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Sample records for cardio metabolic risk

  1. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, M; Michels, N; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (P<0.001). All coefficients showed a higher clustered metabolic risk with lower physical fitness, except for upper-limb strength (β=0.057; P=0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (β=-0.124; P<0.001) and lower-limb strength (β=-0.076; P=0.002) were the most important longitudinal determinants. The effects of cardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (β=-0.059; P=0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  2. A Study on the cardio-metabolic risk factors in vietnamese females with long-term vegan diet

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hai Quy Tram

    2017-01-01

    A study of the cardio- metabolic risk factors in Vietnamese females with vegan diet. Background. Numerous studies have shown that vegan diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of vegan diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors and the association between duration of vegan diet and those risk factors, are still unclear. Objectives. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and influence of duration of vegan diet on cardio- me...

  3. A systematic review on the relations between pasta consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Li, J; Ha, M-A; Riccardi, G; Liu, S

    2017-11-01

    The traditional Italian dish pasta is a major food source of starch with low glycemic index (GI) and an important low-GI component of the Mediterranean diet. This systematic review aimed at assessing comprehensively and in-depth the potential benefit of pasta on cardio-metabolic disease risk factors. Following a standard protocol, we conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled dietary intervention trials that examined pasta and pasta-related fiber and grain intake in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors of interest. Studies comparing postprandial glucose response to pasta with that to bread or potato were quantitatively summarized using meta-analysis of standardized mean difference. Evidence from studies with pasta as part of low-GI dietary intervention and studies investigating different types of pasta were qualitatively summarized. Pasta meals have significantly lower postprandial glucose response than bread or potato meals, but evidence was lacking in terms of how the intake of pasta can influence cardio-metabolic disease risk. More long-term randomized controlled trials are needed where investigators directly contrast the cardio-metabolic effects of pasta and bread or potato. Long-term prospective cohort studies with required data available should also be analyzed regarding the effect of pasta intake on disease endpoints. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center

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    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on questionnaires was determine too the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus type II. Analysis of the results revealed the strong correlations between lifestyle and cardio-metabolic risk in these students.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    Background: Since Iran’s economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers’ health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio...... (of elevated total cholesterol, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and general obesity were included as additional cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.0 ± 10.3 years. The prevalence of Met......S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.27) were associated with the increase...

  6. Association between yogurt consumption, dietary patterns, and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Thifault, Élisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo; Drapeau, Vicky; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether yogurt consumption is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and with a better cardio-metabolic risk profile among healthy individuals classified on the basis of their body mass index (BMI). A 91-item food frequency questionnaire, including data on yogurt consumption, was administered to 664 subjects from the INFOGENE study. After principal component analysis, two factors were retained, thus classified as the Prudent and Western dietary patterns. Yogurt was a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern. Moreover, yogurt consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference and tended to be associated with a lower BMI. Consumers had lower levels of fasting total cholesterol and insulin. Consumers of yogurt had a positive Prudent dietary pattern mean score, while the opposite trend was observed in non-consumers of yogurt. Overweight/obese individuals who were consumers of yogurts exhibited a more favorable cardio-metabolic profile characterized by lower plasma triglyceride and insulin levels than non-consumers within the same range of BMI. There was no difference in total yogurt consumption between normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. However, normal-weight subjects had more daily servings of high-fat yogurt and less daily servings of fat-free yogurt compared to overweight/obese individuals. Being a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern, yogurt consumption may be associated with healthy eating. Also, yogurt consumption may be associated with lower anthropometric indicators and a more beneficial cardio-metabolic risk profile in overweight/obese individuals.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardio-Cerebrovascular Risk Disparities Between Pilots and Aircraft Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Bo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Park, Won-Ju

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Korea Air Force, the health of pilots is strictly supervised, but there is comparatively not enough interest in aircraft mechanics' health. Among mechanics, who are heavily involved in military aircraft maintenance, the occurrence of sudden cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) is a possible risk factor during the maintenance process, which should be performed perfectly. We performed health examinations on 2123 male aircraft pilots and 1271 aircraft mechanics over 30 yr of age and determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), an important risk factor for CCVDs. The prevalence of MetS in the aircraft mechanics (21.3%) was significantly higher than in the pilots (12.6%), and the gap in prevalence tended to grow as age increased. Among aircraft mechanics in their 30s and 40s, the prevalence of MetS was lower than in the general population. However, the prevalence of MetS among aircraft mechanics in their 50s (36.0%) was similar to that in the general population (35.7%). Systematic health management is needed for aircraft mechanics for aviation safety and for the maintenance of military strength via the prevention of CCVDs.Kim M-B, Kim H-J, Kim S-H, Lee S-H, Lee S-H, Park W-J. Metabolic syndrome and cardio-cerebrovascular risk disparities between pilots and aircraft mechanics. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):866-870.

  8. The role of physical training in lowering the cardio-metabolic risk

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    Szasz Timea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cardio-metabolic risk represents the overall risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and / or cardiovascular disease(including heart atack or stroke due to a complex risk factors. The aim of the current prospective study is to evaluate thelifestyle intervention group in a special benefit (overweight young students with cardio-metabolic risk. Material andMethods: Subjects considered for the study: young obese, sedentary, a number of 43 patients (mean age 21.3 ± 3.1years, 93% female. There were made two evaluations on an interval of 6 months, during which patients haveperformed physical training at least 3 times a week (individually according to the individual test, supervised by aphysical therapist. The remission rate was high (37%, from the initial of 43 patients only 27 remained at the second test.Results: After 6 months of lifestyle intervention, we noticed a significant decrease of weight (from 83.61 ± 21.04 to 79.7 ±20.13, body mass index (from 30.93 ± 6.67 to 29.55 ± 6.74, FindRisc score (2.7 to 2 waist circumference (from 98.98 ±10.14 to 89.54 ± 12.32, waist to hip ratio (from 0.87 to 0.85, visceral fat area (98.6 to 88. Conclusion: The activeintervention and closely monitoring of changing lifestyles leads to a significant improvement of cardiovascular risk factors atyoung obese patients. This type of intervention is effective both in terms of benefits in medium term, and relatively increaseddue compliance of young patients to programs involving physical activity.

  9. Separate and Joint Associations of Occupational and Leisure-Time Sitting with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Working Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke K

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is a main setting for prolonged sitting for some occupational groups. Convincing evidence has recently accumulated on the detrimental cardio-metabolic health effects of leisure-time sitting. Yet, much less is known about occupational sitting, and the potential health risk attached...... compared to leisure-time sitting....

  10. Takeaway food consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K J; Blizzard, L; McNaughton, S A; Gall, S L; Dwyer, T; Venn, A J

    2012-05-01

    Takeaway food consumption is positively associated with adiposity. Little is known about the associations with other cardio-metabolic risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether takeaway food consumption is associated with fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and blood pressure. A national sample of 1896, 26-36 year olds completed a questionnaire on socio-demographics, takeaway food consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured, and a fasting blood sample was taken. For this analysis, takeaway food consumption was dichotomised to once a week or less and twice a week or more. Linear regression was used to calculate differences in the adjusted mean values for fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, HOMA and blood pressure. Models were adjusted for age, employment status, leisure time physical activity and TV viewing. Compared with women who ate takeaway once a week or less, women who ate takeaway twice a week or more had significantly higher adjusted mean fasting glucose (4.82 vs 4.88 mmol/l, respectively; P=0.045), higher HOMA scores (1.27 vs 1.40, respectively, P=0.034) and tended to have a higher mean fasting insulin (5.95 vs 6.45 mU/l, respectively, P=0.054). Similar associations were observed for men for fasting insulin and HOMA score, but the differences were not statistically significant. For both women and men adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the associations. Consuming takeaway food at least twice a week was associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in women but less so in men. The effect of takeaway food consumption was attenuated when adjusted for obesity.

  11. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

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    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Lu, Zhong X; Jeyaraman, Kanakamani; Lawton, Paul; Jones, Graham Rd; Ellis, Andrew; Sinha, Ashim; Cass, Alan; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007-2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45-77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D 72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. The percentage of 25(OH)D levels Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and was independently associated with diabetes. These findings require exploration in longitudinal studies.

  12. Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review

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    Vasilios G. Athyros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors, either when called metabolic syndrome (MetS or not, substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and causes mortality. One of the possible mechanisms for this clustering's adverse effect is an increase in arterial stiffness (AS, and in high central aortic blood pressure (CABP, which are significant and independent CVD risk factors. Arterial hypertension was connected to AS long ago; however, other MetS components (obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia or MetS associated abnormalities not included in MetS diagnostic criteria (renal dysfunction, hyperuricaemia, hypercoaglutability, menopause, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnea have been implicated too. We discuss the evidence connecting these cardio-metabolic risk factors, which negatively affect AS and finally increase CVD risk. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of possible lifestyle and pharmacological interventions on all these cardio-metabolic risk factors, in an effort to reduce CVD risk and identify features that should be taken into consideration when treating MetS patients with or without arterial hypertension.

  13. Trend of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Montazeri, Seyed Ali; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Cheraghi, Leila; Erfani, Hadi; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To see the changes of cardio-metabolic risk factors overtime in polycystic ovary syndrome vs. control women. Methods This study was conducted on 637 participants (85 PCOS and 552 control reproductive aged, 18–45 years) of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), an ongoing population-based cohort study with 12 years of follow-up. The cardiovascular risk factors of these groups were assessed in three-year intervals using standard questionnaires, history taking, anthropometric measures,...

  14. Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Complications of Pregnancy and Maternal Risk Factors for Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Disease

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    Melinda Phang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are important nutrients during periods of rapid growth and development in utero and infancy. Maternal health and risk factors play a crucial role in birth outcomes and subsequently offspring cardio-metabolic health. Evidence from observational studies and randomized trials have suggested a potential association of maternal intake of marine n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, there is inconsistency in the literature on whether marine n-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy can prevent maternal complications of pregnancy. This narrative literature review summarizes recent evidence on observational and clinical trials of marine n-3 PUFA intake on maternal risk factors and effects on offspring cardio-metabolic health. The current evidence generally does not support a role of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation in altering the incidence of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, or pre-eclampsia. It may be that benefits from marine n-3 PUFA supplementation are more pronounced in high-risk populations, such as women with a history of complications of pregnancy, or women with low marine n-3 PUFA intake. Discrepancies between studies may be related to differences in study design, dosage, fatty acid interplay, and length of treatment. Further prospective double-blind studies are needed to clarify the impact of long-chain marine n-3 PUFAs on risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease in the offspring.

  15. Separate and Joint Associations of Occupational and Leisure-Time Sitting with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Working Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saidj, Madina; J?rgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke K.; Linneberg, Allan; Aadahl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The workplace is a main setting for prolonged sitting for some occupational groups. Convincing evidence has recently accumulated on the detrimental cardio-metabolic health effects of leisure-time sitting. Yet, much less is known about occupational sitting, and the potential health risk attached compared to leisure-time sitting. OBJECTIVE: To explore the separate and joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults. ME...

  16. The effect of increasing body mass index on cardio-metabolic risk and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in nascent metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Roma; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2017-05-01

    The effect of BMI defined obesity on cardio-metabolic features and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with nascent metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is poorly defined. Hence the aim of this study was to examine the effect of increasing obesity on the cardio metabolic risk profile, pro-oxidant state and pro-inflammatory features in nascent MetS patients without Diabetes or CVD. MetS was diagnosed by ATPIII criteria using waist circumference (WC) as the measure of adiposity. Patients (n=58) were stratified into overweight, obese and extreme obesity groups using BMI cut offs of 25-29.9, 30-39.9kg/m 2 and ≥40kg/m 2 and cardio-metabolic features, circulating and cellular biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were determined and correlated with BMI. None of the main cardio-metabolic features including blood pressure, blood glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, free fatty acids were increased with increasing BMI. Also none of the biomarkers of oxidative stress (ox-LDL, nitrotyrosine and monocyte superoxide anion release) were increased with increasing BMI. However, significant increase in hsCRP, the soluble TNFR1 and sTNFR2 and leptin, were observed with increasing adiposity. Other inflammatory bio-mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, Toll-like receptors 2-4), endotoxin, LBP, sCD14 and HMGB1, adiponectin, and chemerin did not show significant increases with increasing BMI. Leptin, hsCRP, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 correlated significantly with BMI. In conclusion, capturing the cardio-metabolic cluster of MetS that predisposed to both increased risk of diabetes and CVD, using waist circumference, as one of the 5 diagnostic criteria is sufficient and BMI does not appear to afford any major incremental benefit on the cardio-metabolic risk factors, increased oxidative stress and the majority of both cellular and circulating biomarkers of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the 'Gold Standard' Tarnished?

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    Demmer, Denise L; Beilin, Lawrence J; Hands, Beth; Burrows, Sally; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Mountain, Jennifer A; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  18. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Obj...

  19. Separate and joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults: a cross-sectional study.

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    Madina Saidj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The workplace is a main setting for prolonged sitting for some occupational groups. Convincing evidence has recently accumulated on the detrimental cardio-metabolic health effects of leisure-time sitting. Yet, much less is known about occupational sitting, and the potential health risk attached compared to leisure-time sitting. OBJECTIVE: To explore the separate and joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults. METHODS: All working adults (N = 2544 from the Health2006, a Danish population-based study, were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants reported hours of sitting during work, during leisure-time along with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, including physical activity. Cardio-metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose were measured. Associations were explored by linear regression for leisure-time, occupational, and overall sitting time. RESULTS: Statistically significant (p<.05 detrimental associations of leisure-time sitting were observed with all cardio-metabolic risk factors, except hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose. Similarly, occupational sitting time was significantly detrimentally associated with HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin. For categories of sitting time, a joint adverse association of sitting much during both work-time and leisure-time was observed. CONCLUSION: The associations of occupational sitting time with cardio-metabolic risk factors were fewer and weaker compared to leisure-time sitting. Yet, the joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors were higher than the separate. Our findings amplify the need for further focus in this area prior to making assumptions about equivalent health risks across

  20. Separate and joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Linneberg, Allan; Aadahl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is a main setting for prolonged sitting for some occupational groups. Convincing evidence has recently accumulated on the detrimental cardio-metabolic health effects of leisure-time sitting. Yet, much less is known about occupational sitting, and the potential health risk attached compared to leisure-time sitting. To explore the separate and joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults. All working adults (N = 2544) from the Health2006, a Danish population-based study, were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants reported hours of sitting during work, during leisure-time along with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, including physical activity. Cardio-metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose) were measured. Associations were explored by linear regression for leisure-time, occupational, and overall sitting time. Statistically significant (pleisure-time sitting were observed with all cardio-metabolic risk factors, except hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose. Similarly, occupational sitting time was significantly detrimentally associated with HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin. For categories of sitting time, a joint adverse association of sitting much during both work-time and leisure-time was observed. The associations of occupational sitting time with cardio-metabolic risk factors were fewer and weaker compared to leisure-time sitting. Yet, the joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors were higher than the separate. Our findings amplify the need for further focus in this area prior to making assumptions about equivalent health risks across sedentary behaviors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to contrast the deleterious associations of

  1. Trend of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available To see the changes of cardio-metabolic risk factors overtime in polycystic ovary syndrome vs. control women.This study was conducted on 637 participants (85 PCOS and 552 control reproductive aged, 18-45 years of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, an ongoing population-based cohort study with 12 years of follow-up. The cardiovascular risk factors of these groups were assessed in three-year intervals using standard questionnaires, history taking, anthropometric measures, and metabolic/endocrine evaluation. Generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the data.Overall mean of insulin (3.55, CI: 0.66-6.45, HOMA-IR (0.63, CI: 0.08-1.18, and HOMA-β (45.90, CI: 0.86-90.93 were significantly higher in PCOS than in healthy women after adjustment for age, BMI, and baseline levels. However, the negative interaction (follow-up years × PCOS status of PCOS and normal women converged overtime. Comparing third follow-up with first, insulin and HOMA-IR decreased 10.6% and 5%, respectively in PCOS women; and increased 6.7% and 14.6%, respectively in controls (P<0.05. The results did not show any significant result for other cardio-metabolic variables including WC, lipid profile, FPG, 2-h PG, SBP, and DBP.While the insulin level and insulin resistance rate were higher in reproductive aged PCOS than in healthy women, the difference of these risk factors decreased overtime. Thus, the metabolic consequences of PCOS women in later life may be lower than those initially anticipated.

  2. Dietary Pattern during 1991–2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

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    Ming Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES. “Traditional” pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and “Modern” pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. “Traditional” pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from −0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.18, −0.12 for hypertension to −0.67 (95% CI: −0.73, −0.60 for impaired glucose control. “Modern” pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17 for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49 for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults.

  3. Moderate Activity and Fitness, Not Sedentary Time, Are Independently Associated with Cardio-Metabolic Risk in U.S. Adults Aged 18–49

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    Jeroen H. P. M. van der Velde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study is one of the first to examine and compare the independent associations of objectively measured sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied 543 men and women (aged 18–49 years from the NHANES 2003–2004 survey. Sedentary time and MVPA were measured by accelerometry. Fitness was assessed with a submaximal treadmill test. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included: waist circumference (WC, BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL- and non HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Sedentary time, MVPA and fitness were used as predictors for the cardio-metabolic outcomes in a multiple regression analysis. Standardized regression coefficients were computed. Results show that sedentary time was associated with HDL-cholesterol (β = −0.080, p = 0.05 and TG (β = 0.080, p = 0.03. These results became non-significant after adjustment for MVPA and fitness. MVPA was associated with WC (β = −0.226, BMI (β = −0.239, TG (β = −0.108 and HDL-cholesterol (β = 0.144 (all p < 0.05. These results remained significant after adjustment for sedentary time and fitness. Fitness was associated with WC (β = −0.287, BMI (β = −0.266, systolic blood pressure (β = −0.159, TG (β = −0.092, and CRP (β = −0.130 (all p < 0.05. After adjustment for sedentary time and MVPA these results remained significant. These differences in relative importance of sedentary time, MVPA and fitness on cardio-metabolic-risk are important in the design of prevention programs. In this population, the strength of the associations between MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic markers appeared to be similar; both MVPA and fitness showed independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. In contrast, sedentary time showed no independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk after correction for fitness and MVPA.

  4. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the 'Gold Standard' Tarnished?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Demmer

    Full Text Available Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR.Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  5. Genomic and Metabolomic Profile Associated to Clustering of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrachelli, Vannina G; Rentero, Pilar; Mansego, María L; Morales, Jose Manuel; Galan, Inma; Pardo-Tendero, Mercedes; Martinez, Fernando; Martin-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Briongos, Laisa; Chaves, Felipe Javier; Redon, Josep; Monleon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To identify metabolomic and genomic markers associated with the presence of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) from a general population. One thousand five hundred and two subjects, Caucasian, > 18 years, representative of the general population, were included. Blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters and metabolic markers were measured. Subjects were grouped according the number of CMRFs (Group 1: profile was assessed by 1H NMR spectra using a Brucker Advance DRX 600 spectrometer. From the total population, 1217 (mean age 54±19, 50.6% men) with high genotyping call rate were analysed. A differential metabolomic profile, which included products from mitochondrial metabolism, extra mitochondrial metabolism, branched amino acids and fatty acid signals were observed among the three groups. The comparison of metabolomic patterns between subjects of Groups 1 to 3 for each of the genotypes associated to those subjects with three or more CMRFs revealed two SNPs, the rs174577_AA of FADS2 gene and the rs3803_TT of GATA2 transcription factor gene, with minimal or no statistically significant differences. Subjects with and without three or more CMRFs who shared the same genotype and metabolomic profile differed in the pattern of CMRFS cluster. Subjects of Group 3 and the AA genotype of the rs174577 had a lower prevalence of hypertension compared to the CC and CT genotype. In contrast, subjects of Group 3 and the TT genotype of the rs3803 polymorphism had a lower prevalence of T2DM, although they were predominantly males and had higher values of plasma creatinine. The results of the present study add information to the metabolomics profile and to the potential impact of genetic factors on the variants of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  6. Food environment, walkability, and public open spaces are associated with incident development of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a biomedical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Haren, Matthew T; Howard, Natasha J; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether residential environment characteristics related to food (unhealthful/healthful food sources ratio), walkability and public open spaces (POS; number, median size, greenness and type) were associated with incidence of four cardio-metabolic risk factors (pre-diabetes/diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, abdominal obesity) in a biomedical cohort (n=3205). Results revealed that the risk of developing pre-diabetes/diabetes was lower for participants in areas with larger POS and greater walkability. Incident abdominal obesity was positively associated with the unhealthful food environment index. No associations were found with hypertension or dyslipidaemia. Results provide new evidence for specific, prospective associations between the built environment and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Determinants of Cardio-Metabolic Risk: A Proposed Model for Phenotype Association and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, Piers R; Sanghera, Dharambir K

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a translational and unifying summary of metabolic syndrome genetics and highlights evidence that genetic studies are starting to unravel and untangle origins of the complex and challenging cluster of disease phenotypes. The associated genes effectively express in the brain, liver, kidney, arterial endothelium, adipocytes, myocytes and β cells. Progression of syndrome traits has been associated with ectopic lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, visceral adipocytes, myocytes, and liver. Thus it follows that the genetics of dyslipidemia, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease are central in triggering progression of the syndrome to overt expression of disease traits, and have become a key focus of interest for early detection and for designing prevention and treatments. To support the “birds’ eye view” approach we provide a road-map depicting commonality and interrelationships between the traits and their genetic and environmental determinants based on known risk factors, metabolic pathways, pharmacological targets, treatment responses, gene networks, pleiotropy, and association with circadian rhythm. Although only a small portion of the known heritability is accounted for and there is insufficient support for clinical application of gene-based prediction models, there is direction and encouraging progress in a rapidly moving field that is beginning to show clinical relevance. PMID:23351585

  8. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne A. Barbour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI 31 ± 4 kg/m2 alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP, lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05, following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001, predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05. Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.

  9. The gut microbiome as novel cardio-metabolic target: the time has come!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinjé, Sarah; Stroes, Erik; Nieuwdorp, Max; Hazen, Stan L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal a potential contribution of intestinal microbes in the expression of certain human cardio-metabolic diseases. The mechanisms through which intestinal microbiota and/or their metabolic products alter systemic homoeostasis and cardio-metabolic disease risks are just beginning to

  10. The Electronic CardioMetabolic Program (eCMP) for Patients With Cardiometabolic Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Kristen M J; Koliwad, Suneil; Poon, Tak; Xiao, Lan; Lv, Nan; Griggs, Robert; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-27

    Effective lifestyle interventions targeting high-risk adults that are both practical for use in ambulatory care settings and scalable at a population management level are needed. Our aim was to examine the potential effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of delivering an evidence-based Electronic Cardio-Metabolic Program (eCMP) for improving health-related quality of life, improving health behaviors, and reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in ambulatory care high-risk adults. We conducted a randomized, wait-list controlled trial with 74 adults aged ≥18 years recruited from a large multispecialty health care organization. Inclusion criteria were (1) BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) and prediabetes, previous gestational diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, or (2) BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants had a mean age of 59.7 years (SD 11.2), BMI 37.1 kg/m(2) (SD 5.4) and were 59.5% female, 82.4% white. Participants were randomized to participate in eCMP immediately (n=37) or 3 months later (n=37). eCMP is a 6-month program utilizing video conferencing, online tools, and pre-recorded didactic videos to deliver evidence-based curricula. Blinded outcome assessments were conducted at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. Data were collected and analyzed between 2014 and 2015. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes included biometric cardiometabolic risk factors (eg, body weight), self-reported diet and physical activity, mental health status, retention, session attendance, and participant satisfaction. Change in quality of life was not significant in both immediate and delayed participants. Both groups significantly lost weight and reduced waist circumference at 6 months, with some cardiometabolic factors trending accordingly. Significant reduction in self-reported anxiety and perceived stress was seen in the immediate intervention group at 6 months. Retention rate was 93% at 3 months and 86% at 6 months

  11. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    atherogenic form to the larger, less damaging particle size, have also been noted. ω3 LC-PUFA are effective modulators of the inflammation that accompanies several cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Taking into consideration the pleiotropic nature of their actions, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with ω3 LC-PUFA will lead to improvements in cardio-metabolic health parameters. These fatty acids pose only minor side effects and more importantly, do not interact adversely with the common drug therapies used in the management and treatment of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type-2 diabetes, and obesity/metabolic syndrome, but in some instances work synergistically, thereby providing additional cardiovascular benefits.

  12. Screening for and monitoring of cardio-metabolic risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes to be “unnatural” ones, such as suicide. Recent evidence ... a primary care clinic. Assessments of risk factors with standard clinical measurements were ... All health care professionals and trained health workers were asked to complete ...

  13. Consumption of dairy products in youth, does it protect from cardio-metabolic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-07-12

    Introduction: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is considered as a major global health concern and involves the onset of other comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic infl ammation and hyperinsulinemia, which are also considered as cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Several studies have observed that consumption of dairy products has a protective role on the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, the scientific evidence on this topic is very limited among children and adolescents. Objectives: To investigate the association between dairy products consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in young populations. Material and methods: The most up-to-date literature was reviewed, including some data from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. A sample of adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities was considered for the analysis. Results: US data showed a decrease in both number of servings and portion sizes of milk consumption. Within the HELENA study, dairy products emerged as the food group that better distinguished those adolescents at lower cardiovascular diseases risk. Among the HELENA adolescents, higher consumption of milk, yogurt and milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for cardiovascular diseases, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions: More studies are needed to provide more evidence and to better understand the intrinsic mechanisms of the association between dairy products consumption, especially yogurt consumption, and obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases risk factors.

  14. The effect of UHT processed dairy milk on cardio-metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Kromann; Klingenberg, Lars; Larsen, Lotte Bach

    2017-01-01

    cholesterol (LDL-C) in an uncontrolled study. Our aim was to examine whether semi-skimmed UHT dairy milk increases the risk of CVD development compared with pasteurized (PAST) dairy milk in overweight healthy adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Nineteen healthy men and women participated in a randomized, controlled...... of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.22....

  15. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kahleova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets also reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about one half. Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful, effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.

  16. A Practical and Time-Efficient High-Intensity Interval Training Program Modifies Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Adults with Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan E. Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity (PA can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but adherence to time-orientated (150 min week−1 or more PA guidelines is very poor. A practical and time-efficient PA regime that was equally efficacious at controlling risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease is one solution to this problem. Herein, we evaluate a new time-efficient and genuinely practical high-intensity interval training (HIT protocol in men and women with pre-existing risk factors for type 2 diabetes.Materials and methodsOne hundred eighty-nine sedentary women (n = 101 and men (n = 88 with impaired glucose tolerance and/or a body mass index >27 kg m−2 [mean (range age: 36 (18–53 years] participated in this multi-center study. Each completed a fully supervised 6-week HIT protocol at work-loads equivalent to ~100 or ~125% V˙O2 max. Change in V˙O2 max was used to monitor protocol efficacy, while Actiheart™ monitors were used to determine PA during four, weeklong, periods. Mean arterial (blood pressure (MAP and fasting insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR] represent key health biomarker outcomes.ResultsThe higher intensity bouts (~125% V˙O2 max used during a 5-by-1 min HIT protocol resulted in a robust increase in V˙O2 max (136 participants, +10.0%, p < 0.001; large size effect. 5-by-1 HIT reduced MAP (~3%; p < 0.001 and HOMA-IR (~16%; p < 0.01. Physiological responses were similar in men and women while a sizeable proportion of the training-induced changes in V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR was retained 3 weeks after cessation of training. The supervised HIT sessions accounted for the entire quantifiable increase in PA, and this equated to 400 metabolic equivalent (MET min week−1. Meta-analysis indicated that 5-by-1 HIT matched the efficacy and variability of a time-consuming 30-week PA program on V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR.ConclusionWith a total time-commitment of

  17. Impact of Vitamin D Replacement on Markers of Glucose Metabolism and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Women with Former Gestational Diabetes--A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Peng Yeow

    Full Text Available Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM and vitamin D deficiency are related to insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function, with heightened risk for future development of diabetes. We evaluated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on markers of glucose metabolism and cardio metabolic risk in Asian women with former GDM and hypovitaminosis D. In this double blind, randomized controlled trial, 26 participants were randomized to receive either daily 4000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo capsules. 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT and biochemistry profiles were performed at baseline and 6 month visits. Mathematical models, using serial glucose, insulin and C peptide measurements from OGTT, were employed to calculate insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Thirty three (76% women with former GDM screened had vitamin D level of <50 nmol/L at baseline. Supplementation, when compared with placebo, resulted in increased vitamin D level (+51.1 nmol/L vs 0.2 nmol/L, p<0.001 and increased fasting insulin (+20% vs 18%, p = 0.034. The vitamin D group also demonstrated a 30% improvement in disposition index and an absolute 0.2% (2 mmol/mol reduction in HbA1c. There was no clear change in insulin sensitivity or markers of cardio metabolic risk. This study highlighted high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Asian women with former GDM. Six months supplementation with 4000 IU of vitamin D3 safely restored the vitamin D level, improved basal pancreatic beta-cell function and ameliorated the metabolic state. There was no effect on markers of cardio metabolic risk. Further mechanistic studies exploring the role of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis among different ethnicities may be needed to better inform future recommendations for these women with former GDM at high risk of both hypovitaminosis D and future diabetes.

  18. Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, Marie; Boakye-Appiah, Justice K.; Abdul-Jalil, Inusah; Henze, Andrea; van der Giet, Markus; Schulze, Matthias B.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Bedu-Addo, George

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. We measured ferritin, C-reactive protein, retinol, fasting glucose and blood pressure. Socio-demographic data were documented. We analyzed the proportions (95% confidence interval, CI) and the co-occurrence of infectious diseases (malaria, other common diseases), malnutrition (underweight, stunting, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency [VAD]), and CRFs (overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension). In logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the associations with socio-demographic factors. In this Ghanaian population (age range, 14.4–15.5 years; males, 50%), the proportions were for infectious diseases 45% (95% CI: 38–52%), for malnutrition 50% (43–57%) and for CRFs 16% (11–21%). Infectious diseases and malnutrition frequently co-existed (28%; 21–34%). Specifically, VAD increased the odds of non-malarial infectious diseases 3-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 10.19). Overlap of CRFs with infectious diseases (6%; 2–9%) or with malnutrition (7%; 3–11%) was also present. Male gender and low socio-economic status increased the odds of infectious diseases and malnutrition, respectively. Malarial infection, chronic malnutrition and VAD remain the predominant health problems among these Ghanaian adolescents. Investigating the relationships with evolving CRFs is warranted. PMID:28727775

  19. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the ‘Gold Standard’ Tarnished?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Mountain, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Methods and Results 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:27622523

  20. Effects of exercise with or without blueberries in the diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors: an exploratory pilot study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Sofia; Gerring, Edvard; Gjellan, Solveig; Vergara, Marta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2013-11-01

    The improvement of insulin sensitivity by exercise has been shown to be inhibited by supplementation of vitamins acting as antioxidants. To examine effects of exercise with or without blueberries, containing natural antioxidants, on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Fifteen healthy men and 17 women, 27.6 ± 6.5 years old, were recruited, and 26 completed a randomized cross-over trial with 4 weeks of exercise by running/jogging 5 km five times/week and 4 weeks of minimal physical activity. Participants were also randomized to consume 150 g of blueberries, or not, on exercise days. Laboratory variables were measured before and after a 5 km running-race at maximal speed at the beginning and end of each period, i.e. there were four maximal running-races and eight samplings in total for each participant. Insulin and triglyceride levels were reduced while HDL-cholesterol increased by exercise compared with minimal physical activity. Participants randomized to consume blueberries showed an increase in fasting glucose levels compared with controls, during the exercise period (blueberries: from 5.12 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 5.32 ± 0.29 mmol/l; controls: from 5.24 ± 0.27 mmol/l to 5.17 ± 0.23 mmol/l, P = 0.04 for difference in change). Triglyceride levels fell in the control group (from 1.1 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 0.93 ± 0.31 mmol/l, P = 0.02), while HDL-cholesterol increased in the blueberry group (from 1.51 ± 0.29 mmol/l to 1.64 ± 0.33 mmol/l, P = 0.006). Ingestion of blueberries induced differential effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including increased levels of both fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. However, since it is possible that indirect effects on food intake were induced, other than consumption of blueberries, further studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  1. Differences in cardio-ankle vascular index in a general Mediterranean population depending on the presence or absence of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Lluch, Ruth; Garcia-Gil, Maria Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to describe the differences in the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in individuals with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors or a previous history of vascular diseases (WCVRF) compared to healthy individuals (free of risk factors and previous history of vascular diseases; FCVRF) in a general Mediterranean population. The secondary aim is to describe the proportion of CAVI≥9 depending on the cardiovascular risk category in both CVRF groups by sex. The study is a descriptive analysis of 2613 participants randomly selected in the Girona province (Catalonia, Spain). CAVI mean differences between sexes and age categories in both CVRF groups followed the same pattern, the FCVRF group (men 25.2%; women 14.4%) in turn had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 than the WCVRF group (men 57.9%; women 51.8%). The percentage of men and women with CAVI≥9 with low risk was 13.9% and 11.3% in the FCVRF group, and 31.8% and 42.0% in the WCVRF group; with moderate risk, it was 55.8% and 10.0% in the FCVRF group and 60.3% and 49.0% in the WCVRF group. In both sexes, FCVRF groups had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 as well as lower mean CAVI scores, across all 10 year-age categories from 40 to 69 years, than WCVRF groups. Moreover, CAVI≥9 was frequent in individuals with low and moderate coronary risk in the WCVRF group but also in the FCVRF group. These results suggest that CAVI assessment to detect asymptomatic arteriosclerosis could be a useful tool to improve cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender Differences in Major Dietary Patterns and Their Relationship with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Year before Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Najafi, Mahdi; Sarami Foroushani, Gholamreza; Mohajeri Tehrani, Mohammad Reza; Jahangiry, Leila

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies reported the association between dietary patterns and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic disease. However, there are no studies reporting major dietary patterns in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The aim of this study was to obtain the major dietary patterns and their association with demographic, dietary factors and biochemical parameters in these patients. This was a cross-sectional study on 454 patients aged 35 - 80 years as candidates of CABG and hospitalized in the Tehran Heart Center. Anthropometric and demographic characteristics were obtained from all participants and a 138-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to evaluate dietary patterns by factor analysis. Biochemical parameters including HbA1c, serum lipids, hematocrit (HCT), albumin, creatinine and CRP were assessed by commercial laboratory methods. Five major dietary patterns, including: healthy, intermediate, neo-traditional, western and semi-Mediterranean patterns were extracted. Top quartile of healthy pattern was associated with higher educational attainment and lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and total cholesterol (TC) in men, as well as  higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations in women (P habits, as well as the lower prevalence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension (P eating patterns were associated with lower cardio-metabolic risk factors.

  3. Interlinkage among cardio-metabolic disease markers in an urban poor setting in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main cardio-metabolic diseases – mostly cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and ischemic heart disease – share common clinical markers such as raised blood pressure and blood glucose. The pathways of development of many of these conditions are also interlinked. In this regard, a higher level of co-occurrence of the main cardio-metabolic disease markers is expected. Evidence about the patterns of occurrence of cardio-metabolic markers and their interlinkage in the sub-Saharan African setting is inadequate. Objective: The goal of the study was to describe the interlinkage among common cardio-metabolic disease markers in an African setting. Design: We used data collected in a cross-sectional study from 5,190 study participants as part of cardiovascular disease risk assessment in the urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Five commonly used clinical markers of cardio-metabolic conditions were considered in this analysis. These markers were waist circumference, blood pressure, random blood glucose, total blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Patterns of these markers were described using means, standard deviations, and proportions. The associations between the markers were determined using odds ratios. Results: The weighted prevalence of central obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were 12.3%, 7.0%, 2.5%, 10.3%, and 17.3%, respectively. Women had a higher prevalence of central obesity and hypercholesterolemia as compared to men. Blood glucose was strongly associated with central obesity, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels, whereas the association between blood glucose and total blood cholesterol was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study shows that most of the common cardio-metabolic markers are interlinked, suggesting a higher probability of comorbidity due to cardio-metabolic conditions and thus the need for integrated approaches.

  4. Associations of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain with Adult Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Meiner, Vardiella; Sagy, Yael; Avgil-Tsadok, Meytal; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Siscovick, David S.; Manor, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adult offspring adiposity. However, whether these maternal attributes are related to other cardio-metabolic risk factors in adulthood has not been comprehensively studied. Methods and Results We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, to prospectively examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with adiposity and related cardio-metabolic outcomes. Greater mppBMI, independent of GWG and confounders, was significantly associated with higher offspring BMI, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, insulin and triglycerides and with lower HDL-C. For example, the effect sizes were translated to nearly 5kg/m2 higher mean BMI, 8.4cm higher WC, 0.13mmol/L (11.4mg/dL) higher triglycerides and 0.10mmol/L (3.8mg/dL) lower HDL-C among offspring of mothers within the upper mppBMI quartile (BMI>26.4kg/m2) compared to the lower (BMI14kg) and lower (GWG<9kg) quartiles of GWG were compared. Further adjustment for offspring adiposity attenuated to null the observed associations. Conclusions Maternal size both before and during pregnancy are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring. The associations appear to be driven mainly by offspring adiposity. Future studies that explore mechanisms underlying the intergenerational cycle of obesity are warranted to identify potentially novel targets for cardio-metabolic risk-reduction interventions. PMID:22344037

  5. Recently Discovered Adipokines and Cardio-Metabolic Comorbidities in Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Barraco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available White adipose tissue (WAT asset, in terms of cell number, fat storage capacity and endocrine function, is largely determined in early stages of life and is pivotal for shaping the WAT pro-inflammatory behavior. WAT derived adipokines have been shown to play a main role in several cardio-metabolic abnormalities of obesity. This review focuses on the most recently identified adipokines, namely adipocyte-fatty acid-binding protein, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor-21, lipocalin-2, omentin-1 and vaspin; their role in the pathogenesis of obesity and associated cardio-metabolic abnormalities; and on their adaptive response to body weight change. Evidence consistently suggests a pathogenic role for A-FABP, chemerin and FGF-21. Nevertheless, large population studies are needed to verify whether they can be useful to predict the risk of cardio-metabolic abnormalities in adulthood and/or monitor the clinical response to therapeutic interventions.

  6. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  7. Prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study proposes that in addition to national health policies on preventing cardiometabolic risk factors, specific interventions should be considered according to the regional SES level.

  8. CORRELATION OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY FINDINGS AND CARDIO-METABOLIC RISK FACTORS IN THEIR PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Movassaghi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although coronary artery disease (CAD becomes symptomatic late in life, early identification and modification of risk factors may reduce its future incidence. methods: In this cross-sectional study, 108 subjects aged 6-18 years were randomly selected from among children of patients who underwent coronary angiography at Chamran Heart Center, Isfahan, Iran. The parents were assigned to two groups according to the presence or not of coronary stenosis in angiography. Each group was divided into two subgroups, with or without the metabolic syndrome. All of the subjects were aged below 55 years. In addition to anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, and insulin level were measured and lipid profile was assessed in the children of the patients. The data were analyzed with SPSS using independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square and standard linear multiple regression tests. results: In the group with stenosis in coronary angiography, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome components was significantly higher in children of parents with the metabolic syndrome than in the other group (24 vs. 18; P=0.003. In the group without stenosis in coronary angiography, the children of parents with the metabolic syndrome had higher triglyceride (TG levels and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Our study emphasizes the importance of primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, especially in children of families with high risk of premature atherosclerosis.     Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, familial aggregation, cardiovascular disease.

  9. Interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and a common polymorphism in the PON1 gene on DNA methylation in genes associated with cardio-metabolic disease risk-an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Declerck, Ken; Remy, Sylvie; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental conditions may influence disease risk in later life. We previously found a gene-environment interaction between the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R genotype and prenatal pesticide exposure leading to an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile at school age. However...... was observed in prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele. Differentially methylated genes were enriched in several neuroendocrine signaling pathways including dopamine-DARPP32 feedback (appetite, reward pathways), corticotrophin releasing hormone signaling, nNOS, neuregulin signaling...

  10. The gut microbiome in cardio-metabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tue Haldor; Gøbel, Rikke J; Hansen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    that the gut microbiota, as an environmental factor influencing the metabolic state of the host, is readily modifiable through a variety of interventions. In this review we provide an overview of the development of the gut microbiome and its compositional and functional changes in relation to cardio......With the prevalence of cardio-metabolic disorders reaching pandemic proportions, the search for modifiable causative factors has intensified. One such potential factor is the vast microbial community inhabiting the human gastrointestinal tract, the gut microbiota. For the past decade evidence has...... accumulated showing the association of distinct changes in gut microbiota composition and function with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although causality in humans and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved have yet to be decisively established, several studies have demonstrated...

  11. Effects of the Boy Scouts of America Personal Fitness Merit Badge on Cardio-Metabolic Risk, Health Related Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Justin; Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of adolescents are more sedentary and have fewer formal opportunities to participate in physical activity. With the mounting evidence that sedentary time has a negative impact on cardiometabolic profiles, health related fitness and physical activity, there is a pressing need to find an affordable adolescent physical activity intervention. One possible intervention that has been overlooked in the past is Boy Scouts of America. There are nearly 900,000 adolescent boys who participate in Boy Scouts in the United States. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the effect of the Personal Fitness merit badge system on physical activity, health-related fitness, and cardio-metabolic blood profiles in Boy Scouts 11-17 years of age. Participants were fourteen (N = 14) Boy Scouts from the Great Salt Lake Council of the Boy Scouts of America who earned their Personal Fitness merit badge. Classes were held in the Spring of 2016 where boys received the information needed to obtain the merit badge and data were collected. Results from the related-samples Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that the median of differences between VO 2 peak pre-test and post-test scores were statistically significant ( p = 0.004). However, it also showed that the differences between the Pre-MetS (metabolic syndrome) and Post-MetS scores (p = 0.917), average steps taken per day ( p = 0.317), and BMI ( p = 0.419) were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the merit badge program had a positive impact on cardiovascular endurance, suggesting this program has potential to improve cardiovascular fitness and should be considered for boys participating in Boy Scouts.

  12. Estimating the risk of cardio vascular diseases among pakistani diabetics using uk pds risk engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, A.; Amer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of risk estimation of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is helpful for clinician to identifying high risk populations for their effective treatment. Latest studies recommended only initiating cardio-protective treatment in diabetic patients based on personalized CHD risk estimates so as to reduce undue harm from overly aggressive risk factor modification. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UK PDS) Risk Engine is a widely used tool to assess the risk of Cardio Vascular diseases (CVD) in diabetics. The literature search so far did not reveal any study of risk assessment among Pakistani Diabetics. Methods: This descriptive study is based on the data of 470 type-2 diabetics seen in Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore during 2011. The data of these 470 patients was analyzed through UKPDS Risk Engine. CHD risk was calculated. Results: The 10 years risk of CHD, fatal CHD, stroke and fatal stroke was 9.4%, 4.4%, 1.7% and 0.2% respectively. Conclusions: The present study show a lower risk of CVD occurring among Pakistani diabetics as compared to studies from western countries. (author)

  13. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Taylor, Alexandra S.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.\\ud Purpose\\ud To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk ...

  14. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  15. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Im Hur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770 who participated in the 4th year (2008 of the Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS. Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = −0.10, p = 0.02 and β = −0.78, p < 0.01, respectively. At follow-up, sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = −0.08, p < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02, but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83. Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and

  16. Cross-sectional surveillance study to phenotype lorry drivers’ sedentary behaviours, physical activity and cardio-metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; O’Shea, Orlagh; King, James A; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacy A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Elevated risk factors for a number of chronic diseases have been identified in lorry drivers. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as a lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (sitting) likely contribute to this elevated risk. This study behaviourally phenotyped UK lorry drivers’ sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours during workdays and non-workdays and examined markers of drivers cardio-metabolic health. Setting A transport company from the East Midlands, UK. Participants A sample of 159 male heavy goods vehicle drivers (91% white European; (median (range)) age: 50 (24, 67) years) completed the health assessments. 87 (age: 50.0 (25.0, 65.0); body mass index (BMI): 27.7 (19.6, 43.4) kg/m2) provided objective information on sedentary and non-sedentary time. Outcomes Participants self-reported their sociodemographic information. Primary outcomes: sedentary behaviour and PA, assessed over 7 days using an activPAL3 inclinometer. Cardio-metabolic markers included: blood pressure (BP), heart rate, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body composition and fasted capillary blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipopreotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. These cardio-metabolic markers were treated as secondary outcomes. Results Lorry drivers presented an unhealthy cardio-metabolic health profile (median (IQR) systolic BP: 129 (108.5, 164) mm Hg; diastolic BP: 81 (63, 104) mm Hg; BMI: 29 (20, 47) kg/m2; WC: 102 (77.5, 146.5) cm; LDL-C: 3 (1, 6) mmol/L; TC: 4.9 (3, 7.5) mmol/L). 84% were overweight or obese, 43% had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and 34% had the metabolic syndrome. The subsample of lorry drivers with objective postural data (n=87) accumulated 13 hours/day and 8 hours/day of sedentary behaviour on workdays and non-workdays (pdrivers accrued 12 min/day on workdays and 6 min/day on non-workdays of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Conclusion

  17. Cross-sectional surveillance study to phenotype lorry drivers' sedentary behaviours, physical activity and cardio-metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; O'Shea, Orlagh; King, James A; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacy A

    2017-06-21

    Elevated risk factors for a number of chronic diseases have been identified in lorry drivers. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as a lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (sitting) likely contribute to this elevated risk. This study behaviourally phenotyped UK lorry drivers' sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours during workdays and non-workdays and examined markers of drivers cardio-metabolic health. A transport company from the East Midlands, UK. A sample of 159 male heavy goods vehicle drivers (91% white European; (median (range)) age: 50 (24, 67) years) completed the health assessments. 87 (age: 50.0 (25.0, 65.0); body mass index (BMI): 27.7 (19.6, 43.4) kg/m 2 ) provided objective information on sedentary and non-sedentary time. Participants self-reported their sociodemographic information. Primary outcomes: sedentary behaviour and PA, assessed over 7 days using an activPAL3 inclinometer. Cardio-metabolic markers included: blood pressure (BP), heart rate, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body composition and fasted capillary blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipopreotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. These cardio-metabolic markers were treated as secondary outcomes. Lorry drivers presented an unhealthy cardio-metabolic health profile (median (IQR) systolic BP: 129 (108.5, 164) mm Hg; diastolic BP: 81 (63, 104) mm Hg; BMI: 29 (20, 47) kg/m 2 ; WC: 102 (77.5, 146.5) cm; LDL-C: 3 (1, 6) mmol/L; TC: 4.9 (3, 7.5) mmol/L). 84% were overweight or obese, 43% had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and 34% had the metabolic syndrome. The subsample of lorry drivers with objective postural data (n=87) accumulated 13 hours/day and 8 hours/day of sedentary behaviour on workdays and non-workdays (pdrivers accrued 12 min/day on workdays and 6 min/day on non-workdays of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Lorry drivers demonstrate a high-risk cardio-metabolic

  18. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary - impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions

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    Jozan Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascular mortality rates, as a main cause of death and the increase in cardio-metabolic prescriptions and possible changes in lifestyle behavior. Methods Analyses were conducted on national data concerning cardiovascular mortality and the number of cardio-metabolic drug prescription per capita. The association between yearly rates of cardiovascular events and changes in antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic prescription rates was analyzed. The changes in other cardiovascular risk factors, like lifestyle were also considered. Results We observed a remarkable decline of mortality due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The fall was significantly associated with all prescription rates. The proportion of each treatment type responsible for suppression of specific mortality rates is different. All treatment types comparably improved stroke mortality, while antilipidemic therapy improved AMI outcome. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive strategy that maximizes the population coverage of effective treatments. Hungary appears to be at the beginning of the fourth stage of epidemiologic transition, i.e. it has entered the stage of delayed chronic noninfectious diseases.

  19. Muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health in disadvantaged Hispanic children from the U.S.

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    Ryan D. Burns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health, independent from aerobic fitness, is not clear in disadvantaged Hispanic children. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and clustered cardio-metabolic risk, controlling for aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools. Participants were 320 Hispanic children (Mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 164 girls, 156 boys recruited during the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 academic years from five low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Muscular strength and endurance was assessed using the push-up and curl-up tests and estimated VO2 Peak was calculated from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. A clustered metabolic syndrome composite score (MetS was calculated from cardio-metabolic health measurements consisting of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood glucose, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multi-level general linear mixed effects models were used to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and MetS, controlling for the effect of aerobic fitness and the clustering of children within classrooms and schools. Children who were in the middle and upper tertiles for muscular strength and endurance associated with a lower (more favorable MetS score (middle tertile: β = −2.59, 95% C.I. [−4.23, −0.95], p < 0.05; upper tertile: β = −1.57, 95% C.I. [−3.20, −0.16], p < 0.05. The results suggest that higher levels of muscular strength and endurance relate to lower cardio-metabolic risk, independent of aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools.

  20. A Comparison between BMI, Waist Circumference, and Waist-To-Height Ratio for Identifying Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luís B; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M

    2016-01-01

    R) with clustered cardiometabolic risk factors and to determine whether these anthropometric variables can be used to discriminate individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and HOMA-IR). METHODS: The study sample...... pressure (mean arterial pressure), and HOMA-IR] and children with ≥1.0 SD in this score were defined as being at risk for clustering cardiometabolic risk factors.. Exposure variables were BMI, WC, WHtR. Statistics included mixed-effect regression and ROC analysis. RESULTS: All anthropometric variables were...

  1. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-12-31

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p target particular food groups. Consequently, this information could be of value to obesity- and metabolic disease-prevention strategies.

  2. Nonhuman primate breath volatile organic compounds associate with developmental programming and cardio-metabolic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrew C; Libardoni, Mark; Choudary, Ahsan; Misra, Biswapriya Biswavas; Lange, Kenneth; Bernal, John; Nijland, Mark; Li, Cun; Olivier, Michael; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Cox, Laura A

    2018-03-29

    Rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) studies indicate that developmental programming by reduced perinatal nutrition negatively impacts life course cardio-metabolic health. We have developed a baboon model in which we feed control mothers (CON) ad libitum while nutrient restricted mothers are fed 70% of ad libitum global feed in pregnancy and lactation. Offspring of nutrient restricted mothers are intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at term. By 3.5 years IUGR baboons showed signs of insulin resistance, indicating a pre-diabetic phenotype, in contrast to healthy CON offspring. We hypothesized that a novel breath analysis approach would provide markers of the altered cardio-metabolic state in a non-invasive manner. Here we assess whether exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected from this unique cohort of juvenile baboons with documented cardio-metabolic dysfunction resulting from in utero programming can be detected from their breath signatures. Breath was collected from male and female CON and IUGR baboons at 4.8±0.2 years (human equivalent ~13 years). Breath VOCs were quantified using a two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometer (2D GC-MS). Two-way ANOVA, on 76 biologically relevant VOCs identified 27 VOCs (p<0.05) with altered abundances between groups (sex, birthweight, and sex x birthweight). The 27 VOCs included 2-pentanone, 2-octanone, 2,5,5 trimethyl-1-hexene and 2,2-dimethyl-undecane, which have not previously been associated with cardio-metabolic disease. Unsupervised principal component analysis of these VOCs could discriminate the four defined clusters defining males, females, CON and IUGR. This study, which is the first to assess quantifiable breath signatures associated with cardio-metabolic programing for any model of IUGR, demonstrates the translational value of this unique model to identify metabolites of programmed cardio-metabolic dysfunction in breath signatures. Future studies are required to validate the

  3. Low physical activity level and short sleep duration are associated with an increased cardio-metabolic risk: a longitudinal study in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M.; Chaput, J.; Damsgaard, C.

    2014-01-01

    : To examine prospective associations between movement behaviors and markers of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 8–11 year old Danish children. Methods: Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; >2296 counts/min), sedentary time (... as changes over time (n = 632). Results: At baseline, 13% were overweight/obese, 73% accumulated ...-hour; 95% CI (−0.87;−0.04)], but not sedentary time, were prospectively associated with the MetS-score (P ≤ 0.03). Adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (P ≥ 0.17). Conclusions: Independent...

  4. Cardio-Metabolic Features of Type 2 Diabetes Subjects Discordant in the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa Rah Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study is to investigate the cardio-metabolic parameters and surrogate markers of insulin resistance in a discordant group of type 2 diabetes (T2DM subjects who satisfy the Adults Treatment Panel (ATP III criteria, but not the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria, for metabolic syndrome (MetS.MethodsWe assessed the prevalence of MetS in T2DM subjects (n=167 who were selected from subjects registered at the diabetes center of Dong-A University Medical Center. We used the ATP III criteria and the IDF criteria for the diagnosis of MetS and sorted the subjects into 2 MetS groups: one group diagnosed per ATP III criteria (MetSa and one diagnosed per IDF criteria (MetSi. We then compared the clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and uric acid values and co-morbidities (prevalence of microalbuminuria, fatty liver, and cardiovascular disease between the MetSa, MetSi, and discordant MetS groups.ResultsThe prevalence of MetS in the MetSa group (73.6% was higher than in the MetSi group (62.2%. The MetS prevalence in the discordant group was 11.4%. The discordant group showed no significant differences in clinical characteristics (except waist circumference and body mass index, metabolic parameters, or prevalence of co-morbidities, as compared with subjects with MetS by both criteria.ConclusionIn this study, cardio-metabolic features of the subjects diagnosed with MetS using ATP III criteria, but not IDF criteria, are not significantly different from those of subjects diagnosed with MetS using both criteria.

  5. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-26

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  6. An evaluation of longitudinal changes in serum uric acid levels and associated risk of cardio-metabolic events and renal function decline in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rishi J; Franklin, Jessica M; Spoendlin-Allen, Julia; Solomon, Daniel H; Danaei, Goodarz; Kim, Seoyoung C

    2018-01-01

    Gout patients have a high burden of co-morbid conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to evaluate the association between changes in serum uric acid (SUA) levels over time and the risk of incident DM, CVD, and renal function decline in gout patients. An observational cohort study was conducted among enrollees of private health insurance programs in the US between 2004 and 2015. Gout patients were included on the index date of a SUA measurement ≥6.8 mg/dl. The exposure of interest was cumulative change in SUA levels from baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident DM, incident CVD, and renal function decline (≥30% reduction in glomerular filtration rate) were derived using marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weights accounting for baseline confounders (age, gender, co-morbidities, co-medications) and time-varying confounders (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, glycated hemoglobin). Among 26,341 patients with gout, the average age was 62, 75% were men, and the median baseline SUA was 8.6 mg/dl (interquartile range 7.7 to 9.5). The incidence rates/100 person-years (95% CI) were 1.63 (1.51-1.75) for DM, 0.77 (0.70-0.84) for CVD, and 4.32 (4.14-4.49) for renal function decline. The adjusted HR (95% CI) per 3 mg/dl reduction in SUA, corresponding on average to achieving the target level of gout may be associated with a reduced risk of renal function decline, but not with DM or CVD.

  7. Vanishing testes syndrome-related osteoporosis and high cardio-metabolic risk in an adult male with long term untreated hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsote, Mara; Capatina, Cristina; Valea, Ana; Dumitrascu, Anda

    2016-02-01

    The male hypogonadism-related bone mass loss is often under diagnosed. Peak bone mass is severely affected if the hypogonadism occurs during puberty and is left untreated. We present an interesting; almost bizarre case of a male with non-functional testes early during childhood and undiagnosed and untreated hypogonadism until his fifth decade of life. Forty six year male is referred for goitre, complaining of back pain. Phenotype suggested intersexuality: gynoid proportions, micropenis, no palpable testes into the scrotum, no facial or truncal hair. His medical history had been unremarkable until the previous year when primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and levothyroxine replacement was initiated. Later, he was diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, with inaugural unstable angina. On admission, the testosterone was 0.2 ng/mL (normal: 1.7-7.8 ng/mL), FSH markedly increased (56 mUI/mL), with normal adrenal axis, and TSH (under thyroxine replacement). High bone turnover markers, and blood cholesterol, and impaired glucose tolerance were diagnosed. The testes were not present in the scrotum. Abdominal computed tomography suggested bilateral masses of 1.6 cm diameter within the abdominal fat that were removed but no gonadal tissue was confirmed histopathologically. Vanishing testes syndrome was confirmed. The central DXA showed lumbar bone mineral density of 0.905 g/cm2, Z-score of -2.9SD. The spine profile X-Ray revealed multiple thoracic vertebral fractures. Alendronate therapy together with vitamin D and calcium supplements and trans-dermal testosterone were started. Four decades of hypogonadism associate increased cardiac risk, as well as decreased bone mass and high fracture risk.

  8. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  9. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Taylor, Alexandra S; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment. To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT. Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2) were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax) interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1). MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1). VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention. Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT) and 128±44 min (MICT) (pHIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; pHIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (pHIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (pHIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables. HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  10. Cardio-metabolic Diseases Prevention by Self-monitoring the Breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila GERMANESE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As new as very promising technique, breath analysis allows for monitoring the biochemical processes that occur in human body in a non-invasive way. Nevertheless, the high costs for standard analytical instrumentation (i.e., gas chromatograph, mass spectrometer, the need for specialized personnel able to read the results and the lack of protocols to collect breath samples, set limit to the exploitation of breath analysis in clinical practice. Here, we describe the development of a device, named Wize Sniffer, which is portable and entirely based on low cost technology: it uses an array of commercial, semiconductor gas sensors and a widely employed open source controller, an Arduino Mega2560 with Ethernet module. In addition, it is very easy-to-use also for non-specialized personnel and able to analyze in real time the composition of the breath. The Wize Sniffer is composed of three modules: signal measurement module, signal conditioning module and signal processing module. The idea was born in the framework of European SEMEiotic Oriented Technology for Individual's CardiOmetabolic risk self-assessmeNt and Self-monitoring (SEMEOTICONS Project, in order to monitor individual's lifestyle by detecting in the breath those molecules related to the noxious habits for cardio-metabolic risk (alcohol intake, smoking, wrong diet. Nonetheless, the modular configuration of the device allows for changing the sensors according to the molecules to be detected, thus fully exploiting the potential of breath analysis.

  11. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Turel, Ofir; Romashkin, Anna; Morrison, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions. Methods Data ...

  12. Assessment of the Efficacy of Cardio-Metabolic Pathology Treatment and of the Medical Recommendations Adherence in a Military Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcrămioara Ana MOLDOVAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the efficacy of cardio-metabolic diseases treatment, the compliance to treatment, and to evaluate the obtained results compared to the previous published ones.Methods: A screening was conducted in the military population, including male and female with age at least 20 years, with of without: diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. The anthropometrics parameters, body fat percent, and blood pressure were evaluated. The following data were collected: glycemia, lipid profile, renal and hepatic function, level of physical activity, smoking status, personal associated diseases. The compliance to treatment was noted in percentages declared by patient in a survey. The IRIS 2 score of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk using EURO’98 charts, Framingham Score and SCORE system were calculated. The metabolic syndrome diagnosis was performed using the International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria. Results: 338 persons were investigated; the majority were males, 192 with normal glycemia. The objectives of the treatment were reached in < 50% cases for each pathological aspect. A negative correlation was found between anthropometric parameters and the compliance to diet and physical exercise, and positive correlation between bodyweight, high cardiovascular risk and medication. The study showed the same pattern of the treatment as in other studies, with a low compliance to medical nutrition therapy and with low percentage in witch the objective for cardio-metabolic pathology are reached. Conclusions: An active and sustained attitude is necessary to promote a healthy lifestyle in the respect of improvement of treatment and prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Maternal health issues and cardio-metabolic outcomes in the offspring: a focus on Indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy A; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease are the leading causes of death worldwide. Indigenous populations are disproportionally affected. In an effort to halt the increasing disease burden, the mechanisms underlying the increasing rate of NCDs are an important area of study. Recent evidence has focused on the perinatal period as an influential period impacting the future cardio-metabolic health of the offspring. This concept has been defined as metabolic foetal programming and supports the importance of the developmental origins of health and disease in research and clinical practice, specifically in prevention efforts to protect future generations from NCDs. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved is not clear as of yet. However, an understanding of these mechanisms is imperative in order to plan effective intervention strategies. As much of the discussion below is gleaned from large epidemiological studies and animal studies, further research with prospective cohorts is necessary. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Physical activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcala-Sanchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua...... suggests high levels of overweight and hypertension in the Tarahumara, and points to fitness and physical activity as potential intervention targets although findings should be confirmed in larger samples.......) to estimate CRF. Random blood glucose level and resting blood pressure (BP) were measured with standard anthropometrics. Results: Mean (SD) PAEE was 71.2 (30.3) kJ kg21 day21 and CRF was 36.6 (6.5) mlO2 min21 kg21. Mean (SD) glucose was 127.9 (32.4) mg/dl, with 3.3% having diabetes. Mean (SD) systolic...

  15. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Romashkin, Anna; Morrison, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions. Data were collected from 94 adolescents who play videogames and are enrolled in outpatient clinics, using surveys, wearable sleep monitors (FitBit), physical exams, and blood tests at three points in time. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses and bootstrapping-based mediation testing procedures. Videogame addiction among adolescents was negatively associated with sleep duration (β = -0.24). Sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity (β = -0.30), which in turn was associated with elevated blood pressure (β = 0.26), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = -0.18), high triglycerides (β = 0.61), and high insulin resistance (β = 0.39). The model explained 36.2% of the variation in sleep duration, 32.7% of the variation in obesity, and between 12.8% and 28.1% of the variation in cardio-metabolic indicators. Post-hoc analyses indicated that curtailed sleep is a possible full mediator of the association between videogame addiction, abdominal obesity and the associated cardio-metabolic deficits. The findings point to possible information systems use lifestyle-health links, which behooves researchers and practitioners to pay closer attention to possible adverse health outcomes of technology-related addictions. Interventions that target problematic video-gaming and sleep should be devised as a possible means for improving adolescents' long-term cardio-metabolic health.

  16. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofir Turel

    Full Text Available Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions.Data were collected from 94 adolescents who play videogames and are enrolled in outpatient clinics, using surveys, wearable sleep monitors (FitBit, physical exams, and blood tests at three points in time. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM analyses and bootstrapping-based mediation testing procedures.Videogame addiction among adolescents was negatively associated with sleep duration (β = -0.24. Sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity (β = -0.30, which in turn was associated with elevated blood pressure (β = 0.26, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = -0.18, high triglycerides (β = 0.61, and high insulin resistance (β = 0.39. The model explained 36.2% of the variation in sleep duration, 32.7% of the variation in obesity, and between 12.8% and 28.1% of the variation in cardio-metabolic indicators. Post-hoc analyses indicated that curtailed sleep is a possible full mediator of the association between videogame addiction, abdominal obesity and the associated cardio-metabolic deficits.The findings point to possible information systems use lifestyle-health links, which behooves researchers and practitioners to pay closer attention to possible adverse health outcomes of technology-related addictions. Interventions that target problematic video-gaming and sleep should be devised as a possible means for improving adolescents' long-term cardio-metabolic health.

  17. Cardio-metabolic and immunological impacts of extra virgin olive oil consumption in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozati, Mitra; Barnett, Junaidah; Wu, Dayong; Handelman, Garry; Saltzman, Edward; Wilson, Thomas; Li, Lijun; Wang, Junpeng; Marcos, Ascensión; Ordovás, José M; Lee, Yu-Chi; Meydani, Mohsen; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2015-01-01

    Both aging and obesity are related to dysregulated immune function, which may be responsible for increased risk of infection and also chronic non-infectious diseases. Dietary lipids have been shown to impact immune and inflammatory responses and cardio-metabolic risk factors. No information on the impact of olive oil on immune responses of overweight and obese older adults is available. We aimed to determine the effect of replacing oils used in a typical American diet with extra virgin olive oil for 3 months on immune responses and cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese older adults. This was a randomized, single-blinded and placebo-controlled trial in 41 overweight or obese participants (aged ≥ 65) who consumed a typical American diet. Participants in the control (CON, n = 21) group were provided with a mixture of corn, soybean oil and butter, and those in the olive oil (OO, n = 20) group, with extra virgin olive oil, to replace substitutable oils in their diet. At baseline and 3 months, we measured blood pressure, biochemical and immunological parameters using fasting blood, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin response. Compared to the CON group, the OO group showed decreased systolic blood pressure (P groups. Our results indicate that substitution of oils used in a typical American diet with extra virgin olive oil in overweight and obese older adults may have cardio-metabolic and immunological health benefits. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01903304.

  18. One year follow-up of the cardio-metabolic profile evolution in renal transplant patients treated with alemtuzumab, cyclosporine, and steroids in a reference hospital in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Gómez-Rueda, Narly Viviana; Serna-Higuita, Lina María; Ocampo-Kohn, Catalina; Aristizábal-Alzate, Arbey; Abadía-Guzmán, Harry; Yepes-Delgado, Carlos Enrique; Zuluaga-Valencia, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular events occur 50 times more often in kidney transplant patients than in the general population and are the leading cause of death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of cardio-metabolic profile and determine the incidence of major cardiovascular events in the first year after transplantation. Methods: This prospective study evaluated the behavior of cardio-metabolic profile in adult patients that were transplanted during 2011. Results: The median age...

  19. [Weak evidence concerning sedentary lifestyle and its association with cardio-metabolic illness among young people. "Junk food" and late evenings in front of the screen part of a complex connection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Raustorp, Anders

    2015-06-16

    During recent decades there has been a rapidly growing interest in youths' sedentary behaviour and its association with cardio-metabolic health. Currently there is little-to-no evidence for a cross-sectional and longitudinal association between volume and pattern (bouts and breaks) of objectively measured sedentary behavior and body weight in youth. Likewise, there is little-to-no evidence for a cross-sectional association between volume and pattern of objectively measured sedentary behavior and other markers for cardio-metabolic risk in youth. However, there is sufficient evidence for a cross-sectional and longitudinal association between screen-time and body weight and blood pressure and blood lipids. Furthermore, there is evidence for a cross-sectional association between youths' screen-time and clustered metabolic risk and insulin resistance. Overall, the level of evidence was low and, therefore, caution is required when interpreting the results.

  20. Sedentary behaviour and clustered metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-López, J P; Bel-Serrat, S; Santaliestra-Pasías, A; de Moraes, A C; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Ruiz, J R; Artero, E G; Martínez-Gómez, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; Polito, A; Molnar, D; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A

    2013-10-01

    Although sedentary behaviours are linked with mortality for cardiovascular reasons, it is not clear whether they are negatively related with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim was to examine the association between time engaged in television (TV) viewing or playing with videogames and a clustered cardio-metabolic risk in adolescents. Sedentary behaviours and physical activity were assessed in 769 adolescents (376 boys, aged 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA-CSS study. We measured systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO₂max and the sum of four skinfolds, and a clustered metabolic risk index was computed. A multilevel regression model (by Poisson) was performed to calculate the prevalence ratio of having a clustered metabolic risk. In boys, playing >4 h/day with videogames (weekend) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with cardio-metabolic risk after adjustment for age, maternal education and MVPA. In contrast, TV viewing was not associated with the presence of cardio-metabolic risk. In boys, playing with videogames may impair cardio-metabolic health during the adolescence. Adolescents should be encouraged to increase their participation in physical activity of at least moderate intensity to obtain a more favourable risk factor profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Alison M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153 with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT or control (CON. Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1 dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2 behavioural self-management tools, 3 food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4 exercise sessions, and 5 peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall and exercise participation (66% overall was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders

  2. Normobaric hypoxic conditioning to maximize weight loss and ameliorate cardio-metabolic health in obese populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, L; Hunter, S; Gaoua, N; Girard, O

    2017-09-01

    Normobaric hypoxic conditioning (HC) is defined as exposure to systemic and/or local hypoxia at rest (passive) or combined with exercise training (active). HC has been previously used by healthy and athletic populations to enhance their physical capacity and improve performance in the lead up to competition. Recently, HC has also been applied acutely (single exposure) and chronically (repeated exposure over several weeks) to overweight and obese populations with the intention of managing and potentially increasing cardio-metabolic health and weight loss. At present, it is unclear what the cardio-metabolic health and weight loss responses of obese populations are in response to passive and active HC. Exploration of potential benefits of exposure to both passive and active HC may provide pivotal findings for improving health and well being in these individuals. A systematic literature search for articles published between 2000 and 2017 was carried out. Studies investigating the effects of normobaric HC as a novel therapeutic approach to elicit improvements in the cardio-metabolic health and weight loss of obese populations were included. Studies investigated passive ( n = 7; 5 animals, 2 humans), active ( n = 4; all humans) and a combination of passive and active ( n = 4; 3 animals, 1 human) HC to an inspired oxygen fraction ([Formula: see text]) between 4.8 and 15.0%, ranging between a single session and daily sessions per week, lasting from 5 days up to 8 mo. Passive HC led to reduced insulin concentrations (-37 to -22%) in obese animals and increased energy expenditure (+12 to +16%) in obese humans, whereas active HC lead to reductions in body weight (-4 to -2%) in obese animals and humans, and blood pressure (-8 to -3%) in obese humans compared with a matched workload in normoxic conditions. Inconclusive findings, however, exist in determining the impact of acute and chronic HC on markers such as triglycerides, cholesterol levels, and fitness capacity

  3. Blood pressure-independent effect of candesartan on cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Bokuda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kanako Bokuda1, Atsuhiro Ichihara1,2, Mariyo Sakoda1, Asako Mito1, Kenichiro Kinouchi1, Hiroshi Itoh11Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Anti-Aging Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are known to reduce the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of an ARB candesartan on subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in comparison with calcium channel blockers (CCBs alone in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 53 consecutive hypertensive patients with MetS were randomly assigned to the candesartan group, in which candesartan was added on, or the CCBs group, in which CCBs were added on. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before and after the 12-month treatment period. The primary measure of efficacy was the %change in CAVI. When treated with candesartan, but not CCBs, CAVI significantly decreased from 8.7 to 7.7 by 11%. Blood pressure (BP significantly decreased with both treatments, but the differences between groups were not significant. The changes in other parameters remained unchanged in both the groups. Analysis of covariance found that both the BP reduction and the therapy difference contributed to the decrease in CAVI, but the BP reduction was not involved in the decrease in CAVI caused by the difference in the therapy. Candesartan may be a better antihypertensive drug than CCBs to that subclinical atherosclerosis of patients with MetS.Keywords: albuminuria, ambulatory blood pressure, calcium channel blockers, carotid ­intima-media thickness

  4. How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program. Design: Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001 and after (2007 a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA and reference area (RA by gender and living area. Setting: The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA. Participants: Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase. Interventions: Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress. Main Outcomes: Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study. Results: In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05. In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01. In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001 and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01, while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01. Conclusions: This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.

  5. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botez C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of dental diseases, acceleration of atherosclerosis is supported by the role played by infections. The study – performed between 2008-2009 – analyzed 45 cases, selected from the patients hospitalized in the Medical Clinics of the Military Hospital of Ia[i. The patients included in the study suffered from arterial hypertension (HTA, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic cardiopathy, pectoral angina and subacute infectious endocarditis. All were subjected to a stomatological examination, for establishing their dental hygiene, the stomatological diseases they had had and the treatments performed. There are several ways in which infections of the oral cavity lead to cardiovascular disease. These include: transitory bacteriemia; inflammation and vascular lesions; diet and smoking.

  6. Obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity once thought the medical problem of affluent countries now exist in Nigeria and has been described as a time bomb for the future explosion in the frequency of cardio-metabolic diseases. The most deleterious health consequences of obesity are on the cardiovascular system and associated disorder of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Aim: This study was designed to determine the magnitude of obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital South-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on 2391 adult Nigerians who were assessed for obesity using body mass index (BMI criterion. 206 patients who had BMI ΃30kg/m 2 were screened for cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. The data collected included basic demographic variables, weight, height, blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 8.6%. Grade I obesity (67.5% was the most common pattern; others included grade II obesity (23.3% and grade III obesity (9.2%. Hypertension (42.7% was the most common cardio-metabolic morbidity. Others included low HDL-cholesterol (22.8%, diabetes mellitus (15.1%, high triglyceride (12.6%, high total cholesterol (9.2%, and high LDL-cholesterol (6.8%. Conclusion: Obesity and its cardio-metabolic morbidities exist among the study population. Anthropometric determination of obesity and screening for its associated cardio-metabolic co-morbidities should constitute clinical targets for intervention in primary care clinics.

  7. Effects of lifestyle intervention using patient-centered cognitive behavioral therapy among patients with cardio-metabolic syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mei, Songli; Yang, Rui; Chen, Ling; Gao, Hang; Li, Li

    2016-11-18

    Cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) is a highly prevalent condition. There is an urgent need to identify effective and integrated multi-disciplinary approaches that can reduce risk factors for CMS. Sixty-two patients with a history of CMS were randomized 1:1 into two groups: a standard information -only group (control), or a self-regulated lifestyle waist circumference (patient-centered cognitive behavioral therapy) intervention group. A pretest and posttest, controlled, experimental design was used. Outcomes were measured at the baseline (week 0) and at the end of intervention (week 12). Comparisons were drawn between groups and over time. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 48.6 (5.8) years ranging from 32 to 63, and 56.9% of the participants were female. Both groups showed no significant differences in Demographic variables and the metabolic syndrome indicators at baseline. While the control group only showed modest improvement after 12 weeks, compared to baseline, the intervention group demonstrated significant improvement from baseline. This study controlled for patients' demographics and baseline characteristics when assessing the effects of intervention. After adjusting for age, education and baseline level, the experimental group and the control group were statistically significant different in the following post-treatment outcomes: WC (F = 35.96, P cognitive behavioral therapy can improve the physical and mental health conditions among individuals reporting a history of cardio-metabolic syndrome, and possibly provided preliminary benefits for the treatment of CMS. Chinese Clinical Trial Register #, ChiCTR15006148 .

  8. Dose-dependent effects of fish oil on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Hu, Manjiang; Li, Cheng; Yang, Bo; Ding, Qing; Wang, Chunhong; Mao, Limei

    2018-06-20

    n-3PUFA consumption has been widely accepted as a nutritional strategy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the dose-response relationship between dietary n-3PUFA and serum biomarkers associated with cardiovascular health in the general population. The present study involved a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of fish oil with different doses (0.31, 0.62 and 1.24 g d-1 of EPA and DHA) on serum fatty acids and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, inflammatory markers, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people. 240 volunteers met our inclusion criteria. A total of 39 subjects dropped out and 201 finally completed the intervention. No significant differences in baseline characteristics and daily intakes of dietary nutrients were detected among all groups. After a 12-week intervention, fish oil dose-dependently enhanced serum EPA, DHA, n-3PUFA and adiponectin (except for 0.31 g d-1), but decreased serum n-6/n-3PUFA, TG and fasting glucose. Changes in the above indicators from the baseline to week 12 in fish oil groups significantly differed from those in the control. Meanwhile, all the doses of EPA and DHA led to decreases in serum CRP; only 1.24 g d-1 led to an increase in HDL-C with a concurrent decrease in TC/HDL-C even though these changes were not significantly different among all groups. All the findings suggested that fish oil dose-dependently regulated serum PUFA and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, CRP, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people who consumed insufficient dietary n-3PUFA, and the most desirable changes were observed for 1.24 g d-1.

  9. Combined Angiotensin Receptor Modulation in the Management of Cardio-Metabolic Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulis, Ludovit; Foulquier, Sébastien; Namsolleck, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia or obesity are linked with chronic low-grade inflammation and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Consequently, RAS inhibition by ACE inhibitors or angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1R...... blockade abolishes the AT1R-linked RAS almost completely with subsequent risk of hypotension and hypotension-related events, i.e. syncope or renal dysfunction. Such complications might be especially prominent in patients with renal impairment or patients with isolated systolic hypertension and normal...

  10. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Takeshi; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saito, Miyoko; Tamasawa, Atsuko; Nakayama, Shiho; Someya, Yuki; Ishida, Hidenori; Gosho, Masahiko; Kanazawa, Akio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters. The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses. Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern) had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern) had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern) had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP. The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients. UMIN000010932.

  11. Changes in Regional Adiposity and Cardio-Metabolic Function Following a Weight Loss Program with Sibutramine in Obese Men with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig L.; Yee, Brendon J.; Trenell, Mike I.; Magnussen, John S.; Wang, David; Banerjee, Dev; Berend, Norbert; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly linked with obesity, both conditions have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension independent of one another. Weight loss is known to improve both cardiovascular risk and OSA severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular and metabolic changes, including compartment-specific fat loss in obese OSA subjects undergoing a weight loss program. Design: Observational study. Participants: 93 men with moderate-severe OSA. Interventions: 6-month open-label weight loss trial combining sibutramine (a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) with a 600-kcal deficit diet and exercise. Measurements and Results: At baseline and following 6 months of weight loss, OSA was assessed together with CT-quantified intra-abdominal and liver fat and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular function. At 6 months, weight loss and improvements in OSA were accompanied by improved insulin resistance (HOMA), increased HDL cholesterol, and reduced total cholesterol/HDL ratio. There were also reductions in measures of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat. Reductions in liver fat and sleep time spent below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation partly explained the improvement in HOMA (R2 = 0.18). In contrast, arterial stiffness (aortic augmentation index), heart rate, blood pressure, and total cholesterol did not change. Conclusions: Weight loss with sibutramine was associated with improvements in metabolic and body composition risk factors but not blood pressure or arterial stiffness. Improved insulin resistance was partly associated with reductions in liver fat and hypoxemia associated with sleep apnea. Citation: Phillips CL; Yee BJ; Trenell MI; Magnussen JS; Wang D; Banerjee D; Berend N; Grunstein RR. Changes in regional adiposity and cardio-metabolic function following a weight loss program with sibutramine in obese men with

  12. Can chocolate consumption reduce cardio-cerebrovascular risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfredi, Vincenza; Salvatori, Tania; Nucci, Daniele; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo

    2018-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed to assess the relationship between chocolate intake and cardio-cerebrovascular risk in the general population. A structured search of the literature was performed in the PubMed database up to September 26, 2016, using predetermined keywords. Epidemiologic studies evaluating the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs; i.e., stroke, acute myocardial infarction [MI], heart failure, coronary heart disease) were included according to different rates of chocolate intake. The software ProMeta 3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. The systematic review identified 16 eligible studies. The majority of the studies showed a protective effect of chocolate intake compared with unexposed individuals. The overall risk ratio (effect size [ES]) of CVD for the highest versus the lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.84; P = 0.000) with a moderate heterogeneity. The risk related to subgroups of CVD and in particular, the risk for MI was further analyzed: ES = 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.94; P = 0.009) without statistical heterogeneity (I 2  = 46.56%; P = 0.13). Moreover, the analysis performed based on sex found an ES = 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.95; P = 0.003) for women, with a very low grade of heterogeneity (I 2  = 62.21%; P = 0.005). The results of the meta-analysis showed a potential protective effect of moderate consumption of chocolate on cardiovascular risk, especially for women, and against MI for both sexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A human model of inflammatory cardio-metabolic dysfunction; a double blind placebo-controlled crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Nehal N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance (IR, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis although evidence of causality is lacking in humans. We hypothesized that very low-dose experimental endotoxemia would induce adipose tissue inflammation and systemic IR during a low-grade but asymptomatic inflammatory response and thus provide an experimental model for future tests of pharmacologic and genomic modulation of cardio-metabolic traits in humans. Methods Ten healthy, human volunteers (50% male, 90% Caucasian, mean age 22.7 ± 3.8 were randomized in a double-masked, placebo-controlled, crossover study to separate 36-hour inpatient visits (placebo versus intravenous-LPS 0.6 ng/kg. We measured clinical symptoms via the McGill pain questionnaire and serial vital signs. Plasma and serum were collected for measurement of cytokines, C-reactive protein, insulin and glucose, serial whole blood & subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression were measured by real-time PCR. HOMA-IR, a well-validated measure of IR was calculated to estimate insulin resistance, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing (FSIGTT was performed to confirm an insulin resistant state. We performed ANOVA and within subject ANOVA to understand the differences in cytokines, adipose tissue inflammation and IR before and after LPS or placebo. Results There was no significant difference between placebo and LPS in clinical responses of symptom scores, body temperature or heart rate. However, low-dose endotoxemia induced a rapid and transient 25-fold induction of plasma TNF-alpha and 100-fold increase in plasma IL-6 (Figure 1B (p p p = 0.01 increased with MCP-1 (peak 10-fold, F = 5.6, p p p p  Conclusions We present a low dose human endotoxemia model of inflammation which induces adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in the absence of overt clinical response. Such a model has the potential

  14. Vitamin D and cardio-metabolic health in the elderly : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vitezova (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Chapter 1 of this thesis introduces the reader to the background of the main topic – vitamin D, its metabolism and physiological effects. Since its discovery vitamin D has been recognized as an important factor in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Recently, there

  15. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ogihara

    Full Text Available While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters.The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses.Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP.The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients.UMIN000010932.

  16. Favorable cardio-metabolic outcomes following high carbohydrate intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast: A review of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bloomer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Daniel Fast is a biblically inspired dietary program rich in carbohydrate, most closely resembling a vegan diet but with additional restrictions, including the elimination of processed foods, white flour products, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol. While no specific requirements are placed on the ingestion of specific percentages of macronutrients, the mean daily carbohydrate intake is by default approximately 60%, while protein and fat intake are 15% and 25%, respectively. Despite a relatively high carbohydrate intake, multiple favorable cardio-metabolic effects are noted when following the plan, in as few as three weeks. This includes improvements in HOMA-IR, which may be at least in part due to the lower glycemic load and high dietary fiber content of the foods consumed. Other notable changes include reductions in systemic inflammation, total and LDL-cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and body weight/body fat. Short and moderate-term compliance to the program is excellent-better than most dietary programs, perhaps due to the ad libitum nature of this plan. This paper presents an overview of the Daniel Fast, a carbohydrate-rich dietary program, including relevant findings from both human and animal investigations using this dietary model.

  17. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Serum uric acid level as a cardio-cerebrovascular event risk factor in middle-aged and non-obese Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Yi, Chen-Ju; Li, Jing; Tang, Na

    2017-04-11

    The role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases is controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid level and the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events in middle-aged and non-obese Chinese men. We included 3152 participants from the health examination center of Tongji Hospital from June 2007 to June 2010. Clinical examination and medical records were collected at the annual health examination. The hazard ratios (HRs) of uric acid for cardio-cerebrovascular events were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. Generalized additive model and threshold effect analysis were used to explore the non-linear relationship between serum uric acid level and the incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular event. The mean follow-up time was 52 months. When the participants were classified into four groups by the serum acid quarter (Q1-Q4), the HRs (95% CI) of Q2-Q4 for cardio-cerebrovascular events were 1.26 (0.83, 1.92), 1.97 (1.33, 2.91) and 2.05 (1.40, 3.01), respectively, compared with the reference (Q1). The actual incidence and conditional incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular events in the high serum acid group were higher than those in the low serum acid group, which were stratified by the turning point (sUA = 372 μmol/L). We also showed a strong prognostic accuracy of the multiple variable-based score in 3 years and 5 years, with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.790 (0.756-0.823) and 0.777 (0.749-0.804), respectively. Serum uric acid level is a strong risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular events.

  19. Processed red meat contribution to dietary patterns and the associated cardio-metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenighan, Yvonne M; Nugent, Anne P; Li, Kaifeng F; Brennan, Lorraine; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Roche, Helen M; McNulty, Breige A

    2017-08-01

    Evidence suggests that processed red meat consumption is a risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis investigates the association between dietary patterns, their processed red meat contributions, and association with blood biomarkers of CVD and T2D, in 786 Irish adults (18-90 years) using cross-sectional data from a 2011 national food consumption survey. All meat-containing foods consumed were assigned to four food groups (n 502) on the basis of whether they contained red or white meat and whether they were processed or unprocessed. The remaining foods (n 2050) were assigned to twenty-nine food groups. Two-step and k-means cluster analyses were applied to derive dietary patterns. Nutrient intakes, plasma fatty acids and biomarkers of CVD and T2D were assessed. A total of four dietary patterns were derived. In comparison with the pattern with lower contributions from processed red meat, the dietary pattern with greater processed red meat intakes presented a poorer Alternate Healthy Eating Index (21·2 (sd 7·7)), a greater proportion of smokers (29 %) and lower plasma EPA (1·34 (sd 0·72) %) and DHA (2·21 (sd 0·84) %) levels (Pprocessed red meat consumption as a risk factor for CVD and T2D may need to be re-assessed.

  20. Group studio cycling; an effective intervention to improve cardio-metabolic health in overweight physically inactive individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, SH; Pugh, JK; Hood, TM; Menon, K; King, JA; Nimmo, MA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Supervised, laboratory based studies of high intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving health markers in groups at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Studio cycling, incorporating aerobic and high intensity exercise, may offer a platform for the implementation of HIIT within the wider community. \\ud Methods: Eight, overweight, physically inactive (95%. Mean and peak intensity were equivalent to 83% and 97% of HRmax·VO2max increased from 27.1 ± 4.7 m...

  1. Effect of the pacing strategy during half-duration resistance test on the mechanic, metabolic and cardio-respiratory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in pacing rhythm are translated into functional and metabolic changes that can be significantly reflected in the final results of an athlete. Method: Ten male subjects, with moderate performance level (age: 25.2 ± 2.2 years; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 ml kg−1 min−1, performed four 5-min races with different pacing strategies: constant-pace (CP, record-pace (RP, kicker-pace (KP, incremental-pace (IP. Results: The cardio-respiratory response did not show statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the energetic efficiency among the protocols CP vs. RP, CP vs. KP and RP vs. IP. When results were analyzed by partials (1-min duration phases, significant differences were observed in the energetic efficiency during the 3rd-min among CP vs. KP, RP vs. KP and KP vs. IP. These significant differences were extended to the 4th-min when comparing CP vs. IP, CP vs. KP, KP vs. RP and KP vs. IP. In the last minute of the test, there were significant differences among CP vs. KP. No significant differences were found in any of the variables assessing anaerobic metabolism (accumulated oxygen deficit, oxygen debt, oxygen uptake kinetics and blood lactate between both protocols. Conclusions: Results suggest that the main functional systems response are significantly affected by the pacing strategy used by middle-level subjects during middle-distance running. Resumen: Objetivo: Los cambios en el ritmo de carrera se traducen en cambios funcionales y metabólicos que pueden reflejarse significativamente en los resultados finales de un atleta. Método: Diez sujetos varones, con un nivel medio (edad: 25.2 ± 2.2 años; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 mlkg−1min−1, llevaron a cabo carreras de 5 minutos con diferentes estrategias: ritmo constante (RC, ritmo récord (RR, ritmo kicker (RK y ritmo incremental (RI. Resultados: La respuesta

  2. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on cardio-renal protection in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The specific sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease because of urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole-body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have profound hemodynamic effects including diuresis, dehydration, weight loss and lowering blood pressure. The most recent findings on SGLT2 inhibitors come from results of the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes trial. SGLT2 inhibitors exert extremely unique and cardio-renal protection through metabolic and hemodynamic effects, with long-term durability on the reduction of blood glucose, bodyweight and blood pressure. Although a site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is highly specific to inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, whole-body energy metabolism, and hemodynamic and renal functions are profoundly modulated during the treatment of SGLT2 inhibitors. Previous studies suggest multifactorial clinical benefits and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors. Although ambivalent clinical results of this drug are still under active discussion, the present review summarizes promising recent evidence on the cardio-renal and metabolic benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  5. Current imaging methods for evaluation of metabolic risk in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Lateva, M.; Popova, R.; Teneva, Ts.; Iotova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The incidence of cardio - metabolic diseases increase in an increasingly early age is one of the challenges of the 21st century. This phenomenon is attributed largely of the obesity epidemic, it is particularly significant when the obesity occurs in childhood - obese children have a greater probability of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes earlier. What you will learn: The significance of the obesity epidemic in childhood and metabolic risk increase; The compartment of adipose tissue and their role in maintaining metabolic balance and its breach; The importance of imaging methods in recent studies related to obesity and cardio - metabolic diseases in children; New imaging methods for proofing of pathological fat accumulation in other tissues and organs and their role in the study of metabolic disorders. Discussion: Various studies of pathology at obesity prove that obesity indicators are not sufficient for individualized assessment of cardio - metabolic risk. Only by imaging methods, information about the accumulated fat in metabolically more active visceral and ectopic adipose tissue depots has been obtained. The most common imaging techniques for analysis of body composition and adiposity in children - dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasound , computed tomography ( CT) scan , magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) will be presented. Conclusion: The imaging methods are widely used in the obesity and metabolic risk studies, as the trend is to be applied increasingly into practice. The results from Imaging studies affect not only to therapeutic approach, but also to the motivation of parents and patients to comply prescribed measures

  6. Validation of visualized transgenic zebrafish as a high throughput model to assay bradycardia related cardio toxicity risk candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dingsheng; Liu, Aiming; Chen, Feng; Yang, Julin; Dai, Renke

    2012-10-01

    Drug-induced QT prolongation usually leads to torsade de pointes (TdP), thus for drugs in the early phase of development this risk should be evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrated a visualized transgenic zebrafish as an in vivo high-throughput model to assay the risk of drug-induced QT prolongation. Zebrafish larvae 48 h post-fertilization expressing green fluorescent protein in myocardium were incubated with compounds reported to induce QT prolongation or block the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K⁺ current. The compounds sotalol, indapaminde, erythromycin, ofoxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and roxithromycin were additionally administrated by microinjection into the larvae yolk sac. The ventricle heart rate was recorded using the automatic monitoring system after incubation or microinjection. As a result, 14 out of 16 compounds inducing dog QT prolongation caused bradycardia in zebrafish. A similar result was observed with 21 out of 26 compounds which block hERG current. Among the 30 compounds which induced human QT prolongation, 25 caused bradycardia in this model. Thus, the risk of compounds causing bradycardia in this transgenic zebrafish correlated with that causing QT prolongation and hERG K⁺ current blockage in established models. The tendency that high logP values lead to high risk of QT prolongation in this model was indicated, and non-sensitivity of this model to antibacterial agents was revealed. These data suggest application of this transgenic zebrafish as a high-throughput model to screen QT prolongation-related cardio toxicity of the drug candidates. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. East-West gradient in cardio-vascular mortality in Austria: how much can we explain by following the pattern of risk factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Katharina V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various studies show major regional differences in the prevalence of cardio-vascular disease morbidity and mortality, both in Europe and within European countries. In Austria, these differences are documented by an East-West gradient with declining morbidity and mortality rates when moving from the East to the West of the country. It was the aim of this study to analyse if, and to what extent, socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants, social resources and health behaviour can contribute to the clarification of this East-West gradient by conducting secondary analyses of an existing Austrian health dataset. Results The data were analysed using bivariate analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. These analyses revealed significant East-West gradients for various risk factors, as well as socio-demographic and socio-economic health determinants. There was a gradual decrease of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and psycho-social discomfort in both sexes, with the highest prevalences in those Austrian regions with the highest cardio-vascular mortality and a stepwise decrease to the regions with the lowest cardio-vascular mortality. Controlling for educational level significantly raised the odds for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. In the results of the multivariate analyses, factors that significantly and independently predicted diabetes mellitus were geographic location, psycho-social discomfort, lack of physical exercise, and age in both sexes. For women these factors additionally included a low educational level, lack of social support, and being born abroad. Conclusions Our study shows a clear gradual decline of cardio-vascular mortality and some of its risk factors from East to West in Austria. Concerning these risk factors, the geographic region and psycho-social discomfort showed the greatest association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity. Hence, they

  8. East-West gradient in cardio-vascular mortality in Austria: how much can we explain by following the pattern of risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Katharina V; Rieder, Anita; Dorner, Thomas E

    2011-11-14

    Various studies show major regional differences in the prevalence of cardio-vascular disease morbidity and mortality, both in Europe and within European countries. In Austria, these differences are documented by an East-West gradient with declining morbidity and mortality rates when moving from the East to the West of the country. It was the aim of this study to analyse if, and to what extent, socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants, social resources and health behaviour can contribute to the clarification of this East-West gradient by conducting secondary analyses of an existing Austrian health dataset. The data were analysed using bivariate analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. These analyses revealed significant East-West gradients for various risk factors, as well as socio-demographic and socio-economic health determinants. There was a gradual decrease of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and psycho-social discomfort in both sexes, with the highest prevalences in those Austrian regions with the highest cardio-vascular mortality and a stepwise decrease to the regions with the lowest cardio-vascular mortality. Controlling for educational level significantly raised the odds for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. In the results of the multivariate analyses, factors that significantly and independently predicted diabetes mellitus were geographic location, psycho-social discomfort, lack of physical exercise, and age in both sexes. For women these factors additionally included a low educational level, lack of social support, and being born abroad. Our study shows a clear gradual decline of cardio-vascular mortality and some of its risk factors from East to West in Austria. Concerning these risk factors, the geographic region and psycho-social discomfort showed the greatest association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity. Hence, they contribute to the explanation of the variance in spatial cardio

  9. Association of Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyles With the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in a General Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Martí-Lluch, Ruth; García-Gil, María Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2018-06-01

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) assesses arterial stiffness. We aimed to describe the distribution of CAVI in a Mediterranean population, to determine the proportion of CAVI ≥ 9 by sex and coronary risk level, and to assess the association of CAVI with classic cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle patterns. This cross-sectional study was based on the population of Girona province. The CAVI was measured using the VaSera VS-1500. Of 2613 individuals included in this study, the prevalence of CAVI ≥ 9 was 46.8% in men and 36.0% in women and significantly increased with coronary risk: from 21.1% and 24.8%, respectively to 76.7%, in the low-risk group, and 61.9% in the high-risk group. The CAVI increased with age in both sexes, being higher in men across all age groups. In men, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.90-3.87) and diabetes (OR, 2.38; 95%CI, 1.52-3.78), body mass index (BMI) ≤ 25 to < 30 (OR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.27-0.72) and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.14-0.58), and physical activity (OR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.47-0.92). In women, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.22; 95%CI, 1.59-3.09), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.40; 95%CI, 1.01-1.94), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.38; 95%CI, 0.20-0.71). The CAVI increases with age and is higher in men than in women. This index is associated with classic risk factors and coronary risk. It could be a good predictive biomarker, but further follow-up studies are required to assess its added value to cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Computerised cardio- tocography in a high-risk unit in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the role of computer-assisted cardiotocography in an obstetric special care unit and its ... standard and computer-assisted cardiotocographs. Main outcome measures. The influence of method of ... obstetric high-risk unit. Among the major reported advantages of this system, the Sonicaid System 8000, are.

  11. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Center and Clinical Center of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAbstract: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is an important mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons and is a major contributor to hypertension-related target organ damage. The concept of renin inhibition for managing hypertension by blocking the RAAS pathway at its point of activation is very attractive since the renin-angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II. Aliskiren, the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs, is approved for the treatment of hypertension. It is effective in reducing BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and in special patient groups such as obese persons, and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has renoprotective, cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects in animal models that appear to be independent of BP lowering. It reduces proteinuria in diabetic patients and has favorable neurohumoral effects in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in the therapeutic armamentarium.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  12. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Centre and Clinical Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Greenslopes Princess Alexandra Hospitals, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a key mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons. Stimulation of RAAS also contributes to hypertension-related target organ damage. The renin–angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II and has been a target of antihypertensive drug development for decades. Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs and is approved for the treatment of hypertension in humans. It effectively reduces BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has favorable effects on vascular inflammation and remodeling, on neurohumoral mediators of various forms of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, and on proteinuria in diabetic patients. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  13. The effect of screening for cardio-renal risk factors on drug use in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, J.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Visser, S.T.; De Jong, P.E.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    2007-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effect of a cardio-renal screening programme on desired and undue drug use. Methods Data from the PREVEND cohort (Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease) were used. The drug use of screened (randomly) selected subjects (n = 2650) was compared with unscreened

  14. Prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total risk estimations - challenges and opportunities for practical implementation: highlights of a CardioVascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Workshop of the ESC Working Group on CardioVascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2011-11-03

    This paper presents a summary of the potential practical and economic barriers to implementation of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total cardiovascular risk estimations in the general population. It also reviews various possible solutions to overcome these barriers. The report is based on discussion among experts in the area at a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy that took place in September 2009. It includes a review of the evidence in favour of the \\'treat-to-target\\' paradigm, as well as potential difficulties with this approach, including the multiple pathological processes present in high-risk patients that may not be adequately addressed by this strategy. The risk-guided therapy approach requires careful definitions of cardiovascular risk and consideration of clinical endpoints as well as the differences between trial and \\'real-world\\' populations. Cost-effectiveness presents another issue in scenarios of finite healthcare resources, as does the difficulty of documenting guideline uptake and effectiveness in the primary care setting, where early modification of risk factors may be more beneficial than later attempts to manage established disease. The key to guideline implementation is to improve the quality of risk assessment and demonstrate the association between risk factors, intervention, and reduced event rates. In the future, this may be made possible by means of automated data entry and various other measures. In conclusion, opportunities exist to increase guideline implementation in the primary care setting, with potential benefits for both the general population and healthcare resources.

  15. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-Express and CARDIoGRAM studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events.We conducted a case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg studies. Baseline RANTES serum levels were measured in 363 individuals with incident coronary events and 1,908 non-cases (mean follow-up: 10.2±4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, metabolic factors and lifestyle factors revealed no significant association between RANTES and incident coronary events (HR [95% CI] for increasing RANTES tertiles 1.0, 1.03 [0.75-1.42] and 1.11 [0.81-1.54]. None of six CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and no common haplotype showed significant associations with coronary events. Also in the CARDIoGRAM study (>22,000 cases, >60,000 controls, none of these CCL5 SNPs was significantly associated with coronary artery disease. In the prospective Athero-Express biobank study, RANTES plaque levels were measured in 606 atherosclerotic lesions from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. RANTES content in atherosclerotic plaques was positively associated with macrophage infiltration and inversely associated with plaque calcification. However, there was no significant association between RANTES content in plaques and risk for coronary events (mean follow-up 2.8±0.8 years.High RANTES plaque levels were associated with an unstable plaque phenotype. However, the absence of associations between (i RANTES serum levels, (ii CCL5 genotypes and (iii RANTES content in carotid plaques and either coronary artery disease or incident coronary events in our cohorts suggests that RANTES may not be a

  16. Classification and Risk-factor Analysis of Postoperative Cardio-pulmonary 
Complications after Lobectomy in Patients with Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian LAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective There are incresing lung cancer patients detected and diagnosed at the intermediate stage when the pre-malignant or early lesions are amenable to resection and cure, owing to the progress of medical technology, the renewal of detection methods, the popularity of medical screening and the improvement of social health consciousness. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors of the occurrence of postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, based on routine laboratory tests, basic characteristics, and intraoperative variables in hospital. Methods The 421 patients after lobectomy in patients with stage I NSCLC at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2012 to December 2013 were included into the study and stratified into complication group and non-complication group, according to whether to occur postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications after lobectomy in 30 days. Results Of them, 64 (15.2% patients were finally identified and selected into the complication group, compared with 357 (84.8% in non-complication group: pneumonia (8.8%, 37/421 was the primary complication, and other main complications included atelectasis (5.9%, 25/421, pleural effusion (≥middle (5.0%, 21/421, persistent air leak (3.6%, 15/421; The operation time (P=0.007, amount of blood loss (P=0.034, preoperative chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (P=0.027, white blood cell (WBC count (P<0.001, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR (P<0.001 were significantly different between the two groups. According to the binary logistics regression analysis, preoperative COPD (OR=0.031, 95%CI: 0.012-0.078, P<0.001 and WBC count (OR=1.451, 95%CI: 1.212-1.736, P<0.001 were independent risk factors for postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications. Conclusion Among an array of clinical variables in hospital, operation time, preoperative white blood cell count, preoperative COPD

  17. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  18. Cardio-metabolic risk in children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Dertig procent van zwangere vrouwen ervaart symptomen van angst en depressie. Zulke ‘reguliere’ psychosociale stress is geassocieerd met een kortere zwangerschapsduur en een lager geboortegewicht, maar de associaties zijn zwak. Er is geen bewijs gevonden voor de hypothese dat kinderen die worden

  19. Role of Gut Microbiota on Cardio-Metabolic Parameters and Immunity in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with and without Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Castellano-Castillo, Daniel; Jordán-Martínez, Laura; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Cardila-Cruz, Pilar; Elena, Daniel; Muñoz-Garcia, Antonio J.; Jimenez-Navarro, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role. However, the aim of this study was to analyze the role of gut microbiota on cardio-metabolic parameters and immunity in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The study included 16 coronary CAD-DM2 patients, and 16 age, sex, and BMI matched CAD patients without DM2 (CAD-NDM2). Fecal bacterial DNA was extracted and analyzed by sequencing in a GS Junior 454 platform followed by a bioinformatic analysis (QIIME and PICRUSt). The present study indicated that the diversity and composition of gut microbiota were different between the CAD-DM2 and CAD-NDM2 patients. The abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes was lower, whereas the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were higher in CAD-DM2 patients than those in the CAD-NDM2 group. CAD-DM2 patients had significantly less beneficial or commensal bacteria (such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bacteroides fragilis) and more opportunistic pathogens (such as Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, and Desulfovibrio). Additionally, CAD-DM2 patients had significantly higher levels of plasma zonulin, TMAO, and IL-1B and significantly lower levels of IL-10 and FOXP3 mRNA expression than CAD-NDM2. Moreover, in the CAD-MD2 group, the increase in Enterobacteriaceae and the decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly associated with the increase in serum TMAO levels, while the decrease in the abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was associated with the reduction in the FOXP3 m

  20. Role of Gut Microbiota on Cardio-Metabolic Parameters and Immunity in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with and without Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3 play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role. However, the aim of this study was to analyze the role of gut microbiota on cardio-metabolic parameters and immunity in coronary artery disease (CAD patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2. The study included 16 coronary CAD-DM2 patients, and 16 age, sex, and BMI matched CAD patients without DM2 (CAD-NDM2. Fecal bacterial DNA was extracted and analyzed by sequencing in a GS Junior 454 platform followed by a bioinformatic analysis (QIIME and PICRUSt. The present study indicated that the diversity and composition of gut microbiota were different between the CAD-DM2 and CAD-NDM2 patients. The abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes was lower, whereas the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were higher in CAD-DM2 patients than those in the CAD-NDM2 group. CAD-DM2 patients had significantly less beneficial or commensal bacteria (such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bacteroides fragilis and more opportunistic pathogens (such as Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, and Desulfovibrio. Additionally, CAD-DM2 patients had significantly higher levels of plasma zonulin, TMAO, and IL-1B and significantly lower levels of IL-10 and FOXP3 mRNA expression than CAD-NDM2. Moreover, in the CAD-MD2 group, the increase in Enterobacteriaceae and the decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly associated with the increase in serum TMAO levels, while the decrease in the abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was associated with the reduction in

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  2. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor

  3. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Hunain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality and morbidity due cardiovascular diseases in India is on the rise. Metabolic Syndrome which is a collection of risk factors of metabolic origin, can greatly contribute to its rising burden. Aims & Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular risk among adults. Material & Methods: This hospital-based study included 260 adults aged 20-60 years. Metabolic Syndrome was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program –Adult Treatment Panel -3 criteria. The 10 year cardiovascular risk was estimated using Framingham risk scoring. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study participants was 38.8%. Age (41-60yrs, male gender and daily consumption of high salt items were positively associated with metabolic syndrome whereas consumption of occasional high sugar items showed an inverse association with metabolic syndrome. According to Framingham Risk Scoring, 14.3% of the participants belonged to intermediate/high risk category. Conclusion: With a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and a considerable proportion of individuals with intermediate to high 10 yr CVD risk, there is a need to design strategies to prevent future cardiovascular events.

  4. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  5. Dietary Interventions and Changes in Cardio-Metabolic Parameters in Metabolically Healthy Obese Subjects: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of diet on changes in parameters describing the body size phenotype of metabolically healthy obese subjects. The databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and Embase were searched for clinical studies carried out between 1958 and June 2016 that reported the effect of dietary intervention on BMI, blood pressure, concentration of fasting triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, fasting glucose level, the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP in metabolically healthy, obese subjects. Twelve clinical studies met inclusion criteria. The combined analyzed population consists of 1827 subjects aged 34.4 to 61.1 with a BMI > 30 kg/m2. Time of intervention ranged from eight to 104 weeks. The baseline characteristics related to lipid profile were more favorable for metabolically healthy obese than for metabolically unhealthy obese. The meta-analyses revealed a significant associations between restricted energy diet and BMI (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.88, −0.19, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −4.73 mmHg; 95% CI: −7.12, −2.33; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.75 mmHg; 95% CI: −4.30, −1.21 and TG (−0.11 mmol/l; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.06. Changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and hsCRP did not show significant changes. Sufficient evidence was not found to support the use of specific diets in metabolically healthy obese subjects. This analysis suggests that the effect of caloric restriction exerts its effects through a reduction in BMI, blood pressure and triglycerides in metabolically healthy obese (MHO patients.

  6. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël B van Schalkwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI. Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussons, Andrea J; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Watts, Gerald F

    2007-02-01

    The cardiovascular risk associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has recently attracted much interest. Women with PCOS are more likely to fulfill the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of related cardiometabolic factors known to predict long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We review the literature pertaining to the link between the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and PCOS. We focus on the influence of obesity and hyperandrogenemia, and on strategies for identifying cardiovascular risk in PCOS.

  8. Low muscle strength is associated with metabolic risk factors in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dylan Cohen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In youth, poor cardiorespiratory and muscular strength are associated with elevated metabolic risk factors. However, studies examining associations between strength and risk factors have been done exclusively in high income countries, and largely in Caucasian cohorts. The aim of this study was to assess these interactions in schoolchildren in Colombia, a middle income Latin American country. METHODS: We measured body mass index, body composition, handgrip strength (HG, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and metabolic risk factors in 669 low-middle socioeconomic status Colombian schoolchildren (mean age 11.52±1.13, 47% female. Associations between HG, CRF and metabolic risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: HG and CRF were inversely associated with blood pressure, HOMA index and a composite metabolic risk score (p = 0.001, HOMA (β = -0.164; p = 0.005, triglycerides (β = -0.583; p = 0.026 and CRP (β = -0.183; p = 0.037 but not glucose (p = 0.698 or HDL cholesterol (p = 0.132. The odds ratios for having clustered risk in the weakest quartile compared with the strongest quartile were 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.81-4.95. CONCLUSIONS: In Colombian schoolchildren both poorer handgrip strength/kg body mass and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with a worse metabolic risk profile. Associations were stronger and more consistent between handgrip and risk factors than between cardiorespiratory fitness and these risk factors. Our findings indicate the addition of handgrip dynamometry to non-invasive youth health surveillance programs would improve the accuracy of the assessment of cardio-metabolic health.

  9. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Parnell, L.D.; Werff-van der Vat, B.J.C. van der; Ommen, B. van; Greef, J. van der; Ordovás, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to

  10. Serum lipoprotein-A levels in healthy subjects indicate a lurking cerebro- and cardio-vascular risk in the younger population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Samuel Henrique Vieira; de Miranda, Marciano Robson; Santos Morais, Charles Augusto; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2013-08-01

    Lipoprotein-A (LpA) is an emerging independent risk factor for cerebro- and cardio-vascular diseases (CCVD). Recognizing its function and its normal distribution is of fundamental importance for a better understanding of CCVD patho-physiology. The present study evaluated plasma LpA levels of healthy university students using turbidimetric methods. Medians and inter-quartile differences obtained for male and female participants were 11.3mg/dL (3.1-30.7) and 20.9mg/dL (6.5-42.3), respectively, demonstrating a significant difference (P=0.017) between men and women. A third of students showed plasma concentrations above reference values. Our results indicate that 33% of students possess a hidden independent risk factor for CCVD. Multi-disciplinary evaluation and characterization of young individuals should be recommended in an attempt to take early preventive measures and to eliminate possible modifiable risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle, smoking, hypertension, obesity and atherogenic diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2017-02-21

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Snus use during the life-course and risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhamre, Marja Lisa; Gustafsson, Per E; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Wennberg, Maria; Hammarström, Anne; Wennberg, Patrik

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between life-course exposure to snus and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood. Tobacco habits at baseline (age 16) and three follow-ups (ages 21, 30 and 43) were assessed among 880 participants in a population-based cohort in Northern Sweden. Presence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 was ascertained using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Odds ratios and CIs for risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components by snus use at 16, 21, 30 and 43 years were calculated using logistic regression. Cumulative snus use was defined as number of life periods (1-4) with current snus use. At age 43, 164 participants (18.6%) were current snus users. We found no association between exclusive snus use at the ages of 16, 21, 30 and 43 years and the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years. Snus use (among non-smokers) was associated with raised triglycerides and high blood pressure in crude analysis, but not in multivariable models. There was no association between cumulative snus use and risk of the metabolic syndrome. Cumulative snus use was associated with central obesity, raised triglycerides and impaired fasting glucose/diabetes mellitus type 2 in crude analyses, but not after adjustments. The health consequences of snus exposure from adolescence to mid-adulthood do not seem to include increased risk of the metabolic syndrome or its components. The cardio-metabolic risk of dual exposure to snus and cigarettes may warrant further attention.

  13. The risk of metabolic syndrome and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Konstantinovich Kuntsevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present literature review modern epidemiological studies the role of nutrition in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed mainly work on the association of certain types of dietary intake of the population to the risk of metabolic syndrome in several Western and Asian countries. The purpose of these studies was to determine deemed "good" type and the "bad" type of food, risk assessment and exchange of metabolic disorders to determine the optimal dietary recommendations.  Application of factor and cluster analysis allowed in a number of studies to identify groups of products associated with a decrease in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to estimate the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome when compared with the "bad" diet.  A number of papers were obtained confirm the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of metabolic disorders. Commitment to the traditional Western diet is associated with deterioration in health, compared with the recommended "healthy" diet.  Data from epidemiological studies nutrition and metabolic disorders associated with a number of diseases, may be useful in determining how the recommendations on the best type of feeding the population, so to identify ways to further research.

  14. Dietary diversity score is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Jahangiry, Leila

    2018-04-17

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors and lipid abnormalities. Previous studies evaluated the dietary habits and nutrient intakes among patients with metabolic syndrome; however the association between metabolic risk factors and adiponectin with dietary diversity score (DDS) in patients with metabolic syndrome has not been evaluated yet. Therefore the aim of the current study was to evaluate these relationships among patients with metabolic syndrome. One hundred sixty patients with metabolic syndrome were recruited in the study. The anthropometric parameters including weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured. Serum adiponectin concentration was measured by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA). Lipid profile and fasting serum glucose concentrations (FSG) were also measured with enzymatic colorimetric methods. Blood pressure was also measured and DDS was calculated using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Subjects in lower DDS categorizes had significantly lower energy and fiber intake; whereas mean protein intake of subjects in the highest quartile was significantly higher than second quartile. Higher prevalence of obesity was also observed in the top quartiles (P metabolic syndrome components among patients in lower DDS quartiles was significantly higher (P metabolic syndrome. However, for further confirming the findings, more studies are warranted.

  15. Cardio-ankle vascular index is associated with cardiovascular target organ damage and vascular structure and function in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, LOD-DIABETES study: a case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Patino-Alonso, María Carmen; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; Gomez-Sanchez, Marta; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose Angel; García-Ortiz, Luís

    2015-01-16

    The cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of the overall stiffness of the artery from the origin of the aorta to the ankle. This index can estimate the risk of atherosclerosis. We aimed to find the relationship between CAVI and target organ damage (TOD), vascular structure and function, and cardiovascular risk factors in Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. We included 110 subjects from the LOD-Diabetes study, whose mean age was 61 ± 11 years, and 37.3% were women. Measurements of CAVI, brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), and ankle brachial index (ABI) were taken using the VaSera device. Cardiovascular risk factors, renal function by creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, and albumin creatinine index were also obtained, as well as cardiac TOD with ECG and vascular TOD and carotid intima media thickness (IMT), carotid femoral PWV (cf-PWV), and the central and peripheral augmentation index (CAIx and PAIx). The Framingham-D'Agostino scale was used to measure cardiovascular risk. Mean CAVI was 8.7 ± 1.3. More than half (54%) of the participants showed one or more TOD (10% cardiac, 13% renal; 48% vascular), and 13% had ba-PWV ≥ 17.5 m/s. Patients with any TOD had the highest CAVI values: 1.15 (CI 95% 0.70 to 1.61, p < 0.001) and 1.14 (CI 95% 0.68 to 1.60, p < 0.001) when vascular TOD was presented, and 1.30 (CI 95% 0.51 to 2.10, p = 0.002) for the cardiac TOD. The CAVI values had a positive correlation with HbA1c and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a negative correlation with waist circumference and body mass index. The positive correlations of CAVI with IMT (β = 0.29; p < 0.01), cf-PWV (β = 0.83; p < 0.01), ba-PWV (β = 2.12; p < 0.01), CAIx (β = 3.42; p < 0.01), and PAIx (β = 5.05; p = 0.04) remained after adjustment for cardiovascular risk, body mass index, and antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs. The

  16. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular risk factors - Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Kurajoh

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to have protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and death through neural and non-neural pathways via tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling. However, it is not known whether plasma BDNF concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD.This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study as part of the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis.We measured plasma BDNF concentration in 324 patients without CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2, and with cardiovascular risk factors. As potential confounders, sleep condition, nocturnal hypertension, and autonomic function were quantitatively examined. The patients were followed for a median 37 months (range 2-59 months and occurrence of CKD was noted.Plasma BDNF concentration was significantly and independently associated with CKD development, which occurred in 38 patients (11.7%. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with reduced plasma BDNF concentration exhibited a significantly (p = 0.029 greater number of CKD events as compared to those with a higher concentration. Moreover, comparisons of key subgroups showed that the risk of CKD in association with low plasma BDNF concentration was more prominent in patients with a greater reduction of nocturnal systolic blood pressure, better movement index, higher standard deviations of the NN(RR interval or average NN(RR interval for each 5-minute period, and without past cardiovascular disease events, smoking habit, or albuminuria.Plasma BDNF concentration is an independent predictor for development of CKD in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Homocysteine metabolism and risk of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntjewerff, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The one-carbon cycle hypothesis initiated research of schizophrenia risk in relation to sensitive markers of aberrant homocysteine metabolism, such as B-vitamin concentrations, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, and genetic determinants. We observed decreased plasma and elevated RBC

  18. European Practice Assessment of Cardiovascular risk management (EPA Cardio: protocol of an international observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lieshout Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite important improvements in available prevention and treatment, cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Not all high-risk patients and patients with CVD have healthy lifestyles and receive the best possible healthcare. Internationally comparative data are needed to compare cardiovascular risk management in different countries, and to examine the impact of improvement programs and others factors. Objectives This study aims to provide internationally comparative data on cardiovascular risk management provided in primary care and on health-related lifestyles of patients in Europe. The study will also explore the views of doctors and patients on innovative preventive services for CVDs. Design and methods An observational cross-sectional study is planned. In 10 European countries, stratified samples of 36 practices per country will be recruited. In each practice, three samples of 15 patients each will be sampled: patients with coronary heart disease, patients at high risk for CVD, and healthy adult patients. The quality of cardiovascular risk management has been specified in terms of 44 performance indicators that resulted from an international Delphi-procedure with general practitioners. Most indicators are based on medical records, and some on a structured interview with a contact person of the practice. Lifestyle (smoking, physical exercise, diet will be measured with previously validated questionnaires that are completed by patients. Additional measures include practice characteristics and exposure to programs to improve cardiovascular care.

  19. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  20. Menopause versus aging: The predictor of obesity and metabolic aberrations among menopausal women of Karnataka, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Dasgupta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Menopausal transition brings about anomalies in total body composition characterized by an increased body fat mass and central adiposity. This creates a compatible atmosphere for abnormal metabolism and aggravated cardio metabolic risk factors. Thus, menopausal status and associated obesity is the major predictor of metabolic aberrations over age in menopausal women.

  1. Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few

  2. Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; van Eijsden, M.; Stronks, K.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial

  3. Effects of preoperative carprofen on cardio-respiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response in calves during umbilical surgery under isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, I; Poos, E M; Meyer, H; List, A K; Kaestner, S B R; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperative carprofen on the cardiorespiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response during umbilical surgery under isoflurane anaesthesia combined with local anaesthesia, in calves. A randomised, blinded experimental study was conducted in 24 calves. Carprofen (n = 12; 1.4 mg/kg) or physiological saline solution (controls; n = 12) was administered 1 h prior to surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and, after the onset of sedation (i.e. after 5-8 min), ketamine was administered (2 mg/kg, IV). Anaesthesia was then maintained with isoflurane (ISO) in oxygen to effect and completed by infiltration of the incision line with 20 mL of 2% procaine. Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic parameters were examined before, during and after surgery at short intervals. In both groups, anaesthesia appeared adequate for the surgical intervention. Heart rate, stroke index and arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated after the onset of surgery. Oxygen partial pressure and oxygen delivery increased, while the oxygen extraction ratio decreased intraoperatively, ensuring sufficient oxygen supply. In the control group, the mean surge in serum cortisol concentrations tended to be higher (P = 0.089) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was significantly greater (P carprofen group during surgery. In conclusion, the anaesthetic protocol used in this study induced reliable analgesia in both groups. The lower serum cortisol levels and SVR may indicate a reduced surgical stress response in calves undergoing umbilical surgery under ISO anaesthesia after administering carprofen preoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report on the international colloquium on cardio-oncology (rome, 12-14 march 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K.; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T.; Carver, Joseph R.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D.; Darby, Sarah C.; Force, Thomas L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Lenihan, Daniel J.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Suter, Thomas M.; Swain, Sandra M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of

  5. Anti-Müllerian Hormone as a marker of ovarian reserve in relation to cardio-metabolic health : A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kat, Annelien C.; Broekmans, Frank J M; Laven, Joop S.; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2015-01-01

    The final hallmark of diminishing ovarian reserve is menopause, a state known to be inextricably linked to the deterioration of female cardiovascular health. The menopausal transition is associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, irrespective of chronological

  6. Metabolic Syndrome Risk Profiles Among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663

  7. Incidence and Major Metabolic Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involved 300 (92 males and 208 females) type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted at the Tamale Teaching/Regional Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) criteria. The incidence of the ...

  8. Plasma chemerin in young untrained men: association with cardio-metabolic traits and physical performance, and response to intensive interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-02-01

    Chemerin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokine thought to decrease insulin sensitivity and increase cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to assess the association of chemerin with cardiometabolic risk and physical performance and examine its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen young men have been applied a HIIT program during 8 weeks. Plasma chemerin together with several cardiometabolic factors and physical performance indices were determined before and after the training program. Plasma chemerin and insulin were assessed using immunoenzymatic methods. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) index was calculated as an estimate of insulin resistance. Basal plasma chemerin was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.782, pHIIT program resulted in significant improvements in body composition, plasma lipids and insulin sensitivity. However, no significant change was detected for plasma chemerin in response to HIIT (134±50.7 ng/mL vs. 137±51.9 ng/mL, p=0.750). Basal plasma chemerin is associated with cardiometabolic health and physical performance in young men. Following HIIT, cardiometabolic health and physical performance had improved, but no significant change had occurred for plasma chemerin.

  9. The Canadian HIV and aging cohort study - determinants of increased risk of cardio-vascular diseases in HIV-infected individuals: rationale and study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Madeleine; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Baril, Jean-Guy; Trottier, Sylvie; Trottier, Benoit; Harris, Marianne; Walmsley, Sharon; Conway, Brian; Wong, Alexander; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Kovacs, Colin; MacPherson, Paul A; Monteith, Kenneth Marc; Mansour, Samer; Thanassoulis, George; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Zhu, Zhitong; Tsoukas, Christos; Ancuta, Petronela; Bernard, Nicole; Tremblay, Cécile L

    2017-09-11

    With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. When characterized further using cardiovascular imaging, biomarkers, immunological and genetic profiles, CVD associated with HIV will show different characteristics compared to CVD in HIV-negative individuals. The Canadian HIV and Aging cohort is a prospective, controlled cohort study funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. It will recruit patients living with HIV who are aged 40 years or older or have lived with HIV for 15 years or more. A control population, frequency matched for age, sex, and smoking status, will be recruited from the general population. Patients will attend study visits at baseline, year 1, 2, 5 and 8. At each study visit, data on complete medical and pharmaceutical history will be captured, along with anthropometric measures, a complete physical examination, routine blood tests and electrocardiogram. Consenting participants will also contribute blood samples to a research biobank. The primary outcome is incidence of a composite of: myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, hospitalization for angina or congestive heart failure, revascularization or amputation for peripheral artery disease, or cardiovascular death. Preplanned secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality, incidence of the metabolic syndrome, incidence of type 2 diabetes, incidence of renal failure, incidence of abnormal bone mineral density and body fat distribution. Patients participating to the

  10. Gamma cardio 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.

    1982-01-01

    New trends in nuclear cardiology are briefly presented supported by a large bibliography. The following topics are reviewed: new tracers of myocardial perfusion and metabolism; quantitative analysis of cardiac function; nuclear stethoscope; gamma emission tomography; diagnostic value of cardiac dynamic tests (at rest and during exercise), pharmacological tests; new clinical applications of cardiovascular nuclear medicine [fr

  11. Is Ramadan Fasting Cardio-protective? A Study in a Village of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Dasgupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Islam is the second largest religion of the World (23% and Muslims are the second largest majority of Indian Republic (14.3%. Ramadan is the ninth and holiest month(Hijra of the 12-month Islamic calendar during which Muslims fast from dawn to dusk each day maintaining certain rules (consuming food/drink once, avoiding smoking and sexual activity, as well as impure thoughts, words and immoral behavior. It is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad. Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Ramadan on cardio-metabolic profile among adult Muslims residing in rural West Bengal. Methods and Materials: The present study was a longitudinal community based study done among 43 Muslims residing in a village of West Bengal during 6thJune to 7th July 2016. Cardio-metabolic profile (physical activity, diet, BMI, blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose were assessed before, during and after Ramadan. Results: There was a significant reduction in VLDL and TG level while significant elevation in HDL level along with the reduction in Framingham risk score after fasting. All the anthropometric measurements along with blood pressure reduced significantly after Ramadan with significant reduction in intake of all micro-nutrients during Ramadan. However physical activity also reduced significantly during Ramadan. Conclusion: Our study had found no detrimental effects of Ramadan fasting on the contrary has an overall beneficial effect on cardiovascular profile was observed.

  12. Endogenous sex steroids and cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Theodora; Alevizaki, Maria

    2012-08-01

    Cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases are two leading causes of death and long-term disability in postmenopausal women. The acute fall of estrogen in menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The relative contribution of androgen to this risk is also being recognized. The use of more sensitive assays for estradiol measurement and the study of receptor and carrier protein gene polymorphisms have provided some new information on the clinical relevance of endogenous sex steroids. We provide an update on the role of endogenous sex steroids on cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period. We performed a PubMed search using the terms 'endogenous estrogen', 'androgen', 'cardiovascular disease', 'cerebro-vascular disease', 'stroke', 'carotid artery disease', and 'subclinical atherosclerosis'. The majority of studies show a beneficial effect of endogenous estrogen on the vasculature; however, there are a few studies reporting the contrary. A significant body of literature has reported associations of endogenous estrogen and androgen with early markers of atherosclerosis and metabolic parameters. Data on the relevance of endogenous sex steroids in heart disease and stroke are inconclusive. Most studies support a beneficial role of endogenous estrogens and, probably, an adverse effect of androgens in the vasculature in postmenopausal women. However, the described associations may not always be considered as causal. It is possible that circulating estrogen might represent a marker of general health status or alternatively reflect the sum of endogenous androgens aromatized in the periphery. Elucidating the role of sex steroids in cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease remains an interesting field of future research.

  13. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of mortality: does the definition of metabolic health matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnouho, Guy-Marino; Czernichow, Sébastien; Dugravot, Aline; Batty, G David; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2013-08-01

    To assess the association of a "metabolically healthy obese" phenotype with mortality using five definitions of metabolic health. Adults (n = 5,269; 71.7% men) aged 39-62 years in 1991 through 1993 provided data on BMI and metabolic health, defined using data from the Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III); criteria from two studies; and the Matsuda and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indices. Cross-classification of BMI categories and metabolic status (healthy/unhealthy) created six groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze associations with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality during a median follow-up of 17.7 years. A total of 638 individuals (12.1% of the cohort) were obese, of whom 9-41% were metabolically healthy, depending on the definition. Regardless of the definition, compared with metabolically healthy, normal-weight individuals, both the metabolically healthy obese (hazard ratios [HRs] ranged from 1.81 [95% CI 1.16-2.84] for ATP-III to 2.30 [1.13-4.70] for the Matsuda index) and the metabolically abnormal obese (HRs ranged from 1.57 [1.08-2.28] for the Matsuda index to 2.05 [1.44-2.92] for criteria defined in a separate study) had an increased risk of mortality. The only exception was the lack of excess risk using the HOMA criterion for the metabolically healthy obese (1.08; 0.67-1.74). Among the obese, the risk of mortality did not vary as a function of metabolic health apart from when using the HOMA criterion (1.93; 1.15-3.22). Similar results were obtained for cardiovascular mortality. For most definitions of metabolic health, both metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese patients carry an elevated risk of mortality.

  14. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, CHD risk, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Cinzia; Gallagher, John

    2006-01-01

    An increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a condition characterized by the concomitant presence of several abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (with or without glucose intolerance or diabetes), microalbuminuria, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory states. Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome indicate that this condition is now common and likely to increase dramatically over the coming decades, in parallel with greater rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are already present in obese children and adolescents. Thus, identifying and treating all affected individuals promptly and optimally are critical to ensure that this potentially challenging healthcare burden is minimized. Here, we review the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemias, and CHD risk. Although changes in lifestyle are fundamental to reducing many of the CHD risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, pharmacologic interventions also play an important role. Retrospective subanalyses of the effects of statins on coronary event rates and lipid levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome included in clinical trials indicate that these agents are beneficial in correcting the extensive lipid abnormalities that are frequently present in these individuals. However, the optimal management of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia will depend on the outcomes of future prospective clinical trials. This review examines the underlying causes and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its impact on CHD morbidity and mortality and discusses the role of statins in optimizing its management.

  15. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoefner, Line Buch; Rostved, Andreas Arendtsen; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2018-01-01

    syndrome after liver transplantation. METHODS: The databases Medline and Scopus were searched for observational studies evaluating prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. Meta-analyses were performed based on odds ratios (ORs) from multivariable analyses...

  16. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for hypertension after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J.J.; Sep, S.J.; van Balen, V.L.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolic and obstetric risk factors associated with hypertension after preeclampsia. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and clinical data from a postpartum screening (blood pressure, microalbuminuria and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) from 683

  17. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. © Springer Basel AG 2011

  18. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seulki; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women.

  19. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk

  1. ALGORITHM OF CARDIO COMPLEX DETECTION AND SORTING FOR PROCESSING THE DATA OF CONTINUOUS CARDIO SIGNAL MONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasichkov, A S; Grigoriev, E B; Nifontov, E M; Shapovalov, V V

    The paper presents an algorithm of cardio complex classification as part of processing the data of continuous cardiac monitoring. R-wave detection concurrently with cardio complex sorting is discussed. The core of this approach is the use of prior information about. cardio complex forms, segmental structure, and degree of kindness. Results of the sorting algorithm testing are provided.

  2. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  3. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans.We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively.We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that this sensitivity in human risk-preference to current metabolic state has

  4. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mkael Symmonds; Julian J Emmanuel; Megan E Drew; Rachel L Batterham; Raymond J Dolan

    2010-01-01

    Background Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores). Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable) food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry), and safe (less variable) food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regio...

  5. Effect of gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy on postpartum cardiometabolic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Jun; Aris, Izzuddin M; Su, Lin Lin; Chong, Yap Seng; Wong, Tien Yin; Tan, Kok Hian; Wang, Jie Jin

    2018-01-01

    Aims The cumulative effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases is equivocal. We aimed to assess the associations of GDM and HDP’s individual and synergic contribution to risks of postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases (metabolic syndrome (MetS), abnormal glucose metabolism and hypertension (HTN)). Methods Of participants from a Singapore birth cohort, 276 mothers attending the 5-year postpartum visit were included in this study. During this visit, we collected mothers’ history of GDM and HDP in all live births in a chronicle sequence and assessed the cardio-metabolic risks based on blood pressure, anthropometry and a panel of serum biomarkers. We diagnosed MetS, abnormal glucose metabolism and HTN according to Adult Treatment Panel III 2000 and World Health Organization guidelines. Results Of 276 mothers, 157 (56.9%) had histories of GDM while 23 (8.3%) had histories of HDP. After full adjustment, we found associations of GDM episodes with postpartum abnormal glucose metabolism (single episode: relative risk (RR) 2.9 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.8); recurrent episodes (≥2): RR = 3.8 (2.1–6.8)). Also, we found association between histories of HDP and HTN (RR = 3.6 (1.5, 8.6)). Having either (RR 2.6 (1.7–3.9)) or both gestational complications (RR 2.7 (1.6–4.9)) was associated with similar risk of postpartum cardio-metabolic disease. Conclusions Mothers with GDM or HDP had a threefold increased risk of postpartum abnormal glucose metabolism or HTN, respectively. Having both GDM and HDP during past pregnancies was not associated with additional risk of postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases beyond that associated with either complication alone. PMID:29444890

  6. Effect of gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy on postpartum cardiometabolic risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Jun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The cumulative effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP on postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases is equivocal. We aimed to assess the associations of GDM and HDP’s individual and synergic contribution to risks of postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases (metabolic syndrome (MetS, abnormal glucose metabolism and hypertension (HTN. Methods: Of participants from a Singapore birth cohort, 276 mothers attending the 5-year postpartum visit were included in this study. During this visit, we collected mothers’ history of GDM and HDP in all live births in a chronicle sequence and assessed the cardio-metabolic risks based on blood pressure, anthropometry and a panel of serum biomarkers. We diagnosed MetS, abnormal glucose metabolism and HTN according to Adult Treatment Panel III 2000 and World Health Organization guidelines. Results: Of 276 mothers, 157 (56.9% had histories of GDM while 23 (8.3% had histories of HDP. After full adjustment, we found associations of GDM episodes with postpartum abnormal glucose metabolism (single episode: relative risk (RR 2.9 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.8; recurrent episodes (≥2: RR = 3.8 (2.1–6.8. Also, we found association between histories of HDP and HTN (RR = 3.6 (1.5, 8.6. Having either (RR 2.6 (1.7–3.9 or both gestational complications (RR 2.7 (1.6–4.9 was associated with similar risk of postpartum cardio-metabolic disease. Conclusions: Mothers with GDM or HDP had a threefold increased risk of postpartum abnormal glucose metabolism or HTN, respectively. Having both GDM and HDP during past pregnancies was not associated with additional risk of postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases beyond that associated with either complication alone.

  7. Cardiovascular and metabolic risks associated with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobin, Rhoda H

    2013-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women, is often associated with insulin resistance and associated disorders. The frequency of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiac risk markers, structural vascular disease, and clinical disease events are increased in this population of women. PCOS, however, represents a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, as defined by different criteria proposed in Europe and the United States. The role of insulin resistance and hence the risk of cardiometabolic disorders may in part be determined by the definition of PCOS used. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials support the need to identify women with PCOS to determine their risk of cardiometabolic disorders to prevent and/or treat their serious consequences.

  8. Physical activity, BMI and metabolic risk in Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p103   It has been reported, in the last decades, a significant decrease in physical activity (PA levels, with a consequent increase in obesity and metabolic risk factors among youth. The aims of this study were to describe PA levels, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and metabolic risk factors, and to examine the association between PA and body mass index (BMI with metabolic risk among Portuguese youth. The sample comprises 212 Portuguese adolescents (12-16 years old. Height and weight were measured. PA was estimated with the Bouchard questionnaire (3 days recall, as well as with the use of a pedometer (used for 5 consecutive days. Metabolic risk factors comprised fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference. Subjects were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to BMI; the maturational status was indirectly estimated with the maturity offset procedure. A continuous metabolic risk score was computed (zMR and PA values were divided into tertiles. Qui-square test, t-test and ANOVA were used in statistical analyses. SPSS 18.0 and WinPepi softwares were used and p<0.05. A moderate to high prevalence of overweight/obesity and HDL-cholesterol was found, as well as a high prevalence of high blood pressure and low to moderate PA levels among Portuguese youth. The relationship between BMI and zMR showed that obese adolescents have higher zMR when compared to normal weight or overweight adolescents. This finding suggests that increased levels of PA and reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may have a positive role against the development of metabolic risk factors.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk profile according to polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Enes; Dilbaz, Berna; Cirik, Derya Akdag; Ozelci, Runa; Ozkaya, Enis; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2016-07-01

    It is unknown which phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a greater metabolic risk and how to detect this risk. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic risk profile (MRP) for different phenotypes. A total of 100 consecutive newly diagnosed PCOS women in a tertiary referral hospital were recruited. Patients were classified into four phenotypes according to the Rotterdam criteria, on the presence of at least two of the three criteria hyperandrogenism (H), oligo/anovulation (O) and PCO appearance (P): phenotype A, H + O + P; phenotype B, H + O; phenotype C, H + P; phenotype D, O + P. Prevalence of MetS and MRP were compared among the four groups. Based on Natural Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria, MetS prevalence was higher in phenotypes A and B (29.6% and 34.5%) compared with the other phenotypes (10.0% and 8.3%; P 3.8 was significantly higher in androgenic PCOS phenotypes. After logistic regression analysis, visceral adiposity index (VAI) was the only independent predictor of MetS in PCOS (P = 0.002). VAI was also significantly higher in phenotype B, when compared with the others (P risk of MetS among the four phenotypes, and VAI may be a predictor of metabolic risk in PCOS women. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF A XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM DATABASE MANAGER FOR METABOLIC SIMULATOR ENHANCEMENT AND CHEMICAL RISK ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major uncertainty that has long been recognized in evaluating chemical toxicity is accounting for metabolic activation of chemicals resulting in increased toxicity. In silico approaches to predict chemical metabolism and to subsequently screen and prioritize chemicals for risk ...

  11. Low muscle fitness is associated with metabolic risk in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the independent associations of muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered metabolic risk in youth. METHODS: In 2005-2006, a cohort of 9- and 15-yr-olds (N = 2818) was randomly selected from all regions of Norway. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among...... the 9-and 15-yr-olds, respectively. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Risk factors included in the composite risk factor score (sum of z......-scores) were systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance, and waist circumference. RESULTS: Muscle fitness was negatively associated with clustered metabolic risk, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness, and after adjustment for age, sex, and pubertal stage...

  12. The metabolic syndrome: targeting dyslipidaemia to reduce coronary risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsberg, H.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex constellation of disorders, each one a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increasing prevalence of this condition is a major concern for healthcare providers both in Europe and North America. The concern surrounding

  13. Work stress and metabolic and hemostatic risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, T. G.; van Doornen, L. J.; de Geus, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A high level of work stress has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. This study examined the effect of work stress on a cluster of metabolic and hemostatic risk factors. Blood was collected three times, on

  14. Early Onset Childhood Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Lorena Pacheco, a doctoral student at the University of California San Diego and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Lorena answers questions about her winning research, which focuses on the relationship between early onset obesity as a risk factor for increased metabolic syndrome in Chilean children.

  15. Under- and overnutrition and evidence of metabolic disease risk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Stunting levels were higher in the boys than in the girls in mid to late childhood in a rural setting in South Africa, while the girls had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than the boys. Pre-hypertension prevalence in the boys and girls was high. Other metabolic risk factors, i.e. impaired FG and lipids, ...

  16. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Residual Vascular Risk in Practice of Family Doctor

    OpenAIRE

    Alibasic, Esad; Ramic, Enisa; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ljuca, Farid; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Zildzic, Muharem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Timely recognition and optimal management of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) and residual vascular risk (RVR) in family medicine. Background: The global increase of the incidence of obesity is accompanied by an increase in the incidence of many metabolic and lipoprotein disorders, in particular AD, as an typical feature of obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes type 2. AD is an important factor in cardio metabolic risk, and is characterized by a lipoprotein prof...

  17. Cardiometabolic disease risk in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity: Stability of metabolic health status in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2016-02-01

    To assess the stability of metabolic status and body mass index (BMI) status and their relative contribution to risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, and mortality. A total of 14,685 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and 4,990 from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were included. People with healthy obesity (HO) are defined as those meeting all three indices of blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids. People with unhealthy obesity crossed the risk threshold for all three criteria. In both healthy and unhealthy subgroups, risks for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and mortality were comparable among BMI status during a mean 18.7-year follow-up. When compared with HO, hazard ratios were increased for diabetes (5.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.12-7.48), CHD (5.60, 95% CI 3.14-9.98), stroke (4.84, 95% CI 2.13-10.97), and mortality (2.6, 95% CI 1.88-3.61) in people with unhealthy obesity. BMI only moderately increased the risks for diabetes among healthy subjects. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study over 20 years, 17.5% of lean subjects and 67.3% of overweight subjects at baseline developed obesity during follow-up. Despite rising BMI, metabolic status remained relatively stable. Metabolic status is relatively stable despite rising BMI. HO had lower risks for diabetes, CHD, stroke, and mortality than unhealthy subjects but increased diabetes risks than healthy lean people. Cardiometabolic risk factors confer much higher risk than obesity per se. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Physical activity and risk of Metabolic Syndrome in an urban Mexican cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huitrón Gerardo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Mexican population metabolic syndrome (MS is highly prevalent. It is well documented that regular physical activity (PA prevents coronary diseases, type 2 diabetes and MS. Most studies of PA have focused on moderate-vigorous leisure-time activity, because it involves higher energy expenditures, increase physical fitness, and decrease the risk of MS. However, for most people it is difficult to get a significant amount of PA from only moderately-vigorous leisure activity, so workplace activity may be an option for working populations, because, although may not be as vigorous in terms of cardio-respiratory efforts, it comprises a considerable proportion of the total daily activity with important energy expenditure. Since studies have also documented that different types and intensity of daily PA, including low-intensity, seem to confer important health benefits such as prevent MS, we sought to assess the impact of different amounts of leisure-time and workplace activities, including low-intensity level on MS prevention, in a sample of urban Mexican adults. Methods The study population consisted of 5118 employees and their relatives, aged 20 to 70 years, who were enrolled in the baseline evaluation of a cohort study. MS was assessed according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, ATP III and physical activity with a validated self-administered questionnaire. Associations between physical activity and MS risk were assessed with multivariate logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of the components of MS in the study population were: high glucose levels 14.2%, high triglycerides 40.9%, high blood pressure 20.4%, greater than healthful waist circumference 43.2% and low-high density lipoprotein 76.9%. The prevalence of MS was 24.4%; 25.3% in men and 21.8% in women. MS risk was reduced among men (OR 0.72; 95%CI 0.57–0.95 and women (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.64–0.94 who reported an amount of ≥30

  19. Lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E; Wei, Gina S; Whitmer, Rachel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Sidney, Steve

    2007-03-01

    To examine the relationship between duration of lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors. This 3-year prospective study examined changes in metabolic risk factors among lactating women from preconception to postweaning and among nonlactating women from preconception to postdelivery, in comparison with nongravid women. Of 1,051 (490 black, 561 white) women who attended two consecutive study visits in years 7 (1992-1993) and 10 (1995-1996), 942 were nongravid and 109 had one interim birth. Of parous women, 48 (45%) did not lactate, and 61 (55%) lactated and weaned before year 10. The lactated and weaned women were subdivided by duration of lactation into less than 3 months and 3 months or more. Multiple linear regression models estimated mean 3-year changes in metabolic risk factors adjusted for age, race, parity, education, and behavioral covariates. Both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned gained more weight (+5.6, +4.4 kg) and waist girth (+5.3, +4.9 cm) than nongravid women over the 3-year interval; Pdecrements for both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned were 4.0 mg/dL greater than for nongravid women (Pdecrement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-1.3 mg/dL versus -7.3 mg/dL for less than 3 months; P<.01). Lactation may attenuate unfavorable metabolic risk factor changes that occur with pregnancy, with effects apparent after weaning. As a modifiable behavior, lactation may affect women's future risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. II.

  20. Is Ramadan Fasting Cardio-protective? A Study in a Village of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Dasgupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Islam is the second largest religion of the World (23% and Muslims are the second largest majority of Indian Republic (14.3%. Ramadan is the ninth and holiest month(Hijra of the 12-month Islamic calendar during which Muslims fast from dawn to dusk each day maintaining certain rules (consuming food/drink once, avoiding smoking and sexual activity, as well as impure thoughts, words and immoral behavior. It is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad. Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Ramadan on cardio-metabolic profile among adult Muslims residing in rural West Bengal. Methods and Materials: The present study was a longitudinal community based study done among 43 Muslims residing in a village of West Bengal during 6thJune to 7th July 2016. Cardio-metabolic profile (physical activity, diet, BMI, blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose were assessed before, during and after Ramadan. Results: There was a significant reduction in VLDL and TG level while significant elevation in HDL level along with the reduction in Framingham risk score after fasting. All the anthropometric measurements along with blood pressure reduced significantly after Ramadan with significant reduction in intake of all micro-nutrients during Ramadan. However physical activity also reduced significantly during Ramadan. Conclusion: Our study had found no detrimental effects of Ramadan fasting on the contrary has an overall beneficial effect on cardiovascular profile was observed.

  1. Report on the International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology (Rome, 12–14 March 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien CM; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12–14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group

  2. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia. We evaluated 103 patients less than 40 years of age, from a low-income population, and without history of cardiovascular disease, in all of them the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. In all patients, fasting serum uric acid levels were measured; hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid values 6.5 mg/dl in men and 5.1 mg/dl in women. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratio. 83 of our patients (80.5%) suffered metabolic syndrome, the odds ratio for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hyperuricaemia was 5.1 (p=0.002, I.C 1.8- 14.5). When patients were evaluated by gender a significantly association between hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome was found in women (odds ratio 3.6, p=0.048, C.I. 1.0-12.9), and men (odds ratio 10.2, p= 0.015, IC 1.5-13.2). When uric acid was correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome, we only found a positive correlation with waist circumference (r=0.483). Our results showed a significant association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults in Mexico. DR is associated with estimated risk of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2017-05-05

    Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.

  4. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-express and CARDIoGRAM studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach; Samani, Nilesh; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Moll, Frans; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hall, Anne; Hengstenberg, Christian; König, Inke; Laaksonen, Reijo; McPherson, Ruth; Thompson, John; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Ziegler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted)/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events. Methods and Findings: We conducted a case-cohort study withi...

  5. Diabetes risk among overweight and obese metabolically healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir

    2014-11-01

    To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment Among Elderly Without Cardio- and Cerebrovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Study in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Bai, Lingling; Wu, Yanan; Ni, Jingxian; Shi, Min; Lu, Hongyan; Tu, Jun; Ning, Xianjia; Lei, Ping; Wang, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of cognitive impairment and the distribution of its risk factors among residents aged ≥60 years without cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in rural areas of northern China screened with the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Between 2012 and 2013, a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect basic information from participants. Cognitive function was assessed using the MMSE. In the univariate analysis, risk factors for cognitive disorders were female sex, low education and central obesity, while drinking was found to be a protective factor. In the multivariate analysis, risk factors were old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.888; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.256-2.838; P = 0.002 for the 70-year-old group compared with the 60-year-old group; OR, 3.593; 95% CI, 2.468-5.230; P < 0.001 for the ≥75-year-old group compared with the 60-year-old group), low education (OR, 3.779; 95% CI: 2.218-6.440; P < 0.001 for the illiterate group compared with the group with ≥9 years of education; OR, 1.667; 95% CI, 1.001-2.775; P = 0.05 for the group with less than primary school compared with the group with ≥9 years of education), and higher blood pressure (BP; OR, 1.655; 95% CI: 1.076-2.544; P = 0.002 for individuals with stage III hypertension compared with those with normal BP). These findings suggest that it is crucial to manage and control level of BP, and improve educational attainment in order to reduce the prevalence and burden of cognitive impairment among low-income residents in rural China.

  7. Fatty liver as a risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy to metabolically abnormal in non-overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Fukuda, Takuya; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies identified that metabolically abnormal non-obese phenotype is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that fatty liver had a clinical impact on progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. In this retrospective cohort study, 14,093 Japanese (7557 men and 6736 women), who received the health-checkup program from 2004 to 2012, were enrolled. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index 23.0-25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m 2 . Four metabolic factors (impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration) were used for definition of metabolically healthy (less than two factors) or metabolically abnormal (two or more). We divided the participants into three groups: metabolically healthy non-overweight (9755 individuals, men/women = 4290/5465), metabolically healthy overweight (2547 individuals, 1800/747) and metabolically healthy obesity (1791 individuals, 1267/524). Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Over the median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 873 metabolically healthy non-overweight, 512 metabolically healthy overweight and 536 metabolically healthy obesity individuals progressed to metabolically abnormal. The adjusted hazard risks of fatty liver on progression were 1.49 (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.83, p = 0.005) in metabolically healthy non-overweight, 1.37 (1.12-1.66, p = 0.002) in metabolically healthy overweight and 1.38 (1.15-1.66, p overweight individuals.

  8. The effect of a periodontal intervention on cardiovascular risk markers in Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease: the PerioCardio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm. Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness. Primary outcome

  9. Cardio-respiratory capacity as an important biomarker of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Novák

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardio-respiratory capacity is an important factor in human health. It's quality depends on many objective factors (such as age and gender, but it can be influenced also by others (physical activity, nutrition. Low level of cardio-respiratory capacity significantly correlates with numerous health failures. Objective: Evaluation of the cardio-respiratory capacity in athletes enables a prediction of performance. In a non-sporting population a critically low level of cardio-respiratory capacity could be a warning signal of a high risk of diseases. The Spiroergometric examination needs very sophisticated technical equipment including O2-CO2 analyzer. The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of how to replace direct measurement of oxygen consumption by the method. Methods: 2 777 protocols from the data base of examinations performed in the period of 1994 till 2015 were used. Cardio-respiratory capacity in all examinations was evaluated according to maximal oxygen uptake VO2max, physical working capacity W170 and maximal performance on the cyclo-ergometer. Step-vice increased workload on cyclo-ergometer based on procedure used in International Biological Program was applied to obtain the characteristics of cardio-respiratory capacity of each subject (2 015 men and 762 women. Results: Correlation coefficients r and regression equations of cardio-respiratory capacity characteristics (W170, W170/kg, VO2max, VO2max/kg, Wmax, Wmax/kg were calculated. The highest correlation was found between VO2max and Wmax and between VO2max/kg and Wmax/kg, both in men and women (r = .89 in men and r = .85 in women for VO2max and Wmax. The most important regression equations are: (men VO2max = 0.0095 . Wmax + 0.54 (l/min (r = .89, VO2max/kg = 8.3 . Wmax/kg + 13 (ml/min/kg (r = .83; (women VO2max = 0.0083 . Wmax + 0.67 (l/min (r = .85, VO2max/kg = 8.0 . max/kg + 13 (ml/min/kg (r = .83. Conclusions: It was proved that VO2max and VO2max/kg values

  10. Nurse health and lifestyle modification versus standard care in 40 to 70 year old regional adults: study protocol of the Management to Optimise Diabetes and mEtabolic syndrome Risk reduction via Nurse-led intervention (MODERN) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Melinda J; Zimmet, Paul

    2017-12-06

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of multiple leading risk factors, predisposes individuals to increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardio-metabolic disease risk increases with greater remoteness where specialist services are scarce. Nurse-led interventions are effective for the management of chronic disease. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a nurse-implemented health and lifestyle modification program is more beneficial than standard care to reduce cardio-metabolic abnormalities and future risk of CVD and diabetes in individuals with MetS. MODERN is a multi-centre, open, parallel group randomized controlled trial in regional Victoria, Australia. Participants were self-selected and individuals aged 40 to 70 years with MetS who had no evidence of CVD or other chronic disease were recruited. Those attending a screening visit with any 3 or more risk factors of central obesity, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol) elevated blood pressure and dysglycemia were randomized to either nurse-led health and lifestyle modification (intervention) or standard care (control). The intervention included risk factor management, health education, care planning and scheduled follow-up commensurate with level of risk. The primary cardio-metabolic end-point was achievement of risk factor thresholds to eliminate MetS or minimal clinically meaningful changes for at least 3 risk factors that characterise MetS over 2 year follow-up. Pre-specified secondary endpoints to evaluate between group variations in cardio-metabolic risk, general health and lifestyle behaviours and new onset CVD and type 2 diabetes will be evaluated. Key outcomes will be measured at baseline, 12 and 24 months via questionnaires, physical examinations, pathology and other diagnostic tests. Health economic analyses will be undertaken to establish the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. The MODERN

  11. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents.METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected.RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%, followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47% and triacylglycerol (22%. Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance(HOMA-IR were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI, waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range.

  12. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables.

  13. Basal metabolic rate and risk-taking behaviour in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2009-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) constitutes the minimal metabolic rate in the zone of thermo-neutrality, where heat production is not elevated for temperature regulation. BMR thus constitutes the minimum metabolic rate that is required for maintenance. Interspecific variation in BMR in birds is correlated with food habits, climate, habitat, flight activity, torpor, altitude, and migration, although the selective forces involved in the evolution of these presumed adaptations are not always obvious. I suggest that BMR constitutes the minimum level required for maintenance, and that variation in this minimum level reflects the fitness costs and benefits in terms of ability to respond to selective agents like predators, implying that an elevated level of BMR is a cost of wariness towards predators. This hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between BMR and measures of risk taking such as flight initiation distance (FID) of individuals approached by a potential predator. Consistent with this suggestion, I show in a comparative analysis of 76 bird species that species with higher BMR for their body mass have longer FID when approached by a potential predator. This effect was independent of potentially confounding variables and similarity among species due to common phylogenetic descent. These results imply that BMR is positively related to risk-taking behaviour, and that predation constitutes a neglected factor in the evolution of BMR.

  14. The Role of Dietary Inflammatory Index in Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolic Syndrome and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Canela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological process in chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In fact, a number of systematic reviews have shown the association between inflammatory biomarkers, such as CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, or IL-10, and cardio-metabolic diseases. Diet is one of the main lifestyle-related factors which modulates the inflammatory process. Different individual foods and dietary patterns can have a beneficial health effect associated with their anti-inflammatory properties. The dietary inflammatory index (DII was recently developed to estimate the inflammatory potential of overall diet. The aim of this review is to examine the findings of recent papers that have investigated the association between the DII, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease. The relevance of the DII score in the association between inflammation and cardio-metabolic diseases is critically appraised, as well as its role in the context of healthy dietary patterns. We conclude that the DII score seems to be a useful tool to appraise the inflammatory capacity of the diet and to better understand the relationships between diet, inflammation, and cardio-metabolic diseases.

  15. Baseline characteristics in the Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; Brenner, Barry M; McMurray, John J V

    2012-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes are at enhanced risk for macro- and microvascular complications. Albuminuria and/or reduced kidney function further enhances the vascular risk. We initiated the Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE). Aliskiren, a novel direct renin...

  16. Metabolic risk-factor clustering estimation in children: to draw a line across pediatric metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambilla, P; Lissau, I; Flodmark, C-E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MS) have been applied in studies of obese adults to estimate the metabolic risk-associated with obesity, even though no general consensus exists concerning its definition and clinical value. We reviewed the current literature on the MS......, focusing on those studies that used the MS diagnostic criteria to analyze children, and we observed extreme heterogeneity for the sets of variables and cutoff values chosen. OBJECTIVES: To discuss concerns regarding the use of the existing definition of the MS (as defined in adults) in children...... derived from a child's family and personal history; the lack of consensus on insulin levels, lipid parameters, markers of inflammation or steato-hepatitis; the lack of an additive relevant effect of the MS definition to obesity per se. We propose the adoption of 10 evidence-based items from which...

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  18. Early Onset Childhood Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Lorena Pacheco, a doctoral student at the University of California San Diego and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Lorena answers questions about her winning research, which focuses on the relationship between early onset obesity as a risk factor for increased metabolic syndrome in Chilean children.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  19. Who's your daddy?: paternal inheritance of metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Suehiro, Harumi; Cardona, Connie

    2017-02-01

    Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation. Recent data, both from humans and experimental models, demonstrate that paternal obesity and undernutrition result in epigenetic reprogramming of male germ cells, notably altered DNA methylation, histone retention, and expression of small noncoding RNAs and transfer RNA fragments. Novel mechanisms have also been identified, such as epididymal transport vesicles, seminal fluid hormones and metabolites, and a unique seminal fluid microbiome. Paternal nutritional and other perturbations are linked to risk of metabolic disease and obesity in offspring. Germ cell-dependent mechanisms have recently been linked to these intergenerational effects. Nongenetic, paternal inheritance of chronic disease has important implications for public health, and may provide novel opportunities for multigenerational disease prevention.

  20. The Impact of Aging on Cardio and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Izzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of evidences report that aging represents the major risk factor for the development of cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. Understanding Aging from a genetic, biochemical and physiological point of view could be helpful to design a better medical approach and to elaborate the best therapeutic strategy to adopt, without neglecting all the risk factors associated with advanced age. Of course, the better way should always be understanding risk-to-benefit ratio, maintenance of independence and reduction of symptoms. Although improvements in treatment of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly population have increased the survival rate, several studies are needed to understand the best management option to improve therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this review is to give a 360° panorama on what goes on in the fragile ecosystem of elderly, why it happens and what we can do, right now, with the tools at our disposal to slow down aging, until new discoveries on aging, cardio and cerebrovascular diseases are at hand.

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Risk, and Inflammation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios D. Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and C-reactive protein (CRP in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years. Data was obtained for children’s anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (<0.001 and CRP (<0.007, compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood.

  2. Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

  3. Interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and a common polymorphism in the PON1 gene on DNA methylation in genes associated with cardio-metabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Declerck, Ken; Remy, Sylvie; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2017-01-01

    , mTOR signaling, and type II diabetes mellitus signaling. Furthermore, we were able to identify possible candidate genes which mediated the associations between pesticide exposure and increased leptin level, body fat percentage, and difference in BMI Z score between birth and school age. Conclusions...

  4. An audit of intensive care unit admission in a pediatric cardio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The study aimed to perform an audit of intensive care unit admissions in the paediatric cardio-thoracic population in Enugu, Nigeria and examine the challenges and outcome in this high risk group. Ways of improvement based on this study are suggested. Methods: The hospital records of consecutive ...

  5. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Arem

    Full Text Available Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713 and controls (n = 878. The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830. Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186, LRP2 (rs4668123, CYP24A1 (rs2762932, GC (rs2282679, and CUBN (rs1810205 genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008-0.037, but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  6. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  7. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  8. Risk factors of metabolic syndrome among food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasdar Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. As a risk factor for chronic diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS is increasing at an alarming rate. The prevalence of MS varies according to lifestyle and occupation in different populations. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in food suppliers. Methods. A total of 112 food suppliers were randomly selected from all around the city. Data collection tools included demographic, physical activity, and food frequency questionnaires. Body composition was measured using Bio-Electrical Body Analyzer. A sample of 5 ml of fasting blood was taken from participants to assess lipid profile, blood sugar, insulin, and liver enzymes. The data were analyzed using χ2, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and ANOVA tests. Results. Participants’ mean BMI was 27.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, 43.6% were overweight, and 26.4% were obese. Consumption of vegetables was less and of meats more than recommended amounts. The prevalence of MS was 45.5% (51 people, which increased with aging (p = 0.02. Among factors causing MS, the most common one was waist-to-hip ratio (WHR > 0.09 (72.7%, followed by high triglyceride and low HDL. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of MS among food suppliers was higher than the world average and than prevalence in other countries. WHR (or obesity was found to be the most important risk factor for MS. To reduce the risk of MS, changing dietary consumption habits and increased physical activity are recommended to persons with high risk and sedentary occupations.

  9. The relation of vitamin D, metabolic risk and negative symptom severity in people with psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, J.; Jörg, F.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Corpeleijn, E.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Pijnenborg, G.H.M.; Bruggeman, R.

    2018-01-01

    People with psychotic disorders have an increased metabolic risk and their mean life expectancy is reduced with circa 28 years (Olfson et al., 2015).Predictors of this increased metabolic risk are genetic predisposition (Liu et al., 2013), lifestyle factors such as unhealthy diet, physical

  10. Meal frequency and timing: impact on metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent human intervention trials that have examined the impact of meal frequency or meal timing on metabolic disease risk factors. Findings from intervention studies published over the past 12 months indicate that weight loss may be more pronounced with decreased meal frequency (two meals per day) versus increased meal frequency (six meals per day) under hypocaloric conditions. However, under isocaloric conditions, no effect on body weight was noted. Plasma lipid concentrations and glucoregulatory factors (fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity) were not affected by alterations in meal frequency. As for meal timing, delaying the lunchtime meal by 3.5 h (from 1.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m.) has no impact on body weight, but may impair glucose tolerance in young healthy adults. In sum, altering meal frequency has little impact on body weight, plasma lipids, or glucoregulatory factors, whereas eating the majority of calories later in the day may be detrimental for glycemic control. These preliminary findings, however, still require confirmation by longer term, larger scale controlled trials.

  11. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, male hypogonadism and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large body of evidences indicates that sexual dysfunction, and in particular erectile dysfunction (ED, may represent an early surrogate marker of different disease states such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS and depression. Furthermore, it has been suggested that ED could also be considered the first sign of a forthcoming coronary heart disease (CHD and an efficient predictor of silent CHD in a diabetic population, independently of glycometabolic control and ED severity. Hypogonadism is frequently associated with MetS both in subjects with or without ED, insulin resistance being the putative pathogenetic link. In subjects with ED hypogonadism can exacerbate sexual dysfunction because of its typical symptoms, such as decreased sexual desire and mood disturbances. However, hypogonadism per se has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality. Aim of the study: In this review, a comprehensive literature search was carried out, in order to discuss the relationship between insulin resistance, ED, MetS and hypogonadism, focusing on their possible involvement in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Framingham risk score for estimation of 10-years of cardiovascular diseases risk in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiry, Leila; Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2017-11-13

    There are a few studies evaluating the predictive value of Framingham risk score (FRS) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in patients with metabolic syndrome in Iran. Because of the emerging high prevalence of CVD among Iranian population, it is important to predict its risk among populations with potential predictive tools. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the FRS and its determinants in patients with metabolic syndrome. In the current cross-sectional study, 160 patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria were enrolled. The FRS was calculated using a computer program by a previously suggested algorithm. Totally, 77.5, 16.3, and 6.3% of patients with metabolic syndrome were at low, intermediate, and high risk of CVD according to FRS categorization. The highest prevalence of all of metabolic syndrome components were in low CVD risk according to the FRS grouping (P metabolic syndrome and different FRS categorization among patients with metabolic syndrome were identified. High SBP and FSG were associated with meaningfully increased risk of CVD compared with other parameters. The study is not a trial; the registration number is not applicable.

  13. Metabolic risk factors and arterial stiffness in Indian children of parents with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Pandit, Deepa S; Kinare, Arun S; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the possible association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and arterial stiffness in Indian children with parental MS status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 140 overweight/obese and 60 normal-weight Indian children (mean age, 11.4 ± 2.8 years) along with one of their parents during 2008-2009. Data on weight, height, blood pressure, serum lipids, zinc, insulin, and glucose were collected. Intima media thickness (CIMT) and stiffness parameters were assessed in the right carotid artery. Physical activity and diet were assessed using structured questionnaires. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. A gradual increase in the percentage of MS children with an increasing number of MS components in parents was observed. Mean values for arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity, and elastic modulus were significantly higher in MS children of MS parents than in MS children of normal parents (p parent pairs (p children's CIMT and arterial stiffness were significantly associated (p parental MS-CIMT. Parental MS status and lifestyle factors increase the risk of MS and arterial abnormalities in children.

  14. OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH: A HEALTH RISK WE CANNOT AFFORD

    OpenAIRE

    Serge P. von Duvillard

    2012-01-01

    Ample observational and empirical evidence has been provided that indicates that childhood metabolic syndrome risk factors inevitably lead to significantly more profound health risk factors of developing potent adulthood metabolic syndrome. Much of these data has been provided from medical, nutritional, health, pediatric, physical education and associated communities. Perhaps the most visible and observable health risk factor among children (here referred to as youth) is the childhood obesit...

  15. Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  17. Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Sexual Minority Women: Results from the ESTHER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Stall, Ron; Hawk, Mary; Markovic, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minority women (SMW) have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome risk factors (e.g., obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and depression). Yet, no published research has examined whether SMW have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual factors in a sample of heterosexuals and SMW, and identify whether SMW are at greater risk of having the metabolic syndrome. Data are from the Epidemiologic STudy of HEalth Risk in Women (ESTHER), a cross-sectional convenience sample of 479 SMW and 400 heterosexual women from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants provided self-report questionnaire data, clinical data, and blood work. Compared to heterosexuals, SMW had higher mean waist circumference, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Nearly one-quarter (24.3%) of SMW had the metabolic syndrome compared to 15.6% of heterosexual women (p = 0.002). After controlling for demographic and risk factors, SMW had a 44% higher risk of having the metabolic syndrome than heterosexuals (p = 0.031). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify this health disparity in SMW. Future studies should explore differential risk of mortality and metabolic health between SMW and heterosexuals.

  18. Associations between metabolic disorders and risk of cancer in Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Siv Mari; Gislason, Gunnar; Moore, Lynn L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic disorders is increasing and has been suggested to increase cancer risk, but the relation between metabolic disorders and risk of cancer is unclear, especially in young adults. We investigated the associations between diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholest......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic disorders is increasing and has been suggested to increase cancer risk, but the relation between metabolic disorders and risk of cancer is unclear, especially in young adults. We investigated the associations between diabetes, hypertension......, and hypercholesterolemia on risk of all-site as well as site-specific cancers. METHODS: We consecutively included men and women from nationwide Danish registries 1996-2011, if age 20-89 and without cancer prior to date of entry. We followed them throughout 2012. Metabolic disorders were defined using discharge diagnosis...... codes and claimed prescriptions. We used time-dependent sex-stratified Poisson regression models adjusted for age and calendar year to assess associations between metabolic disorders, and risk of all-site and site-specific cancer (no metabolic disorders as reference). RESULTS: Over a mean follow...

  19. Evaluating the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Based on an Artificial Intelligence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Xiong, Shenghua; Ren, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is worldwide public health problem and is a serious threat to people's health and lives. Understanding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the physical symptoms is a difficult and challenging task, and few studies have been performed in this field. It is important to classify adults who are at high risk of metabolic syndrome without having to use a biochemical index and, likewise, it is important to develop technology that has a high economic rate of return to s...

  20. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors : A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374886970; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.

  1. Impact of Weight Regain on Metabolic Disease Risk: A Review of Human Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M. Kroeger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction interventions are effective for weight loss and reduction of chronic disease risk. Unfortunately, most people tend to regain much of this lost weight within one year after intervention. While some studies suggest that minor degrees of weight regain have no effect on metabolic disease risk parameters, other studies demonstrate a complete reversal in metabolic benefits. In light of these conflicting findings, it is of interest to determine how complete weight maintenance versus mild weight regain affects key risk parameters. These findings would have important clinical implications, as they could help identify a weight regain threshold that could preserve the metabolic benefits of weight loss. Accordingly, this review examined the impact of no weight regain versus mild regain on various metabolic disease risk parameters, including plasma lipids, blood pressure, glucose, and insulin concentrations, in adult subjects.

  2. Race and ethnicity, obesity, metabolic health, and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting...... serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined......, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased...

  3. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  4. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  5. Cluster analysis of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan; Chang, Yu-chia; Wang, Chia-Woei; Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsu, Ming-I

    2014-05-01

    To study the association between endocrine disturbances and metabolic complications in women seeking gynecologic care. Retrospective study, cluster analysis. Outpatient clinic, university medical center. 573 women, including 384 at low risk and 189 at high risk of cardiometabolic disease. None. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters and clinical and biochemical characteristics. Risk factors for metabolic disease are associated with a low age of menarche, high levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and liver enzymes, and low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. Overweight/obese status, polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo/amenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism were found to increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. However, hyperprolactinemia and premature ovarian failure were not associated with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In terms of androgens, the serum total testosterone level and free androgen index but not androstenedione or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were associated with cardiometabolic risk. Although polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with metabolic risk, obesity was the major determinant of cardiometabolic disturbances in reproductive-aged women. Hyperprolactinemia and premature ovarian failure were not associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. NCT01826357. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A global evolutionary and metabolic analysis of human obesity gene risk variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Joseph J; Hazlett, Zachary S; Orlando, Robert A; Garver, William S

    2017-09-05

    It is generally accepted that the selection of gene variants during human evolution optimized energy metabolism that now interacts with our obesogenic environment to increase the prevalence of obesity. The purpose of this study was to perform a global evolutionary and metabolic analysis of human obesity gene risk variants (110 human obesity genes with 127 nearest gene risk variants) identified using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to enhance our knowledge of early and late genotypes. As a result of determining the mean frequency of these obesity gene risk variants in 13 available populations from around the world our results provide evidence for the early selection of ancestral risk variants (defined as selection before migration from Africa) and late selection of derived risk variants (defined as selection after migration from Africa). Our results also provide novel information for association of these obesity genes or encoded proteins with diverse metabolic pathways and other human diseases. The overall results indicate a significant differential evolutionary pattern for the selection of obesity gene ancestral and derived risk variants proposed to optimize energy metabolism in varying global environments and complex association with metabolic pathways and other human diseases. These results are consistent with obesity genes that encode proteins possessing a fundamental role in maintaining energy metabolism and survival during the course of human evolution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Role of androgen excess on metabolic aberrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Charikleia D; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance is implicated as the major player in the metabolic abnormalities and contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the syndrome. However, androgen excess appears to participate as an independent parameter, which further aggravates the cardiovascular and metabolic aberrations in affected women with PCOS. The resultant impact of hyperandrogenemia possibly acquires clinical significance for women's health in the context of PCOS, particularly since recent data support an increased incidence of coronary artery disease and of cardiovascular events directly related to androgen levels in women with the syndrome.

  8. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  9. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Altered Systemic Metabolism and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing...individuals provide extensive data on metabolic phenotypes, such as obesity and diabetes, and banked plasma samples for interrogation . The potential...banked plasma samples for interrogation . The potential impact of understanding the mechanisms underlying early pancreatic cancer growth is

  11. Risk Factors for the Development of Metabolic Disorders: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    External factors impact on the hormones and enzymes which trigger development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this review was to highlight major hormonal and enzymatic factors that differentially predispose males and females to obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The research was a literaturebased ...

  12. Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk among Blacks with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A; Ravenell, J; Donat, M; Sexias, A; Ogedegbe, C; McFarlane, S I; Jean-Louis, G

    Identification of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is important to enable comprehensive intervention to reduce OSA-related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The metabolic syndrome outcome study (MetSO) provides a unique opportunity to address these factors. This study investigated risk of OSA among blacks with metabolic syndrome. The present study utilized data from MetSO, an NIH-funded cohort study of blacks with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,035 patients provided data for the analysis. These included sociodemographic factors, health risks, and medical history. Physician-diagnosed conditions were obtained using an electronic medical record system (Allscripts, Sunrise Enterprise). Patients were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome using criteria articulated in the joint interim statement for harmonizing the metabolic syndrome. Patients with a score ≥6 on the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) questionnaire were considered at risk for OSA. Obesity is defined by body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ). Of the 1,035 patients screened in the MetSO cohort, 48.9% were at high risk for OSA. Using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis, we observed that obesity was the strongest predictor of OSA risk (OR=1.59, 95%CI=1.24-2.04, pmetabolic syndrome.

  13. [A cohort study on the predictive value of factors influencing cardio-cerebro vascular death among people over 40 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-min; Lu, Fang-hong; Jin, Shi-kuan; Sun, Shang-wen; Zhao, Ying-xin; Wang, Shu-jian; Zhou, Xiao-hong

    2007-02-01

    To explore the factors influencing cardio-cerebro vascular death events among people over 40 years of age in Shandong area, China. Baseline survey was carried out in 1991. A total number of 11,008 adults over 40 years old had been studied in Shandong province. Data on cardiocerebro death was collected. The correlation between influencing factors and cardio-cerebro vascular death events was analyzed by Cox regression model. Totally, 434 cardio-cerebro death events occurred among the 11,008 subjects during the 8-year follow-up study. Cardio-cerebro death events were related to systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking, stroke history and age. Data from Cox regression analysis showed that the relative risk (RR) for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 2.862 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.976-4.144] times for those people having stroke history. When systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure increased by every 10 mm Hg, the relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 1.171 (95% CI: 1.033-1.328), 1.214 (95% CI: 1.044-1.413) respectively. it was found that a 1.239 (95% CI: 1.088-1.553) times higher in smokers than non-smokers on relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events. However, the predictive values of the influencing factors for cardio-cerebro vascular death were different among population of different years of age. The relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 1.366 (95% CI: 1.102-1.678) times for each 10 mm Hg increase of diastolic blood pressure in 40-59 years old population. However, the effect was taken place by systolic blood pressure in 60-74 years old population,with a relative risk of 1.201 (95% CI: 1.017-1.418) for each 10 mm Hg increase. Age seemed the only significant factor for cardio-cerebro vascular death events on population aged more than 75 years old. Conclusion The predictive values of the risk factors were different among age groups. The different

  14. Risks of Metabolic Syndrome in Students of the Faculty of Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Öğüş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the adult population worldwide. Education may play an important role in preventing metabolic syndrome in young adults, especially those who are attending university. Such adults are at a critical point in their lives and make their own lifestyle choices that can affect their future health. Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the metabolic syndrome risk levels of students from the Faculty of Health Sciences. Study Design: Survey design study. Methods: In a questionnaire developed by the researchers to collect data in accordance with the relevant literature, the scale of the risk of metabolic syndrome was assessed. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risks. Results: Important risk factors for metabolic syndrome were found to be gender, weight gain, “stress eating” excessive amounts of food, sleeping for more than 8 hours a day, feeling tired after sleep, belonging to a divided family, and eating whilst working on the computer. Conclusion: The students from the Faculty of Health Sciences, particularly because they are trained in the health sector, are expected to have more information about the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, and take necessary precautions to prevent it.

  15. Victims of Chinese famine in early life have increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caizheng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Pan, An; Zheng, Dan; Tang, Yuhan; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2018-02-05

    To investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with metabolic syndrome risk in adults. There were 7,915 participants from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included in the present study. Participants were classified as non-exposed group, fetal exposed group, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood-exposed groups, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria (2005). Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between famine exposure in early life and metabolic syndrome risk in adults. The metabolic syndrome prevalence in non-, fetal-, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood- exposed groups were 25.2%, 26.9%, 30.3%, 32.7%, and 32.7%, respectively. Compared with non-exposed group, participants exposed to famine in the fetal (0.96, 95% CI: 0.77-1.20), early childhood (1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.52), mid childhood (1.39, 95% CI: 1.13-1.72), and late childhood (1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.63) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk in adults after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend metabolic syndrome prevalence risk than non-exposed women (P for trend metabolic syndrome prevalence risk (P for interaction = 0.0001). Results in the present study indicated that exposure to famine in early life increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults: prevalence and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Dinaker; Uthappa, Chengapp Kechamada; Kattula, Sri Rama; Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Chava, Nalini; Oruganti, Ganesh

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults (18-25 years) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), Internation Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Indian consensus statement criteria. We included 473 urban young adults through simple random sampling methodology to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-5.8], 6.6% (95% CI 4.6-9.1), and 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-11.6) using the NCEP ATP III, IDF, and Indian consensus statement criteria, respectively. Men had significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, whereas mean concentrations of both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol were significantly higher among women. Low HDL-C (38.9%), high blood pressure (26%), and central obesity (16.1%) were the most common component risk factors. Although less than 4% of normal weight adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, rates increased in overweight individuals and reached a prevalence of 87% in the obese participants. In all, 61.3% of the total population had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among urban young adults in India, and it increased with increase in body mass index (BMI). Each component risk factor in isolated form-increased BMI, smoking, and history of hypertension--is an associated risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although it is unclear whether metabolic syndrome screening in young Indians as a means to prevent adverse cardiovascular health outcomes is appropriate, healthy lifestyles should nevertheless be encouraged, and young adults should be considered as an important group for cardiovascular risk reduction programs.

  17. The Cardio-oncology Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Care of Cancer Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sarah; Pituskin, Edith; Paterson, D Ian

    2016-07-01

    Improved cancer survivorship has resulted in a growing number of Canadians affected by cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, cardio-oncology programs are rapidly emerging to treat cancer patients with de novo and preexisting cardiovascular disease. The primary goal of a cardio-oncology program is to preserve cardiovascular health to allow the timely delivery of cancer therapy and achieve disease-free remission. Multidisciplinary programs in oncology and cardiology have been associated with enhanced patient well-being and improved clinical outcomes. Because of the complex needs of these multisystem patients, a similar model of care is gaining acceptance. The optimal composition of the cardio-oncology team will typically involve support from cardiology, oncology, and nursing. Depending on the clinical scenario, additional consultation from dietetics, pharmacy, and social services might be required. Timely access to consultation and testing is another prerequisite for cardio-oncology programs because delays in treating cardiac complications and nonadherence to prescribed cancer therapy are each associated with poor outcomes. Recommended reasons for referral to cardio-oncology programs include primary prevention for those at high risk for cardiotoxicity and the secondary treatment of new or worsening cardiovascular disease in cancer patients and survivors. Management is multifaceted and can involve lifestyle education, pharmacotherapy, enhanced cardiovascular surveillance, and support services, such as exercise training. The lack of evidence to guide clinical decisions and recommendations in cardio-oncology is a major challenge and opportunity for health care professionals. Large multicentre prospective registries are needed to adequately power risk model calculations and generate hypotheses for novel interventions. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary patterns, involvement in physical activity and body mass index of Romanian adults having cardio-vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Lotrean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of a healthy diet, an active lifestyle and appropriate body weight are important components of cardio-vascular disease prevention and control. This study aimed to assess several dietary patterns, involvement in physical activity and body mass index (BMI of Romanian adults hospitalized because of diagnoses of cardio-vascular diseases (CVD. The study was performed in 2014 in 1 hospital setting from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It involved 80 adult patients (45 to 78 years old hospitalized with diagnoses of CVD. Anonymous questionnaire assessing several lifestyle related behaviours were filled in by the participants; based on their weight and height, the BMI was calculated. The results show that 76.2% of the participants recognize the role of consumption of fruits and vegetables for cardio-vascular diseases prevention and control, but only 5% meet the recommendations of eating at least 5 portions of fruits and vegetables (around 400 g daily. The majority of the subjects know that the consumption of animal fat increases the risk for cardio-vascular diseases, but, only one out of two patients declared their constant preoccupation for avoiding products rich in saturated fatty acids, such as animal fat, high fat dairy products and high fat meat. Around 80% of the participants know the risk of obesity for cardio-vascular diseases, but 81.2% have a BMI higher than 25. A percentage of 60% of the patients declared that they received general information from health care professionals about diet, physical activity and cardio-vascular disease prevention, while one quarter followed an educational program for this issue and only one out of ten patients followed a personalized program for loosing weight. Comprehensive educational and counselling programs for promoting healthy nutrition and achievement of an appropriate body weight are needed for Romanian adults having CVD

  19. Thoughts on the behavioural phenotypes in Prader-Willi syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome: A novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Egger, J.I.M.; Tuinier, S.

    2007-01-01

    In both Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and 22q11 deletion syndrome [velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)], an increased risk for psychotic disorders is reported, which are as a rule not included in the behavioural phenotype of these two syndromes. For the description of a behavioural phenotype, the

  20. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  1. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Vascular Syndrome: New Insights into a Multidimensional Network of Risk Factors and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Gerhard H; Hanefeld, Markolf

    2016-10-01

    Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases. To establish a close link between the traits of the metabolic vascular syndrome, we focused our literature search on recent original work and comprehensive reviews dealing with the topics metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity, fatty liver, fat tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent research supports the concept that the metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional and interactive network of risk factors and diseases based on individual genetic susceptibility and epigenetic changes where metabolic dysregulation/metabolic inflexibility in different organs and vascular dysfunction are early interconnected. The metabolic vascular syndrome is not only a risk factor constellation but rather a life-long abnormality of a closely connected interactive cluster of developing diseases which escalate each other and should continuously attract the attention of every clinician.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rodrigues de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and cryptogenic cirrhosis. The greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free radicals, release of inflammatory cytokines and varying degrees of hepatocytic aggression, whose histological expression may vary from steatosis (HS to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The differentiation of these forms is required by the potential risk of progression to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the major risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome, focusing on underlying mechanisms and prevention. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO data basis analysis was performed to identify studies describing the link between risk factors for metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. A combination of descriptors was used, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, metabolic syndrome and risk factors. At the end, 96 clinical and experimental studies, cohorts, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of great impact and scientific relevance to the topic, were selected. RESULTS: The final analysis of all these data, pointed out the central obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension as the best risk factors related to NAFLD. However, other factors were highlighted, such as gender differences, ethnicity, genetic factors and the role of innate immunity system. How these additional factors may be involved in the installation, progression and disease prognosis is discussed. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome expands the prospects to 1 recognize patients with metabolic syndrome at high risk for NAFLD, 2 elucidate pathways common to other co-morbidities, 3

  4. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  5. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  6. The Risk of Metabolic Syndrome among Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hung, Wen-Jui; Lin, Lam-Ping; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    People with metabolic syndrome (MS) are at increased risk of coronary heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke. However, there is little previous information on the prevalence and determinants of MS among people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of MS risk factors…

  7. Gender differences in the association between westernization and metabolic risk among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Inuit have gone through an accelerated process of modernization especially since 1950. Primarily because of the dietary transition, westernisation is expected to influence the Inuit's metabolic risk in a negative way with respect to cardiovascular risk. The aim was to analyze meta...

  8. How to Develop a Cardio-Oncology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Park, Jae Yoon; Lerman, Amir; Mulvagh, Sharon; Lin, Grace; Pereira, Naveen; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Villarraga, Hector R; Herrmann, Joerg

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular demands to the care of cancer patients are common and important given the implications for morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, interactions with cardiovascular disease specialists have intensified to the point of the development of a new discipline termed cardio-oncology. As an additional consequence, so-called cardio-oncology clinics have emerged, in most cases staffed by cardiologists with an interest in the field. This article addresses this gap and summarizes key points in the development of a cardio-oncology clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of milk and milk proteins on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolecents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina

    This PhD is based on data from an intervention study with milk and milk proteins conducted in Danish adolescents with overweight. There is a high prevalence of overweight in Danish adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors related to overweight and believed to increase the risk...... of type-2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Overweight children have higher concentrations of the metabolic syndrome risk factors than normal weight children and the pathological condition underlying cardiovascular diseases, called atherosclerosis, seems to start in childhood. A well...... skimmed milk, whey, casein or water for three months. The background for the intervention is that milk is an important source of protein in the Western diet and epidemiological studies in children have shown that children drinking low amounts of milk have higher concentrations of the metabolic risk...

  10. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2009-01-01

    follow-up data 6 years later (n = 169). Cardiometabolic risk profile was calculated using a continuous composite score derived from summing of 6 factors standardized to the sample means (Z scores): body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total serum cholesterol to serum high...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children......Prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify children at increased cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to study whether markers of metabolism and inflammation, for example, circulating plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte growth factor, are associated with cardiometabolic...

  11. [The epidemiological relationship of periodontitis, intestinal dysbiosis, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhina, N B; Zorina, O A; Rabinovich, I M; Shilov, A M

    2015-01-01

    The study of risk factors for cardio-vascular continuum (CVC), the influence of the digestive tract endobiosis on lipid-carbohydrate metabolism and clinical status, a retrospective analysis of 1000 medical records of patients, suffering from various diseases of internal organs (Gastrointestinal tract, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity) in combination with periodontitis of varying severity, aged 20 to 55 years. A statistically significant relationship is directly proportional to the severity of inflammation of periodontal tissues with body mass index (BMI), especially pronounced in patients with a BMI ≥225 kg/m2 which is the "calling card" of the metabolic syndrome - clinical model polymorbidity.

  12. Awareness and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MetS) in high-risk individuals attending 30 internal medicine clinics in Amman, Jordan, and also to evaluate the various factors associated with increased risk of MetS among them. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out ...

  13. The metabolic syndrome: validity and utility of clinical definitions for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of clinical definitions of the metabolic syndrome is frequently misunderstood. While the metabolic syndrome as a physiological process describes a clustering of numerous age-related metabolic abnormalities that together increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, clinical definitions include obesity which is thought to be a cause rather than a consequence of metabolic disturbance, and several elements that are routinely measured in clinical practice, including high blood pressure, high blood glucose and dyslipidaemia. Obesity is frequently a central player in the development of the metabolic syndrome and should be considered a key component of clinical definitions. Previous clinical definitions have differed in the priority given to obesity. Perhaps more importantly than its role in a clinical definition, however, is obesity in isolation before the hallmarks of metabolic dysfunction that typify the syndrome have developed. This should be treated seriously as an opportunity to prevent the consequences of the global diabetes epidemic now apparent. Clinical definitions were designed to identify a population at high lifetime CVD and type 2 diabetes risk, but in the absence of several major risk factors for each condition, are not optimal risk prediction devices for either. Despite this, the metabolic syndrome has several properties that make it a useful construct, in conjunction with short-term risk prediction algorithms and sound clinical judgement, for the identification of those at high lifetime risk of CVD and diabetes. A recently published consensus definition provides some much needed clarity about what a clinical definition entails. Even this, however, remains a work in progress until more evidence becomes available, particularly in the area of ethnicity-specific waist cut-points. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beneficial effect of pistachio consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation, and related metabolic risk markers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Baldrich-Mora, Mònica; Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-11-01

    To examine whether a pistachio-rich diet reduces the prediabetes stage and improves its metabolic risk profile. Prediabetic subjects were recruited to participate in this Spanish randomized clinical trial between 20 September 2011 and 4 February 2013. In a crossover manner, 54 subjects consumed two diets, each for 4 months: a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD) and a control diet (CD). A 2-week washout period separated study periods. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber, and saturated fatty acids. A total of 55% of the CD calories came from carbohydrates and 30% from fat, whereas for the PD, these percentages were 50 and 35%, respectively (including 57 g/day of pistachios). Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA of insulin resistance decreased significantly after the PD compared with the CD. Other cardiometabolic risk markers such as fibrinogen, oxidized LDL, and platelet factor 4 significantly decreased under the PD compared with the CD (P pistachio intervention (P pistachio consumption is emerging as a useful nutritional strategy for the prediabetic state. Data suggest that pistachios have a glucose- and insulin-lowering effect, promote a healthier metabolic profile, and reverse certain metabolic deleterious consequences of prediabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Apolipoproteins E and CIII interact to regulate HDL metabolism and coronary heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Allyson M; Koch, Manja; Mendivil, Carlos O

    2018-01-01

    cholesterol transport, which may protect against atherosclerosis. ApoCIII on HDL strongly attenuates these metabolic actions of HDL apoE. In the epidemiological study, the relation between HDL apoE concentration and CHD significantly differed depending on whether apoCIII was present. HDL apoE was associated...... significantly with lower risk of CHD only in the HDL subspecies lacking apoCIII. CONCLUSIONS: ApoE and apoCIII on HDL interact to affect metabolism and CHD. ApoE promotes metabolic steps in reverse cholesterol transport and is associated with lower risk of CHD. ApoCIII, when coexisting with apoE on HDL......, abolishes these benefits. Therefore, differences in metabolism of HDL subspecies pertaining to reverse cholesterol transport are reflected in differences in association with CHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01399632. FUNDING: This work was supported by NIH grant R01HL095964 to FMS...

  16. Dairy food consumption is inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J

    2013-07-01

    The present study explored the association between dairy food consumption and the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the most recent nationally representative data. The study sample comprised 4862 Korean adults (≥19 years) who participated in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dairy food consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. We found that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk or yogurt consumption (P foods may be associated with a lower risk of the metabolic syndrome. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  18. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene; Goodrich, Erica L; Im, KyungAh; Lukas, Mary Ann; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2018-05-01

    Background The incremental prognostic value of assessing the metabolic syndrome has been disputed. Little is known regarding its prognostic value in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Design and methods The presence of metabolic syndrome (2005 International Diabetes Federation) was assessed at baseline in SOLID-TIMI 52, a trial of patients within 30 days of acute coronary syndrome (median follow-up 2.5 years). The primary endpoint was major coronary events (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization). Results At baseline, 61.6% ( n = 7537) of patients met the definition of metabolic syndrome, 34.7% (n = 4247) had diabetes and 29.3% had both ( n = 3584). The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of major coronary events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.29, p metabolic syndrome was numerically but not significantly associated with the risk of major coronary events (adjHR 1.13, p = 0.06). Conversely, diabetes was a strong independent predictor of major coronary events in the absence of metabolic syndrome (adjHR 1.57, p metabolic syndrome identified patients at highest risk of adverse outcomes but the incremental value of metabolic syndrome was not significant relative to diabetes alone (adjHR 1.07, p = 0.54). Conclusions After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes is a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome provides only marginal incremental value once the presence or absence of diabetes is established.

  19. Association between television viewing and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a community-based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiu-Shong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of metabolic syndrome becoming an important issue during recent decades, many studies have explored the risk factors contributing to its development. However, less attention has been paid to the risk associated with sedentary behavior, especially television viewing. This study examined the association between television viewing time and the risk of having metabolic syndrome in a population of Taiwanese subjects. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study included 2,353 subjects (1,144 men and 1,209 women aged 40 and over from October, 2004 to September, 2005. Information about the time spent watching TV was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The definition of metabolic syndrome was according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel modified for Asians. Results Compared to subjects who viewed TV 20 hr/week had a 1.50-fold (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.10, 2.03 risk for men and a 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.37, 2.71 risk for women of having metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for physical activity and other covariates. Stratifying by the three categories of total activity levels, TV viewing time > 20 hr/week was found to still hold a significant risk for having metabolic syndrome in the lowest of the three categories of total activity level for men and in all three categories of total activity level for women. Conclusion The findings suggest that TV viewing is an independent risk factor associated with metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese people.

  20. Increased metabolic risk in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes: The EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachová, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with offspring of non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: During 1993-1999, pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes in Denmark were...... with offspring metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes had a less favourable metabolic profile and higher frequency of prediabetes than the background population. Significant associations between these outcomes and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy...

  1. Monitoring of electric-cardio signals based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi-xin; Sun, Hui-nan; Lv, Shuang

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring of electric-cardio signals is the most direct method of discovering heart diseases. This article presents an electric-cardio signal acquisition and processing system based on DSP. According to the features of electric-cardio signals, the proposed system uses the AgCl electrode as electric-cardio signals sensor, and acquires analog signals with AD620 as the prepositional amplifier, and the digital system equipped is with TMS320LF2407A DSP. The design of digital filter and the analysis of heart rate variation are realized by programming in the DSP. Finally the ECG is obtained with P and T waves along with obvious QRS multi-wave characteristics. The system has low power dissipation, low cost and high precision, which meets the requirements for medical instruments.

  2. Metabolic acidosis as a risk factor for the development of acute kidney injury and hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiachang; Wang, Yimei; Geng, Xuemei; Chen, Rongyi; Xu, Xialian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Lin, Jing; Teng, Jie; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic acidosis has been proved to be a risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease, but its relation to acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been investigated. In general, a diagnosis of metabolic acidosis is based on arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis, but the diagnostic role of carbon dioxide combining power (CO 2 CP) in the venous blood may also be valuable to non-respiratory patients. This retrospective study included all adult non-respiratory patients admitted consecutively to our hospital between October 01, 2014 and September 30, 2015. A total of 71,089 non-respiratory patients were included, and only 4,873 patients were evaluated by ABG analysis at admission. In patients with ABG, acidosis, metabolic acidosis, decreased HCO 3 - and hypocapnia at admission was associated with the development of AKI, while acidosis and hypocapnia were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Among non-respiratory patients, decreased CO 2 CP at admission was an independent risk factor for AKI and hospital mortality. ROC curves indicated that CO 2 CP was a reasonable biomarker to exclude metabolic acidosis, dual and triple acid-base disturbances. The effect sizes of decreased CO 2 CP on AKI and hospital mortality varied according to age and different underlying diseases. Metabolic acidosis is an independent risk factor for the development of AKI and hospital mortality. In non-respiratory patient, decreased CO 2 CP is also an independent contributor to AKI and mortality and can be used as an indicator of metabolic acidosis.

  3. Stress, autonomic imbalance, and the prediction of metabolic risk: A model and a proposal for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Lawson; Herman, James; Thayer, Julian F

    2018-03-01

    Devising novel prevention strategies for metabolic disorders will depend in part on the careful elucidation of the common pathways for developing metabolic risks. The neurovisceral integration model has proposed that autonomic imbalance plays an important role in the pathway from acute and chronic stress to cardiovascular disease. Though generally overlooked by clinicians, autonomic imbalance (sympathetic overactivity and/or parasympathetic underactivity) can be measured and modified by methods that are available in primary care. This review applies the neurovisceral integration concept to the clinical setting by proposing that autonomic imbalance plays a primary role in the development of metabolic risks. We present a testable model, a systematic review of the evidence in support of autonomic imbalance as a predictor for metabolic risks, and specific approaches to test this model as a guide to future research on the role of stress in metabolic disorders. We propose that autonomic imbalance deserves consideration by researchers, clinicians, and policymakers as a target for early interventions to prevent metabolic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. NPAS2 and PER2 are linked to risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Arpo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian circadian clocks control multiple physiological events. The principal circadian clock generates seasonal variations in behavior as well. Seasonality elevates the risk for metabolic syndrome, and evidence suggests that disruption of the clockwork can lead to alterations in metabolism. Our aim was to analyze whether circadian clock polymorphisms contribute to seasonal variations in behavior and to the metabolic syndrome. Methods We genotyped 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP from 19 genes which were either canonical circadian clock genes or genes related to the circadian clockwork from 517 individuals drawn from a nationwide population-based sample. Associations between these SNPs and seasonality, metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were analyzed using regression analysis. The p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Results Our findings link circadian gene variants to the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, since Npas2 was associated with hypertension (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.0024 and Per2 was associated with high fasting blood glucose (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.049. Conclusion Our findings support the view that relevant relationships between circadian clocks and the metabolic syndrome in humans exist.

  5. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  6. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies MJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Davies,1 Katherine W Merton,1 Ujjwala Vijapurkar,2 Dainius A Balis,2 Mehul Desai2 1Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA Objective: Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome.Methods: This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1 and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2. Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C <1.0 mmol/L (men or <1.3 mmol/L (women; waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men, ≥88 cm (non-Asian women, >90 cm (Asian men, or >80 cm (Asian women; diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg. Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports.Results: In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus

  7. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caitlin J Smith, Kelli K Ryckman Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative. Keywords: epigenetics, metabolic syndrome, fetal programming, maternal, pregnancy complications

  8. Ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in malaysia: an analysis by risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrew K G; Dunn, Richard A; Yen, Steven T

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (2005/2006). Logistic regressions of metabolic syndrome health risks on sociodemographic and health-lifestyle factors were conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, and Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,366 individuals. Among both males and females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst Indians was larger compared to both Malays and Chinese because Indians are more likely to exhibit central obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We also found that Indians tend to engage in less physical activity and consume fewer fruits and vegetables than Malays and Chinese. Although education and family history of chronic disease are associated with metabolic syndrome status, differences in socioeconomic attributes do not explain ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome incidence. The difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence between Chinese and Malays was not statistically significant. Whereas both groups exhibited similar obesity rates, ethnic Chinese were less likely to suffer from high fasting blood glucose. Metabolic syndrome disproportionately affects Indians in Malaysia. Additionally, fasting blood glucose rates differ dramatically amongst ethnic groups. Attempts to decrease health disparities among ethnic groups in Malaysia will require greater attention to improving the metabolic health of Malays, especially Indians, by encouraging healthful lifestyle changes.

  9. Polymorphisms in fatty acid metabolism-related genes are associated with colorectal cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeft, B.; Linseisen, J.; Beckmann, L.

    2010-01-01

    as contributing factor to colon carcinogenesis. We examined the association between genetic variability in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and colorectal risk in 1225 CRC cases and 2032 controls participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Three hundred......Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The crucial role of fatty acids for a number of important biological processes suggests a more in-depth analysis of inter-individual differences in fatty acid metabolizing genes...... variants with CRC risk. Our results support the key role of prostanoid signaling in colon carcinogenesis and suggest a relevance of genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism-related genes and CRC risk....

  10. Gender differences in metabolic risk factor prevalence in a South African student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carine; Essop, M Faadiel

    2009-01-01

    We determined selected risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and assessed the metabolic risk status (using IDF criteria) of third-year physiology students at Stellenbosch University (88 males and 178 females). Outcome measures included anthropometry [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio], blood pressure (BP), resting pulse rate, and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, students completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A number of gender-based differences were found, with male students displaying a greater incidence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: 6% of males versus 3% of females displayed a cluster of three risk factors. Twenty-five per cent of female students (but only 14% of males) exhibited waist circumferences above the accepted range, which was positively correlated, for males and females, with both systolic and diastolic BP, and in females only, also with total cholesterol levels. Male students on average exercised more than their female counterparts, but also exhibited poorer eating habits. Average blood triglyceride levels for both male and female students exceeded the accepted threshold (1.85 +/- 1.62 mmol/l and 2.15 +/- 1.79 mmol/l, respectively). We concluded that metabolic risk factors were evident in a much younger population than commonly expected. Moreover, the gender-specific differences observed may impact on future risk assessment and preventative measures adopted.

  11. Patients with psoriasis have insufficient knowledge of their risk of atherothrombotic disease and metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Philipsen, P; Therming, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge is crucial to allow patients to increase their level of self-care. OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which patients with moderate to severe psoriasis feel informed about their disease, to investigate their level of knowledge about psoriasis and the associated risk...... to a questionnaire. RESULTS: Patients were well informed about their skin disease, but were less well informed about their risk of atherothrombotic disease/metabolic syndrome (visual analogue scale values of 6.91 and 5.15, respectively). Patients' knowledge of the disease was reflected by 74.2-99.1% correct answers...... (CA). The risk of arthritis elicited 88% CA and of depression 41.7% CA, while the risk of atherothrombotic disease and metabolic syndrome produced only 11.9-15.3% CA. Patients treated with biological drugs had a significantly stronger sense of being more well informed about the risk of disease (P = 0...

  12. Physical activity, stress, and metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan E; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Gentile, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether physical activity modifies the relationship between stress and the metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old males (n = 37). Physical activity (PA) and television (TV)/videogame (VG) use were assessed via accelerometer and questionnaire, respectively. Stress was determined from self-report measures. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was created by summing age-standardized residuals for waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Correlations between PA and MRS were low (r adolescents.

  13. Increased risk of hospitalization for ultrarapid metabolizers of cytochrome P450 2D6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi,1 Euijung Ryu,2 Jyotishman Pathak,2 Gregory D Jenkins,2 Anthony Batzler,2 Matthew A Hathcock,2 John Logan Black,3 Janet E Olson,2 James R Cerhan,2 Suzette J Bielinski2 1Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences Research, 3Division of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism of clinically used drugs and other environmental exposures, but it is unclear whether the CYP2D6 phenotype is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim was to determine the association of CYP2D6 phenotype with the risk of hospitalization or an emergency department (ED visit among a group of primary care patients. Methods: In this study, 929 adult patients underwent CYP2D6 testing. The primary outcome was risk of hospitalization or an ED visit from January 2005 through September 2014. CYP2D6 genotypes were interpreted as 1 of 7 clinical phenotypes, from ultrarapid to poor metabolizer, and patients with the extensive metabolizer phenotype were used as the reference group. The hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated for finding the association of CYP2D6 phenotypes with the risk of hospitalization or an ED visit by using Cox proportional hazard models and adjusting for age and sex. Results: The median age was 49 years (interquartile range, 46–52 years; 74% of patients had 3 or fewer chronic conditions, 285 had at least 1 hospitalization, and 496 had at least 1 ED visit. The risk of hospitalization was higher among patients who were ultrarapid metabolizers compared to extensive metabolizers (47% vs 30%; HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11–2.57, as was the risk of an ED visit (62% vs 49%; HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.05–2.14. For poor metabolizers compared to extensive metabolizers, there was no difference in the risk of hospitalization (HR

  14. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-05-01

    Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors. A systematic literature search was performed in 2015. Studies were included if (1) they had a longitudinal design; (2) shift work was studied as the exposure; and (3) the outcome involved a metabolic risk factor, including anthropometric, blood glucose, blood lipid, or blood pressure measures. Eligible studies were assessed for their methodologic quality in 2015. A best-evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions per outcome. Thirty-nine articles describing 22 studies were included. Strong evidence was found for a relation between shift work and increased body weight/BMI, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. For the remaining outcomes, there was insufficient evidence. Shift work seems to be associated with body weight gain, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. Overall, lack of high-methodologic quality studies and inconsistency in findings led to insufficient evidence in assessing the relation between shift work and other metabolic risk factors. To strengthen the evidence, more high-quality longitudinal studies that provide more information on the shift work schedule (e.g., frequency of night shifts, duration in years) are needed. Further, research to the (mediating) role of lifestyle behaviors in the health effects of shift work is recommended, as this may offer potential for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Association of Serum Adiponectin Levels with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Malay Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Firdaus Isa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in adults living in rural Malaysia. Methods: A total of 299 Malay adults (men=124; women = 175 with a mean age 48.8 (11.7 years were recruited. Measurements for waist circumference and blood pressure were taken before drawing an overnight fasting blood samples. Biochemical tests for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose and serum adiponectin concentration were measured. Results: Our results show that the adiponectin level in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly lower than those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05. Among the metabolic syndrome risk factors, adiponectin level was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced HDL cholesterol (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The outcome from this study which highlights the association of hypoadiponectinemia with risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Malay adults, suggests that the reduced level of adiponectin may play a pivotal role in the development of metabolic syndrome in this ethnic group.

  16. Correlation of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels with metabolic risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahued-Ortega, José Armando; León-García, Plácido Enrique; Hernández-Pérez, Elizabeth

    2018-04-17

    Natriuretic peptide type B (BNP) is a marker of myocardium injury. This peptide has been associated with metabolic risk markers, although controversy exists in this regard. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation of plasma BNP levels with metabolic risk parameters. A retrospective, observational study that included 152 patients, who were classified according to their clinical diagnosis as patients with metabolic syndrome. Plasma BNP levels and clinical metabolic parameters were assessed by using Spearmańs rank correlation coefficient. A significant inverse association with weight (r=-.408; p<.0001) and BMI (r=-.443; p<.001) was obtained. While a positive significant association with systolic pressure (r=.324; p<.001) was observed. A significant decrease was found in BNP levels and components of metabolic syndrome. (p<.05). Based on the results from this study, we can conclude that BNP determination could be an adequate metabolic marker. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertility biomarkers to estimate metabolic risks in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detti, Laura; Jeffries-Boyd, Heather E; Williams, Lucy J; Diamond, Michael P; Uhlmann, Rebecca A

    2015-12-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-defining characteristics and the risk of developing metabolic complications in women presenting with complaints of infertility and/or menstrual irregularities and subsequently diagnosed with PCOS. This was a cross-sectional study. Women presenting with complaints of infertility and/or irregular menses and diagnosed with PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria, underwent endocrine, metabolic, and ultrasound assessment in the early follicular phase. Reproductive and metabolic parameters were included in regression analysis models with the PCOS-defining characteristics; ROC curves were calculated for the significant predictors. Three hundred and seventy-four women with PCOS were included in our study. Oligo-anovulation, menstrual irregularities, and hirsutism were not predictive of any of the variables. Ovarian volume, follicle count, and biochemical hyperandrogenism were predictors for hormonal, metabolic, and endometrial complications. The relationships were independent of age and body mass index. ROC curves identified lower cut-off values of the PCOS-defining characteristics to predict patients' risks of hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance. Adverse metabolic effects of PCOS are already present in women at the time they present complaining of infertility and/or irregular menses. Hyperandrogenism and ultrasound can assist in predicting the patients' concomitant metabolic abnormalities and can aid physicians in tailoring counseling for effective preventive strategies.

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation of Altered Systemic Metabolism and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    09/08/15-08/31/19 0.96 cal. mo. NIH/NCI $168,300 A prospective investigation of the oral microbiome and pancreatic cancer 1.To perform a...and BWHS. 2.To evaluate racial differences in the oral microbiome using 165 AA and 165 EA controls (from the SCCS only), and to identify any racial...risk factors for pancreatic cancer (cigarette smoking, obesity, red meat and processed meat consumption, alcohol consumption, type 2 diabetes) and oral

  19. Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and metabolic risk in obese adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Indra; McCrindle, Brian W; Manlhiot, Cedric; Lu, Zihang; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Birken, Catherine S; Hamilton, Jill

    2018-01-22

    There is conflicting data regarding the independent associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with metabolic risk in obese youth. Previous studies have not consistently addressed central adiposity, specifically elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR), which is associated with metabolic risk independent of body mass index. The objective of this study was to determine the independent effects of the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) and associated indices of nocturnal hypoxia on metabolic function in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR. Subjects had standardized anthropometric measurements. Fasting blood included insulin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, alanine transferase, and aspartate transaminase. Insulin resistance was quantified with the homeostatic model assessment. Overnight polysomnography determined the OAHI and nocturnal oxygenation indices. Of the 75 recruited subjects, 23% were diagnosed with OSA. Adjusting for age, gender, and WHtR in multivariable linear regression models, a higher oxygen desaturation index was associated with a higher fasting insulin (coefficient [standard error] = 48.076 [11.255], p Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia rather than the OAHI was associated with metabolic risk in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR. Measures of abdominal adiposity such as WHtR should be considered in future studies that evaluate the impact of OSA on metabolic health.

  20. Evaluating the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Based on an Artificial Intelligence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is worldwide public health problem and is a serious threat to people's health and lives. Understanding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the physical symptoms is a difficult and challenging task, and few studies have been performed in this field. It is important to classify adults who are at high risk of metabolic syndrome without having to use a biochemical index and, likewise, it is important to develop technology that has a high economic rate of return to simplify the complexity of this detection. In this paper, an artificial intelligence model was developed to identify adults at risk of metabolic syndrome based on physical signs; this artificial intelligence model achieved more powerful capacity for classification compared to the PCLR (principal component logistic regression model. A case study was performed based on the physical signs data, without using a biochemical index, that was collected from the staff of Lanzhou Grid Company in Gansu province of China. The results show that the developed artificial intelligence model is an effective classification system for identifying individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin J; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative.

  2. Arsenic metabolism and cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E; Franco-Marina, Francisco; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2017-07-01

    To describe the studies that have reported association measures between risk of cancer and the percentage distribution of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolites by anatomical site, in non-ecological epidemiological studies. Studies were identified in the PubMed database in the period from 1990 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were: non-ecological epidemiological study, with histologically confirmed cancer cases, reporting the percentage distribution of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated (MMA) and dimethylated (DMA) metabolites, as well as association measures with confidence intervals (CI) between cancer and %iAs and/or %MMA and/or %DMA. A descriptive meta-analysis was performed by the method of the inverse of the variance for the fixed effects model and the DerSimonian and Laird's method for the random effects model. Heterogeneity was tested using the Q statistic and stratifying for epidemiological design and total As in urine. The possibility of publication bias was assessed through Begg's test. A total of 13 eligible studies were found, most of them were performed in Taiwan and focused on skin and bladder cancer. The positive association between %MMA and various types of cancer was consistent, in contrast to the negative relationship between %DMA and cancer that was inconsistent. The summary risk of bladder (OR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.26, n=4 studies) and lung (OR=2.44; 95% CI: 1.57, 3.80, n=2 studies) cancer increased significantly with increasing %MMA, without statistical heterogeneity. In contrast, lung cancer risk was inversely related to %DMA (OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.93, n=2 studies), also without significant heterogeneity. These results were similar after stratifying by epidemiological design and total As in urine. No evidence of publication bias was found. These findings provide additional support that methylation needs to be taken into account when assessing the potential iAs carcinogenicity risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Metabolic syndrome in family practice in Jordan: a study of high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasein, N; Masa'd, D

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and its components, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Jordanian patients attending a family practice clinic for management of cardiovascular risk factors. The sample was 730 randomly selected patients aged > or = 25 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.4% (31.7% in men; 41.0% in women). The prevalence increased with age in the total sample and in both sexes. High waist circumference showed the highest prevalence in the total sample (61.6%). Among females it ranked as the first criterion (73.5%). High serum triglyceride level showed the highest prevalence in males (50.2%). Differences between the sexes were significant. Family practitioners should be alerted to the importance of multiple risk factors in the metabolic syndrome.

  4. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged...... 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency......, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...

  5. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Pishva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases.Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for investigation of the patients.Lethargy, poor feeding ,persistent vomiting, cholestasis, intractable seizure ,decreased level of consciousness ,persistent hypoglycemia, unexplained acid base disturbance and unexplained neonatal death.Result: Organic acidemia with 40 cases (42% was the most frequent disorder diagnosed in our high risk populations, followed by disorder of galactose metabolism(30%, 15 patient had classic galactosemia(GALT

  6. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Pishva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases. Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for investigation of the patients. Lethargy, poor feeding ,persistent vomiting, cholestasis, intractable seizure ,decreased level of consciousness ,persistent hypoglycemia, unexplained acid base disturbance and unexplained neonatal death. Result: Organic acidemia with 40 cases (42% was the most frequent disorder diagnosed in our high risk populations, followed by disorder of galactose metabolism(30%, 15 patient had classic galactosemia(GALT

  7. Cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk among men with and without erectile dysfunction: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, João Paulo; Mendonça, Rafaela Rosalba de; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Karam Junior, Amir; Santos, Raul D.; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf de; Wroclawski, Eric Roger

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Erectile dysfunction has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim here was to evaluate cardiovascular risk through the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) criteria, C-reactive protein (CRP) assays and presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in men with and without erectile dysfunction diagnosed within a healthcare program. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. The patients were selected from a healthcare program at the Hospital Israelita...

  8. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions12

    OpenAIRE

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stress...

  9. The association between metabolic health, obesity phenotype and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; White, Alexandra J; Nichols, Hazel B; O'Brien, Katie M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-06-15

    Beyond the current emphasis on body mass index (BMI), it is unknown whether breast cancer risk differs between metabolically healthy and unhealthy normal weight or overweight/obese women. The Sister Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study. Data came from 50,884 cohort participants aged 35 to 74 years enrolled from 2003 through 2009. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer risk. Metabolic abnormalities considered included: high waist circumference (≥88 cm); elevated blood pressure (≥130/85 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication); previously diagnosed diabetes or antidiabetic drug treatment; and cholesterol-lowering medication use. During follow-up (mean, 6.4 years), 1,388 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed at least 1 year after enrollment. Compared to women with BMI women with a BMI women with a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and no metabolic abnormalities (metabolically healthy overweight/obese phenotype) (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.99-1.55). Furthermore, risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was consistently elevated in women with normal BMI and central obesity (normal weight central obesity phenotype) regardless of the criterion used to define central obesity, with HR for waist circumference ≥88 cm, waist circumference ≥80 cm, and waist-hip ratio ≥0.85 of 1.58, 95% CI: 1.02-2.46; 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09-1.75; and 1.38, 95% CI: 1.02-1.85, respectively. There was an inverse association between premenopausal breast cancer and metabolically healthy overweight/obese phenotype (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52-0.97). Our findings suggest that postmenopausal women who are metabolically unhealthy or have central adiposity may be at increased risk for breast cancer despite normal BMI. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Genetic Variants of Homocysteine Metabolizing Enzymes and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janošíková, B.; Pavlíková, Markéta; Kocmanová, Dora; Vítová, D.; Veselá, K.; Krupková, L.; Kahleová, R.; Krijt, J.; Kraml, P.; Hyánek, J.; Zvárová, Jana; Anděl, M.; Kožich, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 79, - (2003), s. 167-175 ISSN 1096-7192 R&D Projects: GA MZd NM26; GA MZd NM6548 Keywords : coronary disease * risk factors * genes * homocysteine * metabolism Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2003

  11. Physical activity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Lysette N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between physical activity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and the risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality due to CHD in middle-aged men and women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 10,134 men and women aged 45-79 years at

  12. Metabolism and risks from tritium and carbon-14 in the developing organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Hoek, J. van den

    1987-01-01

    In this review the risks are considered from tritium and carbon-14 to the developing organs of mammals. It mainly deals with H-3 but the conclusions are largely valid also for C-14. The metabolism and average tissue of THO as well as of organically bound tritium are discussed. Dosimetry of radiosensitive structures is also considered. 14 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 table

  13. Biomarkers related to one-carbon metabolism as potential risk factors for distal colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Midttun, O.; Bjorge, T.; Kampman, E.; Bretthauer, M.; Hoff, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efficient one-carbon metabolism, which requires adequate supply of methyl group donors and B-vitamins, may protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. However, plasma folate and vitamins B2 and B12 have inconsistently been associated with colorectal cancer risk, and there have been no

  14. Biomarkers Related to One-Carbon Metabolism as Potential Risk Factors for Distal Colorectal Adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de S.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Midttun, O.; Bjorge, T.; Kampman, E.; Bretthauer, M.; Hoff, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Efficient one-carbon metabolism, which requires adequate supply of methyl group donors and B-vitamins, may protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. However, plasma folate and vitamins B2 and B12 have inconsistently been associated with colorectal cancer risk, and there have been no

  15. The effect of dietary sugars on triacylglycerol metabolism in subjects at increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar diet may increase plasma triacylglycerol (TG) levels and cause dyslipidaemia, resulting in a higher cardiometabolic risk. High sugar intake may also promote the accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver. Objectives: To determine the effect of two isocaloric diets, low and high in extrinsic sugars (6% or 26% total energy respectively corresponding to the lower and upper 2.5th percentile of the intake in men aged 40-65 in the UK) but with the same total carbohydrate co...

  16. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  17. Metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American HIV-infected patients receiving HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Cahn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities (MA and estimate the 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD among Latin American HIV-infected patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. METHODS: A cohort study to evaluate MA and treatment practices to reduce CVD has been conducted in seven Latin American countries. Adult HIV-infected patients with at least one month of HAART were enrolled. Baseline data are presented in this analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4,010 patients were enrolled. Mean age (SD was 41.9 (10 years; median duration of HAART was 35 (IQR: 10-51 months, 44% received protease inhibitors. The prevalence of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome was 80.2% and 20.2%, respectively. The overall 10-year risk of CVD, as measured by the Framingham risk score (FRF, was 10.4 (24.7. Longer exposure to HAART was documented in patients with dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The FRF score increased with duration of HAART. Male patients had more dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, smoking habit and higher 10-year CVD than females. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional risk factors for CVD are prevalent in this setting leading to intermediate 10-year risk of CVD. Modification of these risk factors through education and intervention programs are needed to reduce CVD.

  18. Toxic-metabolic Risk Factors in Pediatric Pancreatitis: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Management, and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sohail Z; Morinville, Veronique; Pohl, John; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Bellin, Melena D; Freedman, Steve; Hegyi, Peter; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Ooi, Chee Y; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Usatin, Danielle; Uc, Aliye

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatitis in children can result from metabolic and toxic risk factors, but the evidence linking these factors is sparse. We review the evidence for association or causality of these risk factors in pancreatitis, discuss management strategies, and their rationale. We conducted a review of the pediatric pancreatitis literature with respect to the following risk factors: hyperlipidemia, hypercalcemia, chronic renal failure, smoking exposure, alcohol, and medications. Areas of additional research were identified. Hypertriglyceridemia of 1000 mg/dL or greater poses an absolute risk for pancreatitis; persistent elevations of calcium are predisposing. Further research is necessary to determine whether end-stage renal disease leads to increased pancreatitis in children similar to adults. It is unknown whether cigarette smoking exposure, which clearly increases risk in adults, also increases risk in children. The role of alcohol in pediatric pancreatitis, whether direct or modifying, needs to be elucidated. The evidence supporting most cases of medication-induced pancreatitis is poor. Drug structure, improper handling of drug by host, and bystander status may be implicated. Other pancreatitis risk factors must be sought in all cases. The quality of evidence supporting causative role of various toxic and metabolic factors in pediatric pancreatitis is variable. Careful phenotyping is essential, including search for other etiologic risk factors. Directed therapy includes correction/removal of any agent identified, and general supportive measures. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of these pancreatitis risk factors in children.

  19. Toxic-Metabolic Risk Factors in Pediatric Pancreatitis: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Management and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sohail Z.; Morinville, Veronique; Pohl, John; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Bellin, Melena D.; Freedman, Steve; Hegyi, Peter; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Ooi, Chee Y.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Usatin, Danielle; Uc, Aliye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatitis in children can result from metabolic and toxic risk factors, but the evidence linking these factors is sparse. We review the evidence for association or causality of these risk factors in pancreatitis, discuss management strategies and their rationale. Methods We conducted a review of the pediatric pancreatitis literature with respect to the following risk factors: (a) hyperlipidemia, (b) hypercalcemia, (c) chronic renal failure, (d) smoking exposure, (e) alcohol, and (f) medications. Areas of additional research were identified. Results Hypertriglyceridemia of 1000 mg/dl or greater poses an absolute risk for pancreatitis; persistent elevations of calcium are predisposing. Further research is necessary to determine whether end stage renal disease leads to increased pancreatitis in children similar to adults. It is unknown whether cigarette smoking exposure, which clearly increases risk in adults, also increases risk in children. The role of alcohol in pediatric pancreatitis, whether direct or modifying, needs to be elucidated. The evidence supporting most cases of medication-induced pancreatitis is poor. Drug structure, improper handling of drug by host, and by-stander status may be implicated. Other pancreatitis risk factors must be sought in all cases. Conclusions The quality of evidence supporting causative role of various toxic and metabolic factors in pediatric pancreatitis is variable. Careful phenotyping is essential, including search for other etiologic risk factors. Directed therapy includes correction/ removal of any agent identified, and general supportive measures. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of these pancreatitis risk factors in children. PMID:26594832

  20. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  1. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  2. Cardio-PACs: a new opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupler, Frederick A., Jr.; Thomas, James D.; Blume, Hartwig R.; Cecil, Robert A.; Heisler, Mary

    2000-05-01

    It is now possible to replace film-based image management in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with a Cardiology Picture Archiving and Communication System (Cardio-PACS) based on digital imaging technology. The first step in the conversion process is installation of a digital image acquisition system that is capable of generating high-quality DICOM-compatible images. The next three steps, which are the subject of this presentation, involve image display, distribution, and storage. Clinical requirements and associated cost considerations for these three steps are listed below: Image display: (1) Image quality equal to film, with DICOM format, lossless compression, image processing, desktop PC-based with color monitor, and physician-friendly imaging software; (2) Performance specifications include: acquire 30 frames/sec; replay 15 frames/sec; access to file server 5 seconds, and to archive 5 minutes; (3) Compatibility of image file, transmission, and processing formats; (4) Image manipulation: brightness, contrast, gray scale, zoom, biplane display, and quantification; (5) User-friendly control of image review. Image distribution: (1) Standard IP-based network between cardiac catheterization laboratories, file server, long-term archive, review stations, and remote sites; (2) Non-proprietary formats; (3) Bidirectional distribution. Image storage: (1) CD-ROM vs disk vs tape; (2) Verification of data integrity; (3) User-designated storage capacity for catheterization laboratory, file server, long-term archive. Costs: (1) Image acquisition equipment, file server, long-term archive; (2) Network infrastructure; (3) Review stations and software; (4) Maintenance and administration; (5) Future upgrades and expansion; (6) Personnel.

  3. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bee S; Poh, Bee K; Bulgiba, Awang; Ismail, Mohd N; Ruzita, Abdul T; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-05-18

    With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007) growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP) was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG) and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). International Diabetes Federation (2007) criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245) Malay, 30.9% (n = 124) Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33) Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8), followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1) and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7). Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p < 0.01). Overweight/obese children had higher odds (OR = 16.3; 95%CI 2.2, 461.1) of developing the metabolic syndrome compared to normal-weight children. Binary logistic regression showed no significant association between age, gender and family history of communicable diseases with the metabolic

  4. Chromium in Drinking Water: Sources, Metabolism, and Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor–dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10–20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  5. All-Cause Mortality Risk of Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals in NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Durward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1 homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR <2.5; (2 ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3 combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications, triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males or <1.30 mmol/L (females, LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n=4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1±10.9 years, BMI 27.3±5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female. Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4, P<0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9, P<0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8, P<0.01. MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of one-carbon metabolism pathway gene variants and renal cell cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M Gibson

    Full Text Available Folate and one-carbon metabolism are linked to cancer risk through their integral role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, particularly MTHFR, has been associated with risk of a number of cancers in epidemiologic studies, but little is known regarding renal cancer.Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs selected to produce high genomic coverage of 13 gene regions of one-carbon metabolism (ALDH1L1, BHMT, CBS, FOLR1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, TYMS and the closely associated glutathione synthesis pathway (CTH, GGH, GSS were genotyped for 777 renal cell carcinoma (RCC cases and 1,035 controls in the Central and Eastern European Renal Cancer case-control study. Associations of individual SNPs (n = 163 with RCC risk were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and study center. Minimum p-value permutation (Min-P tests were used to identify gene regions associated with risk, and haplotypes were evaluated within these genes.The strongest associations with RCC risk were observed for SLC19A1 (P(min-P = 0.03 and MTHFR (P(min-P = 0.13. A haplotype consisting of four SNPs in SLC19A1 (rs12483553, rs2838950, rs2838951, and rs17004785 was associated with a 37% increased risk (p = 0.02, and exploratory stratified analysis suggested the association was only significant among those in the lowest tertile of vegetable intake.To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively examine variation in one-carbon metabolism genes in relation to RCC risk. We identified a novel association with SLC19A1, which is important for transport of folate into cells. Replication in other populations is required to confirm these findings.

  7. Can a Trial of Motivational Lifestyle Counseling be Effective for Controlling Childhood Obesity and the Associated Cardiometabolic Risk Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: Motivational office-based counseling can be effective in treatment of childhood obesity and its associated cardio-metabolic risk factors. Such approach can be implemented in the primary health care system; and can be of special concern in low- and middle-income countries with limited human and financial resources. We suggest that expanding the roles of non-physician clinicians such as nurse practitioners can help to increase the amount of time available for such services.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and the development of vascular disease and type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and its associated insulin resistance play a key role in the clustering of vascular risk factors, known as Metabolic Syndrome. Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome are at increased risk for the development of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes and

  9. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the CArdiovascular safety and Renal Microvascular outcomE study with LINAgliptin (CARMELINA®): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardio-renal risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Perkovic, Vlado; Alexander, John H; Cooper, Mark E; Marx, Nikolaus; Pencina, Michael J; Toto, Robert D; Wanner, Christoph; Zinman, Bernard; Baanstra, David; Pfarr, Egon; Mattheus, Michaela; Broedl, Uli C; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; George, Jyothis T; von Eynatten, Maximilian; McGuire, Darren K

    2018-03-14

    Cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have underrepresented patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to uncertainty regarding their kidney efficacy and safety. The CARMELINA ® trial aims to evaluate the effects of linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on both CV and kidney outcomes in a study population enriched for cardio-renal risk. CARMELINA ® is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 27 countries in T2D patients at high risk of CV and/or kidney events. Participants with evidence of CKD with or without CV disease and HbA1c 6.5-10.0% (48-86 mmol/mol) were randomized 1:1 to receive linagliptin once daily or matching placebo, added to standard of care adjusted according to local guidelines. The primary outcome is time to first occurrence of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. The key secondary outcome is a composite of time to first sustained occurrence of end-stage kidney disease, ≥ 40% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, or renal death. CV and kidney events are prospectively adjudicated by independent, blinded clinical event committees. CARMELINA ® was designed to continue until at least 611 participants had confirmed primary outcome events. Assuming a hazard ratio of 1.0, this provides 90% power to demonstrate non-inferiority of linagliptin versus placebo within the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of 1.3 at a one-sided α-level of 2.5%. If non-inferiority of linagliptin for the primary outcome is demonstrated, then its superiority for both the primary outcome and the key secondary outcome will be investigated with a sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Between July 2013 and August 2016, 6980 patients were randomized and took ≥ 1 dose of study drug (40.6, 33.1, 16.9, and 9.4% from Europe, South America, North America, and Asia, respectively). At baseline, mean ± SD age was 65.8 ± 9.1 years, HbA1c

  10. Iron in Child Obesity. Relationships with Inflammation and Metabolic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bouglé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe sequestration is described in overweight and in its associated metabolic complications, i.e., metabolic syndrome (MetS and non-alcoholic liver fatty disease (NAFLD; however, the interactions between Fe, obesity and inflammation make it difficult to recognize the specific role of each of them in the risk of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Even the usual surrogate marker of Fe stores, ferritin, is influenced by inflammation; therefore, in obese subjects inflammation parameters must be measured together with those of Fe metabolism. This cross-sectional study in obese youth (502 patients; 57% girls: 11.4 ± 3.0 years old (x ± SD; BMI z score 5.5 ± 2.3, multivariate regression analysis showed associations between Fe storage assessed by serum ferritin with risk factors for MetS and NAFLD, assessed by transaminase levels, which were independent of overweight and the acute phase protein fibrinogen. Further studies incorporating the measurement of complementary parameters of Fe metabolism could improve the comprehension of mechanisms involved.

  11. Risk assessment of silica nanoparticles on liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice induced by fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianmei; He, Xiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Mei; Xu, Chenke; Yu, Rong

    2018-07-01

    This study aims to assess the effects and the mechanisms of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on hepatotoxicity in both normal and metabolic syndrome mouse models induced by fructose. Here, we found that SiNPs exposure lead to improved insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome mice, but markedly worsened hepatic ballooning, inflammation infiltration, and fibrosis. Moreover, SiNPs exposure aggravated liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice by causing serious DNA damage. Following SiNPs exposure, liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in metabolic syndrome mice were stimulated, which is accompanied by significantly increased malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as compared to normal mice. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that SiNPs were more readily deposited in the liver mitochondria of metabolic syndrome mice, resulting in more severe mitochondrial injury as compared to normal mice. We speculated that SiNPs-induced mitochondrial injury might be the cause of hepatic oxidative stress, which further lead to a series of liver lesions as observed in mice following SiNPs exposure. Based on these results, it is likely that SiNPs will increase the risk and severity of liver disease in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, SiNPs should be used cautiously in food additives and clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease, Normal and Impaired Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Cherniavska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to conduct the comparative analysis of the profile of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and normal either impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods. One hundred and forty two patients were observed. In order to estimate the rate of different forms of CHD depending on the state of carbohydrate metabolism such groups were formed: the first group consisted of 83 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, the second group involved 34 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, the third group consisted of 25 patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. The ischemic changes of myocardium were detected by ambulatory ECG monitoring with the obligatory achievement of submaximal heart rate during the research. Results. Silent myocardial ischemia was educed in 19 (22.9 % patients with type 2 DM, in 3 (8.8 % persons with IGT and in 2 (8.0 % patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. Smoking, burdened heredity, violation in the haemostatic system more often occurred in the group of patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia in comparison with the patients with type 2 DM without CHD. The profile of general population cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CHD and type 2 DM belongs to the most unfavorable. At the same time for patients with early violations of carbohydrate metabolism and normal carbohydrate metabolism such profile statistically does not differentiate meaningfully. Conclusions. Patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia as compared to patients with type 2 DM without CHD have more expressed violations of indexes of general population cardiovascular risk factors for certain.

  13. Sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Talavera, Juan O; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and components of the metabolic syndrome in a Mexican population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns and physical activity were collected via self-administered questionnaires. Sweetened beverage consumption was evaluated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Anthropometric and clinical measures were assessed with standardized procedures. The definition of metabolic syndrome was determined using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The associations of interest were evaluated by means of linear and logistic regression models. The Mexican states of Morelos and Mexico. A total of 5240 individuals aged 20 to 70 years (mean 39.4 (sd 11.5) years) were evaluated. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 56.6 %. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 26.6 %. We found that for each additional daily sweetened beverage serving consumed, participants experienced an average increase of 0.49 mmol/l in TAG and a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 0.31 mmol/l. Subjects consuming more than two servings of sweetened beverages daily were at 2.0 times greater risk of metabolic syndrome than those who did not consume sweetened beverages. We also observed that higher sweetened beverage consumption increased the risk of all components of the metabolic syndrome. Our data support the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults, possibly by providing excess energy and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars.

  14. Ability of Different Measures of Adiposity to Identify High Metabolic Risk in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15–18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes, with exception of WHtR for boys. BMI, WC, and WHtR performed well in detecting high MRS, indicated by areas under the curve (AUC, with slightly greater AUC for BMI than for WC and WHtR in both sexes. Conclusion. All measures of adiposity were significantly associated with metabolic risk factors in a sample of Portuguese adolescents.

  15. Startup circuit training program reduces metabolic risk in Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie Nicole; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Vanni, Amanda A; Meija, Mathew; Tung, Amy; Schroeder, E Todd; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of a circuit training (CT; aerobic + strength training) program, with and without motivational interviewing (MI) behavioral therapy, on reducing adiposity and type 2 diabetes risk factors in Latina teenagers. Thirty-eight Latina adolescents (15.8 ± 1.1 yr) who are overweight/obese were randomly assigned to control (C; n = 12), CT (n = 14), or CT + MI (n = 12). The CT classes were held twice a week (60-90 min) for 16 wk. The CT + MI group also received individual or group MI sessions every other week. The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one-repetition maximum; cardiorespiratory fitness (V·O 2max) by submaximal treadmill test; physical activity by accelerometry; dietary intake by records; height, weight, waist circumference; total body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hepatic fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging; and glucose/insulin indices by fasting blood draw. Across-intervention group effects were tested using repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. CT and CT + MI participants, compared with controls, significantly increased fitness (+16% and +15% vs -6%, P = 0.03) and leg press (+40% vs +20%, P = 0.007). Compared with controls, CT participants also decreased waist circumference (-3% vs +3%; P < 0.001), subcutaneous adipose tissue (-10% vs 8%, P = 0.04), visceral adipose tissue (-10% vs +6%, P = 0.05), fasting insulin (-24% vs +6%, P = 0.03), and insulin resistance (-21% vs -4%, P = 0.05). CT may be an effective starter program to reduce fat depots and improve insulin resistance in Latino youth who are overweight/obese, whereas the additional MI therapy showed no additive effect on these health outcomes.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and TV viewing in relation to metabolic risk factors in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Martins, Clarice; Gaya, Anelise; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Vale, Susana

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents who have high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) co-existing with low levels of television (TV) viewing present a better metabolic risk profile compared to their low fit and high TV viewing counterparts. A total of 372 students (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (body mass index and waist circumference) was collected. CRF was calculated based upon the 20 metres shuttle run test. A questionnaire was used to estimate weekly TV viewing. Information about biological maturity and parental education was collected. Participants were then categorized into one of four category profiles according to the scores they achieved: low TV-Fit; high TV-Fit; low TV-Unfit and high TV-Unfit. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated based on the sum of the Z-scores of all the metabolic variables analysed. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the high TV-Unfit group was almost 3-times more likely to be assigned to the high MRS group (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.08-7.50) compared to their low TV-Fit group counterparts. The data showed that the high TV-Unfit group was associated with an increased metabolic risk in adolescents after adjustment for gender, age, biological maturity and parental education.

  17. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Cardiovascular and metabolic risks in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: pragmatic clinical management based on available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Hanna; McInnes, Iain B; Sattar, Naveed

    2012-04-01

    Several studies suggest that patients with psoriasis and, in particular, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These patients are also more likely to be obese and to have diabetes and fatty liver disease. This article discusses the association between psoriasis and PsA and cardiometabolic disorders, emphasising the need for better consideration of simple lifestyle interventions. It also highlights areas for future research and proposes a simple and pragmatic test portfolio to screen for cardiovascular risk and metabolic disorders in patients at higher risk.

  19. [Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a case control study in Temuco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philco L, Patricia; Serón S, Pamela; Muñoz N, Sergio; Navia B, Pilar; Lanas Z, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming an important public health problem in affluent societies. To identify factors associated to metabolic syndrome in a Southern Chilean city. Using a case control design, 200 participants, aged 35 to 70 years with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP_ATPIII) and 200 subjects with less than three criteria, were studied. Both groups were compared in terms of ethnic background, educational level, family history of diabetes and coronary artery disease, menopausal status, smoking, stress and depression, physical activity, changes in body mass index in the last five years and diet. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among males and among overweight individuals, having a Mapuche origin was a risk factor with odds ratios (OR) of 7.2; 88 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among women and among overweight individuals, a family history of diabetes was a risk factor with OR of 17.7; 3.2 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years and among women a change in body mass index of more than three points was a risk factor with OR of 12.5 and 7.4, respectively. Depression also was a risk factor among subjects aged more than 54 years (OR 3.3). Regular consumption of wine was a protective factor among participants of more than 54 years, with an OR of 0.17. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome detected in this group of participants, were having a Mapuche origin, a family history of diabetes mellitus and depression. Wine consumption was associated with a lower risk.

  20. OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH: A HEALTH RISK WE CANNOT AFFORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge P. von Duvillard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample observational and empirical evidence has been provided that indicates that childhood metabolic syndrome risk factors inevitably lead to significantly more profound health risk factors of developing potent adulthood metabolic syndrome. Much of these data has been provided from medical, nutritional, health, pediatric, physical education and associated communities. Perhaps the most visible and observable health risk factor among children (here referred to as youth is the childhood obesity. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in western industrialized countries and is also becoming significantly more prevalent in Slovenia. The youth inactivity is attributed directly to epidemic and perhaps exponential occurrence of obesity in pediatric and youth populations. The symptoms and signs of metabolic syndrome have previously been attributed mostly to the adult population; however, similar observations have been identified and observed in young and very young segment of population. The typical risk factors of metabolic syndrome in youth, in adolescents, and in adulthood have been commonly identified to be: stress, overweight and obesity, sedentary life cycle, aging, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, lipodystrophy and several others. This presentation will review and address several well known risk factors of developing metabolic syndrome in young years that directly contributes to adult obesity and are exhibited in significantly higher rates of hypertension, dyslipidemias, and insulin resistance, which are all risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in North America and may also apply to Slovenia. Many of these risk factors are modifiable (nutrition, smoking, sedentary life style, vigorous physical activity, reduction in TV and computer game times, etc. with specific emphasis on very young, young, adolescents and profound consequences for adulthood. Several recommendations will be proposed that may

  1. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in an urban area of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia E; Paniagua-Urbano, José A; Solé-Agustí, María; Ruiz-Sánchez, Alfonso; Gómez-Marín, José

    2014-11-01

    It is extensive scientific literature that has defined the metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease. To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in the population of a basic health area of Murcia. Cross sectional study population of the district health "The Esparragal" random sample of the population between 18 and 86 years living in the area. Personal history were collected and held a relevant clinical, anthropometric data and analytics for the estimation of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk following criteria dictated by the current literature, adjusted for sex and age. The mean age of the study population was 59.34 ± 14.79 years, with 52.5% males. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria World Health Organization is presented 36.8%, a figure increased under International Diabetes Ferderation recommendations to 58.2% and according to National Cholesterol Education Program, an estimated 53.5%. The presentation of this syndrome is slightly higher in men (54.1 versus 52.8 %), and in parallel with increasing age (p < 0.001). The prevalence of people at high risk of cardiovascular disease is 32.1 % (95 % CI 29.4 to 34.8), with 45.2 % (95% CI 41.2 to 49.2) in men and 17.6% (95% CI 14.4 to 20.8) in women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in the study population is the highest found in Spain in population studies, indicating an invaluable population on which preventive measures. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. A unique rodent model of cardiometabolic risk associated with the metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danni; Dyck, Michael K; Uwiera, Richard R E; Russell, Jim C; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F

    2009-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology and is a complex endocrine disorder that also presents with features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. These latter symptoms form cardiometabolic risk factors predisposing individuals to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date, animal models to study PCOS in the context of the metabolic syndrome and CVD risk have been lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the JCR:LA-cp rodent as an animal model of PCOS associated with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic indices were measured at 6 and 12 wk, and reproductive parameters including ovarian morphology and estrous cyclicity were assessed at 12 wk or adulthood. At 6 wk of age, the cp/cp genotype of the JCR:LA-cp strain developed visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia) compared with control animals. Serum testosterone concentrations were not significantly different between groups at 6 wk of age. However, at 12 wk, the cp/cp genotype had higher serum testosterone concentrations, compared with control animals, and presented with oligoovulation, a decreased number of corpora lutea, and an increased number of total follicles, in particular atretic and cystic follicles. The cardiometabolic risk factors in the cp/cp animals were exacerbated at 12 wk including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The results of this study demonstrate that the JCR:LA-cp rodent may be a useful PCOS-like model to study early mechanisms involved in the etiology of cardiometabolic risk factors in the context of both PCOS and the metabolic syndrome.

  4. Predictive value of body mass index to metabolic syndrome risk factors in Syrian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Bakir, Mohamad Adel

    2017-06-25

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic health problem in both developing and developed countries. There is much evidence that obesity among adolescents contributed significantly to the development of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in adulthood. Very limited information exists on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity determined by body mass index and the major metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 2064 apparently healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18 to 19 years from Damascus city, in Syria, was performed. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the national criteria for each determined metabolic risk factor. Individuals with a body mass index 25 to 29.9 were classified as overweight, whereas individuals with a body mass index ≥30 were classified as obese. A receiver operating characteristics curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the body mass index for defining overweight and obesity, and to indicate the performance of body mass index as a predictor of risk factors. The obtained data showed that blood pressure and the overall mean concentrations of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly higher in overweight and obese adolescent groups (p index and some metabolic risks, the data suggest the best body mass index cut-offs ranged between 23.25 and 24.35 kg/m 2 . A strong association between overweight and obesity as determined by body mass index and high concentrations of metabolic syndrome

  5. Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Among Young Twins and Singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Hansen, Lone; da Silva, Leontina I

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETwins in Africa may be at increased risk of metabolic disorders due to strained conditions in utero, including high exposure to infections. We studied metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe study...... was cross-sectional and occurred from October 2009 until August 2011 at the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site in the capital Bissau. Twins and singleton controls between 5 and 32 years were visited at home. Fasting blood samples for metabolic measurements were collected. Zygosity...... was established genetically for a subset. DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and MS by the International Diabetes Federation criteria.RESULTSHbA1c was available for 574 twins and 463 singletons. Mean age was 15.3 years versus 15.8 years, respectively. Eighteen percent of twins were monozygotic...

  6. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Bonifácio; dos Santos, Alcione Miranda; Barbosa, Marcelo Mesquita; Barbosa, Márcio Mesquita; de Carvalho, Carolina Abreu; Fonseca, Poliana Cristina de Almeida; Fonseca, Jessica Magalhães; Barbosa, Maria do Carmo Lacerda; Bogea, Eduarda Gomes; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2016-04-01

    A cross-sectional population-based study using questionnaire and anthropometric data was conducted on 968 university students of São Luís, Brazil, from which 590 showed up for blood collection. In the statistical analysis the Student t-test, Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were used. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria was 20.5%, almost three times more prevalent in men (32.2%) than in women (13.5%) (P University students of private institutions had higher prevalences of sedentary lifestyle, obesity, abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides and metabolic syndrome than students from public institutions. High prevalences of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors were found in this young population. This suggests that the burden of these diseases in the future will be increased.

  7. Endovascular retrieval of a CardioMEMS heart failure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Reghunathan, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As the creation and utilization of new implantable devices increases, so does the need for interventionalists to devise unique retrieval mechanisms. This report describes the first endovascular retrieval of a CardioMEMS heart failure monitoring device. A 20-mm gooseneck snare was utilized in conjunction with a 9-French sheath and Envoy catheter for retrieval. The patient suffered no immediate postprocedural complications but died 5 days after the procedure from multiorgan failure secondary to sepsis. Keywords: CardioMEMS heart failure system, Endovascular retrieval

  8. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007 growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. International Diabetes Federation (2007 criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Results Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245 Malay, 30.9% (n = 124 Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33 Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8, followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1 and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7. Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p Conclusions We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are

  9. The Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Shifting the Focus to Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magge, Sheela N; Goodman, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Sarah C

    2017-07-24

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was developed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, identifying adults with at least 3 of 5 cardiometabolic risk factors (hyperglycemia, increased central adiposity, elevated triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure) who are at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The constellation of MetS component risk factors has a shared pathophysiology and many common treatment approaches grounded in lifestyle modification. Several attempts have been made to define MetS in the pediatric population. However, in children, the construct is difficult to define and has unclear implications for clinical care. In this Clinical Report, we focus on the importance of screening for and treating the individual risk factor components of MetS. Focusing attention on children with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering is emphasized over the need to define a pediatric MetS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs......), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR......) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated...

  11. Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, U; Anderssen, S A; Froberg, K

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with a favourable metabolic risk profile. However, there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contributions of cardiorespiratory fitness and subcomponents of activity (total PA...... the association between activity and clustered risk is independent of adiposity. Our results suggest that fitness and activity affect metabolic risk through different pathways....

  12. Familial aggregation and linkage analysis with covariates for metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Parisa; Khodakarim, Soheila; Guity, Kamran; Daneshpour, Maryam S

    2018-06-15

    Mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS) causation are complex, genetic and environmental factors are important factors for the pathogenesis of MetS In this study, we aimed to evaluate familial and genetic influences on metabolic syndrome risk factor and also assess association between FTO (rs1558902 and rs7202116) and CETP(rs1864163) genes' single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with low HDL_C in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). The design was a cross-sectional study of 1776 members of 227 randomly-ascertained families. Selected families contained at least one affected metabolic syndrome and at least two members of the family had suffered a loss of HDL_C according to ATP III criteria. In this study, after confirming the familial aggregation with intra-trait correlation coefficients (ICC) of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the quantitative lipid traits, the genetic linkage analysis of HDL_C was performed using conditional logistic method with adjusted sex and age. The results of the aggregation analysis revealed a higher correlation between siblings than between parent-offspring pairs representing the role of genetic factors in MetS. In addition, the conditional logistic model with covariates showed that the linkage results between HDL_C and three marker, rs1558902, rs7202116 and rs1864163 were significant. In summary, a high risk of MetS was found in siblings confirming the genetic influences of metabolic syndrome risk factor. Moreover, the power to detect linkage increases in the one parameter conditional logistic model regarding the use of age and sex as covariates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Consensus statement on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risks in patients with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo Rodríguez, Rosa; Galindo Puerto, María José; Dueñas, Carlos; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Estrada, Vicente; Villar, Noemí G P; Locutura, Jaime; Mariño, Ana; Pascua, Javier; Palacios, Rosario; von Wichmman, Miguel Ángel; Álvarez, Julia; Asensi, Victor; Lopez Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Negredo, Eugenia; Ortega, Enrique; Pedrol, Enric; Gutiérrez, Félix; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Martínez Chamorro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    This consensus document is an update of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk (CVR) guidelines for HIV-infected patients. This document has been approved by an expert panel of GEAM, SPNS and GESIDA after reviewing the results of efficacy and safety of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. Recommendation strength and the evidence in which they are supported are based on the GRADE system. A healthy lifestyle is recommended, no smoking and at least 30min of aerobic exercise daily. In diabetic patients the same treatment as non-HIV infected patients is recommended. HIV patients with dyslipidemia should be considered as high CVR, thus its therapeutic objective is an LDL less than 100mg/dL. The antihypertensive of ACE inhibitors and ARAII families are better tolerated and have a lower risk of interactions. In HIV-patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome and elevated transaminases with no defined etiology, the recommended is to rule out a hepatic steatosis Recommendations for action in hormone alterations are also updated. These new guidelines update previous recommendations regarding all those metabolic disorders involved in CVR. Hormone changes and their management and the impact of metabolic disorders on the liver are also included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo, E-mail: anamariafeoli@hotmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases

  16. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with high-risk albumin-to-creatinine ratio in young adolescents with type 1 diabetes in AdDIT (adolescent type 1 diabetes cardio-renal interventional trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Hi; Craig, Maria E; Davis, Elizabeth A; Cotterill, Andrew M; Couper, Jennifer J; Cameron, Fergus J; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z; Dalton, R Neil; Dunger, David B; Jones, Timothy W; Donaghue, Kim C

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between cardiac autonomic dysfunction and high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Adolescents recruited as part of a multicenter screening study (n = 445, 49% female, aged 10-17 years, mean duration 6.9 years; mean HbA1c 8.4%, 68 mmol/mol) underwent a 10-min continuous electrocardiogram recording for heart rate variability analysis. Time-domain heart rate variability measures included baseline heart rate, SD of the R-R interval (SDNN), and root mean squared difference of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD). Spectral analysis included sympathetic (low-frequency) and parasympathetic (high-frequency) components. Standardized ACR were calculated from six early morning urine collections using an established algorithm, reflecting age, sex, and duration, and stratified into ACR tertiles, where the upper tertile reflects higher nephropathy risk. The upper-tertile ACR group had a faster heart rate (76 vs. 73 bpm; P < 0.01) and less heart rate variability (SDNN 68 vs. 76 ms, P = 0.02; RMSSD 63 vs. 71 ms, P = 0.04). HbA1c was 8.5% (69 mmol/mmol) in the upper tertile vs. 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) in the lower tertiles (P = 0.07). In multivariable analysis, upper-tertile ACR was associated with faster heart rate (β = 2.5, 95% CI 0.2-4.8, P = 0.03) and lower RMSSD (β = -9.5, 95% CI -18.2 to -0.8, P = 0.03), independent of age and HbA1c. Adolescents at potentially higher risk for nephropathy show an adverse cardiac autonomic profile, indicating sympathetic overdrive, compared with the lower-risk group. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort will further characterize the relationship between autonomic and renal dysfunction and the effect of interventions in this population. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Effects of weight loss in metabolically healthy obese subjects after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and hypocaloric diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Sesti

    Full Text Available Weight loss in metabolically healthy obese (MHO subjects may result in deterioration of cardio-metabolic risk profile. We analyzed the effects of weight loss induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on cardio-metabolic risk factors in MHO and insulin resistant obese (IRO individuals. This study included 190 morbidly obese non-diabetic subjects. Obese individuals were stratified on the basis of their insulin sensitivity index (ISI, estimated from an OGTT, into MHO (ISI index in the upper quartile and IRO (ISI in the three lower quartiles. Anthropometric and cardio-metabolic variables were measured at baseline and 6-months after LAGB. Six months after LAGB, anthropometric measures were significantly reduced in both MHO and IRO. Percent changes in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference did not differ between the two groups. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, triglycerides, AST, and ALT were significantly reduced, and HDL cholesterol significantly increased, in both MHO and IRO subjects with no differences in percent changes from baseline. Insulin sensitivity increased in both MHO and IRO group. Insulin secretion was significantly reduced in the IRO group only. However, the disposition index significantly increased in both MHO and IRO individuals with no differences in percent changes from baseline between the two groups. The change in insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in BMI (r = -0.43; P<0.0001. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the recommendation that weight loss in response to LAGB intervention should be considered an appropriate treatment option for morbidly obese individuals regardless of their metabolic status, i.e. MHO vs. IRO subjects.

  18. Subcutaneous to visceral fat ratio: a possible risk factor for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat MN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Nabeel Shafqat,1 Miqdad Haider,2 1Department of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences “Serafin Ruiz de Zarate” Villa Clara (UCMVC, Villa Clara, Cuba; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, PakistanWe would like to comment, with great interest, about the recently published article “Visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio as a predictor of the multiple metabolic risk factors for subjects with normal waist circumference in Korea” by Oh et al,1 which we found very interesting and valuable. This study is a good step to determine the predictive value of visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR in persons with normal waist circumference for the diagnosis of risk factors for metabolic syndrome.View the original paper by Oh and colleagues.

  19. Interactions of Lipid Genetic Risk Scores with Estimates of Metabolic Health in a Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Johanne M; Allin, Kristine H; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2015-01-01

    Background—There are several well-established lifestyle factors influencing dyslipidemia and currently; 157 genetic susceptibility loci have been reported to be associated with serum lipid levels at genome-wide statistical significance. However, the interplay between lifestyle risk factors...... and these susceptibility loci has not been fully elucidated. We tested whether genetic risk scores (GRS) of lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with fasting serum lipid traits and whether the effects are modulated by lifestyle factors or estimates of metabolic health. Methods and Results—The single......-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, or triglyceride, 4 weighted GRS were constructed. In a cross-sectional design, we investigated whether the effect of these weighted GRSs on lipid levels were modulated by diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and smoking or the individual metabolic health...

  20. REDUCTION OF CUMULATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: THE ROLE OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS ACCORDING TO THE NEW EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conception of total cardio-vascular risk plays important role in defining tactics of arterial hypertension therapy according to the new European recommendations. Choice of antihypertensive therapy is based on meta-analysis of large clinical studies with hard end points. It is recommended to use five classes of antihypertensive drugs in mono- and combined therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors keep important place in the therapy of arterial hypertension accompanying with risk factors and associated diseases. Enalapril is one of the widely used ACE inhibitors, its efficiency was proved in prospective clinical studies. In high risk patients monotherapy with Enam (enalapril, Dr. Reddy’s decreases blood pressure and leads to positive metabolic changes. This results in significant risk reduction of cardio-vascular complications.

  1. REDUCTION OF CUMULATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: THE ROLE OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS ACCORDING TO THE NEW EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conception of total cardio-vascular risk plays important role in defining tactics of arterial hypertension therapy according to the new European recommendations. Choice of antihypertensive therapy is based on meta-analysis of large clinical studies with hard end points. It is recommended to use five classes of antihypertensive drugs in mono- and combined therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors keep important place in the therapy of arterial hypertension accompanying with risk factors and associated diseases. Enalapril is one of the widely used ACE inhibitors, its efficiency was proved in prospective clinical studies. In high risk patients monotherapy with Enam (enalapril, Dr. Reddy’s decreases blood pressure and leads to positive metabolic changes. This results in significant risk reduction of cardio-vascular complications.

  2. Predator-induced changes in metabolism cannot explain the growth/predation risk tradeoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Van Buskirk, Josh

    2009-01-01

    , consistent with the "fight-or-flight" response observed in many organisms. The long term reaction showed the opposite pattern: tadpoles reduced oxygen consumption after three weeks exposure to predators, which would act to reduce the growth cost of predator defence. The results point to an instantaneous...... and reversible stress response to predation risk. This suggests that the tradeoff between avoiding predators and growing rapidly is not caused by changes in metabolic rate, and must be sought in other behavioural or physiological processes....

  3. Cardiovascular and metabolic profiles amongst different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes: who is really at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, Nadine M P; Louwers, Yvonne V; Koster, Maria P H; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Lentjes, Eef W G; Fauser, Bart C J M; Laven, Joop S E

    2014-11-01

    To study the cardiometabolic profile characteristics and compare the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors between women with different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes. A cross-sectional multicenter study analyzing 2,288 well phenotyped women with PCOS. Specialized reproductive outpatient clinic. Women of reproductive age (18-45 years) diagnosed with PCOS. Women suspected of oligo- or anovulation underwent a standardized screening consisting of a systematic medical and reproductive history taking, anthropometric measurements, and transvaginal ultrasonography followed by an extensive endocrinologic/metabolic evaluation. Differences in cardiometabolic profile characteristics and CV risk factor prevalence between women with different PCOS phenotypes, i.e., obesity/overweight, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Women with hyperandrogenic PCOS (n=1,219; 53.3% of total) presented with a worse cardiometabolic profile and a higher prevalence of CV risk factors, such as obesity and overweight, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome, compared with women with nonhyperandrogenic PCOS. In women with nonhyperandrogenic PCOS overweight/obesity (28.5%) and dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol≥3.0 mmol/L; 52.2%) were highly prevalent. Women with hyperandrogenic PCOS have a worse cardiometabolic profile and higher prevalence of CV risk factors compared with women with nonhyperandrogenic PCOS. However, all women with PCOS should be screened for the presence of CV risk factors, since the frequently found derangements at a young age imply an elevated risk for the development of CV disease later in life. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of moderate to severe psoriasis in patients with metabolic comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eGisondi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2-3% of worldwide population. The extent of skin involvement is variable, ranging from a few localised plaques to generalised involvement. Moderate to severe psoriasis (>10% of body surface area is frequently associated with psoriatic arthritis and metabolic diseases, like abdominal obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. A common genetic background as well as several acquired risk factors links psoriasis to comorbidities. From a clinical prespective, the understanding of the patients in the context of these comorbidities is very important to ensure that treatment is tailored to meet the individual patient needs. Indeed, some pharmacological treatments may negatively affect cardio-metabolic comorbidities, and have important interactions with drugs that are commonly used to treat them. Non-pharmacological intervention such as diet, smoking cessation and physical exercise could both improve the response to treatments for psoriasis and reduce the cardiovascular risk.

  5. The study on risk factor of metabolic diseases in pancreatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young; Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The body of the fat tissue increased in obese represented by risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic disease and dyslipidemia. Such metabolic diseases and the like of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increase in the adipose tissue of the pancreas is known to be a risk factor of these diseases. Study on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer was conducted actively, case studies on pancreatic steatosis is not much. In this study, divided into a control group diagnosed with pancreatic steatosis as a result of ultrasonography to evaluation the physical characteristics and serologic tests and blood pressure and arterial stiffness. The control group and the test pancreas steatosis age and waist circumference, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, arterial elasticity is higher in pancreatic steatosis. And the lower ankle brachial stenosis and HDLcholesterol were lower than the normal control group, so the pancreatic steatosis harmful to blood vessels.(P <0.05). The difference between the control group and it was confirmed that the pancreatic jibanggun statistically significant. In conclusion, pancreatic steatosis at abdominal ultrasound can predict the risk of metabolic diseases, and there was a correlation with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Quality of relationships with parents and friends in adolescence predicts metabolic risk in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Hoyt, Lindsay Till; Sumner, Jennifer A; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to examine whether family and peer relationships in adolescence predict the emergence of metabolic risk factors in young adulthood. Participants from a large, nationally representative cohort study (N = 11,617 for these analyses) reported on their relationship experiences with parents and close friends during adolescence. Fourteen years later, interviewers collected blood samples, as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Blood samples were analyzed for HbA1c. Ordered logistic regressions revealed that for females, supportive parent-child relationships and close male friendships in adolescence were associated with reduced odds of having elevated metabolic risk markers in young adulthood. These effects remained significant even after controlling for baseline measures of body mass index (BMI) and health and demographic covariates. The protective effects of close relationships were not significant for males, however. Exploratory analyses with 2-parent families revealed that supportive father-child relationships were especially protective for females. These findings suggest that, for females, close and supportive relationships with parents and male friends in adolescence may reduce the risk of metabolic dysregulation in adulthood. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The study on risk factor of metabolic diseases in pancreatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The body of the fat tissue increased in obese represented by risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic disease and dyslipidemia. Such metabolic diseases and the like of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increase in the adipose tissue of the pancreas is known to be a risk factor of these diseases. Study on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer was conducted actively, case studies on pancreatic steatosis is not much. In this study, divided into a control group diagnosed with pancreatic steatosis as a result of ultrasonography to evaluation the physical characteristics and serologic tests and blood pressure and arterial stiffness. The control group and the test pancreas steatosis age and waist circumference, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, arterial elasticity is higher in pancreatic steatosis. And the lower ankle brachial stenosis and HDLcholesterol were lower than the normal control group, so the pancreatic steatosis harmful to blood vessels.(P <0.05). The difference between the control group and it was confirmed that the pancreatic jibanggun statistically significant. In conclusion, pancreatic steatosis at abdominal ultrasound can predict the risk of metabolic diseases, and there was a correlation with cardiovascular disease

  8. Association of Circulating Orexin-A Level With Metabolic Risk Factors in North Indian Pre Menopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Mishra, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between circulating Orexin-A level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian adult women. 342 women were enrolled for the case-control study, 172 women were with metabolic syndrome (mets) and 170 healthy control women were without metabolic syndrome, (womets) according to (NCEP ATP III criteria). Circulating Orexin-A level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Observations indicated low levels of orexin-A (26.06 ± 6.09 ng/ml) in women with mets and other metabolic risk factors compared to women without metabolic syndrome (36.50 ± 10.42 ng/ml). Further, in women with metabolic syndrome, circulating Orexin A was significantly associated with waist circumference, triglyceride (negative correlation) and hyperdensity lipoprotein (positive correlation). Our study shows that circulating Orexin A was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity-related disorders in North Indian premenopausal women.

  9. An increase level of acylation stimulating protein is correlated with metabolic risk markers in North Indian obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Supriya; Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Gupta, Vandana; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sachan, Rekha

    2017-12-01

    The present study was to investigate the association between serum acylation stimulating protein (ASP) level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian obese women. This is a case control study, total n=322 women aged between 20 and 45 years (n=162 with metabolic syndrome & n=160 without metabolic syndrome) were recruited for the study according to National Cholesterol Education Program Treatment Panel (NCEPATP) guidelines. Serum ASP level were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicated that circulating ASP and other metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose etc) were significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome (WmetS) than in women without syndrome (WometS) (pwomen with metabolic syndrome. Conclusively circulating ASP was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity related disorders in North Indian obese women. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality profiles of youngsters with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Swillen, A.; Vogels, A.; Kockuyt, V.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Hellinckx, W.; Devriendt, K.; Onghena, P.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The personality profile of 48 youngsters (24 males and 24 females, mean age 8 years, 5 months) with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS) was compared with a group of 240 non VCFS control youngsters (matched on age and gender), and, in addition, with groups of youngsters with Prader-Willi (PWS),

  11. Gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is an uncommon autosomal recessive condition recently distinguished from Noonan syndrome but with more marked growth failure and ectodermal dysplasia. Abdominal symptoms are frequently described but anatomic lesions in CFC have rarely been described. We have found significant anatomic abnormalities in CFC patients including antral foveolar hyperplasia, severe constipation with fecal impaction, nephrocalcinosis and renal cysts. (orig.)

  12. Gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is an uncommon autosomal recessive condition recently distinguished from Noonan syndrome but with more marked growth failure and ectodermal dysplasia. Abdominal symptoms are frequently described but anatomic lesions in CFC have rarely been described. We have found significant anatomic abnormalities in CFC patients including antral foveolar hyperplasia, severe constipation with fecal impaction, nephrocalcinosis and renal cysts. (orig.)

  13. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of leukoaraiosis; a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuro; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Fukui, Michiaki

    2018-04-10

    Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individual is known to be defended from the metabolic complications of obesity. Leukoaraiosis, which is commonly detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is now recognized as a risk of stroke, dementia and death. However, the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis is unclear. In this cross-sectional study of 796 participants who received a medical examination program, we investigated the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis. We used common clinical markers for definition of metabolic healthy status: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Obesity was defined by body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m 2 . We diagnosed leukoaraiosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery without hypointensity on T1-weighted images or the presence of a hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The crude prevalence proportion of leukoaraiosis was 44.5% (case/n = 171/384) in metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO) individual, 46.3% (44/95) in MHO individual, 62.3% (114/183) in metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO) individual or 56.6% (77/136) in MUO individual. The odds ratios of prevalence of leukoaraiosis were 1.19 (95% CI 0.74-1.90, p = 0.471) for MHO, 1.79 (1.22-2.62, p = 0.003) for MUNO and 1.56 (1.03-2.37, p = 0.037) for MUO individuals after adjusting for sex, age, smoking statues, habit of exercise and alcohol, compared with MHNO individual. We revealed that MHO individuals were not related with the higher risk of leukoaraiosis, whereas MUNO and MUO individuals were.

  14. Cardio-Pulmonary Response to Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    endothelium 4. Modes of serotonin transport by intimal and capillary endothelial cells 5. Loss of microvascular structural integrity with fluoxetine , a... synthesis and secretion. We have demon- strated that EC, intimal and microvessel, qualitatively share many character- istics such as the specific uptake... fluoxetine and imipramine), 40C and selected metabolic inhibitors and ana- logues. Analysis of transport kinetics at higher concentrations of S-HT

  15. Risk of development of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes having metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moin, S.; Gondal, G.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    To measure the relation of creatinine clearance in type-2 diabetic patients with different components of metabolic syndrome and to quantify the relationship of frequency of incident CKD with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components while controlling for age, gender and duration of diabetes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients having type-2 Diabetes for more than 5 years were enrolled. Information regarding age, gender, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes, treatment taking, complete fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, Body Mass Index (BMI), 24 hours urinary proteins and creatinine clearance, co-existent risk factors like hypertension and ischemic heart disease was taken. Patients were divided into groups having one to all five metabolic syndrome traits. Progressive increase in the metabolic syndrome traits was compared with decline in creatinine clearance. Pearson correlation test and multiple logistic regression were applied to determine correlation with significance at r and p <0.05. Out of 104 evaluated female and male patients, 70% had hypertension, ischemic heart disease and a family history of diabetes. While 20% had normal creatinine clearance, 37% had a creatinine clearance between 60-90 ml/min, 19% had a creatinine clearance of 30-59 ml/min, 18% had a creatinine clearance of less than 30 ml/min and 10% were already in stage 5 CKD. The decline in renal function was more severe in subjects evaluated who had a higher number of features of the metabolic syndrome. Age was the only significant determinant of development of CKD (p=0.05). The renal function progressively declined with 3 or more features of the metabolic syndrome. (author)

  16. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Jacobs, David R; Park, Kyong

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components. We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption. We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions. Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Micronutrients Involved in One-Carbon Metabolism and Risk of Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Cancarini

    Full Text Available Vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are hypothesized to influence breast cancer (BC risk. However, epidemiologic studies that examined associations between B vitamin intake and BC risk have provided inconsistent results. We prospectively examined, in the Italian ORDET cohort, whether B vitamin consumption was associated with risk of BC and BC subtypes.After a mean follow-up of 16.5 years, 391 BCs were diagnosed among 10,786 cohort women. B vitamin intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for energy intake and confounders, estimated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for BC according to intake.RRs were 0.61 (95% CI 0.38-0.97 highest vs. lowest quartile; P trend 0.025 for thiamine; 0.48 (95% CI 0.32-0.71; P trend <0.001 for riboflavin; 0.59 (95% CI 0.39-0.90; P trend 0.008 for vitamin B6, and 0.65 (95% CI 0.44-0.95; P trend 0.021 for folate. As regards risk of BC subtypes, high riboflavin and folate were significantly associated with lower risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and progesterone receptor positive (PR+ cancers, and high thiamine was associated with lower risk of ER-PR- cancers. High riboflavin was associated with lower risk of both HER2+ and HER2- cancers, high folate with lower risk of HER2- disease, and high thiamine with HER2+ disease.These findings support protective effects of thiamine and one-carbon metabolism vitamins (folate, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 against BC in general; while folate may also protect against ER+PR+ and HER2- disease; and thiamine against ER-PR-, and HER2+ disease.

  18. Contributions of polygenic risk for obesity to PTSD-related metabolic syndrome and cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Danielle R; Logue, Mark W; Sumner, Jennifer; Stoop, Tawni B; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Miller, Mark W

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that PTSD-associated MetS is related to decreased cortical thickness. However, the role of genetic factors in these associations is unclear. This study evaluated contributions of polygenic obesity risk and PTSD to MetS and of MetS and polygenic obesity risk to cortical thickness. 196 white, non-Hispanic veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent clinical diagnostic interviews, physiological assessments, and genome-wide genotyping; 168 also completed magnetic resonance imaging scans. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for obesity were calculated from results of a prior genome-wide association study (Speliotes et al., 2010) and PTSD and MetS severity factor scores were obtained. Obesity PRS (β=0.15, p=0.009) and PTSD (β=0.17, p=0.005) predicted MetS and interacted such that the association between PTSD and MetS was stronger in individuals with greater polygenic obesity risk (β=0.13, p=0.02). Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses suggested that obesity PRS interacted with MetS to predict decreased cortical thickness in left rostral middle frontal gyrus (β=-0.40, pobesity genetic risk increases stress-related metabolic pathology, and compounds the ill health effects of MetS on the brain. Genetic proclivity towards MetS should be considered in PTSD patients when prescribing psychotropic medications with adverse metabolic profiles. Results are consistent with a growing literature suggestive of PTSD-related accelerated aging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [Waist-to-height ratio is an indicator of metabolic risk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Leal, Jaime; Abundis-Castro, Leticia; Hernández-Escareño, Juan; Flores-Rubio, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal fat, particularly visceral, is associated with a high risk of metabolic complications. The waist-height ratio (WHtR) is used to assess abdominal fat in individuals of all ages. To determine the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to detect metabolic risk in mexican schoolchildren. A study was conducted on children between 6 and 12 years. Obesity was diagnosed as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, and an ICE ≥0.5 was considered abdominal obesity. Blood levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative value, area under curve, the positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the WHtR and BMI were calculated in order to identify metabolic alterations. WHtR and BMI were compared to determine which had the best diagnostic efficiency. Of the 223 children included in the study, 51 had hypertriglyceridaemia, 27 with hypercholesterolaemia, and 9 with hyperglycaemia. On comparing the diagnostic efficiency of WHtR with that of BMI, there was a sensitivity of 100% vs. 56% for hyperglycaemia, 93 vs. 70% for cholesterol, and 76 vs. 59% for hypertriglyceridaemia. The specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and area under curve were also higher for WHtR. The WHtR is a more efficient indicator than BMI in identifying metabolic risk in mexican school-age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Lower-normal TSH is associated with better metabolic risk factors: a cross-sectional study on spanish men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and aims: Subclinical thyroid conditions, defined by normal thyroxin (T4) but abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, may be associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. More recently, TSH levels within the normal range have been suggested to be associated with metabolic ...

  1. A Prospective Study of Dairy Consumption in Relation to Changes in Metabolic Risk Factors: The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Heine, R.J.; Dekker, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Higher dairy consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to investigate the prospective association between dairy consumption and changes in weight and metabolic disturbances. Methods and Procedures: Baseline dairy

  2. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari-Sarraf V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vahid Sari-Sarraf,1 Akbar Aliasgarzadeh,2 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,3 Hamid Esmaeili,1 Ebrahim K Naderali4 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, 2Bone Research Centre, Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3The School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4Faculty of Science, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15 and control group (CG; n=15. Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group. At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 reductions in total body weight (-3.2%, waist circumference (-3.43 cm, blood pressure (up to -12.7 mmHg, and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 increases VO2max (-15.3% and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1% and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men

  3. Does the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Increase in Thyroid Cancer Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hee; Huh, Jin-Young; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kang, Moo-Il

    2017-07-01

    The steep rise in thyroid cancer observed in recent decades has caused an increase in the population of long-term thyroid cancer survivors. Other than recurrences of cancer, the long-term health consequences of surviving thyroid cancer, particularly metabolic syndrome, have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of metabolic syndrome in thyroid cancer survivors. Population-based data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used for the analysis. The data of KNHANES IV-VI from 2007-2014 were obtained. After excluding subjects who were under 19 years old, whose fasting interval was less than 8 hours, and whose data for predefined variables including metabolic syndrome components were incomplete, 34,347 subjects were analyzed. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components were evaluated in three groups: subjects with no history of thyroid cancer, subjects diagnosed with thyroid cancer within 3 years of the survey date, and subjects diagnosed more than 3 years before the survey date. Thyroid cancer diagnoses were made within 3 years of the survey date for 95 subjects (group 1, short-term survivors) and more than 3 years earlier than the survey date for 60 subjects (group 2, long-term survivors). Metabolic syndrome was frequently observed with clinical significance (odds ratio [OR] 1.986 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.70], p = 0.030) in short-term survivors compared with subjects with no thyroid cancer history. Risks for having high blood pressure and high fasting glucose were estimated to be higher in the short-term survivor group (OR 2.115 [CI 1.23-3.64], p = 0.006 and OR 1.792 [CI 1.03-3.11], p = 0.038, respectively). No significant associations were noticed in the long-term survivor group when compared with the group with no thyroid cancer history. Risks for metabolic syndrome, especially high blood pressure and high fasting glucose, were increased in short

  4. Physical activity and not sedentary time per se influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly community-dwelling women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Nilsson

    Full Text Available Whether amount of time spent in sedentary activities influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly, and to what extent such an influence is independent of physical activity behavior, remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes in a sample of elderly community-dwelling women.Metabolic risk outcomes including waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs. Accelerometers were used to retrieve daily sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, daily time in light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total amount of accelerometer counts. Multivariate regression models were used to examine influence of physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes including a clustered metabolic risk score.When based on isotemporal substitution modeling, replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with a corresponding time block of either LPA or sedentary activities was associated with an increase in clustered metabolic risk score (β = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05, and an increase in waist circumference (β = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01. All associations indicated between sedentary time and metabolic risk outcomes were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts was adjusted for.Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of physical activity rather than amount of sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of physical activity with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.

  5. Sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been stated that besides the traditional elements of lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, an additional factor, namely sleep, is involved in metabolic processes, hormonal functions, and energy homeostasis. Aim of the research: To examine relationships between self-reported sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, both for men and women. Material and methods: The study involved 10,367 individuals, aged 37 to 66 years. The definition of MetS applied in this paper was developed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Logistic regression was applied to assess the risk (odds ratio – OR of MetS and its components. Results : There was no relationship observed between short sleep duration (≤ 6 h and the risk of MetS. Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h was connected with a higher risk of MetS only in the unadjusted model (OR = 1.11. After adjusting for confounders, a significant association was found between long sleep duration and a higher risk of abdominal obesity in the test group as a whole (OR = 1.16, as well as in the men in the group (OR = 1.22. In women, both with short (OR = 1.08 and long (OR = 1.12 sleep duration, the risk of increased concentration of glucose was found. Conclusions : Our study did not confirm the existence of an association between inadequate sleep duration and the risk of MetS, defined in accordance with IDF criteria. Sleep duration, however, is connected with some of the MetS components. It is therefore necessary to conduct further, long-term tests in this regard.

  6. Clinical utility of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism for breast cancer risk prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Mohammad Naushad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the issues in translating the laboratory derived data obtained during discovery phase of research to a clinical setting using a breast cancer model. Laboratory-based risk assessment indi-cated that a family history of breast cancer, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1 G80A, thymidylate synthase (TYMS 5’-UTR 28bp tandem repeat, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and catecholamine-O-methyl transferase (COMT genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolic pathway increase the risk for breast cancer. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII C1561T and cytosolic serine hydroxymethyl transferase (cSHMT C1420T polymorphisms were found to decrease breast cancer risk. In order to test the clinical validity of this information in the risk prediction of breast cancer, data was stratified based on number of protective alleles into four categories and in each category sensitivity and 1-specificity values were obtained based on the distribution of number of risk alleles in cases and controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted and the area under ROC curve (C was used as a measure of discriminatory ability between cases and controls. In subjects without any protective allele, aberrations in one-carbon metabolism showed perfect prediction (C=0.93 while the predictability was lost in subjects with one protective allele (C=0.60. However, predictability increased steadily with increasing number of protective alleles (C=0.63 for 2 protective alleles and C=0.71 for 3 protective alleles. The cut-off point for discrimination was >4 alleles in all predictable combinations. Models of this kind can serve as valuable tools in translational re-search, especially in identifying high-risk individuals and reducing the disease risk either by life style modification or by medical intervention.

  7. Gene-Gene Interactions in the Folate Metabolic Pathway and the Risk of Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conotruncal and related heart defects (CTRD are common, complex malformations. Although there are few established risk factors, there is evidence that genetic variation in the folate metabolic pathway influences CTRD risk. This study was undertaken to assess the association between inherited (i.e., case and maternal gene-gene interactions in this pathway and the risk of CTRD. Case-parent triads (n=727, ascertained from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, were genotyped for ten functional variants of nine folate metabolic genes. Analyses of inherited genotypes were consistent with the previously reported association between MTHFR A1298C and CTRD (adjusted P=.02, but provided no evidence that CTRD was associated with inherited gene-gene interactions. Analyses of the maternal genotypes provided evidence of a MTHFR C677T/CBS 844ins68 interaction and CTRD risk (unadjusted P=.02. This association is consistent with the effects of this genotype combination on folate-homocysteine biochemistry but remains to be confirmed in independent study populations.

  8. Alimentary habits, physical activity, and Framingham global risk score in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Metabolic Characteristics and Risks Associated with Stone Recurrence in Korean Young Adult Stone Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.

  10. DIETARY RISK FACTORS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN DIBRUGARH DISTRICT OF ASSAM

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    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world, a huge burden of undiagnosed Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a possibility. Early intervention can be planned if MetS can be detected early along with risk factor assessment to avert cardiovascular morbidities. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary risk factor of metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District of Assam with multistep sampling. Study area, i.e. four rural sub-centres and two urban electoral blocks were selected randomly. From the list of population of selected area, the consenting eligible were included. Sample size was 1700 population with MetS. Socio-demographic information, World Health Organisation’s STEPS questionnaire for behavioural risk factors along with dietary history, anthropometric assessment and laboratory investigations were conducted in three stages. Food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. Statistical analysis was done using rates, ratio, proportion, univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS MetS was 47.6% (1606 of 3372 screened. Mean age of study population was 47.1 ± 10.9 years. Behavioural risk factors like tobacco, alcohol consumption was high and significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (p= 0.000. Similarly financial stress, feeling stressed in last one year (p=0.034, lower physical activity level were also significantly associated with metS (p=0.000. Consumption of meat (p=0.000, egg (p=0.000, fast food (p=0.000, pickled vegetable (p=0.000 and sweet snacks (p=0.000 was found significantly higher amongst those with metabolic syndrome. Significant association was also seen with number of meals served per day and metS (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Dietary risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were rampant amongst persons with MetS. Dietary risk factor survey and counselling on healthy diet can be implemented in these population to give

  11. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

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    María Moreno

    Full Text Available A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans.Circulating irisin levels (ELISA and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women. Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence.Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006. Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p < 0.0001. The increase in irisin levels related to an active lifestyle was only observed in rural citizens (p = 0.014. Among sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides. The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = < 0.0001 contributed independently to circulating irisin levels variance after controlling for age, gender, BMI, HOMAIR, triglycerides and physical activity.In sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  12. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

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    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  13. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women). Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence. Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006). Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides). The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors: Is the metabolic syndrome related to aging? Epidemiology in a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Armindo Sousa; Seixas, Rui; Gálvez, Juan Manuel; Climent, Vicente

    2018-05-16

    The primary objective of our study is to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the population. The secondary objective is to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric alterations and the prevalence of target organ damage and their relationship with aging. The sample for the study was obtained by means of a consecutive population-based demonstration in 803 adults over 18 years of age belonging to the labor force of the company Grupo Delta SA. The study was carried out according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. The individuals included in the study voluntarily participated, once informed of the purpose of the study, giving their prior verbal consent, to the company's human resources department, in the case of Delta Group workers. 23.8% of the population has metabolic syndrome more prevalent in males, no smoking, no significant alcohol consumption, sedentary, with a high Body mass index (BMI). Its prevalence increases with age. We found that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age and is present in people of working age, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, work-related absences, and socio-economic costs. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

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    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  16. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  17. Association between metabolic syndrome and bone fracture risk: A community-based study using a fracture risk assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Ying; Chen, Fang-Ping; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chien, Rong-Nan

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome (MS) share similar risk factors. Previous studies of association between bone marrow density (BMD) and MS are controversial. Moreover, some studies revealed that MS is associated with BMD but not with bone fracture. In clinical practice, patients pay more attention to bone fracture risk than BMD values. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the association between MS and the 10-year bone fracture risk probability using a fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) from community-based data. From March 2014 to August 2015, 2689 participants (897 men and 1792 women) were enrolled in this study. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein, and adipokines were included for analysis.The mean age was 60.2 ± 10.7 years in men and 58.9 ± 9.6 years in women. The percentage of MS was 27.6% in men and 27.9% in women. Participants were divided into 2 groups, those with or without MS. Compared with women without MS, women with MS had a higher rate of fracture risk (22.8% vs 16.3%, P = .001). In contrast, men with MS had a lower rate of fracture risk then men without MS (5.6% vs 12.3%, P = .004). However, MS loss the association with a high bone fracture risk in men based on multivariate logistical regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factor of body mass index (BMI). Conclusively, the result of regression analysis between MS and the bone fracture risk may be different in men and women, and BMI was an important confounding factor to interfere with the regression analysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic disorders in dairy Simmentals - prevalence risk and effect on subsequent daily milk traits

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    Vesna Gantner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse metabolic disorders in Simmental cows, 2.641.223 test-day records have been used. The metabolic disorders prevalence risk was indicated by the fat to protein (F/P ratio, while the subclinical disorder was demonstrated using the F/P ratio and daily production. In terms of the ketosis prevalence risk (KPR, the highest prevalence risks occurred at the 20th lactation day in all tested cows with exception of cows in parity P4+ which experienced peak prevalence risk at 25th lactation day. A steady decrease of KPR after peak prevalence was observed in all animals except the 3rd lactation cows which experienced the second peak prevalence at the 30th lactation day, after which the prevalence risk continued to decline. The highest acidosis prevalence risk (APR was detected among 4+ parity cows. Considering the lactation stage, the highest APR occurred within the first 10 days, with the indication from 16 to 23 %, depending on parity. The peak prevalence risk was followed by a considerable decline during the ensuing 20 days. The prevalence risk began to increase among all cows after the 25th lactation day. Furthermore, there was a considerable decrease in a daily milk yield and variation of daily milk contents due to subclinical disorders. The most noticeable drop in daily milk yield, for both ketosis/acidosis, was detected in cows in 4+ parity in the amounts of 7.45 kg/day and 2.73 kg/day respectively. There was also a production decline in the subsequent milk controls. Subclinical disorders can also substantially change daily milk contents. The daily fat content was considerably reduced by the subclinical ketosis and the same parameter was considerably increased by the subclinical acidosis. The opposite trends were detected for daily protein content. Since indication criteria was set on Holstein population and considering the fact that Simmental cows produce noticeably less, some adjustment is needed before a routine use of test

  19. Gene-diet-interactions in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism modify colon cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Amy Y; Scherer, Dominique; Poole, Elizabeth; Potter, John D; Curtin, Karen; Makar, Karen; Slattery, Martha L; Caan, Bette J; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-04-01

    The importance of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal carcinogenesis is emphasized by observations that high dietary folate intake is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (CC) and its precursors. Additionally, polymorphisms in FOCM-related genes have been repeatedly associated with risk, supporting a causal relationship between folate and colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated ten candidate polymorphisms with defined or probable functional impact in eight FOCM-related genes (SHMT1, DHFR, DNMT1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, MTRR, TCN2, and TDG) in 1609 CC cases and 1974 controls for association with CC risk and for interaction with dietary factors. No polymorphism was statistically significantly associated with overall risk of CC. However, statistically significant interactions modifying CC risk were observed for DNMT1 I311V with dietary folate, methionine, vitamin B2 , and vitamin B12 intake and for MTRR I22M with dietary folate, a predefined one-carbon dietary pattern, and vitamin B6 intake. We observed statistically significant gene-diet interactions with five additional polymorphisms. Our results provide evidence that FOCM-related dietary intakes modify the association between CC risk and FOCM allelic variants. These findings add to observations showing that folate-related gene-nutrient interactions play an important role in modifying the risk of CC. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk in psoriasis patients: a cross-sectional study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Renato Soriani; Silva, Daniela Antoniali; Cardili, Renata Nahas; Souza, Cacilda da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Background Psoriasis has been associated with co-morbidities and elevated cardiovascular risk. Objectives To analyze the relationships among metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, C-reactive protein, gender, and Psoriasis severity. Methods In this cross-sectional study, plaque Psoriasis patients (n=90), distributed equally in gender, were analyzed according to: Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, cardiovascular risk determined by the Framingham risk score and global risk assessment, C-reactive protein and metabolic syndrome criteria (NCEPT-ATP III). Results Metabolic syndrome frequency was 43.3% overall, without significance between genders (P=0.14); but women had higher risk for obesity (OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.02-6.41; P=0.04) and systemic arterial hypertension (OR 3.29, 95%CI 1.39-7.81; P=0.006). The increase in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index also increased the risk for metabolic syndrome (OR 1.060, 95%CI 1.006-1.117; P=0.03). Absolute 10-year cardiovascular risk was higher in males (P=0.002), but after global risk assessment, 51.1% patients, 52.2% women, were re-classified as high-intermediate cardiovascular risk; without significance between genders (P=0.83). C-reactive protein level was elevated nearly six-fold overall, higher in metabolic syndrome (P=0.05), systemic arterial hypertension (P=0.004), and high-intermediate 10-year cardiovascular risk patients (Preactive protein patients (t=1.98; P=0.05). Study limitations Restricted sample, hospital-based and representative of a single center and no specification of psoriatic arthritis. Conclusions Psoriasis, metabolic syndrome, systemic arterial hypertension and age share the increase in C-reactive protein, which could implicate in additional burden for increasing the cardiovascular risk and be an alert for effective interventions. PMID:29723366

  1. Coffee intake and risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-01-01

    convincingly with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or glucose levels. Per-allele meta-analysed odds ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1....../diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol and with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with glucose levels. In genetic analyses, 9-10 vs 0-3 coffee-intake alleles were associated with 29% higher coffee intake. However, genetically derived high coffee intake was not associated...... to 78,021 additional individuals from the DIAGRAM consortium. RESULTS: Observationally, high coffee intake was associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Further, high coffee intake was associated with high body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic...

  2. Use of cardio-diagnostics of D&K-TEST for individualizations of training process of skilled short track speed skaters high qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kygayevskiy S.A.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article possibilities of individualization of training process of short track speed skaters high qualification are resulted on the basis of influence of application of loadings of different orientation on the indexes of cardio-diagnostics of D&K-TEST. The influences of loadings of different physiological and metabolic orientation given about efficiency are resulted on the level of functional preparedness of short track speed skaters of high qualification.

  3. Associations between Yogurt Consumption and Weight Gain and Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-01-01

    The role of yogurt consumption in the risk of developing overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome has been the subject of epidemiologic studies over the last 10 y. A comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge from 1966 through June 2016 was conducted to examine the relation between yogurt consumption and weight gain, as well as the risk of overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome, in prospective cohort studies. Ten articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in our systematic review. Of the 10 cohort studies, 3 analyzed the relation between yogurt consumption and the risk of overweight or obesity, 8 analyzed changes in waist circumference or weight changes, 3 studied the association with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and 1 studied the probability of abdominal obesity reversion. Although an inverse association between yogurt consumption and the risk of developing overweight or obesity was not fully consistent or always statistically significant, all studies but one showed in their point estimates inverse associations between yogurt consumption and changes in waist circumference, changes in weight, risk of overweight or obesity, and risk of metabolic syndrome during follow-up, although not all estimates were statistically significant (2 studies). Prospective cohort studies consistently suggested that yogurt consumption may contribute to a reduction in adiposity indexes and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, there is a need for more prospective studies and high-quality randomized clinical trials to confirm this apparent inverse association. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Associations between Yogurt Consumption and Weight Gain and Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-01-01

    The role of yogurt consumption in the risk of developing overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome has been the subject of epidemiologic studies over the last 10 y. A comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge from 1966 through June 2016 was conducted to examine the relation between yogurt consumption and weight gain, as well as the risk of overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome, in prospective cohort studies. Ten articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in our systematic review. Of the 10 cohort studies, 3 analyzed the relation between yogurt consumption and the risk of overweight or obesity, 8 analyzed changes in waist circumference or weight changes, 3 studied the association with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and 1 studied the probability of abdominal obesity reversion. Although an inverse association between yogurt consumption and the risk of developing overweight or obesity was not fully consistent or always statistically significant, all studies but one showed in their point estimates inverse associations between yogurt consumption and changes in waist circumference, changes in weight, risk of overweight or obesity, and risk of metabolic syndrome during follow-up, although not all estimates were statistically significant (2 studies). Prospective cohort studies consistently suggested that yogurt consumption may contribute to a reduction in adiposity indexes and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, there is a need for more prospective studies and high-quality randomized clinical trials to confirm this apparent inverse association. PMID:28096138

  5. Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages and provide a quantitative risk assessment. The human dietary intake of acetaldehyde via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on World Health Organization (WHO) consumption data and literature on the acetaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the European Food Safety Authority's margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Life-time cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. The average exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 0.112 mg/kg body weight/day. The MOE was calculated to be 498, and the life-time cancer risk at 7.6 in 10,000. Higher risk may exist for people exposed to high acetaldehyde contaminations, as we have found in certain unrecorded alcohol beverages in Guatemala and Russia, for which we have demonstrated possible exposure scenarios, with risks in the range of 1 in 1000. The life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment set between 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 1,000,000. Alcohol consumption has thus been identified as a direct source of acetaldehyde exposure, which in conjunction with other sources (food flavourings, tobacco) results in a magnitude of risk requiring intervention. An initial public health measure could be to reduce the acetaldehyde content in alcoholic beverages as low as technologically possible, and to restrict its use as a food flavour additive.

  6. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking.We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by 90,000 (88,000-94,000 deaths from

  7. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives...

  8. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

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    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  9. Androgenetic alopecia as an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Ragip; Orscelik, Ozcan; Kartal, Demet; Dogan, Ali; Ertas, Sule Ketenci; Aydogdu, Ebru Guler; Ascioglu, Ozcan; Borlu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated a probable association between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by researching limited and dispersed parameters. We aimed to evaluate both traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in male patients with early-onset AGA. This case-control study included 68 participants: 51 male patients with early-onset AGA and 17 healthy male controls. Patients with AGA were classified into three groups according to the Hamilton-Norwood scale and the presence of vertex hair loss. Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors were examined in all study subjects. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 25 patients with AGA and in two control subjects (p baldness and controls (p < 0.05). The pulse-wave velocity values were also found to be significantly higher in patients (p < 0.001). A limitation of this study was the small study population. In conclusion, vertex pattern AGA appears to be a marker for early atherosclerosis. This finding supports the hypothesis that early-onset AGA alone could be an independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers: a report from an emerging economy.

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    Imran, Kiran; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Ozair, Uzma; Khan, Sadia; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers in an emerging economy. A prospective, data collection enrolled 250 children age ammonia and oxalate in urine. All reported values were two sided and statistical significance was considered at p value ≤0.05. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.50 ± 3.56 years with a male to female ratio of 1.84:1. A family history of urolithiasis was found in 41 (16.4 %), urinary tract infection in 18 (7 %) and chronic diarrhea in 75 (30 %). Hypercalcemia was seen in 37 (14.8 %), hyperuricemia in 23 (9.2 %) and hyperphosphatemia in 6 (2.4 %). Urinary metabolic abnormalities were identified in 248 (98 %) of the cases. Hypocitraturia was found in 207 (82.8 %), hyperoxaluria in 62 (26.4 %), hyperuricosuria in 82 (32.8 %), hypercalciuria in 51 (20.4 %), hyperphosphaturia in 46 (18.4 %), hyperammonuria in 10 (4 %), hypocalciuria in 82 (32.8 %), and hypovolemia in 73 (29.2 %). Risk factors were similar between genders except higher rates of hyponatriuria, hypophosphaturia, and hypocalciuria in females. Hyperuricosuria, hyponatriuria, and hypovolemia were highest in 1-5 years (52, 49, 49 %) as compared to (18, 21, 12 %) those in 11-15 years (p < 0.001), respectively. This study shows that careful metabolic analysis can identify risk factors in 98 % of the children where appropriate metaphylaxis can be undertaken both for treatment and prevention of recurrence.

  11. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2014-01-01

    and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity) by Cox regression analysis, adiponectin remained an independent predictor of HF: the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in adiponectin was 1.20 [95...... adiponectin and proBNP were strongly associated (P gender, smoking status, body mass ratio, waist-hip ratio, glucose, glycated haemoglobin, systolic...... with increased risk of HF. However, concomitantly elevated proBNP levels appear to explain the positive association between adiponectin and risk of HF....

  12. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population.

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    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Skinner, Timothy C; Richards, Ross S; Digban, Kester A; Onyia, Innocent C

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons aged 18 years of age or older. Ten-year risk was calculated using the ATPIII/Framingham criteria. Subjects with risk score 20% at high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. MetS was defined based on the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the MetS. Of the 211 subjects, mean age was 51.3±17.3 years. Average risk of developing CVD in the next 10 years was 3.7±5.3%. Prevalence of low, moderate and high risk of developing CVD among study participants was 86.3% (95% CI 82.0-91.3%), 11.8% (95% CI 6.9-16.1%) and 1.9% (95% CI 0.0-3.8%), respectively. Prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (95% CI 21.0-33.3%). There was poor agreement between MetS and the CVD risk scores (kappa=0.209, p=0.001) CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that complementary use of MetS and CVD risk score is imperative, as there is indication of risk in individuals without MetS. Also a large proportion of the study population requires lifestyle intervention. These findings provide the evidence necessary to tailor public health interventions in this population, especially towards younger age groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among institutionalized patients with schizophrenia receiving long term tertiary care.

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    Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann; Wang, Peizhi; Shafie, Saleha; Ong, Hui Lin; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine the cardiometabolic profile and the associated risk factors in a group of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving prolonged hospital care in the only tertiary psychiatric institution in Singapore. Patients residing in long stay wards who were hospitalized for a minimum period of 1year were recruited. Fasting blood sample was collected to obtain levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides. Waist circumference, blood pressure, height and weight were also measured. The prevalence of MetS and the 10-year cardiovascular risk were determined. This inpatient group had a mean age of 56.1years and an average length of hospitalization of 8.8years. The prevalence of MetS in this group was 51.9% and 26.9% based on the AHA/NHLBI and modified NCEP ATP III criteria respectively. Those in the high risk BMI category and those who had pre-existing diabetes had higher odds of MetS. Their 10-year cardiovascular risk was estimated at 12.8%, indicating intermediate risk based on the Framingham risk function. Despite the low smoking rate in this group of inpatients, their cardiovascular risk appeared to be relatively high possibly due to old age and age-related conditions such as hypertension and low HDL. While literature has found the use of atypical antipsychotic medications to increase the risk of MetS, we did not find any significant association. Additionally, the duration of hospitalization did not affect the rate of MetS in our sample. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

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    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  15. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

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    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  16. Obesity, metabolic factors and risk of different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study.

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    Robert Carreras-Torres

    Full Text Available Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR, or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer.We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00] for each standard deviation (SD increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2], but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08] (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3. Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3, providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl, while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l. Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results.Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.

  17. Gender aspects of the role of the metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Lehmkuhl, Elke; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokufeh

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the risk factors of abdominal obesity, disturbed glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia, and hypertension is believed to represent a distinct entity, termed the metabolic syndrome (MetS), that leads to a greater increase in cardiovascular risk than does the sum of its components. We reviewed currently available information regarding gender differences in the role of the MetS as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using the search terms women, men, sex, gender, sex differences, and gender differences in combination with the metabolic syndrome, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature on sex differences in the MetS. The National Institutes of Health, PubMed, and MEDLINE databases were searched retrospectively from 2007 to 1987. Reference lists of identified articles were also used as a source, and articles were not restricted to the English language. In recent years, the MetS has been more prevalent in men than in women but has risen particularly in young women, where it is mainly driven by obesity. Diagnostic criteria for the MetS vary for the cutoff points and definition of its components in a gender-specific manner. Based on the definition of impaired glucose homeostasis and pathologic abdominal circumference or waist/hip ratio, more or fewer women are included. Glucose and lipid metabolism are directly modulated by estrogen and testosterone, with a lack of estrogen or a relative increase in testosterone inducing insulin resistance and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Hypertension is a strong risk factor in both sexes, but the prevalence of hypertension increases more rapidly in aging women than in men. Menopause and polycystic ovary syndrome contribute to the development of MetS by the direct effects of sex hormones. Some components of the MetS (eg, diabetes and hypertension) carry a greater risk for CVD in women. Future gender-related clinical and research activities should focus on the identification of sex- and

  18. CardioBengo study protocol: a population based cardiovascular longitudinal study in Bengo Province, Angola

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    João M. Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012, 75 % occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these countries are facing a period of epidemiological transition, being confronted with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases, which challenge health systems mainly designed to deal with infectious diseases. With the adoption of the World Health Organization “Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of non-communicable diseases, 2013–2020”, the national dimension of risk factors for non-communicable diseases must be reported on a regular basis. Angola has no national surveillance system for non-communicable diseases, and periodic population-based studies can help to overcome this lack of information. CardioBengo will collect information on risk factors, awareness rates and prevalence of symptoms relevant to cardiovascular diseases, to assist decision makers in the implementation of prevention and treatment policies and programs. Methods CardioBengo is designed as a research structure that comprises a cross-sectional component, providing baseline information and the assembling of a cohort to follow-up the dynamics of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in the catchment area of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System of the Health Research Centre of Angola, in Bengo Province, Angola. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaires and procedures will be used to collect information on a representative sex-age stratified sample, aged between 15 and 64 years old. Discussion CardioBengo will recruit the first population cohort in Angola designed to evaluate cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Using the structures in place of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System and a reliable methodology that generates comparable results with other

  19. CardioBengo study protocol: a population based cardiovascular longitudinal study in Bengo Province, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, João M; Rosário, Edite; Brito, Miguel; Barros, Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012, 75 % occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these countries are facing a period of epidemiological transition, being confronted with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases, which challenge health systems mainly designed to deal with infectious diseases. With the adoption of the World Health Organization "Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of non-communicable diseases, 2013-2020", the national dimension of risk factors for non-communicable diseases must be reported on a regular basis. Angola has no national surveillance system for non-communicable diseases, and periodic population-based studies can help to overcome this lack of information. CardioBengo will collect information on risk factors, awareness rates and prevalence of symptoms relevant to cardiovascular diseases, to assist decision makers in the implementation of prevention and treatment policies and programs. CardioBengo is designed as a research structure that comprises a cross-sectional component, providing baseline information and the assembling of a cohort to follow-up the dynamics of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in the catchment area of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System of the Health Research Centre of Angola, in Bengo Province, Angola. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaires and procedures will be used to collect information on a representative sex-age stratified sample, aged between 15 and 64 years old. CardioBengo will recruit the first population cohort in Angola designed to evaluate cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Using the structures in place of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System and a reliable methodology that generates comparable results with other regions and countries, this study will constitute a useful tool for

  20. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors in university students

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    José Bonifácio Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional population-based study using questionnaire and anthropometric data was conducted on 968 university students of São Luís, Brazil, from which 590 showed up for blood collection. In the statistical analysis the Student t-test, Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were used. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria was 20.5%, almost three times more prevalent in men (32.2% than in women (13.5% (P < 0.001. The prevalence of insulin resistance was 7.3% and the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was high (61.2%, both with no statistically significant differences by sex. Men showed a higher percentage of smoking, overweight, high blood pressure, high blood glucose and increased fasting hypertriglyceridemia. Women were more sedentary. University students of private institutions had higher prevalences of sedentary lifestyle, obesity, abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides and metabolic syndrome than students from public institutions. High prevalences of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors were found in this young population. This suggests that the burden of these diseases in the future will be increased.

  1. Nursing care in childcare services: Acantose nigricans as a marker for metabolic risk

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    Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the association between the presence of Acantose nigricans and metabolic changes in overweight adolescents, so as to ascertain the relevance of the identification of this marker in the nursing consultation. METHOD: a cross-sectional study undertaken between April 2009 and April 2010 with 118 adolescents who were service users of the Center for Child Obesity in Campina Grande in the Brazilian State of Paraíba (PB. The presence of Acantose nigricans, and the subjects' anthropometric measurements, were investigated. The following exams were made: insulin, triglycerides, HDL-Cholesterol, Glucose and the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: there was association between the presence of Acantose nigricans and participants with insulin resistance (p=0.008, metabolic syndrome (p=0.031, elevated triglycerides (p=0.045 and altered HDL (p=0.002. CONCLUSIONS: the suggestion is supported that the detection/identification of Acantose nigricans may be used in the nursing consultation as a tool for identifying overweight adolescents with greater risk of metabolic changes.

  2. Heterogeneity of elderly depression: increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and Aβ protein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Yuki; Baba, Hajime; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-06-03

    Epidemiological studies have proposed that depression may increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), even in patients with early-onset depression. Although metabolism of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in elderly depression received attention in terms of their correlation, there is a serious heterogeneity in elderly depression in terms of age at onset of depression. Moreover, it is unknown whether early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) has a long-term effect on the involvement of Aβ metabolism and later development of AD. Thus, we evaluated serum Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels, the Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio in 89 elderly (≥60 years of age) inpatients with MDD and 81 age-matched healthy controls, and compared them among patients with early-onset (great interest that the serum Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio was negatively correlated with the age at MDD onset (R=-0.201, p=0.032). These results suggest that an earlier onset of MDD may have a more serious abnormality in Aβ metabolism, possibly explaining a biological mechanism underlying the link between depression and AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the neuro-degenerative and cardio-degenerative disease, Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shannon; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R; Huang, Michael L-H

    2017-08-04

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for maintaining healthy cellular function and survival. The detrimental involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in neuro-degenerative diseases has recently been highlighted in human conditions, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is another neuro-degenerative, but also cardio-degenerative condition, where mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in disease progression. Deficient expression of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin, is the primary cause of FA, which leads to adverse alterations in whole cell and mitochondrial iron metabolism. Dys-regulation of iron metabolism in these compartments, results in the accumulation of inorganic iron deposits in the mitochondrial matrix that is thought to potentiate oxidative damage observed in FA. Therefore, the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial in the progression of neuro-degenerative conditions, particularly in FA. In this review, vital mitochondrial homeostatic processes and their roles in FA pathogenesis will be discussed. These include mitochondrial iron processing, mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial energy production and calcium metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modern methodic of power cardio training in students’ physical education

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    A.Yu. Osipov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: significant increase of students’ physical condition and health level at the account of application of modern power cardio training methodic. Material: 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls participated in the research. The age of the tested was 19 years. The research took one year. We used methodic of power and functional impact on trainees’ organism (HOT IRON. Such methodic is some systems of physical exercises with weights (mini-barbells, to be fulfilled under accompaniment of specially selected music. Results: we showed advantages of power-cardio and fitness trainings in students’ health improvement and in elimination obesity. Control tests showed experimental group students achieved confidently higher physical indicators. Boys demonstrated increase of physical strength and general endurance indicators. Girls had confidently better indicators of physical strength, flexibility and general endurance. Increase of control group students’ body mass can be explained by students’ insufficient physical activity at trainings, conducted as per traditional program. Conclusions: students’ trainings by power-cardio methodic with application HOT IRON exercises facilitate development the following physical qualities: strength and endurance in boys and strength, flexibility and endurance in girls. Besides, it was found that such systems of exercises facilitate normalization of boys’ body mass and correction of girls’ constitution.

  5. Polymorphisms in heterocyclic aromatic amines metabolism-related genes are associated with colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholzer, Monika; Rohrmann, Sabine; Barbir, Aline; Hermann, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risks have been linked to the intake of red and processed meat. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) formed herein during high temperature cooking, are metabolized by a variety of enzymes, and allelic variation in the coding genes could influence individual CRA risk. Associations of polymorphisms in NAT1, NAT2, GSTA1, SULT1A1, CYP1A2, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, GSTP1 genes with colorectal adenoma risk were investigated in a nested case-control study of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort including 428 cases matched by age, sex and year of recruitment with one or two controls (n=828) with negative colonoscopy per case. Genoyping was preformed with the Sequenom MassArray system and the LightCycler 480. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). For rs15561 (NAT1) and rs1057126 (NAT1), the rarer allel was significantly inversely associated with adenoma risk OR=0.80 (95% CI 0.65-0.97) and (OR=0.81 (95% CI 0.65-0.99) and, respectively). For the combined NAT2 alleles encoding for enzymes with medium (versus slow) activity we also observed a significantly inverse association with adenoma risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.85-0.97). In addition, homozygous carriers of the A allele of rs3957357 (GSTA1), i.e., those with a decreased enzyme activity, had a decreased risk of colorectal adenoma with an OR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.50-0.92; AA versus GG/GA). Polymorphisms in the other tested genes did not modify the risk of colorectal adenomas. In conclusion, polymorphisms in NAT1, NAT2, and GSTA1 are related to colorectal adenoma risk in this German cohort.

  6. Shift Work and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome Among Jordanian Employees

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    Rana Abu Farha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to evaluate the effect of night shift working on increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD using three different predictors. Methods: One hundred and forty adult Jordanian employees were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data, anthropometric parameters, and working patterns information were documented. Metabolic syndrome (MetS was diagnosed, and atherogenic index of the plasma (AIP and Framingham risk score were calculated. Results: Night shift workers had a significantly higher AIP ratio compared to daytime workers (p = 0.024. No significant association was observed between the two groups in term of 30-year Framingham risk score (p = 0.115. However, the duration of night shifts and the number of night shifts per months were found to significantly increase the 30-year Framingham risk (p = 0.000 and 0.012, respectively. Furthermore, the incidence of MetS among night shift workers was 15.9% (13/82 compared to 10.3% (6/58 among daytime workers (p = 0.484. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess the association between night shift work and AIP as well as the 30-year Framingham risk score as predictors of CVDs. Night shift work was associated with an increase in AIP score compared to daytime work. Also, the duration of night shifts and the number of night shifts per month significantly increased the 30-year Framingham risk among night shift workers. These findings suggest an association between night shift work and the risk of CVD and atherosclerosis. Our results highlight the need for interventional strategies to diminish the risk of CVD in night shift workers.

  7. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

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    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-01-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m"2) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m"2) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m"2", p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

  9. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. Method....... MetS was defined based on the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the MetS. Result: Of the 211 subjects, mean age was 51.3±17.3 years. Average risk of developing CVD in the next 10 years was 3.7±5.3%. Prevalence of low, moderate and high risk of developing CVD among study participants was 86.......3% (95% CI 82.0-91.3%), 11.8% (95% CI 6.9-16.1%) and 1.9% (95% CI 0.0-3.8%), respectively. Prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (95% CI 21.0-33.3%). There was poor agreement between MetS and the CVD risk scores (kappa=0.209, p=0.001) Conclusions: The results showed that complementary use of MetS and CVD risk...

  10. Cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, L P; Ma, R C W; Lam, P M; Lok, I H; Haines, C J; So, W Y; Tong, P C Y; Cockram, C S; Chow, C C; Goggins, W B

    2008-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) frequently exhibit central obesity, glucose intolerance, atherogenic dyslipidaemia and hypertension which are characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 295 premenopausal Chinese women with PCOS diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria (mean age: 30.2 +/- 6.4 years) and 98 control subjects without PCOS were evaluated for prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia. Using the 2005 modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, MetS (presence of three or more risk factors) was found in 24.9% of PCOS women compared to 3.1% of controls. The prevalence of MetS in PCOS women increased from 16.7% at under 30 years of age to 53.3% at over 40 years. MetS was also more prevalent in overweight and obese (41.3%) than normal-weight PCOS women (0.9%). However, multivariate regression analysis showed that women with PCOS had a 5-fold increase in risk of MetS (odds ratio 4.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-17.84) compared with women without PCOS even after controlling for age and BMI, suggesting PCOS alone is an independent risk factor for MetS. There is high prevalence of MetS in Hong Kong Chinese women with PCOS despite their relatively young age. Recognition of these cardiometabolic risk factors requires a high level of awareness in conjunction with early and regular screening.

  11. The prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid levels were recorded from 222 participants, 35-65 years old. Identification of MetS was based on guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program III. The study found the prevalence of MetS was 36.49% with no significant differences between male and female participants. An advancing body mass index (BMI emerged as one of the most significant risk factors. Participants with BMI > 23 kg*m -2 had an increased risk of MetS (OR 3.17. Furthermore, participants in the age group 55-65 years had an increased risk of MetS (OR 2.28. Lack of exercise and high waist to height ratio were also important risk factors (OR 2.38 and 3.37, respectively. Therefore, increased physical activity or exercise and weight control are advised to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  12. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder and metabolic syndrome: a study of increased health risk in veterans

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    Hauger Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is accumulating evidence for a link between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and diminished health status. To assess PTSD-related biological burden, we measured biological factors that comprise metabolic syndrome, an important established predictor of morbidity and mortality, as a correlate of long-term health risk in PTSD. Methods We analyzed clinical data from 253 male and female veterans, corresponding to five factors linked to metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio and fasting measures of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides and plasma glucose concentration. Clinical cut-offs were defined for each biological parameter based on recommendations from the World Health Organization and the National Cholesterol Education Program. Controlling for relevant variables including sociodemographic variables, alcohol/substance/nicotine use and depression, we examined the impact of PTSD on metabolic syndrome using a logistic regression model. Results Two-fifths (40% of the sample met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Of those with PTSD (n = 139, 43% met criteria for metabolic syndrome. The model predicted metabolic syndrome well (-2 log likelihood = 316.650, chi-squared = 23.731, p = 0.005. Veterans with higher severity of PTSD were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (Wald = 4.76, p = 0.03. Conclusion These findings provide preliminary evidence linking higher severity of PTSD with risk factors for diminished health and increased morbidity, as represented by metabolic syndrome.

  13. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder and metabolic syndrome: a study of increased health risk in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Pia S; Crawford, Eric F; Haji, Uzair A; Afari, Niloofar; Hauger, Richard L; Dashevsky, Boris A; Horn, Paul S; Nunnink, Sarah E; Baker, Dewleen G

    2009-01-09

    There is accumulating evidence for a link between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and diminished health status. To assess PTSD-related biological burden, we measured biological factors that comprise metabolic syndrome, an important established predictor of morbidity and mortality, as a correlate of long-term health risk in PTSD. We analyzed clinical data from 253 male and female veterans, corresponding to five factors linked to metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio and fasting measures of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, serum triglycerides and plasma glucose concentration). Clinical cut-offs were defined for each biological parameter based on recommendations from the World Health Organization and the National Cholesterol Education Program. Controlling for relevant variables including sociodemographic variables, alcohol/substance/nicotine use and depression, we examined the impact of PTSD on metabolic syndrome using a logistic regression model. Two-fifths (40%) of the sample met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Of those with PTSD (n = 139), 43% met criteria for metabolic syndrome. The model predicted metabolic syndrome well (-2 log likelihood = 316.650, chi-squared = 23.731, p = 0.005). Veterans with higher severity of PTSD were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (Wald = 4.76, p = 0.03). These findings provide preliminary evidence linking higher severity of PTSD with risk factors for diminished health and increased morbidity, as represented by metabolic syndrome.

  14. National and subnational mortality effects of metabolic risk factors and smoking in Iran: a comparative risk assessment

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    Farzadfar Farshad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, total cholesterol (TC, and high body mass index (BMI on mortality and life expectancy, nationally and subnationally, using representative data and comparable methods. Methods We used data from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey to estimate means and standard deviations for the metabolic risk factors, nationally and by region. Lung cancer mortality was used to measure cumulative exposure to smoking. We used data from the death registration system to estimate age-, sex-, and disease-specific numbers of deaths in 2005, adjusted for incompleteness using demographic methods. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain the effect of risk factors on disease-specific mortality. We estimated deaths and life expectancy loss attributable to risk factors using the comparative risk assessment framework. Results In 2005, high SBP was responsible for 41,000 (95% uncertainty interval: 38,000, 44,000 deaths in men and 39,000 (36,000, 42,000 deaths in women in Iran. High FPG, BMI, and TC were responsible for about one-third to one-half of deaths attributable to SBP in men and/or women. Smoking was responsible for 9,000 deaths among men and 2,000 among women. If SBP were reduced to optimal levels, life expectancy at birth would increase by 3.2 years (2.6, 3.9 and 4.1 years (3.2, 4.9 in men and women, respectively; the life expectancy gains ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 years for TC, BMI, and FPG. SBP was also responsible for the largest number of deaths in every region, with age-standardized attributable mortality ranging from 257 to 333 deaths per 100,000 adults in different regions. Discussion Management of blood pressure through diet, lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions should be a priority in Iran

  15. Frequency of Metabolic Risk Factors in Children with Urinary Tract Stones Referred to Hamadan Pediatric Nephrology Clinic

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    H.E. Momtaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary stones are among the most common complaints referred to nephrologist and urologists. Although incidence of urolithiasis is low in children compared to adults and only 7% of all urinary stones are diagnosed before the age of 16 but stones are detected more frequently in pediatric age group in recent years. Metabolic derangements, infection, neurogenic bladder and urinary obstruction are major risk factors of urolithiasis. Common metabolic risk factors of urolithiasis in children are hypercalciuria, uricosuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, metabolic acidosis and cystinuria. There are many clinical studies about the frequency of these metabolic risk factors with different results reflecting difference in diet, geographic area and genetics in study populations. In this study we tried to evaluate the frequency of metabolic causes of urinary stones in children referred to Hamadan pediatric nephrology clinic.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study 156 patients referred due to urinary stones to pediatric nephrology clinic underwent thorough metabolic evaluations including: serum calcium,phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and non fasting random urine sample for calcium, creatinine , uric acid , oxalate, citrate and cystine . urine solute: creatinine ratios were calculated and compared with normative data.Results: Of 156 patients 136(87.2% had metabolic derangements including: hyperuricosuria in 71 (45.5%, hypercalciuria in 41(26.3%, hypocitraturia in 26 (16.7%, hyperoxaluria in 16(10.3%,cystinuria in 1(0.6% and metabolic acidosis in 39 (25%.Conclusion: High rate of metabolic derangement in pediatric urinary stone patients mandates proper metabolic evaluation in all of them. hyperuricosuria was the most common metbolic finding instead of hypercalciuria in this study. This could be due to differences in diet, geographic area and genetic background in various populations.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci

  16. Porphyrin metabolisms in human skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes bacteria: potential application to monitor human radiation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, M; Kuo, S; Wang, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Gallo, R L; Huang, C-M

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood's lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk.

  17. New Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Cardiovascular Risk. Crossing the Metabolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalama, Belén; Mesa, Jordi

    2016-11-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are a novel pharmacological class of oral hypoglycemic agents that lower glucose levels by increasing renal glucose excretion in an insulin-independent manner. However, this seemingly simple mechanism has more complex indirect metabolic effects. The results of randomized clinical trials have shown that these inhibitors effectively lower blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and, at the same time, also reduce bodyweight and systolic blood pressure. In this review, we describe the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety of currently marketed drugs, as well as other risk factors besides glucose that can potentially be modulated positively. Recent data on empagliflozin showing a significant cardiovascular benefit have compelled us to update knowledge of this new therapeutic class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Type of vegetable oils used in cooking and risk of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Praseena, Kallingal; Vijayalakshmi, Parthasarathy; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-03-01

    There is little data on the type of vegetable oil used and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians. Food frequency questionnaire was used to document the type of cooking oil in 1875 adults in Chennai city. MS was assessed by new harmonizing criteria. The prevalence of MS was higher among sunflower oil users (30.7%) than palmolein (23.2%) and traditional oil (17.1%, p < 0.001) users. The higher prevalence of MS in sunflower oil group persisted even when stratified according to body mass index, except in obese groups. The risk of MS was further compounded by quantity of refined cereals consumed. Higher LA%E and linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in sunflower oil probably contributes to increased risk of MS.

  19. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  20. Aromatase inhibitors, efficacy and metabolic risk in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gonnelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Gonnelli1, Roberto Petrioli21Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Science and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. R. Nuti.; 2Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Medical Oncology Section, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. G. FranciniAbstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are becoming the first choice endocrine drugs for post-menopausal women with breast cancer, since they present greater efficacy when compared with tamoxifen in both adjuvant and metastatic setting. In particular, several large and well designed trials have suggested an important role for AIs in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer either in the upfront, sequential or extended adjuvant mode. Overall, AIs are associated with a small but significant improvement in disease free survival. The expanding use of AIs in the treatment of early breast cancer means that individual patients will be exposed to the agents for longer durations, making it increasingly important to establish their long-term safety. This review focused on the effects of AIs on bone metabolism, serum lipids and cardiovascular risk. AIs have adverse effects on bone turnover with a reduction of bone mineral density and an increase in the rate of fragility fractures. With respect to tamoxifen AIs present lower thrombotic risk and a less favorable impact on lipid profile, whereas the true effects on cardiovascular risk still remain to be clarified. An adequate monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD and lipid profile could be recommended for post-menopausal women candidate to AIs.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, bone loss, lipids, cardiovascular risk

  1. Veganism does not reduce the risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Penghui; Shu, Zheng; Wang, Yanfang; Li, Na; Du, Songming; Sun, Feng; Xia, Yinyin; Zhan, Siyan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MS) with vegan, pescovegetarian, lactovegetarian and nonvegetarian diets in Taiwan. The design was a retrospective cohort study using secondary data analysis from a Taiwan longitudinal health check-up database provided by MJ Health Screening Center during 1996-2006. A total of 93209 participants were classified as vegans (n=1116), pescovegetarians (n=2461), lactovegetarians (n=4313) and nonvegetarians (n=85319) by food frequency list of self-administered questionnaire at baseline. The association between MS or MS components and different dietary groups was evaluated using Cox proportional-hazards regression models with adjustment for confounders. During the mean 3.75 years of follow up, a total 8006 MS incident cases occurred and the incidence of MS was 229 (95% CI, 224, 234) per 10000 person year. Compared with vegans, hazard ratios of MS for nonvegetarians, pescovegetarians, lactovegetarians were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64, 0.88), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55, 0.83) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67, 0.97) after adjusting for sex, age, education status, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity at work and leisure, respectively. As for MS components, nonvegetarians and pescovegetarians had 0.72 (95% CI, 0.62, 0.84), 0.70 (95% CI, 0.57, 0.84) times risk of developing low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), while nonvegetarians had 1.16 (95% CI, 1.02, 1.32) times risk of developing high fasting plasma glucose. Our data suggest that the vegan diets did not decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome compared with pescovegetarian, lactovegetarian and nonvegetarian diets in a Taiwanese cohort.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly women Challenging the current definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Neergaard, Jesper; Laursen, Janne Marie

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is believed to vary with age. With an elderly population expecting to triple by 2060, it is important to evaluate the validity of MetS in this age group. We examined the association of MetS risk factors with later risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM...

  3. A two fold risk of metabolic syndrome in a sample of patients with schizophrenia: do consanguinity and family history increase risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O A A; Dafeeah, Elnour E

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at greater risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its criteria among patients with schizophrenia (Sz) according to the revised criteria of NCEP ATP III and assess which component contributed to the increased risk of the MetS in schizophrenia patients. This was a matched case-control study. Outpatient clinics of the Psychiatry department and Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, State of Qatar. The study was carried out among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy subjects above 20 years old. The study based on matched by age and gender of 233 cases and 466 controls. The survey was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by laboratory tests. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program - Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among schizophrenic patients (36.5%) were significantly higher than healthy subjects (18.7%) (pmetabolic abnormalities compared to men. The study indicated that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The female gender was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The identification and clinical management of this high risk group is of great importance. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Body composition and metabolic risk in small for gestational age children treated with growth hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2016-09-16

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate changes in body composition produced by growth hormone (GH) treatment. A group of 28 SGA children without catch-up growth and undergoing treatment with GH was selected for evaluation. Over the course of 3 years from the beginning of the treatment with GH, the children's body composition variables (bone mineral density [BMD], fat and lean body mass proportion) were evaluated annually with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A study of correlation between metabolic and body composition variables was also made. Treatment with GH produces a reduction in fat mass proportion in relation to lean body mass, decreasing from 25.94±6.09 to 22.88±5.38% (P=.034). In the abdominal regions we observe an increase in lean mass, from 1,356,91±426,71 to 2,570,96±814,36g (P=.000) and a tendency for visceral fat deposits to decrease. BMD in lumbar vertebrae improved from -1.55±0.68 to -0.90±0.79Z (P=.019). Treatment with GH produces changes in body composition, improving BMD and increasing the proportion of lean body mass with a reduction in fat mass. If these changes persisted into adulthood, they may cause a reduction in the metabolic and cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Circulating Phospholipid Patterns in NAFLD Patients Associated with a Combination of Metabolic Risk Factors

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    Shilpa Tiwari-Heckler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its related comorbidities and genetic modifications. Methods: 97 patients with diagnosed NAFLD were recruited at a single center during 2013–2016. Based on histological and transient elastography assessment, 69 patients were divided into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL subgroups. 28 patients served as healthy controls. Serum phospholipids were determined by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results: The total content of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin in the serum was significantly increased in NAFL and NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. In addition, serum lysophospatidylethanolamine levels were significantly decreased in NAFL and NASH individuals. Circulating PC species, containing linoleic and α-linolenic acids, were markedly increased in NAFLD patients with hypertension, compared to NAFLD patients without hypertension. The pattern of phospholipids did not differ between NAFLD patients with diabetes and those without diabetes. However, NAFLD patients with hyperglycemia (blood glucose level (BGL >100 mg/dL exhibited significantly a higher amount of monounsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine than those with low blood glucose levels. In addition, NAFLD patients with proven GG-genotype of PNPLA3, who were at higher risk for the development of progressive disease with fibrosis, showed lower levels of circulating plasmalogens, especially 16:0, compared to those with CC- and CG-allele. Conclusions: Our extended lipidomic study presents a unique metabolic profile of circulating phospholipids associated with the presence of metabolic risk factors or the genetic background

  6. LA sprouts randomized controlled nutrition and gardening program reduces obesity and metabolic risk in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention ("LA Sprouts") on dietary intake, obesity parameters, and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. The randomized controlled trial involved four elementary schools [two schools randomized to intervention (172 third-through fifth-grade students); two schools randomized to control (147 third-through fifth-grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and postintervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1-vs. 0.04-point decrease, respectively; P = 0.01) and WC (-1.2 cm vs. no change; P < 0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. -15.5%; P = 0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (-3.6% vs. -26.4%; P = 0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LA Sprouts and control subjects. LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic disease and impacts renal health in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Chen, Hui; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    Obesity, together with insulin resistance, promotes multiple metabolic abnormalities and is strongly associated with an increased risk of chronic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incidence of obesity continues to rise in astronomical proportions throughout the world and affects all the different stages of the lifespan. Importantly, the proportion of women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese is increasing at an alarming rate and has potential ramifications for offspring health and disease risk. Evidence suggests a strong link between the intrauterine environment and disease programming. The current review will describe the importance of the intrauterine environment in the development of metabolic disease, including kidney disease. It will detail the known mechanisms of fetal programming, including the role of epigenetic modulation. The evidence for the role of maternal obesity in the developmental programming of CKD is derived mostly from our rodent models which will be described. The clinical implication of such findings will also be discussed. PMID:29483369

  8. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

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    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  9. Increased intestinal permeability, measured by serum zonulin, is associated with metabolic risk markers in overweight pregnant women.

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    Mokkala, Kati; Pellonperä, Outi; Röytiö, Henna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2017-04-01

    Increased intestinal permeability with subsequent metabolic endotoxemia, i.e., elevated circulating levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS, has been introduced as a novel initiator of obesity related metabolic disturbances in non-pregnant individuals. The objective was to investigate the extent to which intestinal permeability, measured by serum zonulin concentration, is related to metabolic endotoxemia and metabolic risk markers in overweight pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study including 100 pregnant overweight women in early pregnancy. Serum zonulin was analyzed using ELISA, and markers for metabolic endotoxemia (LPS), inflammation (high-sensitive C-reactive protein and glycoprotein acetylation GlyA), glucose metabolism (fasting glucose and insulin), and lipid metabolism were measured. Higher serum zonulin concentration associated positively with LPS (P=0.02), inflammatory markers (Pzonulin quartiles). All the observed associations were confirmed (Pzonulin concentration, i.e., increased intestinal permeability, contributes to metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in overweight pregnant women. By reinforcing intestinal barrier, it may be possible to manipulate maternal metabolism during pregnancy with subsequent health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase I metabolic genes and risk of lung cancer: multiple polymorphisms and mRNA expression.

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    Melissa Rotunno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes that activate tobacco lung carcinogens may generate inter-individual differences in lung cancer risk. Previous studies had limited sample sizes, poor exposure characterization, and a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tested in candidate genes. We analyzed 25 SNPs (some previously untested in 2101 primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE study from six phase I metabolic genes, including cytochrome P450s, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and myeloperoxidase. We evaluated the main genotype effects and genotype-smoking interactions in lung cancer risk overall and in the major histology subtypes. We tested the combined effect of multiple SNPs on lung cancer risk and on gene expression. Findings were prioritized based on significance thresholds and consistency across different analyses, and accounted for multiple testing and prior knowledge. Two haplotypes in EPHX1 were significantly associated with lung cancer risk in the overall population. In addition, CYP1B1 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms were inversely associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma risk, respectively. Moreover, the association between CYP1A1 rs2606345 genotype and lung cancer was significantly modified by intensity of cigarette smoking, suggesting an underlying dose-response mechanism. Finally, increasing number of variants at CYP1A1/A2 genes revealed significant protection in never smokers and risk in ever smokers. Results were supported by differential gene expression in non-tumor lung tissue samples with down-regulation of CYP1A1 in never smokers and up-regulation in smokers from CYP1A1/A2 SNPs. The significant haplotype associations emphasize that the effect of multiple SNPs may be important despite null single SNP-associations, and warrants consideration in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Our findings emphasize the necessity of post

  11. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Emma L; Elliott, Faye; Forman, David; Barrett, Jennifer H; Wilkie, Murray J V; Carey, Francis A; Steele, Robert J C; Wolf, Roland; Bishop, Timothy; Smith, Gillian

    2010-05-01

    We have earlier shown that diet and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genotypes influence colorectal cancer risk, and now investigate whether similar associations are seen in patients with premalignant colorectal adenomas (CRA), recruited during the pilot phase of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. Nineteen polymorphisms in 13 genes [cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyl transferase, quinone reductase (NQ01) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes] were genotyped using multiplex PCR or Taqman-based allelic discrimination assays and analyzed in conjunction with diet, assessed by food frequency