O2 pulsepeak),blood pressure (BP),heart rate (HR),exercise time in cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) were recorded in cardiopulmonary exercise and analyzed.Results There were no differences in VO2peak,VO2@AT and VO2peak between two groups (P>0.05).Significant differences existed in peak SBP,DBP and HR,△SBP,△HR,BP levels at 6 minutes after exercise,exercise time between groups (t=2.622-4.945,P<0.01or <0.05).Conclusions BP responses are more sensitive than gaseous metabolism indexes during hypertensive aircrews' CPET.Exercise BP would be the

  12. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.

  13. Teste ergométrico: valor prognóstico em pacientes idosos com doença aterosclerótica coronariana estável Exercise stress test: prognostic value for elderly patients with stable coronary atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eidi Ochiai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o valor prognóstico das variáveis do teste ergométrico em pacientes idosos com doença aterosclerótica coronariana e isquemia induzida pelo esforço. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 64 pacientes idosos (61 homens, idade de 73 ± 5 anos com doença aterosclerótica coronariana, comprovada por coronariografia, clinicamente estável, fração de ejeção de ventrículo esquerdo maior ou igual a 0,40 e isquemia miocárdica durante o teste ergométrico. A cada seis meses, os pacientes foram avaliados para eventos cardíacos (morte, infarto do miocárdio, angina instável, angioplastia e revascularização do miocárdio. RESULTADOS: Após seguimento médio de 48 meses, 23 (36% pacientes sofreram eventos cardíacos. Não houve diferença clínica e angiográfica entre os pacientes que sofreram o evento e os que não o sofreram. Pela análise multivariada, a presença de dor precordial durante o teste ergométrico (risco relativo de 2,668 e p = 0,031 e a freqüência cardíaca no início da isquemia (risco relativo de 0,966 e p = 0,009 foram associadas a eventos cardíacos. CONCLUSÃO: Nessa população idosa, a presença de dor precordial durante o teste ergométrico e a freqüência cardíaca no início da isquemia foram associadas a eventos cardíacos. Essas variáveis podem ser úteis para avaliação do risco de pacientes com doença aterosclerótica coronariana estável.OBJECTIVE: To study the prognostic value of exercise stress test variables in elderly patients with coronary atherosclerosis and exercise-induced ischemia. METHODS: Sixty-four elderly patients (61 men, 73 ± 5 years old with coronary atherosclerosis, verified by cardiac catheterization, that were clinically stable, had a left ventricle ejection fraction greater than or equal to 0.40 and developed myocardial ischemia during the exercise stress test were studied. The patients were evaluated every six months for cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, unstable

  14. Comportamento da hiperinsuflação dinâmica em teste em esteira rolante em pacientes com DPOC moderada a grave Dynamic hyperinflation during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Kessar Cordoni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a presença, extensão e padrões de hiperinsuflação dinâmica (HD durante teste em esteira rolante em pacientes com DPOC moderada a grave. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 30 pacientes não hipoxêmicos (VEF1= 43 ± 14% do previsto submetidos a teste cardiopulmonar de exercício em esteira rolante em velocidade constante (70-80% da velocidade máxima até o limite da tolerância (Tlim. Manobras seriadas de capacidade inspiratória (CI foram utilizadas para avaliação da HD. RESULTADOS: Dos 30 pacientes estudados, 19 (63,3% apresentaram HD (grupo HD+, que apresentaram maior comprometimento funcional em repouso do que os pacientes sem HD (grupo HD-. Nenhuma das variáveis obtidas relacionou-se com a tolerância ao exercício no grupo HD-, enquanto Tlim, CI e percepção de dispneia ao esforço foram significativamente correlacionados no grupo HD+ (p OBJECTIVE: To characterize the presence, extent, and patterns of dynamic hyperinflation (DH during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 30 non-hypoxemic patients (FEV1= 43 ± 14% of predicted who were submitted to a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill at a constant speed (70-80% of maximum speed to the tolerance limit (Tlim. Serial inspiratory capacity (IC maneuvers were used in order to assess DH. RESULTS: Of the 30 patients studied, 19 (63.3% presented with DH (DH+ group, having greater pulmonary function impairment at rest than did those without DH (DH- group. None of the variables studied correlated with exercise tolerance in the DH- group, whereas Tlim, IC, and perception of dyspnea during exercise did so correlate in the DH+ group (p < 0.05. In the DH+ group, 7 and 12 patients, respectively, presented with a progressive and a stable pattern of DH (ΔIC Tlim,2min = -0.28 ± 0.11 L vs. 0.04 ± 0.10 L; p < 0.01. Patients with a progressive pattern of DH presented with higher

  15. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart Associat......One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart...

  16. Cause analysis of vasovagal syncope induced by treadmill exercises test%平板运动实验所致血管迷走性晕厥的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭念寅; 司良毅; 赵小兰; 徐强

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the treadmill exercise test on vasovagal syncope and theavoidance steps. METHOD: Examination of treadmill exercise test of 64acults and analyse of the history, pretest heart rate, the maximum heart rate,metabolic equivalent(MET) and tilt table test. RESULTS: Exercise tolerancesin both groups were same with significantly increase of syncope history (43/64,67% in syncope group, while 11/64 or 9% in the controls ) and lower basicheart rate of the subjects(74±11 in the syncope group; 66±10 in the con-trols, with P<0.01 statistically) in the syncope group. HUTT positive sub-jects were significantly more in the syncope group (48/64, 75% ) than in thecontrols(2/64), with P<0.01 statistically. CONCLUSION: The exercisesyncope was based on the pretest heart rate and previous syncopal history ratherthan the exercise tolerance in health adults. It suggested an underlying abnor-mality which my predispose to exercise subjects with vasovagal syncope.

  17. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport lecture. Statewide physical fitness testing: a big waist or a big waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R; Ede, Alison

    2009-12-01

    Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical fitness testing can be fraught with problems unless properly planned and conducted. Legislators, administrators, teachers, and parents should consider the following 10 essential issues when conducting large-scale physical fitness testing purpose of testing, proper planning, training, quality of the data, reporting support, costs, interpretation, programmatic matters, and policies and politics.

  18. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a good thing, but in the case of exercise, a healthy activity can sometimes turn into an unhealthy compulsion. Rachel is a good example of how an overemphasis on physical fitness or weight control can become unhealthy. Read on ...

  19. Inhibitory effect of procaterol on exercise dynamic lung hyperinflation during the 6-min walk test in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hitomi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Kawagoshi, Atsuoshi; Tamaki, Akira; Homma, Mitsunobu; Morita, Ryou; Sato, Kazuhiro; Sano, Masaaki; Shioya, Takanobu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of procaterol (procaterol hydrochloride, CAS 62929-91-3) on exercise dynamic lung hyperinflation during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in stable chronic obstructive disease (COPD) patients. Fourteen patients with stable COPD who were referred to our clinic between July 2008 and October 2009 were evaluated in this study. After the inhalation of procaterol, values for the lung function test, including vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, forced vital capacity, and FEV1/FEV1pred showed a significant improvement. Compared to the baseline assessment, the 6-min walk distance increased by a mean of 20.5 m when measured after inhalation of procaterol (512.4 +/- 90.7 m vs. 532.9 +/- 79.8 m, p lung hyperinflation, suggesting the important role of the beta2-receptor agonist procaterol in the treatment of COPD. It is therefore likely that most patients with COPD may derive considerable benefit from bronchodilator therapy with procaterol.

  20. Comparison of the usefulness of heart rate variability versus exercise stress testing for the detection of myocardial ischemia in patients without known coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkorn, Ronen; Naimushin, Alexey; Shlomo, Nir; Dan, Ariella; Oieru, Dan; Moalem, Israel; Rozen, Eli; Gur, Ilan; Levitan, Jacob; Rosenmann, David; Mogilewsky, Yakov; Klempfner, Robert; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2015-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be attenuated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and may, therefore, be possibly used for the early detection of myocardial ischemia. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of a novel short-term HRV algorithm for the detection of myocardial ischemia in subjects without known CAD. We prospectively enrolled 450 subjects without known CAD who were referred to tertiary medical centers for exercise stress testing (EST) with single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). All subjects underwent 1-hour Holter testing with subsequent HRV analysis before EST with MPI. The diagnostic yield of HRV analysis was compared with EST, using MPI as the gold standard for the noninvasive detection of myocardial ischemia. All subjects had intermediate pretest probability for CAD. Mean age was 62 years, 38% were women, 51% had hypertension, and 25% diabetes mellitus. HRV analysis showed superior sensitivity (77%) compared with standard EST (27%). After multivariate adjustment, HRV was independently associated with an 8.4-fold (p coronary angiography, the respective sensitivities of HRV and EST for the detection of significant CAD were 73% versus 26%. Our data suggest that HRV can be used as an important noninvasive technique for the detection of myocardial ischemia in subjects without known CAD, providing superior sensitivity to conventional EST in this population.

  1. O teste ergométrico é útil, seguro e eficaz, mesmo em indivíduos muito idosos, com 75 anos ou mais Exercise stress testing is useful, safe, and efficient even in patients aged 75 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Janussi Vacanti

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as variáveis clínicas e hemodinâmicas obtidas pelo teste ergométrico em idosos >75 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudados 100 indivíduos de 75-94 anos (80±4 anos, submetidos a teste ergométrico sintoma limitante, sendo 65% assintomáticos, 25% com dor torácica não anginosa e 10% com precordialgia típica, 32% eram homens, 50% hipertensos, 36% dislipidêmicos, 14% diabéticos e 9% com doença arterial coronariana prévia. O protocolo utilizado foi uma adaptação para rampa, do protocolo de Bruce, acrescido de 1min de aquecimento com velocidade de 1,0mph sem inclinação. RESULTADOS: Não houve complicações e 92% dos testes foram eficazes. Os pacientes atingiram em média 95% da freqüência cardíaca máxima prevista. A duração do exame e os equivalentes metabólicos alcançados foram, em média, respectivamente: 6,8 ±2min e 6,6 ±2,3 METs. Apresentaram resposta inotrópica hiperreativa 11 dos pacientes e observadas arritmias ventriculares e supraventriculares não complexas em 37% da amostra. Foram positivos para isquemia miocárdica 18% dos testes. Os pacientes com precordialgia típica apresentaram mais respostas isquêmicas do que os com dor torácica não anginosa e assintomáticos: 70% vs 16% (pOBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and hemodynamic variables obtained with exercise testing in elderly patients SW >75 years. METHODS: This study assessed 100 patients aged 75-94 years (80±4 years undergoing symptom-limited exercise testing, 65% of whom were asymptomatic, 25% had nonanginal chest pain, and 10% had typical precordialgia. Of the 100 patients, 32% were males, 50% were hypertensive, 36% were dyslipidemic, 14% were diabetic, and 9% had had previous coronary artery disease. A ramp-adaptation of the Bruce protocol (ramped Bruce protocol was used, preceded by a 1-minute warm-up with no treadmill incline and a velocity of 1.0 mph. RESULTS: No complications were observed, and 92% of the tests were efficient. On average

  2. Bumblefoot and lack of exercise among wild and captive-bred falcons tested in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M G; Wernery, U; Kösters, J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1990s, bumblefoot posed a major health problem to the falcons in the United Arab Emirates. This retrospective study based on statistical field research showed that in captivity wild falcons need a training frequency of twice a day to reduce the bumblefoot morbidity rate. In this context, they responded very well to free flight in aviaries during the molting season. In contrast, captive-bred falcons did not show a highly significant difference regarding training frequencies. Wild falcons tested fed with pigeons, bustards, and ducks suffered significantly less from bumblefoot compared with those fed a diet of quail. Apart from the disease-reducing impact of beef and mice, captive-bred falcons tested did not show any significant difference regarding the influence of diet on the bumblefoot occurrence.

  3. Exercise gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smaerup, M.; Grönvall, E.; Larsen, S. B.;

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify possible reasons for a modest level of exercise compliance during computer-assisted training for vestibular rehabilitation. Method Qualitative design and analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews with seven participants before and after a period......, but their knowledge and understanding of the training programme were insufficient. The participants asked for a greater variation in the exercises and asked for closer contact with the physiotherapist. When Mitii is used for vestibular rehabilitation, the system has some limitations. Conclusions The modest level...... understanding of the training programme with supplying information on the parts of the vestibular system addressed by the training. Implications for Rehabilitation Computer-assisted technologies should generate feedback on the quality of user performance and inform the patient of the relevance of the exercise...

  4. The Effect of Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Testing on NT-proBNP Levels in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdrenghea Dumitru Tudor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise. La pacienţii cu insuficienţǎ cardiacǎ, testele de efort submaximale (testul de mers 400 metri şi testul de efort 6 minute reprezintǎ o alternativǎ a testului de efort clasic pe cicloergometru. Scopul studiului este de a compara creşterea la efort a peptidului natriuretic-NT-proBNP dupǎ testul de mers 400 m, respectiv testul de efort 6 minute faţă de testul clasic de efort pe cicloergometru. Material şi metodă. Au fost studiaţi 20 de pacienți cu insuficienţă cardiacă (fracţie de ejecţie <40% , cu vârste între 37 şi 70 de ani, 16 bărbaţi şi 4 femei. Dupǎ retrocedarea fenomenelor congestive, toţii pacienţii au efectuat în trei zile consecutive, cele trei tipuri de teste: testul de efort clasic pe cicloergometru, testul de mers 400 de metri, respectiv testul de efort de 6 minute. Valorile NT-pro BNP au fost determinate utilizând metoda ELISA înainte şi dupǎ cele trei teste de efort. Rezultate. Valorile medii ale NT-proBNP au fost crescute în repaus în toate cele trei zile, crescând apoi semnificativ, indiferent de tipul de test de efort efectuat: de la 688±72 fmol/ml la 1869±91 fmol/ml (p<0.05 în cazul testului de efort clasic, de la 843±90 fmol/ml la 977±93 fmol/ml (15%, p<0.05 în cazul testului de efort 6 minute şi de la 676±63 fmol/ ml la 927±95 fmol/ml (37%, p<0.05 pentru tesul de mers 400 de metri. Totodatǎ au existat corelaţii semnificative între valorile maxime ale NT-proBNP din cursul efortului pe cicloergometru /test de efort 6 minute (r=0.71, cicloergometeru/ test de mers 400 metri, (r=0.71, respectiv test de mers 400 metri/test de efort 6 minute (r=0.81, p<0.01. În concluzie concentraţia NT-proBNP creşte semnificativ şi similar la bolnavii cu insuficienţǎ cardiacǎ, atât în cursul efortului maximal cât şi în cursul efortului submaximal. Atât testul de efort 6 minute cât şi la testul de mers 400 metri, sunt suficiente ca intensitate pentru eliberarea de hormoni

  5. From Clinical Application of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to View the Requirement for Holistic Integrative Physiology and Medicine%从心肺运动的应用价值看医学整体整合的需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓越; 孙兴国

    2013-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary exercise testing is one important clinical functional test method.While patients do the loaded exercise, from rest to peak exercise to recovery, we continuously record the functions of respiratory, circulatory, metabolic and neurohumoral etc.systems.Based on these results, we can non-invasively evaluate the whole functional capacity and healthy condition, diagnose the diseases, grade the diseases' severity, evaluate the effective effect of the drug or treatment, and prognoses the death survival outcome.From the view of clinical using of cardiopulmonary exercise testing, we need a theoretical system of physiology and medicine for the all systems in human body in whole.%心肺运动试验是一个重要的人体整体功能学检测方法.让患者运动,连续动态记录以呼吸、循环、代谢和神经体液等多系统的功能活动,由此实现人体整体生理功能状态评价、疾病诊断、病情评估、治疗效果评估和预后转归预测.从心肺运动试验的临床应用出发,需要建立生理学医学的整体整合理论用以指导该技术的正确运用和解读.

  6. Effect of forced exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, serum and hippocampal corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that there are positive effects of exercise on learning and memory. Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that forced exercise plays the role of a stressor. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of different timing of exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, and serum and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, exercise-rest (exercise withdrawal), rest-exercise (exercised group), and exercise-exercise (continuous exercise). Rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day at a speed 20-21-m/min. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock. Findings showed that after the exercise withdrawal, short-term and mid-term memories, had significant enhancement compared to the control group, while the long-term memory did not present this result. In addition, the serum and hippocampal CORT levels were at the basal levels after the rest period in the exercise-rest group. In the rest-exercise group, exercise improved mid- and long-term memories, whereas continuous exercise improved all types short-, mid- and long-term memories, particularly the mid-term memory. Twenty-one and forty-two days of exercise significantly decreased the serum and hippocampal CORT levels. It seems that exercise for at least 21 days with no rest could affect biochemical factors in the brain. Also, regular continuous exercise plays an important role in memory function. Hence, the duration and withdraw of exercise are important factors for the neurobiological aspects of the memory responses.

  7. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: A practice parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2010;105:S1. Krafczyk ... up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma ...

  8. CATSIUS CLAY PROJECT: Calculation and testing of behaviour of unsaturated clay as barrier in radioactive waste repositories: stage 3: validation exercises at a large in situ scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E. E.; Alcoverro, J.

    1999-07-01

    Stage 3 of CATSIUS CLAY Project: Validation Exercises at a Large in situ Scale includes two Benchmarks: Benchmark 3.1: In situ Hydration of Boom Clay Pellets (BACCHUS 2) and Benchmark 3.2: FEBEX Mock-up Test. The BACCHUS 2 in situ test was performed in the HADES underground laboratory (Mol, Belgium) to demonstrate and optimize an installation procedure for a clay based material and to study its hydration process. After drilling a vertical shaft (540 mm in diameter, 3.0 m in length) in the host Boom clay, a central filter (90 mm in diameter) was placed, the remaining space was filled with a mixture of clay pellets and clay powder and the assembly was sealed at the upper end by a resin plug (0.20 m in thickness) over which concrete was poured. The test was instrumented so that it could be used as a validation experiment. Total stress, pore water pressure and water content measurements were performed both in the backfill material and in the surrounding clay massif. Once the installation was complete, the natural hydration of the backfill material began (day 0). To accelerate the hydration process, on day 516 water was injected through the central filter. On day 624, after the saturation of the backfill was reached, the hydraulic circuit was closed and the undrained response of the system backfill-host clay was monitored until an overall steady state was reached. Partners were asked to provide predictions for the evolution of the pore water pressure and total pressure of various points where appropriate sensors are installed. This benchmark addresses the Hydro-Mechanical response of an unsaturated low density clay barrier under natural and artificial hydration. (Author)

  9. Use of the Wasserman equation in optimization of the duration of the power ramp in a cardiopulmonary exercise test: a study of Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D C; Santi, G L de; Crescêncio, J C; Seabra, L P; Carvalho, E E V; Papa, V; Marques, F; Gallo Junior, L; Schmidt, A

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the agreement between measurements of unloaded oxygen uptake and peak oxygen uptake based on equations proposed by Wasserman and on real measurements directly obtained with the ergospirometry system. We performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), which was applied to two groups of sedentary male subjects: one apparently healthy group (HG, n=12) and the other had stable coronary artery disease (n=16). The mean age in the HG was 47±4 years and that in the coronary artery disease group (CG) was 57±8 years. Both groups performed CPET on a cycle ergometer with a ramp-type protocol at an intensity that was calculated according to the Wasserman equation. In the HG, there was no significant difference between measurements predicted by the formula and real measurements obtained in CPET in the unloaded condition. However, at peak effort, a significant difference was observed between oxygen uptake (V˙O2)peak(predicted)and V˙O2peak(real)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). In the CG, there was a significant difference of 116.26 mL/min between the predicted values by the formula and the real values obtained in the unloaded condition. A significant difference in peak effort was found, where V˙O2peak(real)was 40% lower than V˙O2peak(predicted)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). There was no agreement between the real and predicted measurements as analyzed by Lin's coefficient or the Bland and Altman model. The Wasserman formula does not appear to be appropriate for prediction of functional capacity of volunteers. Therefore, this formula cannot precisely predict the increase in power in incremental CPET on a cycle ergometer.

  10. Use of the Wasserman equation in optimization of the duration of the power ramp in a cardiopulmonary exercise test: a study of Brazilian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the agreement between measurements of unloaded oxygen uptake and peak oxygen uptake based on equations proposed by Wasserman and on real measurements directly obtained with the ergospirometry system. We performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET, which was applied to two groups of sedentary male subjects: one apparently healthy group (HG, n=12 and the other had stable coronary artery disease (n=16. The mean age in the HG was 47±4 years and that in the coronary artery disease group (CG was 57±8 years. Both groups performed CPET on a cycle ergometer with a ramp-type protocol at an intensity that was calculated according to the Wasserman equation. In the HG, there was no significant difference between measurements predicted by the formula and real measurements obtained in CPET in the unloaded condition. However, at peak effort, a significant difference was observed between oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak(predictedand V˙O2peak(real(nonparametric Wilcoxon test. In the CG, there was a significant difference of 116.26 mL/min between the predicted values by the formula and the real values obtained in the unloaded condition. A significant difference in peak effort was found, where V˙O2peak(realwas 40% lower than V˙O2peak(predicted(nonparametric Wilcoxon test. There was no agreement between the real and predicted measurements as analyzed by Lin’s coefficient or the Bland and Altman model. The Wasserman formula does not appear to be appropriate for prediction of functional capacity of volunteers. Therefore, this formula cannot precisely predict the increase in power in incremental CPET on a cycle ergometer.

  11. Contextual effects on the perceived health benefits of exercise: the exercise rank hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Wood, Alex M; Vlaev, Ivo; Taylor, Michael J; Brown, Gordon D A

    2012-12-01

    Many accounts of social influences on exercise participation describe how people compare their behaviors to those of others. We develop and test a novel hypothesis, the exercise rank hypothesis, of how this comparison can occur. The exercise rank hypothesis, derived from evolutionary theory and the decision by sampling model of judgment, suggests that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of exercise are influenced by how individuals believe the amount of exercise ranks in comparison with other people's amounts of exercise. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of their own current exercise amounts were as predicted by the exercise rank hypothesis. Study 2 demonstrated that the perceptions of the health benefits of an amount of exercise can be manipulated by experimentally changing the ranked position of the amount within a comparison context. The discussion focuses on how social norm-based interventions could benefit from using rank information.

  12. Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in patients with cardiovascular disease entering exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando M F; Almodhy, Meshal; Pepera, Garyfalia; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios M; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2017-01-01

    The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is used to assess functional capacity of patients entering cardiac rehabilitation. Factors such as age and sex account for a proportion of the variance in test performance in healthy individuals but there are no reference values for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to produce reference values for the ISWT. Participants were n = 548 patients referred to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation who underwent a clinical examination and performed the ISWT. We used regression to identify predictors of performance and produced centile values using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape model. Men walked significantly further than women (395 ± 165 vs. 269 ± 118 m; t = 9.5, P sex. Age (years) was the strongest predictor of performance in men (β = -5.9; 95% CI: -7.1 to -4.6 m) and women (β = -4.8; 95% CI: -6.3 to 3.3). Centile curves demonstrated a broadly linear decrease in expected ISWT values in males (25-85 years) and a more curvilinear trend in females. Patients entering cardiac rehabilitation present with highly heterogeneous ISWT values. Much of the variance in performance can be explained by patients' age and sex. Comparing absolute values with age-and sex-specific reference values may aid interpretation of ISWT performance during initial patient assessment at entry to cardiac rehabilitation.

  13. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  14. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increase the risk of premature bone loss ( osteoporosis ). And of course, working their bodies so hard leads to exhaustion and constant fatigue. An even more serious risk is the stress that excessive exercise can place on the heart, particularly when someone ...

  15. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive...

  16. Influence of acid functionalization on the cardio-pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and carbon black in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered carbon nanotubes are being developed for a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes can impose potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chemical groups o...

  17. Are we paying too much attention to cardio-pulmonary nematodes and neglecting old-fashioned worms like Trichuris vulpis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trichuris vulpis, the dog whipworm, causes an intestinal parasitosis of relevance in current canine veterinary practice. Its occurrence is well-known in pets, kennelled dogs and stray animals, and its eggs contaminate the ground in urban areas all over the world. Moreover, T. vulpis has been occasionally incriminated, though not convincingly substantiated, as a cause of zoonosis. This nematode is erroneously considered an "old-fashioned" pathogen with a consequent lack of up- to- date knowledge on several aspects of the infection. These, in turn, are still controversial and need to be studied in greater depth. This article reviews current knowledge of T. vulpis, together with a discussion of critical points in epidemiology, zoonotic hazard, diagnosis and treatment of canine trichurosis.

  18. Ratio of total carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed is predictive of VO2 max during graded exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID BELLAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the ratio between total cO2 expiration and O2 consumption to vO2max. Twenty-six male (vO2 max: 55.4± 8.3 ml O2/kg*min and thirty- five female (vO2 max: 44.1± 8.1 ml O2/kg*min recreationally active adults volunteered. The participants underwent a custom ramped treadmill protocol (gXT with expired gases monitored. Third order polynomial regression was undertaken for the vO2 and vcO2 by time (r>0.950. regression equations were integrated from 60seconds after the start of the test (to negate any initial hyperventilation until vO2 max. This area under the curve calculation was equal to the total accumulated expired cO2 and consumed O2. The ratio of total cO2 to O2 was calculated (auc ratio. Data analysis was undertaken using multiple linear regression analysis. The model included gender, rer at vO2 max and auc ratio as predictors and relative vO2 max as the outcome. The model was significant with predictor variable gender (b =0.582, p<0.001 and auc ratio (b=-0.298, p=0.019 significant in the model. Based upon these results it would appear that individuals who are more fit relying more heavily on oxidative pathways throughout the course of a GXT.

  19. Testes de broncoprovocação com metacolina e com exercício em bicicleta e corrida livre em crianças com asma intermitente Bronchial provocation tests using methacholine, cycle ergometer exercise and free running in children with intermittent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. T. G. Souza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a responsividade de vias aéreas à metacolina e ao teste de exercício na bicicleta ergométrica e corrida livre em crianças com asma intermitente. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado. Trinta crianças de ambos os sexos com asma intermitente participaram do estudo. Cada teste foi realizado em 3 dias diferentes, através de randomização: a broncoprovocação com metacolina, método do dosímetro; b teste de exercício: corrida livre em um corredor de 50 m; c teste de exercício: bicicleta ergométrica com ar seco. A freqüência cardíaca atingida foi 80 a 90% da freqüência cardíaca máxima. A espirometria foi realizada aos 3, 6, 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício. Broncoespasmo induzido por exercício foi definido como a queda de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 > 10% em relação aos valores pré-teste. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 11±3 anos. O VEF1 e VEF1/CVF (capacidade vital forçada foram normais e similares antes dos três testes de broncoprovocação. A freqüência cardíaca máxima foi de 178±7 bpm durante o exercício na bicicleta e 181±6 bpm na corrida livre (p > 0,05. Broncoespasmo significante foi visto em 23 crianças após o teste com metacolina, em 19 após a corrida livre e em 14 crianças após exercício em bicicleta (p OBJECTIVE: To compare airway responsiveness to methacholine, cycle ergometer exercise and free running in children with intermittent asthma. METHODS: A randomized study was conducted with 30 children of both genders with intermittent asthma. Each child was submitted to challenge testing on three separate days, in random order: a Methacholine challenge using a dosimeter; b Exercise challenge testing - free running along a 50-meter-long corridor; c Dry-air exercise challenge on a cycle ergometer. Target heart rate during exercise was 80 to 90% of the maximum predicted value. Spirometry was performed 3, 6,10,15,20 and 30 minutes after exercise. Exercise

  20. Interaction of external, introjected, and identified regulation with intrinsic motivation in exercise: Relationships with exercise enjoyment

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, SP; Karageorghis, CI

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which the exercise-related motives of external regulation, introjected regulation, and identified regulation interacted with intrinsic motivation to relate to exercise enjoyment. The study was conducted to test the "additive relationship hypothesis" emanating from Vallerand and Fortier's (1998) theoretical position regarding the interplay between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in exercise. Exercise participants (N = 516) responded to a self-report que...

  1. Relations between cardiopulmonary function during exercise and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Cuypers, Maarten; Vos, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Methods: In part 1, a cross-sectional study took place. Sixty COPD patients performed a spirometry and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Predictors of exercise tolerance were examined. In part 2, a longitudinal observational study took place. Twelve COPD patients completed an exercise training intervention. A study on relations between changes in cardiopulmonary function and changes in exercise tolerance was performed. Results: Significant predictors of VO2peak are peak carbon d...

  2. The time has come to test the beta cell preserving effects of exercise in patients with new onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narendran, Parth; Solomon, Thomas; Kennedy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterised by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Significant beta cell function is usually present at the time of diagnosis with type 1 diabetes, and preservation of this function has important clinical benefits. The last 30 years have seen a number...... for physical exercise as a therapy for the preservation of beta cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We highlight possible mechanisms by which exercise could preserve beta cell function and then present evidence from other models of diabetes that demonstrate that exercise preserves...... beta cell function. We conclude by proposing that there is now a need for studies to explore whether exercise can preserve beta cell in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes....

  3. Exercise-induced pulmonary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J M

    1994-03-01

    When respiratory distress occurs in the exercise arena, the clinician must differentiate between a potential serious bout of EIA or the commoner EIB. The physician's game day medical kit should include epinephrine for initial treatment in suspected EIA. Sports medicine personnel need to maintain a high index of suspicion for EIB in athletes at risk and confirm the diagnosis with a treadmill exercise challenge test. Initial pharmacologic management should consist of a trial of albuterol inhaler use 15 minutes before exercise. Early identification and treatment of EIB may enhance sports performance as well as enjoyment.

  4. 吸烟对新入伍士兵运动应激时循环功能的影响%Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Circulatory Function in New Recruits during Exercise Stress Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 韩国华; 乔昆; 马兴杰; 董岸莺; 蒋希

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of cigarette smoking on heart rate, electrocardiogram and blood pressure in the new recruits during exercise stress test. Methods 52 smokers and 48 nonsmokers were tested with the standard Bruce treadmill protocol from Step Ⅲ. The heart rate and blood pressure were measured at motionless rest, every 3 minutes during the exercise stress test and every 3 minutes during recovery using standard laboratory procedures. Results Compared with the controls, the smokers had an obvious increase in heart rate during exercise stress test (P 0.05),非吸烟组运动应激时及应激恢复3 min时舒张压有所降低(P 0.05)。结论吸烟对新入伍士兵运动应激时心率、血压和心电图影响较大,可能引起心血管自主神经支配障碍。

  5. Exercise treadmill test for diagnosis of coronary heart disease in youth%运动平板试验对青年冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the value of exercise treadmill test for diagnosis of coronary heart disease in youth. Methods Exercise treadmill test and coronary angiography were performed on 200 male youth and 200 female youth patients with chest pain respectively, results of which were compared. Results Among the 142 male patients who were found positive for coronary angiography, there were 136 confirmed positive and 6 negative for exercise treadmill test. However, among the 58 male patients who were found negative for coronary angiography, there were 10 cases confirmed positive and 48 negative for exercise treadmill test. For female patients, 90 cases were found positive for coronary angiography, and among whom 84 cases were found positive and 6 negative for exercise treadmill test. Among the 110 female patients who were found negative for coronary angiography, 56 cases were found positive and 54 negative for exercise treadmill test. Specificity and accuracy of exercise treadmill test for diagnosis of coronary artery disease in male youth patients were significantly higher than those in female youth patients (82.8% vs. 46.5% , P<0.01; 93.0% vs. 60.0%, P<0.01). Conclusions Diagnostic accordance rate for coronary artery disease by exercise treadmill test in male youth patients is higher than that in female youth patients.%目的 评估运动平板试验对青年冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病)患者的诊断意义.方法 选择有典型胸痛症状的青年男、女患者各200例行运动平板试验,择期进行冠状动脉造影,对其结果进行对照分析.结果 男性患者冠状动脉造影结果阳性142例中运动平板试验阳性136例,阴性6例;男性患者冠状动脉造影结果阴性58例中运动平板试验阳性10例,阴性48例.女性患者冠状动脉造影结果阳性90例中运动平板试验阳性84例,阴性6例;女性患者冠状动脉造影结果阴性110例中运动平板试验阳性56例,阴性54例.运动平板试验

  6. 活动平板运动试验诱发缺血性T波对冠心病的诊断价值%The diagnosis value on parameters of treadmill exercise test for coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健玲; 郭继鸿; 许原; 李小鹰; 马彩云; 吴丽华; 刘彦伯; 刘倩

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract ]Objective To determine the diagnostic value of treadmill exercise test(TET)in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)by comparing the diagnostic conclusion with coronary angiography(CAG).Methods 445 patients with coronary heart disease(CHD)and suspected CHD underwent treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography (CAG), and the diagnostic conclusions were compared.Results ①The 200 cases had the positive result during treadmill exercise test and 150cases hand been diagnosed CHD by coronary angiography; The 245 cases had the negative result during treadmill exercise test and 39cases hand been diagnosed CHD by coronary angiography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the false positive incidence, the false negative incidence and agreement rate in diagnosis of CHD by treadmill exercise test were 79.36%, 80.40%, 75.00% , 84.08%, 25.00%, 15.92% and 80.00%, respectively. The patients with multi-vessel diseased had a higher positive rate of TET as compared with those with single diseased vessel(P0.05). But, there were statistically significant among TET negative group ,T wave normalization group and TET positive group (P<0.05).Conclusions The treadmill exercise test is valuable in noninvasive diagnosis of CHD, especially for patients with multi-vessel diseased. Ischemic T-wave’s changes in the comprehensive exercise testing can be initially estimated the severity, T wave normalization can be as a new positive indicators of exercise test.%目的总结平板运动试验诱发缺血性T波对冠心病的诊断价值。方法回顾性总结分析住院接受活动平板运动试验(TET)及冠状动脉造影(CAG)检查患者445例平板运动试验诱发缺血性T波对冠心病的诊断价值。结果①445例中, TET阳性200例,其中CAG阳性150例,CAG阴性50例;TET阴性245例,其中CAG阴性206例,CAG阳性39例。TET检出冠心病的敏感性为79.36%(150/189),特异性为80

  7. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women Análise clínica e metabólica comparativa entre o teste de caminhada de seis minutos e o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar em mulheres obesas e eutróficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A reduzida tolerância ao exercício está relacionada à diminuída capacidade funcional consequente da obesidade. Objetivos

  8. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women Análise clínica e metabólica comparativa entre o teste de caminhada de seis minutos e o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar em mulheres obesas e eutróficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A reduzida tolerância ao exercício está relacionada à diminuída capacidade funcional consequente da obesidade. Objetivos

  9. Indicações do teste ergométrico em crianças e adolescentes Indicaciones de la prueba ergométrica en niños y adolescentes Exercise test indications in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odwaldo Barbosa e Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O teste ergométrico (TE é um procedimento de baixo risco e com complicações extremamente raras, principalmente na população pediátrica. Nesta revisão são apresentadas as principais indicações do TE nas crianças e adolescentes (idade até 19 anos, como um método de avaliação diagnóstica, prognóstica e funcional em diversas situações: avaliação da capacidade física, avaliação de sintomas relacionados ao exercício, avaliação de tratamento clínico e cirúrgico em portadores de miocardiopatias, cardiopatias congênitas e valvares, asmáticos e avaliação pré-participação em programas de atividades físicas, entre outras.La prueba ergomética (PE es un procedimiento de bajo riesgo y con complicaciones extremamente raras, principalmente en los niños. En este estudio, se presentan las principales indicaciones de la PE para niños y adolescentes (edad hasta 19 años, como un método de evaluación diagnóstica, prognóstica y funcional en diversas situaciones: evaluación de la capacidad física, evaluación de síntomas relacionados al ejercicio, evaluación de tratamiento clínico y cirúgico en portadores de miocardiopatias, cardiopatias congénitas y valvares y asmáticos y evaluación de pre-participación en programas de actividades físicas, entre otras.The exercise test (ET is a low-risk procedure that presents extremely rare complications, especially among pediatric age populations. In this reviewing, the main ET indications in children and adolescents (age up to 19 years are presented as a method of diagnostic, prognostic and functional evaluation in several situations: evaluation of the physical capacity, evaluation of symptoms related to exercise, evaluation of clinical and surgical treatments in patients with cardiomyopathies, congenital and valvar cardiopathies, asthmatic patients and pre-participation in physical activities programs, among others.

  10. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  11. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Exercise and Self-testing Health of the Elderly%体育锻炼与老年人自评健康关系的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮; 王莉华

    2015-01-01

    采用问卷调查和心理量表相结合的方法对南京城区老年人体育锻炼与身心健康状况进行测查,以了解其锻炼动机、项目、场所,以及锻炼年限、频度、时间和锻炼的形式对老年人自测健康得分的影响。结果表明:(1)参与体育锻炼的老年人在自测健康总分和自测生理健康、心理健康、社会健康,以及各维度得分上都显著高于不参与体育锻炼的老年人;(2)体育锻炼的动机、项目与场所对老年人自测健康得分有一定的影响,其中部分健康指标差异显著;(3)体育锻炼的年限、频度与时间对老年人自测健康得分的影响显著,长期参与、每周频率在5次以上、每次持续时间在30 min以上的体育锻炼对老年人保持身心健康较为有益;(4)老年人参与体育锻炼的形式对老年人的健康有一定的影响,其中社会健康得分上达到显著差异水平,心理健康得分上也达到临界差异水平,结伴进行体育锻炼的老年人在生理健康、心理健康、社会健康以及健康总体自测得分均值上都高于单独锻炼的老年人。结论:体育锻炼与老年人的自测健康得分有密切的关系,体育锻炼有助于老年人的生理、心理和社会健康,进而提高老年人的总体健康水平。%Combined with the methods of questionnaire survey and psychological scale ,the situation of physical exercise and mental & physical health of the Nanjing city's elderly were tested ,in order to understand the motivation ,items and places of physical exercise ,and the effects of exercise duration ,frequency ,time and form of exercise on the self‐testing health scores of elderly .The results showed that :(1)For the orderly participating in physical exercise ,their self‐testing health total scores ,self‐testing scores of physiological health ,psychological health ,social health and the score of each di‐mension are

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL EXERCISE VERSUS CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Swathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and a range of pathological changes in the lung. Chronic inflammation causes structural changes and narrowing of the small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil; in turn these changes diminish the expiration and the work of breathing is increased. Scarcity of evidence on continuous and interval exercises is forcing researchers conduct studies on effectiveness of interval exercise with continuous exercise on exercise tolerance in subjects with COPD. Methods: 60 subjects were selected by lottery method. All the subjects were explained about the condition and mode of assessment and written informed consent were obtained from them and divided into 2 groups interval training group and continuous exercise training group and subjects were scheduled to attend exercise session 5 days a week for 4 weeks with exercise duration 20 min’s with cycle ergometer. Outcome measure: six minute walk test and heart rate. Results: On observing the means of post test parameters of experimental group A and experimental group B Independent t-test was done and the P- value is >0.05 .It shows a no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results had shown that both interval exercise group and continuous exercise group who received four weeks of therapy has improved significantly on pre and post test values within the groups but when compared between these groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between interval exercise group and continuous exercise group in improving exercise tolerance among COPD subjects.

  13. Relationship between exercise induced dyspnea and functional capacity with doppler-derived diastolic function’

    OpenAIRE

    Nasim, Sumera; Nadeem, Najaf; Zahidie, Aysha; Sharif, Tabbasum

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyspnea is the frequent cause of exercise intolerance and physical inactivity among patients referred for exercise tolerance test. Diastolic dysfunction has shown significant correlation with exercise capacity and exercise induced dyspnea. To find out the frequency of diastolic dysfunction (DD) and the relationships between impaired exercise capacity and exercise induced dyspnea with DD by Doppler-derived indices among patients referred for stress test in a tertiary care hospital o...

  14. Multivariate statistics exercises and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    The authors present tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis by means of exercises and their solutions. The first part is devoted to graphical techniques. The second part deals with multivariate random variables and presents the derivation of estimators and tests for various practical situations. The last part introduces a wide variety of exercises in applied multivariate data analysis. The book demonstrates the application of simple calculus and basic multivariate methods in real life situations. It contains altogether more than 250 solved exercises which can assist a university teacher in setting up a modern multivariate analysis course. All computer-based exercises are available in the R language. All R codes and data sets may be downloaded via the quantlet download center  www.quantlet.org or via the Springer webpage. For interactive display of low-dimensional projections of a multivariate data set, we recommend GGobi.

  15. Strength and Balance Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  16. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  17. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET. Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk.

  18. Properties of Exercise Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdes, Alex; Jeuring, Johan; 10.4204/EPTCS.44.2

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning environments give domain-specific and immediate feedback to students solving a mathematical exercise. Based on a language for specifying strategies, we have developed a feedback framework that automatically calculates semantically rich feedback. We offer this feedback functionality to mathematical learning environments via a set of web services. Feedback is only effective when it is precise and to the point. The tests we have performed give some confidence about the correctness of our feedback services. To increase confidence in our services, we explicitly specify the properties our feedback services should satisfy, and, if possible, prove them correct. For this, we give a formal description of the concepts used in our feedback framework services. The formalisation allows us to reason about these concepts, and to state a number of desired properties of the concepts. Our feedback services use exercise descriptions for their instances on domains such as logic, algebra, and linear algebra. ...

  19. Effect of oxygen on postoperative cardiovascular response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, M; Lie, C; Bisgaard, T;

    2000-01-01

    oximeter. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate during exercise. RESULTS: At similar workloads there were significantly lower heart rates (median decrease 3 min(-1)) during exercise tests with oxygen compared with air (p

  20. Diagnostic value of the propranolol-exercise provocative test for growth hormone deifciency in children%心得安运动激发试验对儿童生长激素缺乏症的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑方圆; 王雪梅; 王新利

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨心得安运动激发试验对儿童生长激素缺乏症(GHD)的诊断价值。方法选择在2009年1月至2013年3月期间因身材矮小症住院,同时完善胰岛素激发和心得安运动激发两项试验的儿童,共120例,记录激发试验前后静脉血GH值。将激发试验后血GH峰值<10 ng/mL定义为激发阴性,GH峰值≥10 ng/mL定义为激发阳性。将两项激发试验后血GH峰值均<10 ng/mL者诊断为GHD。结果120例矮小儿童中,诊断为GHD者29例(24.2%)。胰岛素激发试验阳性率为48.3%。心得安运动激发试验阳性率为65.8%。两项激发试验的总符合率为62.5%,阳性符合率为79.3%。心得安运动激发后血GH峰值显著高于胰岛素激发试验的GH峰值。胰岛素激发试验血GH峰值多出现在试验后30~60 min,心得安运动激发试验GH峰值多出现在试验后的120 min。心得安运动激发试验未见不良反应发生。结论心得安运动激发试验与胰岛素激发试验对GH的激发结果符合率较高,且比胰岛素激发试验更易刺激GH分泌,临床可考虑同时应用胰岛素激发试验、心得安运动激发试验联合诊断GHD。%Objective To assess the diagnostic value of the propranolol-exercise provocative test for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children. Methods This study included 120 children who received both the insulin provocative test and the propranolol-exercise provocative test due to short stature between January 2009 and March 2013. Growth hormone (GH) levels in venous blood were measured before and after the provocative test. Peak GH<10 ng/mL was deifned as negative stimulation, while peak GH≥10 ng/mL was deifned as positive stimulation. The children whose peak GH levels were<10 ng/mL after both tests were diagnosed with GHD. Results Twenty-nine (24.2%) of the 120 children with short stature were diagnosed with GHD. The positive rate in the insulin provocative test was 48.3%, versus 65

  1. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  2. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... recruited from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and were without cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, or medication and without cardiovascular events during 5 to 12 years before and 3 to 5 years after admission. The specificity, that is, the probability of displaying a negative test result...

  3. Efeitos de um programa de exercícios no desempenho de crianças nos testes de flexibilidade e impulsão vertical Effects of an exercise program on children's flexibility and vertical jump performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo investigou o efeito de um programa de exercícios na flexibilidade e impulsão vertical de escolares. 61 crianças (30 meninos foram divididas em Grupo Controle Masculino (GCM, Grupo Intervenção Masculino (GIM, Grupo Controle Feminino (GCF e Grupo Intervenção Feminino (GIF. O GIM e GIF foram submetidos a um programa de exercícios durante as aulas de Educação Física Escolar com duração de 12 semanas. Foram realizados os testes de "sentar-e-alcançar" e impulsão vertical anteriormente às 12 semanas e após o término deste programa. Os resultados indicaram que o GIF e o GIM aumentaram significativamente o desempenho nos testes de impulsão vertical e "sentar-e-alcançar" após o programa de intervenção (P0,05. O programa de intervenção utilizado nesse estudo foi eficiente em aumentar a flexibilidade e impulsão vertical de crianças.This study investigated the effects of an exercise training program on flexibility and vertical jump performance in children at scholar age. 61 Children (30 boys were divided in male control group (MCG, male intervention group (MIG, female control group (FCG and female intervention group (FIG. MIG and FIG were submitted to an exercise training program during physical education classes for 12 weeks. The "sit-and-reach" and vertical jump tests were performed before and after 12 weeks of the exercise training program. The results demonstrated that MIG and FIG groups significantly increased the performance on vertical jump as well as the "sit-and-reach" tests after the exercise training program (P0,05. The exercise program used in this study was efficient to increase flexibility and vertical jump performance in children.

  4. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  5. Effects of cervical mobilization and exercise on pain, movement and function in subjects with temporomandibular disorders: a single group pre-post test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Bojikian CALIXTRE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of a rehabilitation program based on cervical mobilization and exercise on clinical signs and mandibular function in subjects with temporomandibular disorder (TMD. Material and Methods: Single-group pre-post test, with baseline comparison. Subjects Twelve women (22.08±2.23 years with myofascial pain and mixed TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Outcome measures Subjects were evaluated three times: twice before (baseline phase and once after intervention. Self-reported pain, jaw function [according to the Mandibular Functional Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ], pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO, and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs of both masseter and temporalis muscles were obtained. Baseline and post-intervention differences were investigated, and effect size was estimated through Cohen’s d coefficient. Results Jaw function improved 7 points on the scale after the intervention (P=0.019, and self-reported pain was significantly reduced (P=0.009. Pain-free MMO varied from 32.3±8.8 mm to 38±8.8 mm and showed significant improvement (P=0.017 with moderate effect size when compared to the baseline phase. PPT also increased with moderate effect size, and subjects had the baseline values changed from 1.23±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left masseter (P=0.03, from 1.31±0.28 kg/cm2 to 1.51±0.2 kg/cm2 in the right masseter (P>0.05, from 1.32±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.46±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left temporalis (P=0.047, and from 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.67±0.3 kg/cm2 in the right temporalis (P=0.06. Conclusions The protocol caused significant changes in pain-free MMO, self-reported pain, and functionality of the stomatognathic system in subjects with myofascial TMD, regardless of joint involvement. Even though these differences are statistically significant, their clinical relevance is still questionable.

  6. Effects of cervical mobilization and exercise on pain, movement and function in subjects with temporomandibular disorders: a single group pre-post test

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALIXTRE, Letícia Bojikian; GRÜNINGER, Bruno Leonardo da Silva; HAIK, Melina Nevoeiro; ALBURQUERQUE-SENDÍN, Francisco; OLIVEIRA, Ana Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of a rehabilitation program based on cervical mobilization and exercise on clinical signs and mandibular function in subjects with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Material and Methods: Single-group pre-post test, with baseline comparison. Subjects Twelve women (22.08±2.23 years) with myofascial pain and mixed TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Outcome measures Subjects were evaluated three times: twice before (baseline phase) and once after intervention. Self-reported pain, jaw function [according to the Mandibular Functional Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ)], pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO), and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of both masseter and temporalis muscles were obtained. Baseline and post-intervention differences were investigated, and effect size was estimated through Cohen’s d coefficient. Results Jaw function improved 7 points on the scale after the intervention (P=0.019), and self-reported pain was significantly reduced (P=0.009). Pain-free MMO varied from 32.3±8.8 mm to 38±8.8 mm and showed significant improvement (P=0.017) with moderate effect size when compared to the baseline phase. PPT also increased with moderate effect size, and subjects had the baseline values changed from 1.23±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left masseter (P=0.03), from 1.31±0.28 kg/cm2 to 1.51±0.2 kg/cm2 in the right masseter (P>0.05), from 1.32±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.46±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left temporalis (P=0.047), and from 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.67±0.3 kg/cm2 in the right temporalis (P=0.06). Conclusions The protocol caused significant changes in pain-free MMO, self-reported pain, and functionality of the stomatognathic system in subjects with myofascial TMD, regardless of joint involvement. Even though these differences are statistically significant, their clinical relevance is still questionable. PMID:27383698

  7. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application; Metodo de Visualizacion de los Resultados de las Pruebas de Capacitacion por medio de la Grafica de Kiri. Aplicacion Informatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-09-13

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  8. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  9. Comparison of myocardial ischemia during intense mental stress using flight simulation in airline pilots with coronary artery disease to that produced with conventional mental and treadmill exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorey, Andrew; Denenberg, Barry; Sagar, Vidya; Hanna, Tracy; Newman, Jack; Stone, Peter H

    2011-09-01

    Mental stress increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although laboratory mental stress often causes less myocardial ischemia than exercise stress (ES), it is unclear whether mental stress is intrinsically different or differences are due to less hemodynamic stress with mental stress. We sought to evaluate the hemodynamic and ischemic response to intense realistic mental stress created by modern flight simulators and compare this response to that of exercise treadmill testing and conventional laboratory mental stress (CMS) testing in pilots with coronary disease. Sixteen airline pilots with angiographically documented coronary disease and documented myocardial ischemia during ES were studied using maximal treadmill ES, CMS, and aviation mental stress (AMS) testing. AMS testing was done in a sophisticated simulator using multiple system failures as stressors. Treadmill ES testing resulted in the highest heart rate, but AMS caused a higher blood pressure response than CMS. Maximal rate-pressure product was not significantly different between ES and AMS (25,646 vs 23,347, p = 0.08), although these were higher than CMS (16,336, p mental stress compared to ES do not appear to be due to the creation of less hemodynamic stress. In conclusion, even with equivalent hemodynamic stress, intense realistic mental stress induced by flight simulators results in significantly less myocardial ischemia than ES as measured by ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia.

  10. Obesity and exercise in adoloscent period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Mendeş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence period is a special period during which fastest growth and development occur in humans and which includes transition from childhood to adulthood. World Health Organization (WHO define 10-19 age-group individuals as adolescence and 15- 24 age-group individuals as youthood. That today’s community lacks knowledge of workout, inadequate awareness of the benefits of workout to human health and acceptance of the continuity of sedentary life gives rise to the incidence of lots of chronic diseases such as high-blood pressure, cardio-pulmonary diseases, obesity and diabetes.In recent years, childhood and adolescence obesity has become an important health problem as a result of the decline in physical activities. In this context, workout along with balanced diet is one of the precautions that can be suggested in terms of the prevention of obesity. The purpose of this study (compilation is to provide information on keeping human health by means of an awareness of workout in adolescence period which is the most important stage preceding adulthood; to summarize the issue in relation to the written documents existing in the relevant literature, and to make suggestions about healthy future generations through workout in adolescence period.In conclusion, successful results regarding the treatment of obesity in adolescence can be achieved through aerobics along with low-calorie diet.

  11. Obesity and exercise in adoloscent period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Mendes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available             Adolescence period is a special period during which fastest growth and development occur in humans and which includes transition from childhood to adulthood. World Health Organization (WHO define 10-19 age-group individuals as adolescence and 15- 24 age-group individuals as youthood.             That today’s community lacks knowledge of workout, inadequate awareness of the benefits of workout to human health and acceptance of the continuity of sedentary life gives rise to the incidence of lots of  chronic diseases such as  high-blood pressure, cardio-pulmonary diseases, obesity and diabetes. In recent years, childhood and adolescence obesity has become an important health problem as a result of the decline in physical activities. In this context, workout along with balanced diet is one of the precautions that can be suggested in terms of the prevention of obesity. The purpose of this study (compilation is to provide information on keeping human health by means of an awareness of workout in adolescence period which is the most important stage preceding adulthood; to summarize the issue in relation to the written documents existing in the relevant literature, and  to make suggestions  about healthy future generations through workout in adolescence period. In conclusion, successful results regarding the treatment of obesity in adolescence can be achieved through aerobics along with low-calorie diet.

  12. 心电图平板运动试验对女性冠心病的诊断价值%The diagnostic value of the ECG treadmill exercise test in women with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞幼燕; 郑寥寥; 钱赛芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of the ECG treadmill exercise test in women with coronary heart disease.Methods The clinical data of 108 female patients who received the electrocardiogram treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography and suspected coronary heart disease were analyzed.The results of treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography were comparatively analyzed.Results Treadmill exercise test sensitivity was 57.64% (49/85),specificity was 73.46% (36/49),positive predictive value was 79.03% (49/62),negative predictive value was 78.26% (36/46),accuracy was 78.70% (85/108).False-positive group exercise time,ST-segment depression amplitude,duration,number of leads were lower than the true-positive group (t =2.49,6.08,4.68,8.00,all P <0.05).Coronary artery stenosis in patients with ECG treadmill exercise test ECG display the difference was statistically significant.The more serious coronary artery stenosis lesions electrocardiogram showed lack of blood type ST-segment depression appear sooner,the longer the duration,the greater the magnitude of depression.Conclusion Treadmill exercise is an ideal noninvasive method in the diagnosis of women with coronary heart disease.%目的 探讨心电图平板运动试验对女性冠心病的诊断价值.方法 分析行心电图平板试验和冠状动脉造影检查的女性疑似冠心病患者108例临床资料,将平板运动试验与冠状动脉造影结果进行比较分析.结果 平板运动试验敏感性为57.64% (49/85),特异性为73.46%(36/49),阳性预测值为79.03%(49/62),阴性预测值为78.26%(36/46),准确性为78.70%(85/108).假阳性组运动时间、ST段下移幅度、持续时间、导联数均低于真阳性组(t =2.49、6.08、4.68、8.00,均P<0.05).冠状动脉不同狭窄程度患者的心电图平板运动试验差异有统计学意义.冠状动脉狭窄程度病变越严重,心电图显示缺血型ST段压低出现的时间越早

  13. Musk as a Pheromone? Didactic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersted, Chris T.

    A classroom/laboratory exercise has been used to introduce college students to factorial research designs, differentiate between interpretations for experimental and quasi-experimental variables, and exemplify application of laboratory research methods to test practical questions (advertising claims). The exercise involves having randomly divided…

  14. Muscle Adaptations Permitting Fatigue-Resistant Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    of disappearance of fatty acids from the systemic circulation during exercise, with concurrent increased rate of oxidation. 2. Test the hypothesis...strongly indicate that sled dogs, which are equivalent to the athletic elite of aerobic mammals , are dependent on CHO metabolism during exercise. Finally

  15. Effectiveness of Trimetazidine on Stable Angina Evaluated by Treadmill Exercise Test%运动平板试验评估曲美他嗪治疗稳定型心绞痛的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红艳; 何涛; 姜陆民; 丁华民

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过运动平板试验(Treadmill Exercise Test,TET)观察曲美他嗪辅助治疗稳定型心绞痛的疗效.方法 选取80例明确诊断为稳定型心绞痛且运动平板试验为阳性患者,在传统药物治疗基础上,分为曲美他嗪治疗组及对照组.记录治疗前后运动平板试验阳性率、运动终止时诱发心绞痛率、运动时间、恢复时间、运动后2min ST段压低≥1.0mm的导联数及其ST段压低总和(∑ST),并进行统计分析.结果 曲美他嗪治疗后运动平板试验阳性率、运动终止时诱发心绞痛率、运动时间、恢复时间、运动后2minST段压低≥1.0mm的导联数及其ST段压低总和(∑ST)较治疗前及对照组均有显著改善,且差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在传统药物治疗基础上联用曲美他嗪,可使稳定型心绞痛患者进一步获益.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of trimetazidine on stable angina by treadmill exercise test (TET). Methods 80 TET positive patients with stable angina were divided into 2 groups: the trimetazidine group and the control group. Before and after therapy, the positive rate, exercise-induced angina rate at the termination, exercise time, recovery time, the number of leads with ST-segment depression≥1.0mm 2 minutes after exercise and the sum of ST-segment depression)∑ST) were recorded and analyzed. Results After therapy with Trimetazidine, the positive rate, exercise-induced angina rate at the termination, exercise time, recovery time, the number of leads with ST-segment depression ≥1.0mm 2 minutes after exercise and the sum of ST-segment depression(∑ST) were all improved apparently compared with control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with stable angina could benefit from the combined treatment with Trimetazidine on the basis of the traditional drug therapy.

  16. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...

  17. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week of vigorous exercise. The more minutes you exercise, the more health benefits you will gain. Moderate exercise includes activities that ... for optimal health benefits. You can achieve the benefits of moderate exercise with only 30 minutes a day, 5 days ...

  18. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...

  19. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise, metabol

  20. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma A A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  1. Benefits, Consequences, and Uncertainties of Conventional (Exercise) Countermeasure Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of

  2. The influence of antiobesity media content on intention to eat healthily and exercise: a test of the ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritland, Raeann; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people's intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people's intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change).

  3. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, N. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany); Sogalla, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheim (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  4. 不同强度运动负荷测定老年人心脏功能能力研究%Research of Different Ways of Testing Exercise Load Capacity of the Cardiac Function of Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立; 赵琪; 陆一帆

    2012-01-01

    为了比较不同运动负荷试验对测定老年人身体机能水平的差别,并获得老年人合理的运动负荷方式,对205名城市老年人(男60-70岁,女55-65岁)进行了功率车递增负荷试验和二次台阶试验,并对其中的13名老人进行了跑台递增负荷试验,旨在通过比较几种运动负荷试验,找到适用于老年人的简单易行、安全性和准确性较高的一种或几种方法。结果发现,除了功率车和跑台递增负荷试验可以直接测出心脏功能能力外,功率车、跑台和台阶的二次试验都可以用于推测心脏功能能力,但其预测最大心率的方法又有特异性,不可一概而论。%In order to compare different impact of exercise load tests on measuring the elderly physical functional level,and get rational exercise load mode of the elderly,205 urban senior citizens(male 60-70 years old,female 55-65 years) taken power car incremental load tests and two step test,and 13 of them taken the treadmill incremental load test for comparing several exercise load tests to find a simple,safe and accurate methods for the senior citizens.It found that in addition to power car and treadmill incremental load test which can be measured directly in F.C.,the second test of power car,treadmill and bench test can be used to predict the F.C,but its predicted maximum heart rate method has its specificity,and they may be treated as the same.

  5. 中青年肥胖人群平板运动试验结果分析%Analysis of Results of Young and Middle-aged Obese People with Treadmill Exercise Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斓; 谢玮; 胡伟航; 张磊; 单米亚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze and compare related indicators of physical function of young and middle - aged obese people by treadmill exercise test. Methods We selected 195 healthy population volunteers (18-59 years) form physical examination in our hospital medical center. According to the BMI index, the people is divided into normal group and BMI light, moderate and severe groups increased. We chose maximal treadmill exercise test for each subjects with Bruce maximal exercise program. The maximal exercise duration of regression equation can be resulted from the multiple regression analysis of each subject's exercise duration, maximal heart rate, exercise immediate termination of metabolic equivalent values (MET), physical activity score, RPE and other indicators. Results Time to reach maximal result of multiple regression equation; y = 166.947 +45.433 x, -4.087x2 -0. 696x3 -0. 178x4 +0.452 x5, x1 for the METS, x2 for the most amount of RPE, x3 for the BMI, x4 for the maximal systolic blood pressure, x5 for the physical activity score, corrected r1 = 0. 932 , ( P < 0. 01 ) . Conclusion Data show that obese people with normal body function indicators showed significant differences in the control group. The reason lies in the differences of exercise tolerance and the weight.%目的 通过平板运动试验,分析比较中青年肥胖人群身体功能的相关指标.方法 在笔者医院体检中心体检的健康人群中选出195名志愿者(18 ~59岁),根据BMI指数分为正常组和BMI轻、中、重度增高组,用Bruce极量运动方案对每一个受试者进行极量平板运动试验.通过对每一个受试者的运动持续时间、极量心率、运动终止即刻代谢当量值(MET)、身体活动评分、RPE等指标分析,对结果进行多元回归分析,得出极量运动持续时间的回归方程.结果 到达极量运动时间的多元回归方程:y =166.947+ 45.433x1-4.087x2-0.696x3-0.178x4+0.452x5,X1为METS,X2为极量RPE,x3为BMI,x4

  6. Exercise-Induced Asthma in Asthmatic Children of Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fayezi, Abbas; Amin, Reza; Kashef, Sara; Yasin, Soheila Al; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a common illness, especially among children. Exercise-induced asthma is an important consideration, both as a factor, limiting physical activity of patients, and also as an indicator of poor long term control. We investigated pre-Valence of exercise-induced asthma in a group of asthmatic children living in southern Iran. Methods: We conducted treadmill exercise challenge test in 40 young asthmatic patients aged 6 to 18. After 8 minutes exercise to achieve 80% of maximum ...

  7. Correlação da função diastólica com a capacidade máxima de exercício ao teste ergométrico Correlación de la función diastólica con la capacidad máxima de ejercicio al test ergométrico Correlation between diastolic function and maximal exercise capacity on exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estefânia Bosco Otto

    2011-02-01

    (EAC. RESULTADOS: EL número de pacientes con E/e' > 10 fue significativamente mayor en el grupo MET 7(41,7% vs 9,4%, p = 0,001, así como la presencia de algún grado de disfunción diastólica (76,6% vs 34,1% p = 0,001. Por el análisis de regresión logística, las variables independientes de baja capacidad de ejercicio (MET BACKGROUND: Increased pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP is one of the mechanisms of exercise intolerance. Assessment of the diastolic function by echocardiography (ECHO enables estimation of PCP. OBJECTIVE: To identify variables that determine the exercise capacity in patients undergoing routine exercise test (ET, conventional ECHO, and tissue Doppler imaging (TD. METHODS: A total of 640 patients undergoing ET, ECHO, and TD were retrospectively studied. Patients with ejection fraction 10 was considered an estimate of increased PCP. Maximal exercise capacity was analyzed by the number of metabolic equivalents (MET. The patients were divided into two groups for analysis: MET7 (n=572. Morise score showed a population at low risk (60% for coronary artery disease (CAD. RESULTS: The number of patients with E/e’ > 10 was significantly higher in the MET 7 group (41.7% vs 9.4%, p=0.001, and so was the presence of any degree of diastolic dysfunction (76.6% vs 34.1% p=0.001. Using logistic regression analysis, age, female gender and A velocity (late diastole were the independent variables related to a low exercise capacity (MET < 7. CONCLUSION: Diastolic dysfunction as determined by ECHO, female gender, and age are associated with a lower exercise capacity in a population at low risk for CAD.

  8. A twin-sibling study on the relationship between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Jansen, Iris E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This twin-sibling study aimed to unite these findings by demonstrating that exercise attitudes can be heritable themselves. Secondly, the genetic and environmental cross-trait correlations and the monozygotic (MZ) twin intrapair differences model were used to test whether the association between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior can be causal. Survey data were obtained from 5,095 twins and siblings (18-50 years). A genetic contribution was found for exercise behavior (50 % in males, 43 % in females) and for the six exercise attitude components derived from principal component analysis: perceived benefits (21, 27 %), lack of skills, support and/or resources (45, 48 %), time constraints (25, 30 %), lack of energy (34, 44 %), lack of enjoyment (47, 44 %), and embarrassment (42, 49 %). These components were predictive of leisure time exercise behavior (R(2) = 28 %). Bivariate modeling further showed that all the genetic (0.36 < |rA| < 0.80) and all but two unique environmental (0.00 < |rE| < 0.27) correlations between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior were significantly different from zero, which is a necessary condition for the existence of a causal effect driving the association. The correlations between the MZ twins' difference scores were in line with this finding. It is concluded that exercise attitudes and exercise behavior are heritable, that attitudes and behavior are partly correlated through pleiotropic genetic effects, but that the data are compatible with a causal association between exercise attitudes and behavior.

  9. Report on the Intercomparison Exercises 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aminot, A.; Boer, J. de; Cofino, W.;

    This report covers the intercomparison exercises - 1993 of the project Quasimeme - Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe. The report is prepared under contract for the measurement and testing programme (BCR) of the European Community....

  10. Exercício aeróbico, treinamento de força muscular e testes de aptidão física para adolescentes com fibrose cística: revisão da literatura Exercise testing, aerobic and strength training for adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina Moutinho de Miranda Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available São reconhecidos os benefícios da prática do exercício físico regular para pacientes com fibrose cística. Entretanto, poucos estudos envolvem pacientes adolescentes. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar os efeitos da prática regular de exercícios aeróbicos e de força e resistência muscular para adolescentes com fibrose cística. Os principais testes de aptidão física para esta faixa etária e a importância deles para melhora do prognóstico e tratamento da doença também foram avaliados. As informações foram coletadas a partir de livro-texto e artigos publicados na literatura nacional e estrangeira nas seguintes bases de dados: LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Biblioteca Cochrane e SciELO, abrangendo o período de 1994 a 2004. Foram utilizados os termos "exercise" e "cystic fibrosis" para seleção dos artigos. Esta pesquisa demonstrou que a prática de exercício aeróbico e treinamento de força muscular melhoram a desobstrução da árvore brônquica, diminuem a queda progressiva da função pulmonar, aumentam a massa muscular e a resistência ao exercício, promovem o desenvolvimento ósseo e melhoram a auto-estima e a qualidade de vida. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os programas de treinamento assistido, devido a sua maior regularidade.The benefits of regular physical exercises for cystic fibrosis patients are well known. Nevertheless, few studies involve adolescent patients. The objective of this article was to review the effects of regular practice of aerobic exercises, strength exercises and muscular exercises in adolescents with cystic fibrosis. The main physical fitness tests for this age bracket and their value in improving prognosis and treatment were assessed as well. Information was collected from text books and articles published in the national and foreign literature in the following databases: LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO, comprising the period of 1994 to 2004. The terms "exercise" and

  11. Evacuation exercise at the Kindergarten

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector.  The fire brigade checked t...

  12. Regional brain activity and strenuous exercise: predicting affective responses using EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Previous research using the model proposed by Davidson has shown that resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry can predict affective responses to aerobic exercise at moderate intensities. Specifically, greater relative left frontal activity has been shown to predict positive affect (i.e., energy) following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if resting frontal EEG asymmetry would predict affective responses following strenuous exercise. Thirty participants (13 women, 17 men) completed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill. EEG was recorded prior to exercise. Affect was measured by the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List prior to the graded exercise test, immediately following, 10 and 20-min following exercise. Greater relative left frontal activity predicted tiredness and calmness during recovery from exercise, but not tension or energy. Tiredness and calmness following exercise covaried, suggesting that tiredness following exercise might not have been linked with displeasure. These findings offer further support for the link between EEG asymmetry and affective responses to exercise.

  13. The Use of Application Test, a Novel Type of Problem-solving Exercise as a Tool of Teaching and Assessment of Competence in Medical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef; Tigyi, Andras

    1987-01-01

    A new type of multiple-choice test was developed and used in the teaching and assessment of knowledge of medical biology at a university in Hungary. The test includes experimental data and requires students to interpret data and to draw conclusions from results. A description of the test, experiences with the test, and one test are included. (RH)

  14. The Effect of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feeding with Different Glycemic Index on Endurance Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salarkia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is known that feeding with carbohydrate (CHO during exercise improves endurance performance, the effects of glycemic index (GI of carbohydrate intake are less clear. This study was carried out to assess the effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on endurance exercise capacity. In a randomized clinical trial 52 endurance – trained men with mean age 21.7 ± 3 years, weight 69.3 ± 9 kg, height 178.4 ± 2 cm and BMI 22.6 ± 2 were studied. Subjects performed exercise treadmill at 70% VO2max after ingestion: Lentil, a low glycemic index; potato, a high glycemic index; glucose and water (as a control one hour before exercise. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after test meal and 30 minutes after exercise. To assess aerobic capacity VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake was measured at the end of the exercise trial. Endurance time was found to be longer after lentil than after the potato, glucose and control respectively (P < 0.05. At the end of exercise, the glucose group and control both gave lower plasma glucose concentrations. Changes of VO2max in lentil. Potato, glucose and control group which were not statistically significant. This study showed that a low GI meal eaten before an event increases endurance capacity during exercise. Furthermore, the low GI meal was found to maintain glucose at higher concentrations during the later stages of exercise.

  15. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  16. Endocannabinoids and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A; McDaniel, WF

    2004-01-01

    Exercise induces changes in mental status, particularly analgesia, sedation, anxiolysis, and a sense of wellbeing. The mechanisms underlying these changes remain unknown. Recent findings show that exercise increases serum concentrations of endocannabinoids, suggesting a possible explanation for a nu

  17. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  18. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term exercise (such as marathon running and intense gym training) could actually cause harm. Studies have shown ... 20 to 30 minute walks Going to the gym every other day Playing golf regularly Exercise makes ...

  19. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  20. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... of the patient's reaction to exercise is desirable, which necessitates frequent self-monitoring of plasma glucose. It may often be necessary to diminish the insulin dose before exercise, and/or to ingest additional carbohydrate during or after exercise. In non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, exercise...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so...

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high blood pressure Severe anemia What are the benefits of exercise during pregnancy? Regular exercise during pregnancy ... a stationary bike is a better choice. Modified yoga and modified Pilates—Yoga reduces stress, improves flexibility, ...

  2. Getting Exercise in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This (and other evidence) suggests that the real benefits of exercise may not come right after a workout but ... in life. You'll likely discover a subtler benefit of exercise as well: greater self-confidence. This may make ...

  3. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  4. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  5. Southern Chinese Collegiate Stage of Exercise Behavior Changes and Exercise Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Huang, Yong; Deng, Minying; Chen, Li; Dwan, Chuanwei; Bridges, Dwan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine southern Chinese college student (N = 1983) stage of exercise behavior changes (SEBC) and their exercise self-efficacy (ESE). The SEBC and ESE scales were used to collect data. ANOVA was performed to investigate the differences in ESE by SEBC. Post Hoc Tukey tests were employed to determine which variables contributed…

  6. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts.

  7. Cyber Exercise Playbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The

  8. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  9. Tissue Doppler imaging reproducibility during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, V; Nottin, S; Noltin, S; Doucende, G; Obert, P

    2008-05-01

    Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is an echocardiographic technique used during exercising to improve the accuracy of a cardiovascular diagnostic. The validity of TDI requires its reproducibility, which has never been challenged during moderate to maximal intensity exercising. The present study was specifically designed to assess the transmitral Doppler and pulsed TDI reproducibility in 19 healthy men, who had undergone two identical semi-supine maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. Systolic (S') and diastolic (E') tissue velocities at the septal and lateral walls as well as early transmitral velocities (E) were assessed during exercise up to maximal effort. The data were compared between the two tests at 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 % of maximal aerobic power. Despite upper body movements and hyperventilation, good quality echocardiographic images were obtained in each case. Regardless of exercise intensity, no differences were noticed between the two tests for all measurements. The variation coefficients for Doppler variables ranged from 3 % to 9 % over the transition from rest to maximal exercise. The random measurement error was, on average, 5.8 cm/s for E' and 4.4 cm/s for S'. Overall, the reproducibility of TDI was acceptable. Tissue Doppler imaging can be used to accurately evaluate LV diastolic and/or systolic function for this range of exercise intensity.

  10. Correlation of heart rate recovery after exercise test with exercise capacity in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%运动试验后心率恢复与稳定期慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者运动耐力的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海舰; 刘锦铭; 杨文兰; 孙兴国; 陈淑娟; 张艳; 谭晓越

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究运动试验后心率恢复与慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者疾病严重程度的相关性,评估心率恢复对COPD患者运动耐力的影响.方法 对60例稳定期COPD患者及50例健康志愿者做动脉血气分析、常规肺功能测定和心肺运动试验,并根据运动后心率恢复情况将COPD患者分为心率恢复正常组(41例)和异常组(19例).结果 COPD患者的运动耐力(峰值摄氧量占预计值百分比)、峰值心率、心率恢复明显低于正常组,分别为66 ±15比89±11、(134 ±21)比(149±13)次/min和(18±9)比(27±10)次/min,均P<0.01,静息心率明显高于正常组[(83±13)比(77±13)次min,P<0.01].心率恢复异常组较正常组第一秒用力呼气容积占预计值百分比和峰值摄氧量占预计值的百分比下降更显著,分别为38±15比52±16(P <0.05)和57 ±12比71±14(P<0.01).心率恢复与第一秒用力呼气容积占预计值百分比和峰值摄氧量占预计值百分比呈显著性相关(r=0.422,P<0.01和r=0.523,P<0.01).多变量回归分析显示,第一秒用力呼气容积占预计值百分比和心率恢复是预测COPD患者运动耐力的独立变量(P<0.01和P=0.012).结论 运动后心率恢复不仅与COPD患者疾病严重程度相关,而且可作为预测COPD患者运动耐力的独立预测指标.%Objective To explore the correlation between heart rate recovery after exercise test and disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and assess its impact on the exercise capacity of COPD patients.Methods Arterial blood gas analysis, pulmonary lung function test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed in 60 patients with stable COPD and 50 healthy volunteers.Based on the heart rate recovery after exercise test, COPD patients were divided into normal heart rate recovery group(n =41)and abnormal heart rate recovery group(n =19).Results The COPD patients had lower exercise capacity(peak oxygen uptake as

  11. RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a naturally occurring physiological process, where in most control systems of the body are transitorily modified in an attempt to maintain the homeostasis. Exercise is another physiological state in which the bodily systems undergo adaptations, more so in pregnant women. There are many advantages of exercise in pregnant women as in any other individual; from the sense of well-being to prevention of hypertension and diabetes. There are not many studies done on Indian women to know the effect of exercise on the pulmonary function tests. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of moderate exercise on the respiratory functions in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 healthy pregnant women in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy were taken as subjects. Minute Ventilation (MV, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC & Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second were measured in pregnant women who were then compared with age- matched controls. Respiratory parameters were recorded using a computerized spirometry (Medspiror. It was done at two instances once at rest and other after subjecting them to moderate exercise on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: At rest, Minute ventilation was more in the pregnant group when compared to controls. Increase in MV after exercise was more in the pregnant women. FVC was not statistically different from those of controls at rest, though exercise increased FVC to greater value in pregnant women as compared to controls. Resting FEV1 was less in pregnant women. It decreased after exercise in both the groups; the percentage decrease was not much different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our study, changes in respiratory functions to exercise in pregnant women were towards positive side giving the advantage of hyperventilation to the woman and the fetus. Keeping in mind the tremendous advantages of exercise, all healthy pregnant women should be encouraged to make exercise an integral part of their ante-natal care.

  12. 心肺运动试验在慢性阻塞性肺疾病中的应用%Application of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in the Chronic Obstructive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清云

    2015-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the significance of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the application of chronic obstructive. Methods 46 patientswith chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD group) and 46 healthy volunteers (control group) in our hospital were takenfor cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and the cardiopulmonary exercise testing in heart and lung function for the two groups were compared. Results The cardiac function Wmax VO2max, VO2max/kg, VO2/HRmax, SpO2, AT in the COPD group were significantly lower than the control group, <<0.05. The lung function VEmax, VTmax , VCO2max in the cardiopulmonaryexercise testingin for the COPD group were significantly lower than the control group, <<0.05. BFmax, VE/VO2AT,VE/VCO2AT were significantly higher than the control group, <<0.05. Conclusion Cardiopulmonary function tests can ful y reflect the disease status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and it plays an objective assessment of the role for the treatment and prognosis of the disease.%目的:探讨心肺运动试验在慢性阻塞性肺疾病中的应用意义。方法对我院收治的46例慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者(COPD组)和46例健康志愿者(对照组)进行心肺运动试验,比较两组在心肺运动试验后的心、肺功能指标。结果 COPD组患者的心功能指标Wmax、VO2max、VO2max/kg、VO2/HR max、SpO2、AT均显著低于对照组患者,<0.05;心肺运动试验中COPD组患者的肺功能指标VEmax、VTmax、VCO2max均显著低于对照组患者,<0.05;BFmax、VE/VO2AT、VE/VCO2 AT均显著高于对照组患者,<0.05。结论心肺功能试验能全面的反映慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者的疾病状况,对疾病的治疗和预后起到客观的评估作用。

  13. Why Exercise Is Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each day. Here are some of the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. ... conditions may affect how — and how much — you exercise. Doctors know that most people benefit from regular exercise, even those with disabilities or ...

  14. Kids and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: have stronger muscles ... better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They' ...

  15. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  16. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  17. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  18. Factors that influence exercise activity among women post hip fracture participating in the Exercise Plus Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Resnick

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Resnick1, Denise Orwig2, Christopher D’Adamo2, Janet Yu-Yahiro3, William Hawkes2, Michelle Shardell2, Justine Golden2, Sheryl Zimmerman4, Jay Magaziner21University of Maryland School of Nursing, 655 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD,21201, USA; 2University of Maryland School of Medicine, Howard Hall, Redwood Street, Baltimore MD 21201, USA; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, USA; 4University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, 301 Pittsboro St., CB#3550, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3550, USAAbstract: Using a social ecological model, this paper describes selected intra- and interpersonal factors that influence exercise behavior in women post hip fracture who participated in the Exercise Plus Program. Model testing of factors that influence exercise behavior at 2, 6 and 12 months post hip fracture was done. The full model hypothesized that demographic variables; cognitive, affective, physical and functional status; pain; fear of falling; social support for exercise, and exposure to the Exercise Plus Program would influence self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and stage of change both directly and indirectly influencing total time spent exercising. Two hundred and nine female hip fracture patients (age 81.0 ± 6.9, the majority of whom were Caucasian (97%, participated in this study. The three predictive models tested across the 12 month recovery trajectory suggest that somewhat different factors may influence exercise over the recovery period and the models explained 8 to 21% of the variance in time spent exercising. To optimize exercise activity post hip fracture, older adults should be helped to realistically assess their self-efficacy and outcome expectations related to exercise, health care providers and friends/peers should be encouraged to reinforce the positive benefits of exercise post hip fracture, and fear of falling should be addressed throughout the entire hip fracture recovery trajectory

  19. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  20. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  1. Exercise blood pressure and the risk of future hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, L; Mortensen, L; Kanckos, C; Ljungman, C; Mehlig, K; Manhem, K

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify which blood pressure measurement during exercise is the best predictor of future hypertension. Further we aimed to create a risk chart to facilitate the evaluation of blood pressure reaction during exercise testing. A number (n=1047) of exercise tests by bicycle ergometry, performed in 1996 and 1997 were analysed. In 2007-2008, 606 patients without hypertension at the time of the exercise test were sent a questionnaire aimed to identify current hypertension. The response rate was 58% (n=352). During the 10-12 years between exercise test and questionnaire, 23% developed hypertension. The strongest predictors of future hypertension were systolic blood pressure (SBP) before exercise (odds ratios (OR) 1.63 (1.31-2.01) for 10 mm Hg difference) in combination with the increase of SBP over time during exercise testing (OR 1.12 (1.01-1.24) steeper increase for every 1 mm Hg min(-1)). A high SBP before exercise and a steep rise in SBP over time represented a higher risk of developing hypertension. A risk chart based on SBP before exercise, increase of SBP over time and body mass index was created. SBP before exercise, maximal SBP during exercise and SBP at 100 W were significant single predictors of future hypertension and the prediction by maximal SBP was improved by adjusting for time/power at which SBP max was reached during exercise testing. Recovery ratio (maximal SBP/SBP 4 min after exercise) was not predictive of future hypertension.

  2. Depth-Sensor-Based Monitoring of Therapeutic Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Chun Su

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a self-organizing feature map-based (SOM monitoring system which is able to evaluate whether the physiotherapeutic exercise performed by a patient matches the corresponding assigned exercise. It allows patients to be able to perform their physiotherapeutic exercises on their own, but their progress during exercises can be monitored. The performance of the proposed the SOM-based monitoring system is tested on a database consisting of 12 different types of physiotherapeutic exercises. An average 98.8% correct rate was achieved.

  3. Morning and evening exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has different outcomes, based on the exercise type, duration, and hormone adaptation. In the present review, we therefore briefly describe the type, duration, and adaptation of exercise performed in the morning and evening. In addition, we discuss the clinical considerations and indications for exercise training.

  4. Prior muscular exercise affects cycling pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieuzen, F; Hausswirth, C; Couturier, A; Brisswalter, J

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of concentric or eccentric fatiguing exercise on cycling pattern. Eleven well trained cyclists completed three sessions of cycling (control cycling test [CTRL], cycling following concentric [CC] or eccentric [ECC] knee contractions) at a mean power of 276.8 +/- 26.6 Watts. Concentric and eccentric knee contractions were performed at a load corresponding to 80 % of one repetition maximum with both legs. Before and after CTRL, CC or ECC knee contractions and after cycling, a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) test was performed. Cardiorespiratory, mechanical and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles were recorded during cycling. A significant decrease in MVC values was observed after CC and ECC exercises and after the cycling. ECC exercise induced a significant decrease in EMG root mean square during MVC and a decrease in pedal rate during cycling. EMG values of the three muscles were significantly higher during cycling exercise following CC exercise when compared to CTRL. The main finding of this study was that a prior ECC exercise induces a greater neuromuscular fatigue than a CC exercise, and changes in cycling pattern.

  5. [Advances in the genetics of exercise performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting

    2014-04-01

    Differences among individuals in exercise performance are determined by a range of environmental and genetic factors. Since 2008, numerous studies in the genetics of exercise performance have been published and a set of significant results have been obtained. In this review, we analyze the research results in physical activity, muscular strength and endurance from reputable papers selected based on these following aspects: sample size, quality of phenotype measurements, quality of the exercise program or physical activity exposure, study design, adjustment for experimental testing and quality of genotyping. We also review the progress of these three research fields and suggest new directions to future research.

  6. The Cardiovascular Physiology of Sports and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Mildred A; Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities. This article reviews the basic principles of exercise physiology, cardiovascular adaptations unique to the "athlete's heart," and the utility of exercise testing in athletes.

  7. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated.

  8. Effect of energy drink dose on exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise

    OpenAIRE

    An, Sang Min; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise on caffeine concentration of energy drink. [Methods] The volunteers for this study were 15 male university student. 15 subjects were taken basic physical examinations such as height, weight and BMI before the experiment. Primary tests were examined of VO2max per weight of each subjects by graded exercise test using Bruce proto...

  9. Communication style and exercise compliance in physiotherapy (CONNECT. A cluster randomized controlled trial to test a theory-based intervention to increase chronic low back pain patients’ adherence to physiotherapists’ recommendations: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and exercise therapy are among the accepted clinical rehabilitation guidelines and are recommended self-management strategies for chronic low back pain. However, many back pain sufferers do not adhere to their physiotherapist’s recommendations. Poor patient adherence may decrease the effectiveness of advice and home-based rehabilitation exercises. According to self-determination theory, support from health care practitioners can promote patients’ autonomous motivation and greater long-term behavioral persistence (e.g., adherence to physiotherapists’ recommendations. The aim of this trial is to assess the effect of an intervention designed to increase physiotherapists’ autonomy-supportive communication on low back pain patients’ adherence to physical activity and exercise therapy recommendations. Methods/Design This study will be a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy centers (N =12 in Dublin, Ireland (population = 1.25 million will be randomly assigned using a computer-generated algorithm to either the experimental or control arm. Physiotherapists in the experimental arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics will attend eight hours of communication skills training. Training will include handouts, workbooks, video examples, role-play, and discussion designed to teach physiotherapists how to communicate in a manner that promotes autonomous patient motivation. Physiotherapists in the waitlist control arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics will not receive this training. Participants (N = 292 with chronic low back pain will complete assessments at baseline, as well as 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after their first physiotherapy appointment. Primary outcomes will include adherence to physiotherapy recommendations, as well as low back pain, function, and well-being. Participants will be blinded to treatment allocation, as

  10. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  11. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Thi Vo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957, the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change, and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model – is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  12. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  13. Rote of adaptation exercises in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kirtane, M. V.

    1999-01-01

    Adaptation, habitution and compensation are the mechanisms involved in rehabilitation of vertigo patients. In Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT), patients are advised to perform a series of maneuvers involving head, eye and body movements which stimulate the in-built adaptive mechanisms. Cawthorne and Cooksey were the first to describe adaptation exercises, which are further modified. Norre has designed VRT test battery of specific exercises. Drug treatment used along with VRT should not...

  14. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  15. Do muscle strengthening exercises improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in postmenopausal women? O exercício de força muscular é eficiente para melhorar o desempenho no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos em mulheres pós-menopausais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia G. Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking speed seems to be related to aerobic capacity, lower limb strength, and functional mobility, however it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between improvement in muscle strength and gait performance in early postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the performance of the 6-minute walk test in women within 5 years of menopause. METHODS: The women were randomized into control group (n=31, which performed no exercise, and exercise group (n=27, which performed muscle strengthening exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 3 months. The exercise protocol consisted of warm-up, stretching, and strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, calf, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, and abdominal muscles, followed by relaxation. Muscular strength training started with 60% of 1MR (2 series of 10-15 repetitions, reaching 85% until the end of the 3-month period (4 series of 6 repetitions each. RESULTS: The between-group comparisons pre- and post-intervention did not show any difference in distance walked, heart rate or blood pressure (p>0.05, but showed differences in muscle strength post-intervention, with the exercise group showing greater strength (p CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle strengthening of the lower limbs did not improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in this population of postmenopausal women.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A velocidade de marcha parece estar relacionada com a capacidade aeróbica, força dos músculos dos membros inferiores e mobilidade funcional. Entretanto, não está claro se existe uma relação direta entre a melhora da força muscular e o desempenho da marcha em mulheres pós-menopausais recentes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de exercícios de fortalecimento muscular sobre o desempenho no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos em mulheres nos primeiros cinco anos após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: As mulheres foram randomizadas

  16. Impact of bronchodilator therapy on exercise tolerance in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Aguilaniu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available B AguilaniuHYLAB, Laboratory of Clinical Physiology and Exercise, Grenoble, FranceAbstract: Exercise tolerance is an important parameter in patients with COPD and a primary goal of treatment is to reduce dyspnea to facilitate physical activities and improve health-related quality of life. This review examines the link between expiratory flow limitation and dyspnea to explain the rationale for the use of bronchodilators and review the characteristics of different types of exercise tests, with specific focus on which tests are likely to show a response to bronchodilators. An earlier literature search of studies published up to 1999 assessed the effects of bronchodilator therapy on dypsnea and exercise tolerance among patients with COPD. This current review examines the clinical evidence published since 1999. Thirty-one randomized studies of exercise tolerance associated with short- and long-acting β2-agonists and anticholinergics were identified. Evidence for the efficacy of bronchodilators in enhancing exercise capacity is often contradictory and possibly depends on the exercise test and study methodology. However, further studies should confirm the benefit of long-acting bronchodilators in improving spontaneous everyday physical activities.Keywords: COPD, exercise, bronchodilator, walk test, exercise test

  17. Diabetes and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Alistair

    2014-12-01

    Exercise has a beneficial effect on metabolic parameters affecting cardiovascular risk, such as lipids and blood glucose, and is a key component in both the prevention and the management of type 2 diabetes. Glycaemic control improves with both aerobic and resistance exercise in type 2 diabetes, but no glycaemic benefit is seen in type 1 diabetes. This probably results from glucose fluctuations commonly seen with exercise. Low and moderate intensity exercise are generally associated with a fall in blood glucose, and high intensity exercise can be associated with a rise in blood glucose. Trial evidence is suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk with exercise, although evidence from prospective, randomised controlled trials is certainly not conclusive.

  18. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......, a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) or a high-dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) endurance exercise group for 12 weeks. A sub-set of the subjects were interviewed using pre-determined, qualitative questions to elucidate physical activity and health behaviour. In combination with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB...... improved various metabolic health parameters. The MOD group was untroubled by the exercise load and had a positive attitude towards exercise. The HIGH group expressed increased fatigue, less positivity and perceived exercise as time-consuming. The MOD group described themselves as more energetic...

  19. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  20. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatello, Linda S; Franklin, Barry A; Fagard, Robert; Farquhar, William B; Kelley, George A; Ray, Chester A

    2004-03-01

    Hypertension (HTN), one of the most common medical disorders, is associated with an increased incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Lifestyle modifications are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HTN, with exercise being an integral component. Exercise programs that primarily involve endurance activities prevent the development of HTN and lower blood pressure (BP) in adults with normal BP and those with HTN. The BP lowering effects of exercise are most pronounced in people with HTN who engage in endurance exercise with BP decreasing approximately 5-7 mm HG after an isolated exercise session (acute) or following exercise training (chronic). Moreover, BP is reduced for up to 22 h after an endurance exercise bout (e.g.postexercise hypotension), with greatest decreases among those with highest baseline BP. The proposed mechanisms for the BP lowering effects of exercise include neurohumoral, vascular, and structural adaptations. Decreases in catecholamines and total peripheral resistance, improved insulin sensitivity, and alterations in vasodilators and vasoconstrictors are some of the postulated explanations for the antihypertensive effects of exercise. Emerging data suggest genetic links to the BP reductions associated with acute and chronic exercise. Nonetheless, definitive conclusions regarding the mechanisms for the BP reductions following endurance exercise cannot be made at this time. Individuals with controlled HTN and no CVD or renal complications may participated in an exercise program or competitive athletics, but should be evaluated, treated and monitored closely. Preliminary peak or symptom-limited exercise testing may be warranted, especially for men over 45 and women over 55 yr planning a vigorous exercise program (i.e. > or = 60% VO2R, oxygen uptake reserve). In the interim, while formal evaluation and management are taking place, it is reasonable for the majority of patients to begin moderate intensity

  2. Exercise in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajeswaran P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med, Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription.

  3. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha eSnigdha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise, post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 minutes on a treadmill on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and twenty-four hours after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM and novel object recognition (NOR tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at twenty-four hour post exercise and not right after or one hour after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task. We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  4. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  5. The effects of in-flight treadmill exercise on postflight orthostatic tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Steven F.; Charles, John B.

    1992-01-01

    In-flight aerobic exercise is thought to decrease the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Two deconditioning characteristics are the decreases in aerobic capacity (maximum O2 uptake) and an increased cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress (supine to standing). Changes in both parameters were examined after Shuttle flights of 8 to 11 days in astronauts who performed no in-flight exercise, a lower than normal volume of exercise, and a near-normal volume of exercise. The exercise regimen was a traditional continuous protocol. Maximum O2 uptake was maintained in astronauts who completed a near-normal exercise volume of in-flight exercise. Cardiovascular responses to stand test were equivocal among the groups. The use of the traditional exercise regimen as a means to maintain adequate orthostatic responses produced equivocal responses. A different exercise prescription may be more effective in maintaining both exercise capacity and orthostatic tolerance.

  6. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  7. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised and the ......1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised...... the increase in xanthine oxidase in the muscle there were no detectable changes in the levels of muscle malondialdehyde or in plasma antioxidant capacity up to 4 days post-exercise. 5. It is concluded that eccentric exercise leads to an increased level of xanthine oxidase in human muscle and that the increase...

  8. Acute Exercise and Motor Memory Consolidation: The Role of Exercise Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Christiansen, Lasse; Ritz, Christian; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24.0 ± 2.5 yrs), healthy male subjects randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing a high intensity (90% Maximal Power Output) exercise bout at 20 min (EX90), 1 h (EX90+1), 2 h (EX90+2) after acquisition or rested (CON). Retention tests were performed at 1 d (R1) and 7 d (R7). At R1 changes in performance scores after acquisition were greater for EX90 than CON (p Exercise-induced improvements in procedural memory diminish as the temporal proximity of exercise from acquisition is increased. Timing of exercise following motor practice is important for motor memory consolidation.

  9. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  10. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  11. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    two consecutive maximal exercise tests, without and with oxygen supplementation respectively, at sea level and after 1, 3 and 5 days at altitude. On each study day, domperidone (30 mg; n=6) or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before the first exercise session. Compared with sea level, hypoxia...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  12. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  13. Combined Home Exercise Is More Effective Than Range-of-Motion Home Exercise in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Fen Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Home exercise is often recommended for management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS; however, what kind of home exercise is more beneficial for patients with AS has not been determined yet. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of combined home exercise (COMB and range-of-motion home exercise (ROM in patients with AS. Nineteen subjects with AS completed either COMB (n=9 or ROM (n=10 program. The COMB program included range-of-motion, strengthening, and aerobic exercise while the ROM program consisted of daily range-of-motion exercise only. After exercise instruction, subjects in each group performed home exercise for 3 months. Assessment included cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function test, spinal mobility measurement, chest expansion, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI, and other functional ability and laboratory tests. After exercise, the COMB group showed significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (12.3%, P=0.008 and BASFI (P=0.028, and the changed score between pre- and postexercise data was significantly greater in the COMB group regarding peak oxygen uptake and BASFI. Significant improvement in finger-to-floor distance after 3-month exercise was found only in the COMB group (P=0.033. This study demonstrates that a combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise alone in aerobic capacity and functional ability.

  14. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rogerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion. In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007. Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001 but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  15. Lack of agreement between gas exchange variables measured by two metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Nunan, David; Donovan, Gay; Hodges, Lynette D; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement and consistency between gas exchange variables measured by two online metabolic systems during an incremental exercise test. After obtaining local ethics approval and informed consent, 15 healthy subjects performed an incremental exercise test to volitional fatigue using the Bruce protocol. The Innocor (Innovision, Denmark) and CardiO2 (Medical Graphics, USA) systems were placed in series, with the Innocor mouthpiece attached to the pneumotach of the CardiO2. Metabolic data were analysed during the last 30 seconds of each stage and at peak exercise. There were non- significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two systems in estimation of oxygen consumption (VO2) and in minute ventilation (VE). Mean Cronbach's alpha for VO2 and VE were 0.88 and 0.92. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that limits of agreement were -0.52 to 0.55 l.min(-1) for VO2, and -8.74 to 10.66 l.min(-1) for VE. Carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and consequently respiratory exchange ratio (RER) measured by the Innocor were significantly lower (p < 0.05) through all stages. The CardiO2 measured fraction of expired carbon dioxide (FeCO2) significantly higher (p < 0.05). The limits of agreement for VO2 and VE are wide and unacceptable in cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. The Innocor reported VCO2 systematically lower. Therefore the Innocor and CardiO2 metabolic systems cannot be used interchangeably without affecting the diagnosis of an individual patient. Results from the present study support previous suggestion that considerable care is needed when comparing metabolic data obtained from different automated metabolic systems. Key pointsThere is general concern regarding the limited knowledge available about the accuracy of a number of commercially available systems.Demonstrated limits of agreement between key gas exchange variables (oxygen consumption and minute ventilation) as measured by the two metabolic systems were wide and unacceptable

  16. The Role of Genetic Testing in the Identification of Young Athletes with Inherited Primitive Cardiac Disorders at Risk of Exercise Sudden Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Genuardi, Maurizio; Zeppilli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Although relatively rare, inherited primitive cardiac disorders (IPCDs) in athletes have a deep social impact since they often present as sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young and otherwise healthy persons. The diagnosis of these conditions is likely underestimated due to the lack of shared clinical criteria and to the existence of several borderline clinical pictures. We will focus on the clinical and molecular diagnosis of the most common IPCDs, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, long QT syndrome, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular non-compaction. Collectively, these conditions account for the majority of SCD episodes and/or cardiologic clinical problems in athletes. In addition to the clinical and instrumental tools for the diagnosis of IPCD, the viral technological advances in genetic testing have facilitated the molecular confirmation of these conditions. However, genetic testing presents several issues: the limited sensitivity (globally, around 50%), the low prognostic predictive value, the probability to find pathogenic variants in different genes in the same patient, and the risk of non-interpretable results. In this review, we will analyze the pros and cons of the different clinical approaches for the presymptomatic identification, the diagnosis and management of IPCD athletes, and we will discuss the indications to the genetic testing for patients and their relatives, particularly focusing on the most complex scenarios, such as presymptomatic tests, uncertain results, and unexpected findings. PMID:27617263

  17. Impact of bronchodilator therapy on exercise tolerance in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilaniu, B

    2010-01-01

    B AguilaniuHYLAB, Laboratory of Clinical Physiology and Exercise, Grenoble, FranceAbstract: Exercise tolerance is an important parameter in patients with COPD and a primary goal of treatment is to reduce dyspnea to facilitate physical activities and improve health-related quality of life. This review examines the link between expiratory flow limitation and dyspnea to explain the rationale for the use of bronchodilators and review the characteristics of different types of exercise tests, with ...

  18. Validation of the exercise and eating disorders questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Marit; Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Compulsive exercise is a well-known feature in eating disorders. The Exercise and Eating Disorder (EED) self-report questionnaire was developed to assess aspects of compulsive exercise not adequately captured by existing instruments. This study aimed to test psychometric properties and the factor structure of the EED among women with eating disorders and a control group. Method: The study included 449 female participants, including 244 eating disorders patients and...

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND DEPRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Festeu

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of systematic analysis of the relation between physical exercise and mental health. To address this gap, we ask whether physical exercise associates with lower levels of depression among older adults. We hypothesize that physical exercise especially if it typically incorporates other forms of socialisation, may be a socially meaningful activity and may create intimacy that provides social uplift. We test this hypothesis against alternative hypotheses that relationship ...

  20. Cutting Edge Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FENG'AN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speedboats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations and surface ship formations." The exercise was a component in a military campaign coded "Sword-2010."

  1. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  2. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  3. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  4. Easy Exercises for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios fáciles para ... not enough.) What more should we do? First, teens should do 60 minutes or more of physical ...

  5. Exercise Against Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

  6. Saliva composition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities.

  7. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were instructed to run on the spot with a springy step in ex aggerated motion for 50 to 60 counts at 2 counts per second, maintaining a constant rhythm. RESULTS: We observed that reaction time was significantly lower after performance of exercise. Individuals reported improved mental alertness, feel good factor, bet ter mood and increase circulation. CONCLUSION: Improving reaction times in sports can help the athlete to optimize his performance in making decisions and increasing attention span for example getting off the starting blocks sooner or successfully making c ontact with the ball. In addition this study shows that use of physical exercise helps improve cognitive function. Exercise proves to be a cheap non pharmacological alternative to improve cognitive performance.

  8. Teste ergométrico precoce após infarto do miocárdio: comparação com ecocardiograma, monitorização eletrocardiográfica e arteriografia coronariana Exercise testing early after myocardial infarction: comparison with echocardiography, electrocardiographic monitoring and coronary arteriography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Aparecido Leite

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O teste ergométrico precoce após infarto do miocárdio, realizado antes da alta hospitalar, é útil na estratificação de risco, na prescrição de exercício e na avaliação do prognóstico e do tratamento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os achados do teste ergométrico precoce pós-infarto aos resultados do ecocardiograma, da monitorização eletrocardiográfica pelo sistema holter (24 horas e da cinecoronariografia. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 60 casos (51,42 ± 9,34 anos, 46 do sexo masculino (77%. O teste ergométrico foi máximo sintoma limitante, realizado pelo protocolo de Naughton, entre o sexto dia de internação e a alta hospitalar, realizado em uso de medicação. Durante a internação, os pacientes foram submetidos a ecocardiograma, eletrocardiografia dinâmica e cinecoronariografia. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 0,05 (a=5%. RESULTADOS: O desempenho do teste ergométrico na detecção de doença coronária multiarterial foi reduzido (sensibilidade, 42%; especificidade, 69%. Não houve diferenças significativas quando se comparou a presença de isquemia no teste ergométrico com doença coronária de múltiplos vasos, arritmias ventriculares complexas na eletrocardiografia dinâmica e ocorrência de fração de ejeção inferior a 60% no ecocardiograma (p = 0,56, bem como com a presença de lesões multiarteriais, arritmias ventriculares complexas na eletrocardiografia dinâmica e fração de ejeção anormal no ecocardiograma (p = 0,36. CONCLUSÃO: Durante o teste, a presença de isquemia se associou à ocorrência de arritmias ventriculares na eletrocardiografia dinâmica, à redução da fração de ejeção no ecocardiograma e à presença de lesões coronárias multiarteriais, o que representou um indicador de elevado risco coronário.BACKGROUND: Predischarge exercise testing early after myocardial infarction is useful for risk stratification, exercise prescription, and assessment of

  9. Effects of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Metabolism and Anaerobic Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Caciano, Cynthia L. Inman, Elizabeth E. Gockel-Blessing, Edward P. Weiss

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037. The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044 and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060. Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance.

  10. REPEATED ABDOMINAL EXERCISE INDUCES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Coast

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged bouts of hyperpnea or resisted breathing are known to result in respiratory muscle fatigue, as are primarily non respiratory exercises such as maximal running and cycling. These exercises have a large ventilatory component, though, and can still be argued to be respiratory activities. Sit-up training has been used to increase respiratory muscle strength, but no studies have been done to determine whether this type of non-respiratory activity can lead to respiratory fatigue. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of sit-ups on various respiratory muscle strength and endurance parameters. Eight subjects performed pulmonary function, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP measurements, and an incremental breathing test before and after completing a one-time fatiguing exercise bout of sit-ups. Each subject acted as their own control performing the same measurements 3-5 days following the exercise bout, substituting rest for exercise. Following sit-up induced fatigue, significant decreases were measured in MIP [121.6 ± 26 to 113.8 ± 23 cmH2O (P <0.025], and incremental breathing test duration [9.6 ± 1.5 to 8.5 ± 0.7 minutes (P <0.05]. No significant decreases were observed from control pre-test to control post-test measurements. We conclude that after a one-time fatiguing sit-up exercise bout there is a reduction in respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP and endurance (incremental breathing test duration but not spirometric pulmonary function

  11. Nutrition and Exercise in Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Hida, Azumi; Mankowski, Robert; Layne, Andrew; Solberg, Lawrence; Mainous, Arch G; Buford, Thomas W

    2016-12-27

    Sarcopenia is a debilitating condition that involves loss of muscle mass and function, which affects virtually everyone as they age, and can lead to frailty and ultimately disability. In growing recognition of the importance of both muscle strength and muscle mass relative to body size in contributing to functional decline, recent definitions have now incorporated grip strength and a correction for body mass as part of the key criteria that define sarcopenia. With this new definition, a much larger population of older adults are now at risk of sarcopenia. In the present article, we reviewed the literature for studies which tested the effects of diet or exercise interventions on changes in lean mass and/or functional outcomes in individuals with either sarcopenia and/or frailty and identified 19 clinical trials. There were a few key findings. First, dietary interventions involving protein supplementation improved functional and/or strength outcomes in a few trials, however, other dietary approaches were less effective. Exercise interventions and combined diet and exercise interventions produced consistent improvements in lower body muscle strength but had less consistent effects on walking speed and grip strength. Lifestyle interventions not involving calorie restriction generally did not induce significant changes in body composition. There were a limited number of trials in which participants with sarcopenia were specifically targeted, and thus there is an important need for more research to determine the appropriate types of intervention approaches for the high risk population of sarcopenic older adults.

  12. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, T P; Fitzgerald, K

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men) participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm's reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed) in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance.

  13. Ventilatory regulation of arterial H(+) (pH) during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Karlman; Cox, Timothy A; Sietsema, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that exercise ventilation and arterial H(+) ([H(+)]a) are mutually interactive, [H(+)]a stimulating V(E) and V(E) regulating [H(+)]a increase. Fifty-five patients were studied, 10 normal and 45 with cardio-respiratory disorders. Each patient underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous serial arterial blood gas and pH measurements. Subsequently, they were classified into one of 7 clinical groups: (1) normal, (2) exercise-induced hypoxemia (PaO2blood to become more alkaline during exercise in the patient groups studied.

  14. Molecular Aspects of Exercise-induced Cardiac Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; McMullen, Julie R

    2016-11-01

    Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is typically an adaptive response associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and renewal, increased cardiac myocyte contractility, sarcomeric remodeling, cell survival, metabolic and mitochondrial adaptations, electrical remodeling, and angiogenesis. Initiating stimuli/triggers of cardiac remodeling include increased hemodynamic load, increased sympathetic activity, and the release of hormones and growth factors. Prolonged and strenuous exercise may lead to maladaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling including cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmia. In addition, this article describes novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of heart failure that target mechanisms responsible for adaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, which are being developed and tested in preclinical models.

  15. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  16. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  17. A Self-Reference Exercise for Teaching Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a study that examined the effect of using a self-reference exercise to supplement a lecture on standard life expectancy in which general psychology students participated. Reports that students who completed the exercise had significantly higher test scores overall and also on the ten items involving longevity. (CMK)

  18. Neurohumoral and metabolic response to exercise in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesner, S.; Birkenfeld, A.L.; Engeli, S.; Haufe, S.; Brechtel, L.; Wein, J.; Hermsdorf, M.; Karnahl, B.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Luft, F.C.; Jordan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulates lipid mobilization and lipid oxidation in humans. The mechanism appears to promote lipid mobilization during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that water immersion augments exercise-induced ANP release and that the change in ANP availability is associated

  19. Evaluation of the Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory (VPEL) program was created to simulate the test design, data collection, and analysis phases of selected exercise physiology laboratories. The VPEL program consists of four modules: (1) cardiovascular, (2) maximal O[subscript 2] consumption [Vo[subscript 2max], (3) lactate and ventilatory thresholds,…

  20. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food

  1. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  2. Teste ergométrico e o Holter de 24 horas na detecção de arritmias ventriculares complexas em diferentes estádios da cardiopatia chagásica crônica Exercise testing and 24 hours Holter monitoring in the detection of complex ventricular arrhythmias in different stages of chronic Chagas' heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Coury Pedrosa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se o teste ergométrico com Holter de 24 horas na detecção de arritmias ventriculares complexas em diferentes estádios da cardiopatia chagásica crônica. Avaliados 71 pacientes sem outras doenças associadas, idade=51±10,3, metade mulheres. Divididos em quatro grupos conforme o grau de acometimento cardíaco. A estatística esta discriminada no corpo do trabalho. Ao Holter, no grupo IA as arritmias ventriculares complexas foram detectadas em 4,3%, IB em 25%, II em 55% e no grupo III em 90%. Nos grupos II e III não houve diferença entre os exames na detecção de arritmias ventriculares complexas (p=NS. Nos grupos IA e IB, houve uma concordância de 100% no teste ergométrico na não detecção de arritmias ventriculares complexas entre dois observadores. No grupo II, a concordância foi de 70% (kappa=0,368, p=0,003 e de 90% (kappa=0,78, p=0,002 no grupo III. Foi observado diferenças na presença de arritmias ventriculares complexas entre os pacientes dos grupos em fase inicial e avançada da cardiopatia chagásica crônica. Nos pacientes dos grupos II e III não houve diferença entre os dois exames na detecção das arritmias ventriculares complexas. Pacientes dos grupos IA e IB é razoável indicar Holter e/ou o teste ergométrico na ocorrência de progressão da doença.To detect complex ventricular arrhythmias in different stages of chronic chagasic cardiopathy, the results of exercise testing to 24 hours Holter monitoring have been compared. We evaluated a group of 71 patients, half women, aged 51±10.3, with no others associated diseases. These patients were separated in 4 groups according to degree of cardiac involvement. Statistical data can be found elsewhere in the study. In group IA, Holter monitoring detected 4.3% of complex ventricular arrhythmias, group IB 25%, group II 55% and group III 90%. We found no difference between Holter and exercise testing in the detection of complex ventricular arrhythmias in groups II

  3. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.

  4. Polar S810 como recurso alternativo ao eletrocardiograma no teste de exercício de 4 segundos Polar S810 como recurso alternativo al electrocardiograma en la prueba de ejercicio de 4 segundos Polar S810 as an alternative resource to the use of the electrocardiogram in the 4-second exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Santos Pimentel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O teste de exercício de 4 segundos (T4s avalia o tônus vagal cardíaco durante o transiente inicial da frequência cardíaca (FC, em exercício dinâmico súbito, por meio da identificação do índice vagal cardíaco (IVC obtido a partir do eletrocardiograma (ECG. OBJETIVO: Testar a utilização do monitor de frequência cardíaca (MFC Polar S810 como recurso alternativo ao ECG na aplicação do T4s. MÉTODOS: Neste trabalho, 49 indivíduos do sexo masculino (25 ± 20 anos, 176 ± 12 cm, 74 ± 6 kg realizaram o T4s. Os intervalos RR foram registrados simultaneamente por ECG e MFC. Calcularam-se média e desvio padrão do último intervalo RR do período pré-exercício ou o primeiro do período de exercício, aquele que for mais longo (RRB, do mais curto intervalo RR do período de exercício (RRC e do IVC obtidos por ECG e MFC. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes (p FUNDAMENTO: El test de ejercicio de 4 segundos (T4s evalúa el tono vagal cardíaco durante el transiente inicial de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC, en ejercicio dinámico súbito, por medio de la identificación del índice vagal cardíaco (IVC obtenido a partir del electrocardiograma (ECG. OBJETIVO: Probar la utilización del monitor de frecuencia cardiaca (MFC Polar S810 como recurso alternativo al ECG en la aplicación del T4s. MÉTODOS: En este trabajo, 49 individuos del sexo masculino (25 ± 20 años, 176 ±12 cm, 74 ± 6 kg llevaron el T4s. Los intervalos RR fueron registrados simultáneamente por ECG y MFC. Se calcularon el promedio y la desviación estándar del último intervalo RR del período pre ejercicio o el primer del período de ejercicio, aquel que fuera más largo (RRB, del más corto intervalo RR del período de ejercicio (RRC y del IVC obtenidos por ECG y MFC. Se utilizó la prueba t de Student para muestras dependientes (P BACKGROUND: The 4-second exercise test (T4s evaluates the cardiac vagal tone during the initial heart

  5. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  6. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.

  7. Ambient temperature influences the neural benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Mark E; Chung, Chasity; Comer, Ashley; Nelson, Katharine; Tran, Jamie; Werries, Nadja; Barton, Emily A; Spinetta, Michael; Leasure, J Leigh

    2016-02-15

    Many of the neural benefits of exercise require weeks to manifest. It would be useful to accelerate onset of exercise-driven plastic changes, such as increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise represents a significant challenge to the brain because it produces heat, but brain temperature does not rise during exercise in the cold. This study tested the hypothesis that exercise in cold ambient temperature would stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis more than exercise in room or hot conditions. Adult female rats had exercise access 2h per day for 5 days at either room (20 °C), cold (4.5 °C) or hot (37.5 °C) temperature. To label dividing hippocampal precursor cells, animals received daily injections of BrdU. Brains were immunohistochemically processed for dividing cells (Ki67+), surviving cells (BrdU+) and new neurons (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Animals exercising at room temperature ran significantly farther than animals exercising in cold or hot conditions (room 1490 ± 400 m; cold 440 ± 102 m; hot 291 ± 56 m). We therefore analyzed the number of Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells normalized for shortest distance run. Contrary to our hypothesis, exercise in either cold or hot conditions generated significantly more Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells compared to exercise at room temperature. Thus, a limited amount of running in either cold or hot ambient conditions generates more new cells than a much greater distance run at room temperature. Taken together, our results suggest a simple means by which to augment exercise effects, yet minimize exercise time.

  8. Intervention of rosiglitazone on myocardium Glut-4 mRNA expression during ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardio-pulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Liang, Guiyou; Xu, Gang; Liu, Daxin; Cai, Qingyong; Gao, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    During cardiac pulmonary bypass (CPB), myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induces heart glucose metabolism impairment. Our previous research showed that the decreased glucose utilization is due to decreased glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) expression and translocation to myocyte surface membranes. This study further examined whether rosiglitazone, a synthetic agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, could intervene glucose metabolism by regulating Glut-4 mRNA during I/R in dogs. Cardiac ischemia was induced by cardiopulmonary bypass for 30 or 120 min. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at pre-bypass (control), aortic cross-clamp off (I/R) at 15, 45, and 75 min. The left ventricle biopsies were taken for the expression of Glut-4 mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. In dogs receiving 120 min ischemia, coronary arterial, venous glucose concentrations, plasma insulin levels, and insulin resistant index (IRI) were increased, but the expression of Glut-4 mRNA was decreased obviously at 15 min of reperfusion, and recovered gradually. On the other hand, these changes were relatively mild in dogs treated with rosiglitazone in cardioplegic solution and expression of Glut-4 mRNA was increased remarkably. It is concluded that the decrease in total amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression could be one of the important molecular mechanisms, which causes the myocardium insulin resistance. The longer the ischemia period, the decrease in amount of Glut-4 mRNA was more dramatic. Adding rosiglitazone into the cardioplegic solution during I/R can increase the amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression, mitigate the myocardium insulin resistance and improve the myocardium I/R injury during CPB.

  9. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as an early biomarker for prediction of acute kidney injury after cardio-pulmonary bypass in pediatric cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fatina I Fadel; Abdel Rahman, Azza M.O.; Mohamed, Mohamed Farouk; Habib, Sonia A.; Ibrahim, Mona H.; Sleem, Zeinab S.; Bazaraa, Hafez M; Soliman, Mohamed M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery is considered one of the most frequent surgical procedures in which acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a frequent and serious complication. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early AKI biomarker after CPB in pediatric cardiac surgery. Material and methods The study included forty children aged 2 to 78 months undergoing CPB. They were divided into group I: pat...

  10. Acute hypoxia and hypoxic exercise induce DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Loft, S; Lundby, C

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of a single bout of exhaustive exercise on the generation of DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage under normal conditions and at high-altitude hypoxia (4559 meters for 3 days). Twelve healthy subjects performed a maximal bicycle exercise test...... exercise in altitude hypoxia. Exercise-induced generation of DNA strand breaks was not seen at sea level. In both environments, the level of FPG and endonuclease III-sensitive sites remained unchanged immediately after exercise. DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage are probably produced by reactive...... to withstand oxidative stress produced by exhaustive exercise....

  11. Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cassilhas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R, which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group: control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES. The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA, the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05. Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better underst