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Sample records for cardiac outflow tract

  1. Vangl2-regulated polarisation of second heart field-derived cells is required for outflow tract lengthening during cardiac development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A Ramsbottom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis.

  2. Giant blood cyst tumor in the left ventricular outflow tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chong; HU Jian; NI Yi-ming; JIANG Zhi-nong; XU He-yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Blood cyst is a rare primary cardiac tumor usually affecting the cardiac valves. Associated with severe occlusion-related complications, it is generally removed surgically. With a brief review of the literature, we present a case of pedunculated tumor in the left ventricular outflow tract identified by echocardiography.

  3. Optical coherence tomography provides an ability to assess mechanical property of cardiac wall of developing outflow tract in embryonic heart in vivo

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    Li, Peng; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the biomechanical/elastic property of the cardiac wall is of fundamental importance in improving our understanding of cardiac development, particularly the interaction between the wall dynamics and hemodynamics in the developing outflow tract (OFT). We describe a method that employs optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a means to noninvasively measure the local elastic property of the cardiac wall in vivo. The method uses a time-lapse sequence of OCT images that represent the dynamic behavior of the OFT longitudinal section to calculate the regional wall pulse wave velocity (PWV), upon which the Young's modulus of the cardiac wall is deduced by the use of the Moens-Korteweg equation. The experimental results show that the foot-to-foot PWV ranges from 3.2 to 6.6 mm/s with a mean of 4.7 mm/s, and the averaged Young's modulus is 0.36 Pa, both of which are comparable to the documented values of stage HH17 atrioventricular canal tissue. The proposed method that provides the quantitative mechanical assessment may play a significant role in the understanding of the cardiac development.

  4. Four-dimensional computed tomography: a method of assessing right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary artery deformations throughout the cardiac cycle

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    Schievano, Silvia; Capelli, Claudio; Young, Carol; Lurz, Philipp; Nordmeyer, Johannes; Owens, Catherine; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health and Great, Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiovascular Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To characterise 3D deformations of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT)/ pulmonary arteries (PAs) during the cardiac cycle and estimate the errors of conventional 2D assessments. Contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) findings were retrospectively analysed from 12 patients. The acquisition of 3D images over 10 phases of the cardiac cycle created a four-dimensional CT (4DCT) dataset. The datasets were reconstructed and deformation measured at various levels of the RVOT/PAs in both space and time. Section planes were either static or dynamic relative to the motion of the structures. 4DCT enabled measurement and characterisation of in vivo 3D changes of patients' RVOT/PA during the cardiac cycle. The studied patient population showed a wide range of RVOT/PA morphologies, sizes and dynamics that develop late after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. There were also significant differences in the measured cross-sectional areas of the structures between static and dynamic section planes (up to 150%, p < 0.05) secondary to large 3D displacements and rotations. 4DCT imaging data suggest high variability in RVOT/PA dynamics and significant errors in deformation measurements if 3D analysis is not carried out. These findings play an important role for the development of novel percutaneous approaches to pulmonary valve intervention. (orig.)

  5. The regional myocardial microvascular dysfunction differences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with or without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: Assessment with first-pass perfusion imaging using 3.0-T cardiac magnetic resonance

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    Xu, Hua-yan [Department of Radiology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Yang, Zhi-gang, E-mail: yangzg666@163.com [Department of Radiology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Sun, Jia-yu; Wen, Ling-yi; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Shuai [Department of Radiology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Guo, Ying-kun [Department of Radiology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University (China)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To assess regional myocardial microvascular dysfunction differences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with or without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction using 3.0-T cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) first-pass perfusion imaging. Materials and methods: Forty-two HCM patients, including 25 HCM patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (HOCM), 17 HCM patients without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (NOHCM), and 14 healthy subjects underwent CMR. The left ventricular (LV) function, left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness (EDTH), and diameter of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) were measured and calculated. Based on the signal–time curve of the first-pass myocardium perfusion imaging, perfusion parameters including upslope, time to peak, and peak intensity, were assessed and compared by using one-way analysis of variance and independent t tests. Results: On the first-pass perfusion imaging, lower upslope and peak intensity and longer time to peak were found in HCM patients compared with normal subjects (all p < 0.05). In contrast to the NOHCM group, the average time to peak of the HOCM group was increased (13.30 ± 4.82 s vs 16.28 ± 4.90 s, p < 0.05), but first-pass perfusion upslope was reduced (4.96 ± 2.55 vs 2.58 ± 0.77, p < 0.05). According to the bull's-eye model, the HOCM group's average thickness of basal segments was thicker than the NOHCM group, especially the anteroseptal, inferolateral, and anterior wall values, with a corresponding lower first-pass perfusion upslope than the NOHCM group (all p < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed between first-pass perfusion upslope and LV EDTH (r = −0.551, p < 0.001) and LVOT diameter (r = 0.472, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The regional myocardial microvascular dysfunction differences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with or without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction can be detected with first-pass perfusion CMR

  6. MEF2C regulates outflow tract alignment and transcriptional control of Tdgf1.

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    Barnes, Ralston M; Harris, Ian S; Jaehnig, Eric J; Sauls, Kimberly; Sinha, Tanvi; Rojas, Anabel; Schachterle, William; McCulley, David J; Norris, Russell A; Black, Brian L

    2016-03-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects in humans, and those that affect the proper alignment of the outflow tracts and septation of the ventricles are a highly significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. A late differentiating population of cardiac progenitors, referred to as the anterior second heart field (AHF), gives rise to the outflow tract and the majority of the right ventricle and provides an embryological context for understanding cardiac outflow tract alignment and membranous ventricular septal defects. However, the transcriptional pathways controlling AHF development and their roles in congenital heart defects remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we inactivated the gene encoding the transcription factor MEF2C in the AHF in mice. Loss of Mef2c function in the AHF results in a spectrum of outflow tract alignment defects ranging from overriding aorta to double-outlet right ventricle and dextro-transposition of the great arteries. We identify Tdgf1, which encodes a Nodal co-receptor (also known as Cripto), as a direct transcriptional target of MEF2C in the outflow tract via an AHF-restricted Tdgf1 enhancer. Importantly, both the MEF2C and TDGF1 genes are associated with congenital heart defects in humans. Thus, these studies establish a direct transcriptional pathway between the core cardiac transcription factor MEF2C and the human congenital heart disease gene TDGF1. Moreover, we found a range of outflow tract alignment defects resulting from a single genetic lesion, supporting the idea that AHF-derived outflow tract alignment defects may constitute an embryological spectrum rather than distinct anomalies. PMID:26811383

  7. Fibulin-1 suppresses endothelial to mesenchymal transition in the proximal outflow tract

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    Harikrishnan, K.; Cooley, M. A.; Sugi, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that occurs during cardiac outflow tract (OFT) development is critical for formation of the semilunar valves. Fibulin-1 (Fbln1) is an extracellular matrix protein that is present at several sites of EMT, including the OFT (i.e., E9.5-10.5). The aim...

  8. OBSTRUCTION OF RIGHT VENTRICULAR OUTFLOW TRACT CAUSED BY INTRACAVITARY METASTATIC DISEASE OF PANCREATIC TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-tao Li; Wen-ling Zhu

    2005-01-01

    @@ THE pericardium (90%) is the most common loca tion of cardiac involvement by secondary tumor,followed by myocardium and endocardium (10%).1 Cases of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction caused by intracavitary metastatic tumor growth were rarely reported, al though clinical presentation were unique. We herein reported such a case with literature review in order to improve the understanding of malignant cardiac metastasis.

  9. Acromegaly-induced cardiomyopathy with dobutamine-induced outflow tract obstruction.

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    Abdelsalam, Mahmoud A; Nippoldt, Todd B; Geske, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with a history of acromegaly was referred for preoperative cardiac evaluation preceding trans-sphenoidal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma. Dobutamine stress echocardiography was negative for myocardial ischaemia. Resting left ventricular (LV) LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was 64% and there was hypertrophy of ventricular septum (18 mm) without resting LV outflow tract obstruction. With 40 µg/kg/min of dobutamine, the LVEF became hyperdynamic at 80%, and there was a maximal instantaneous LV outflow tract gradient of 77 mm Hg. There was no delayed myocardial enhancement on cardiac MRI and the pattern of hypertrophy was concentric. Acromegaly-induced cardiomyopathy can mimic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the setting of dobutamine provocation. Because cardiomyopathy is an important cause of mortality in acromegaly, diagnosis and appropriate management are critical to improve survival. PMID:26961727

  10. Right ventricular myxoma obstructing the right ventricular outflow tract: a case report

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    Gribaa, Rym; Slim, Mehdi; Kortas, Chokri; Kacem, Slim; Salem, Helmi Ben; Ouali, Sana; Neffati, Elies; Remadi, Fehmi; Boughzela, Essia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Primary cardiac tumors are uncommon during infancy and childhood. Myxomas originating from the right ventricle are even less common in pediatric patients. Case presentation Here we describe a case of an 11-year-old Tunisian boy who was referred for syncope. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large mobile mass attached to his right ventricle, obstructing his right ventricular outflow tract. Complete surgical excision of the mass with preservation of the pulmonary valve was ...

  11. Changes in strain and blood flow in the outflow tract of chicken embryo hearts observed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding

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    Ma, Zhenhe; Du, Linlin; Wang, Qiaoyun; Chu, Zhongdi; Zang, Xuan; Wang, Fengwen; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the use of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in visualizing and quantifying changes in cardiac wall strain and blood-flow velocities under normal and altered hemodynamic conditions in chicken embryos at an early stage of development, focusing on the heart outflow tract (OFT). OCT imaging allowed in vivo evaluation strain and strain rate of the myocardium of the OFT through analyzing the periodic variation of the myocardial wall thickness. We found that alterations in hemodynamic conditions, through OFT banding, Changed strain and blood-flow velocities through the OFT as expected.

  12. Stenting of the right ventricular outflow tract in symptomatic neonatal tetralogy of Fallot.

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    Haas, Nikolaus A; Laser, Thorsten K; Moysich, Axel; Blanz, Ute; Sandica, Eugen

    2014-04-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the initial management of symptomatic neonates with tetralogy of Fallot. Although neonatal repair can be performed with low mortality, it is associated with increased morbidity and long-term impact on right ventricular performance. Traditionally, the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt remains the palliative procedure of choice. Differential pulmonary artery flow may occur and subsequently result in underdevelopment and distortion of pulmonary vessels. Transcatheter therapy was previously limited to balloon valvulotomy when the obstruction is predominantly at the pulmonary valve level. Stenting of the right ventricular outflow tract can enable adequate forward flow; however, pulmonary regurgitation may impact on right ventricular performance and cardiac output. Stenting of the right ventricular outflow tract with valve sparing placement of the stent thus treating the underlying pathophysiology of the hypercyanotic spells provides a safe and effective management strategy, improving arterial oxygen saturation, avoiding pulmonary regurgitation and encouraging pulmonary artery growth. PMID:23534437

  13. Downregulation of Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase 1 in the process of delayed myocardialization of cardiac proximal outflow tract septum in connexin 43 knockout mice embryo

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    QI Chun-hua; ZHAO Xiao-qing; MA Duan; MA Xiao-jing; ZHOU Guo-min; HUANG Guo-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background The connexln43 knockout (Cx43 KO) mouse dies at birth with an enlarged conotruncal region, which leads to the obstruction of the right outflow tract (OFT). Since myocardialization of the proximal OFT septum is one of the key events during heart development, we investigated the process in the Cx43 KO embryo hearts. Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), is a recently found key molecule to regulate the myocardialization of OFT, but its spatiotemporal expression pattern during myocardialization remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the differentially expressed pattern of ROCK1 between Cx43 KO and wild type embryo hearts, and its relationship with the delayed myocardialization in Cx43 KO embryo hearts.Methods Using immunohistochemistry, the processes of myocardiolization were investigated both in Cx43 KO and wild type embryo hearts. The differentially expressed pattern of ROCK1 between Cx43 KO and wildtype embryo hearts was evaluated both at the mRNA and protein level by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Results The expression of α-sarcomeric actin (α-SCA) in the proximal OFT septum of Cx43 KO embryos was delayed. Meanwhile, it was shown that the downregulation of ROCK1 coincided with delayed myocardialization. The expression of ROCK1 protein was mainly limited to the proximal outflow tract septum from embryo day (E) E11.5 to E15.5. Its expression pattern was similar with that of α-SCA. Real-time RT-PCR found that the expression level of Rock-1 mRNA began at a low level on E11.5 and reached peak at E13.5 and E14.5.Conclusions ROCK1 may have an important role in the process of myocardialization of the proximal OFT septum. Downregulation of ROCK1 is likely to contribute to the aberrant myocardialization in Cx43 KO embryo hearts.

  14. The role of local voltage potentials in outflow tract ectopy

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    Thomsen, P.E.B.; Johannessen, A.; Jons, C.;

    2010-01-01

    Discrete, fragmented, local voltage potentials (LVPs) have been observed in electrograms recorded at the ablation site in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias originating in both the right and left ventricular outflow tract; however, the incidence and the significance...... for supraventricular arrhythmias served as controls. During sinus rhythm, LVPs were recorded in 24 of the 25 patients, 10-85 ms (41 +/- 19 ms) after the onset of the QRS complex, duration 33 +/- 11 ms, voltage 2.0 +/- 1.5 mV. The same potential was recorded 10-52 ms (mean 37 +/- 11 ms) prior to the V potential...... in the ventricular premature beats. In 10 patients, ventricular parasystole was suggested by varying coupling intervals > 100 ms, and fusion beats allowing for the estimation of the least common denominator of R-R intervals. In 23 of the 25 patients, the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and intracardiac contact...

  15. Septation and shortening of outflow tract in embryonic mouse heart involve changes in cardiomyocyte phenotype and α-SMA positive cells in the endocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳萍; 李海荣; 景雅

    2004-01-01

    Background Studies on human, rat and chicken embryos have demonstrated that during the period of outflow tract septation, retraction of the distal myocardial margin of the outflow tract from the junction with aortic sac to the level of semilunar valves leads to the shortening of the myocardial tract. However, the mechanism is not clear. So we investigated the mechanism of outflow tract shortening and remodeling and the spatio-temporal distribution pattern of α-SMA positive cells in the outflow tract cushion during septation of the outflow tract in the embryonic mouse heart. Methods Serial sections of mouse embryos from embryonic day 9 (ED 9) to embryonic day 16 (ED 16) were stained with monoclonal antibodies against α-SCA, α-SMA, or desmin, while apoptosis was assessed using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidy transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results Between ED 11 and ED 12, the cardiomyocytes in the distal portion of the outflow tract were observed losing their myocardial phenotype without going into apoptosis, suggesting that trans-differentiation of cardiomyocytes into the cell components of the free walls of the intrapericardial ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk. The accumulation of α-SMA positive cells in the cardiac jelly began on ED 10 and participated in the ridge fusion and septation of the outflow tract. Fusion of the distal ridges resulted in the formation of the facing walls of the intrapericardial ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk. Fusion of the proximal ridges was accompanied by the accumulation of α-SMA positive cells into a characteristic central whorl, in which cell apoptosis could be observed. Subsequent myocardialization resulted in the formation of the partition between the subaortic and subpulmonary vestibules. Conclusions The shortening of the embryonic heart outflow tract in mice may result not from apoptosis, but from the trans-differentiation of cells with cardiomyocyte phenotype in the distal

  16. Dihydrofolate reductase is required for the development of heart and outflow tract in zebrafish

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    Shuna Sun; Yonghao Gui; Qiu Jiang; Houyan Song

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid is very important for embryonic development and folic acid inhibition can cause congenital heart defects in vertebrates.Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key enzyme in folate-mediated metabolism.The dysfunction of DHFR disrupts the key biological processes which folic acid participates in.DHFR gene is conserved during vertebrate evolution.It is important to investigate the roles of DHFR in cardiac developments.In this study,we showed that DHFR knockdown resulted in the abnormal developments of zebrafish embryos in the early stages.Obvious malformations in heart and outflow tract (OFT) were also observed in DHFR knockdown embryos.DHFR overexpression rescued the abnormal phenotypes in the DHFR knockdown group.DHFR knockdown had negative impacts on the expressions of NKX2.5 (NK2 transcription factor-related 5),MEF2C (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C),TBX20 (T-box 20),and TBX1 (T-box 1) which are important transcriptional factors during cardiac development process,while DHFR overexpression had positive effects.DHFR was required for Hedgehog pathway.DHFR knockdown caused reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis,while its overexpression promoted cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis.Taken together,our study suggested that DHFR plays crucial roles in the development of heart and OFT in zebrafish by regulating gene transcriptions and affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  17. The role of hemodynamics in the development of the outflow tract of the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Erwin; Hillen, Berend; Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether, and if so to what extent, hemodynamic forces and mechanical stimuli do modulate the morphogenesis of the vascular system is a century-old problem. It is important especially in the outflow tract where a spiraling septum develops in and after a strong bend in the tube. Spiraling

  18. Summary of Clinical Experience of Modified Double Root Translocation in the Management of Complete Transposition of Great Arteries With Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Zhiming; Wang, Ke; Chen, Jianchao; Chen, Hongling; Wen, Meng; Liang, Qiaoru

    2016-07-27

    To summarize the therapeutic effects of modified double root translocation (MDRT) in the management of congenital heart disease-transposition of great arteries (TGA) with ventricular septum defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). From May 2013 to March 2015, we treated 6 patients (4 males, 2 females, aged from 1 year and 8 months old to 5 years old) with complete transposition of great arteries with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, SaO2 54 ± 7.3%; the outflow velocity of the left ventricular or pulmonary valve measured by Doppler was 4.46 ± 0.15 m/s, and the Nakata index was 217 ± 32 cm(2)/m(2). We carried out a double root translocation operation on these 6 patients.One patient developed low cardiac output syndrome 4 hours after the operation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed, but the patient died of multiple organ failure. The other 5 patients all recovered and were discharged from the hospital. During the 3-month to 2-year follow-up period, these 5 patients all demonstrated NYHA Class I or NYHA Class II LVEF (65 ± 2.7) %; 4 had mild pulmonary regurgitation, 1 moderate pulmonary regurgitation; 3 no aortic regurgitation, and 2 micro aortic regurgitation, SaO2 99 ± 0.4%.Modified double root translocation is an effective treatment method in the management of complete transposition of great arteries with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  19. Blood flowing state analysis in outflow tract of chick embryonic heart based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

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    Zhao, Yuqian; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) and periodic stress (WPS) are the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. The vessel wall will be deformed by the blood pressure and produce natural elastic force acting on the blood. Because blood flowing in different flow state and show different characteristics of fluid, which influence the calculation of WSS and WPS directly, it is necessary to study the blood flow state. In this paper, we introduce a method to quantify the blood flowing state of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT).4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. By processing the structural image, the geometric parameters were obtained. Blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT were calculated by Doppler OCT method. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained at different times during the cardiac cycle used biofluid mechanics theory, such as Reynolds number and Womersley number.

  20. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction complicating aortic valve replacement: A hidden malefactor revisited

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    Panduranga Prashanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that a dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT obstruction exists in patients, following aortic valve replacement (AVR and is usually considered to be benign. We present a patient with dynamic LVOT obstruction following AVR, who developed refractory cardiogenic shock and expired inspite of various treatment strategies. This phenomenon must be diagnosed early and should be considered as a serious and potentially fatal complication following AVR. The possible mechanisms and treatment options are reviewed.

  1. Blood Flow Simulations for the Design of Stented Valve Reducer in Enlarged Ventricular Outflow Tracts

    OpenAIRE

    Caiazzo, Alfonso; Guibert, Romain; Boudjemline, Younes; Vignon-Clementel, Irene

    2015-01-01

    International audience Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease characterized over time, after the initial repair, by the absence of a functioning pulmonary valve, which causes regurgitation, and by progressive enlargement of the right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT). Due to this pathological anatomy, available transcatheter valves are usually too small to be deployed there. To avoid surgical valve replacement, an alternative consists in implanting a reducer prior to or in combinat...

  2. Left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysm formation following three aortic valve replacement surgeries

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    Nasrien E Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a pseudoaneurysm arising from the left ventricular outflow tract/aortic root as a complication of aortic valve surgery. A 45-year-old Nigerian female presented to our institution′s emergency department with chest discomfort. She had three bioprosthetic aortic valve replacements in the preceding year at an outside institution for aortic regurgitation and wanted a second opinion on remaining surgical options. The learning points relevant to this case are as follows: (1 Recognizing potential complications postmultiple valve surgeries, (2 screening patients for chronic infections and rheumatologic conditions that can contribute to failed valve surgeries.

  3. Monomorphic Outflow Tract Ventricular Tachycardia: Unique Presenting Manifestation of Gitelman’s Syndrome

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    Subba Reddy Vanga, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Outflow Tract Ventricular Tachycardia (OTVT is typically seen in young to middle aged people with structurally normal hearts. These arrhythmias are triggered by emotional or stress factors and that responds to medications. Electrolyte abnormalities rarely cause ventricular arrhythmia. Gitelman’s syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive renal disorder causes hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypomagnesaemia.1 This disorder is often benign with mild clinical symptoms and excellent long-term prognosis. We present a case of Gitelman’s syndrome with symptomatic OTVT as initial manifestation.

  4. Rate of Cure of Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia: A Review Paper

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    Dr. Abdel Fuenmayor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT ventricular tachycardias (VT occur in the absence of structural heart disease and are called idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias. These arrhythmias are thought to be produced by adenosine-sensitive, cyclic AMP mediated, triggered activity and are commonly observed in adolescents and young adults. In the ECG, they appear with a wide QRS complex, a left bundle branch block morphology and, usually, an inferior QRS axis. In the last few years, there has been an increasing number of reports suggesting the possibility of a curative treatment of RVOT VT by means of catheter ablation. This paper reviews the rate of cure of such arrhythmias by discussing the effects of catheter ablation on symptoms, arrhythmia detection, possibility of induction, and short- and long-term follow-up studies.

  5. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, Matthew J; McElhinney, Doff B; Kreutzer, Jacqueline;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review...... of databases from 3 prospective Melody TPV (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) trials. RESULTS: Among 358 patients who were catheterized with the intent to implant a Melody TPV for RVOT conduit stenosis or regurgitation (PR) as part of 3 prospective multicenter studies, 67 (19%) had a prior Ross procedure...... early outcomes and durable valve function in the majority of Ross patients. Recurrent RVOT obstruction associated with stent fracture was the main reason for reintervention. Coronary compression is not uncommon in Ross patients and should be assessed prior to TPVR....

  6. Prevalence of exercise-induced left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in symptomatic patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, J S

    2008-10-01

    Resting left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) occurs in 25% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is an important cause of symptoms and disease progression. The prevalence and clinical significance of exercise induced LVOTO in patients with symptomatic non-obstructive HCM is uncertain.

  7. Utility of continuous wave Doppler echocardiography in the noninvasive assessment of left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

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    Panza, J A; Petrone, R K; Fananapazir, L; Maron, B J

    1992-01-01

    Subaortic obstruction is an important determinant of the clinical presentation of and therapeutic approach to patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Therefore, assessment of the presence and magnitude of the intraventricular pressure gradient is paramount in the clinical evaluation of these patients. To establish the utility of continuous wave Doppler echocardiography in assessing the pressure gradient in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 28 patients representing the wide hemodynamic spectrum of this disease underwent simultaneous determination of the subaortic gradient by continuous wave Doppler ultrasound and cardiac catheterization. With use of the modified Bernoulli equation, the Doppler-estimated gradient showed a strong correlation with the maximal instantaneous pressure difference measured at catheterization, both under basal conditions (r = 0.93; p less than 0.0001) and during provocative maneuvers (r = 0.89; p less than 0.0001). In 26 of the 28 patients, all assessments of the subaortic gradient were in agreement within 15 mm Hg (average difference 5 +/- 3 mm Hg). In the other two patients there were substantial differences between these measurements (under basal conditions in one patient and after provocation in another), although the Doppler technique predicted the presence of marked subaortic obstruction in each. In both patients the erroneous interpretation was due to superimposition of the mitral regurgitation signal on that of left ventricular outflow. Doppler waveforms from the left ventricular outflow tract showed variability in contour among different patients and in individual patients. Hence, continuous wave Doppler echocardiography is a useful noninvasive method for estimating the subaortic gradient in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, technical factors such as contamination of the outflow tract jet with that of mitral regurgitation and variability in waveform configuration may importantly influence such assessments of the

  8. An organized approach to the localization, mapping, and ablation of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.

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    Hutchinson, Mathew D; Garcia, Fermin C

    2013-10-01

    The outflow tract (OT) regions of the right and left ventricles, common sites of origin for idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VA), have complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships. The understanding of in situ or "attitudinal" relationships not only informs the electrocardiographic interpretation of VA site of origin, but also facilitates their catheter-based mapping and ablation strategies. By viewing each patient as his or her own "control," the expected changes in ECG morphology (i.e., frontal plane QRS axis and precordial transition) between adjacent intracardiac structures (e.g., RVOT and aortic root) can be reliably predicted. Successful mapping of OT VAs involve a combination of activation and pacemapping guided by fluoroscopy, electroanatomical mapping, and intracardiac echocardiography. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a simple, reliable strategy for catheter based mapping and ablation of OT VAs. We also discuss 2 specific challenges in OT VA mapping: (1) differentiating posterior RVOT from right coronary cusp VA origin; and (2) mapping VAs originating from the LV summit.

  9. Effect of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction on Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne K. Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA volumes are known to be increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and are a predictor of adverse outcome. In addition, LA function is impaired and is presumed to be due to left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction as a result of hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. In the current study, we assess the incremental effect of outflow tract obstruction (and concomitant mitral regurgitation on LA function as assessed by LA strain. Patients with HCM (50 obstructive, 50 nonobstructive were compared to 50 normal controls. A subset of obstructive patients who had undergone septal myectomy was also studied. Utilising feature-tracking software applied to cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, LA volumes and functional parameters were calculated. LA volumes were significantly elevated and LA ejection fraction and strain were significantly reduced in patients with HCM compared with controls and were significantly more affected in patients with obstruction. LA volumes and function were significantly improved after septal myectomy. LVOT obstruction and mitral regurgitation appear to further impair LA mechanics. Septal myectomy results in a significant reduction in LA volumes, paralleled by an improvement in function.

  10. Defective ALK5 signaling in the neural crest leads to increased postmigratory neural crest cell apoptosis and severe outflow tract defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucov Henry M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital cardiovascular diseases are the most common form of birth defects in humans. A substantial portion of these defects has been associated with inappropriate induction, migration, differentiation and patterning of pluripotent cardiac neural crest stem cells. While TGF-β-superfamily signaling has been strongly implicated in neural crest cell development, the detailed molecular signaling mechanisms in vivo are still poorly understood. Results We deleted the TGF-β type I receptor Alk5 specifically in the mouse neural crest cell lineage. Failure in signaling via ALK5 leads to severe cardiovascular and pharyngeal defects, including inappropriate remodeling of pharyngeal arch arteries, abnormal aortic sac development, failure in pharyngeal organ migration and persistent truncus arteriosus. While ALK5 is not required for neural crest cell migration, our results demonstrate that it plays an important role in the survival of post-migratory cardiac neural crest cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ALK5-mediated signaling in neural crest cells plays an essential cell-autonomous role in the pharyngeal and cardiac outflow tract development.

  11. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction due to anomalous mitral valve: successful mitral valve replacement in a four month old infant.

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, P.; Westaby, S.; Hallidie-Smith, K A

    1986-01-01

    A four month old infant was investigated for heart failure was found to have mitral incompetence and severe subvalvar aortic stenosis. The left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was found to be due to an anatomically anomalous mitral valve. The obstruction could only be relieved by removal of the mitral valve and its replacement with a St Jude's prosthesis. Two years after operation the child is fit and active. There have been no difficulties with anticoagulant treatment.

  12. Pulmonary endoderm, second heart field and the morphogenesis of distal outflow tract in mouse embryonic heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Liang; JING Ya; LI Huichao; WANG Yunxiu; WU Shanshan; CAI Yujin; CUI Huilin; YANG Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The second heart field ( SHF) , foregut endoderm and sonic hedgehog ( SHH) signa-ling pathway are associate with normal morphogenesis and septation of outflow tract ( OFT) . However, the morpho-logical relationships of the development of foregut endoderm and expression of SHH signaling pathway members with the development of surrounding SHF and OFT are seldom described. In this study, serial sections of mouse embryos from ED9 to ED13 ( midgestation) were stained with a series of marker antibodies for specifically highlighting SHF ( Isl-1 ) , endoderm ( Foxa2 ) , basement membrane ( Laminin ) , myocardium ( MHC ) and smooth muscle (α-SMA) respectively, or SHH receptors antibodies including patched1 (Ptc1), patched2 (Ptc2) and smoothened, to observe the spatiotemporal relationship between them and their contributions to OFT morphogenesis. Results: Our results demonstrated that the development of an Isl-1 positive field in the splanchnic mesoderm ventral to foregut, a subset of SHF, was closely coupled with pulmonary endoderm or tracheal groove, the Isl-1 positive cells sur-rounding pulmonary endoderm were distributed in a special cone-shaped pattern and contributed to the formation of the lateral walls of the intrapericardial aorta and pulmonary trunk and the transient aortic-pulmonary septum, and Ptc1 and Ptc2 were exclusively expressed in pulmonary endoderm during this Isl-l positive field development, suggesting special roles played in inducing the Isl-l positive field formation by pulmonary endoderm. Conclusions: Pulmonary endoderm plays a role in the development and specification of SHF in midgestation, and that pulmonary endoderm-associated Isl-l positive field is involved in patterning the morphogenesis and septation of the intrapericardial arterial trunks.

  13. Patients' and physicians' needs, experiences and preferences in the treatment of right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scalone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: patients with congenital heart defects, developing right ventricular outflow tract (rVoT dysfunction, can face repeated open chest interventions over their lifetime. repeating surgery increases difficulties and procedural risks, and exposes patients to burdensome and long recovery times that may induce them to postpone the treatment, with possible severe and irreversible consequences for their health. The percutaneous procedure was introduced to delay the need for open chest surgery. uncertainties still exist regarding the lifelong consequences that may result from adopting different treatment strategies. current decisions on treatment depend on patients’ clinical needs, but also on physicians’ experience and opinion, patients’ preferences, and procedural costs. The objective is to identify which treatment characteristics influence decisions on how to treat patients with rVoT dysfunction.

    Methods: a literature review was conducted, followed by a discussion with a panel of experts. Ten treatment characteristics, potentially relevant for treatment, were identified and rated in a survey, according to the importance assigned to each characteristic by specialist physicians, patients and/or their caregivers.

    Results: while some characteristics appear to be more important (risk of severe complications associated with intervention delays or less important (scar to both physicians and patients/caregivers, other characteristics are rated differently in importance depending on subjects consulted, e.g., risk of complications during the months post intervention was among the most important characteristics for patients/caregivers, but the fifth most important characteristic for physicians.

    Conclusions: to optimize benefits and efficiency of the treatment strategies, perceptions and opinions from the different subjects involved, together with patients

  14. Decreased expression of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 3 is associated with the outflow tract defect of human tetralogy of Fallot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Bo; LIU Ying-long; L(U) Xiao-dong

    2009-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanism of human tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is incompletely defined. Animal models have suggested that neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (NTRK3) might be associated with the outflow tract defect, similar to that seen in human TOF, however, the expression pattern of NTRK3 in human TOF heart tissues has never been investigated. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect NTRK3 mRNA and protein levels in right ventricular outflow tract tissue samples of TOF patients, ventricular septal defect (VSD) patients and normal control infants (n=10 in each group). Results qRT-PCR analysis indicated that NTRK3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the TOF group compared to the VSD group (0.024±0.003 vs 0.085±0.004, P=0.022) and the normal control group (0.024±0.003 vs 0.091±0.002, P=0.006). Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that NTRK3 protein was mainly localized in the myocardium cytoplasm in all 3 groups. The immunoreactivity of NTRK3 protein was again significantly lower in the TOF group compared to the VSD group (1.42±0.62 vs 14.12±1.83, P=0.023) and the control group (1.42±0.62 VS 16.25±2.31, P=0.008). The expression of NTRK3 in the VSD group and in the control group showed no significant differences at both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions Insufficient expression of NTRK3 is associated with the outflow tract defect of human tetralogy of Fallot and may contribute to the progression of this defect.

  15. Extra-anatomic right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit: the apical-aortic equivalent for complex right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Makoto; Siddharthan, Ragavan; Kogon, Brian

    2015-03-01

    We describe the case of a 22-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot, who underwent complete repair with ventricular septal defect closure and right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit placement. She has undergone numerous subsequent conduit changes, each complicated by early stenosis and failure. Unfortunately, serial conduit changes can become increasingly challenging. While extra-anatomic conduits have been described for complex left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, they have not been described for right-sided obstruction. Herein, we present a patient who underwent successful placement of an extra-anatomic valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit in the setting of complex right ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  16. A reduced-order modeling for efficient design study of artificial valve in enlarged ventricular outflow tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, A; Guibert, R; Vignon-Clementel, I E

    2016-09-01

    A computational approach is proposed for efficient design study of a reducer stent to be percutaneously implanted in enlarged right ventricular outflow tracts (RVOT). The need for such a device is driven by the absence of bovine or artificial valves which could be implanted in these RVOT to replace the absent or incompetent native valve, as is often the case over time after Tetralogy of Fallot repair. Hemodynamics are simulated in the stented RVOT via a reduce order model based on proper orthogonal decomposition, while the artificial valve is modeled as a thin resistive surface. The reduced order model is obtained from the numerical solution on a reference device configuration, then varying the geometrical parameters (diameter) for design purposes. To validate the approach, forces exerted on the valve and on the reducer are monitored, varying with geometrical parameters, and compared with the results of full CFD simulations. Such an approach could also be useful for uncertainty quantification. PMID:26738807

  17. Pacing the right ventricular outflow tract septum: time to embrace the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillock, Richard J; Mond, Harry G

    2012-01-01

    Transvenous pacing has revolutionized the management of patients with potentially life-threatening bradycardias and at its most basic level ensures rate support to maintain cardiac output. However, we have known for at least a decade that pacing from the right ventricle (RV) apex can induce left ventricle (LV) dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and maybe an increased mortality. Although pacemaker manufacturers have developed successful pacing algorithms designed to minimize unnecessary ventricular pacing, it cannot be avoided in a substantial proportion of pacemaker-dependent patients. Just as there is undoubted evidence that RV apical pacing is injurious, there is emerging evidence that pacing from the RV septum is associated with a shorter duration of activation, improved haemodynamics, and less LV remodelling. The move from traditional RV apical pacing to RV septal pacing requires a change in mindset for many practitioners. The anatomical landmarks and electrocardiograph features of RV septal pacing are well described and easily recognized. While active fixation is required to place the lead on the septum, shaped stylets are now available to assist the implanter. In addition, concerns about the stability and longevity of steroid-eluting active fixation leads have proven to be unfounded. We therefore encourage all implanters to adopt RV septal pacing to minimize the potential of harm to their patients. PMID:21846639

  18. A comparative study of right ventricular outflow tract pacing and right ventricular apical pacing in children%儿童右室流出道起搏与右室心尖起搏的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 曾国洪; 曾少颖; 王树水

    2014-01-01

    目的:回顾性对比研究儿童行VVI起搏治疗的右室流出道起搏与右室心尖部起搏对近期心功能、QRS波时限及起搏参数的影响。方法:回顾2006年7月至2013年11月,在我科行VVI起搏治疗的38例患儿病例资料,根据术中记录螺旋电极植入的部位分为右室流出道组(n=22)和右室心尖部组(n=16)。记录术前和术后的心脏彩超心功能指标及QRS波时限,术中与术后起搏参数指标进行比较。结果:右室流出道组与右室心尖组在术前及术后心功能指标、术中及术后的起搏阈值差值、导线阻抗差值、R波幅度差值差异无统计学意义。右室流出道起搏组与右室心尖起搏组术后QRS波时限增宽,差异有统计学意义。术前与术后的QRS波时限差值[(134.95±12.86)ms vs(147.44±22.35)ms,t=1.35,P=0.01],差异有统计学意义。结论:儿童右室流出道起搏安全可行,两者起搏术后QRS波时限增宽,但右室心尖起搏组QRS波时限增宽更明显。%Objective To compare the impacts of right ventricular outflow tract pacing and right ventricular apical pacing on short-term cardiac function, QRS duration and pacing parameters in children undergoing VVI pacemaker therapy. Methods The clinical data of 38 children undergoing VVI pacemaker treatment in our department from July 2006 to November 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed to make grouping: 22 with right ventricular outflow tract pacing based on the operational records were assigned in one group and 16 with right ventricular apical pacing as the other group. The two groups were compared in terms of cardiac function indexes , QRS complex width and intra- and post- operative parameters of the implanted pacemakers. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in pre-and post-operative cardiac function indexes , intra- and post-operative difference in pacing thresholds

  19. Beta2-adrenoceptor gene variant Arg16Gly is associated with idiopathic ventricular outflow-tract tachycardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Yu-qin; LI Ning; YANG Ying; CHEN Jing-zhou; FENG Li; ZHANG Shu; PU Jie-lin

    2010-01-01

    Background Imbalance of the sympathetic nervous system was involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic ventricular outflow-tract tachycardia (IVOT). We aimed to investigate whether the major genetic variants in β1-and β2-adrenoceptors and GNB3 C825T were associated with IVOT and verapamil sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT).Methods Patients with IVOT and ILVT from December 2005 to December 2007 were consecutively enrolled into this study. Controls were randomly selected from the community-based inhabitants. Five genetic variants, Ser49Gly and Gly389Arg in the β1-adrenoceptor, Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu in the β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.Results A total of 227 patients with IVOT and 110 patients with ILVT were included. Genotyping revealed that the 16Gly allele of Arg16Gly variant of β2-adrenoceptor was associated with a higher risk of IVOT (OR:1.40, 95% CI: 1.12-1.75,P=0.003 in the addictive model and OR:. 1.62, 95% CI: 1.14-2.31, P=0.007 in the dominant model). Patients with Gly16Gln27 haplotype also had a higher risk of IVOT (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.11-1.73, P=0.012). Other four variants,including Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly in β1-adrenoceptor, GIn27Glu in β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T, did not differ between patients with IVOT and controls. In patients with ILVT, no significant difference was found in these five variants compared with controls.Conclusions Arg16Gly in β2-adrenoceptor is significantly associated with IVOT in Chinese Han population. Major genetic variants in β1- and β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T may not be associated with ILVT. These data suggest a different arrhythmogenic mechanism in IVOT and ILVT.

  20. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  1. One case of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy caused by right ventricular outflow tract-ventricular tachycardia%右室流出道室性心动过速诱发心动过速性心肌病1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广强; 杨洋; 张博; 孙健

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman has suffered from paroxysmal palpitations, chest tightness and shortness of breath for more than 10 years. ECG showed broad QRS, ventricular tachycardia and atrioventricular separation. The ECG pointed to an origin in the right ventricular outflow tract. Echocardiography showed that the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 53 mm and the ejection fraction was 40%. B type natriuretic peptide was 7 920 pg/ ml. A single radiofrequency application at the site of ectopy was immediately effective. Holter monitoring was normal after ablation. Final diagnosis was right ventricular outflow tract-ventricular tachycardia, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

  2. The incidence and mechanisms of spike potentials in origin regions of outflow tract premature ventricular contraction%流出道室性早搏起源处异常电位的分布和意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉和; 韦维; 丁立刚; 赵英杰; 王靖; 楚建民; 张澍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and mechanisms of spike potential (SP) in premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating from outflow tract in structurally normal heart. Methods Fifty-four consecutive cases with symptomatic PVCs originating from ventricular outflow tract who have been successfully performed radiofrequency catheter ablation were investigated. The incidence and patterns of SP recorded at the successful ablation sites were analyzed. The SP was divided into 4 types. The pattern of SP recorded in sinus rhythm but not in PVCs was defined as type I. SP occurred in both sinus rhythm and PVCs was defined as type II which was further divided into 2 subtypes: type II a and type II b. SP buried within QRS complex wave during sinus beats and reversal preceding to QRS complex wave during PVC named type II a , while SP remained within QRS complex wave without reversion during PVC named type II b. SP occurred neither in sinus rhythm nor PVCs was defined as type Ⅲ. SP existed in PVCs without occurred in sinus rhythm was defined as type IV. Results In SP patterns of all 54 cases, 2 cases were type I , 21 were type Ⅱa, 12 were type Ⅱb , 6 were type Ⅲ , 13 were type IV. SP incidence in final successful ablation sites during PVCs was 85.2% (46/54) . Successful ablation site located at right ventricular outflow tract in 44 patients and left ventricular outflow tract in 10 patients. 4 of fifty-four cases recurrence after first ablation procedure, and 3 of them received ablation again. Patient 1 changed its SP pattern from type I to Ⅱa during second ablation session. Also, Patient 2 and patient 3 changed their SP patterns from II b to II a. Conclusion SP can be recorded at the origin site in the majority of outflow tract premature ventricular contractions.The reversal of SP preceding to QRS complex wave of PVC may be a successful ablation indicator. [ Chinese Journal of Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology,2011,25(4) ;323 -325]%目的 分析流出

  3. Role of temporary pacing at the right ventricular outflow tract in anesthetic management of a patient with asymptomatic sick sinus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Kusha; Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Kumar, V R Hemanth; Singh, Dewan Roshan; Ravishankar, M

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman posted for percutaneous nephrolithotomy with ureterolithotripsy was found to have a history of hypertension and ischemic heart disease from past 6 months on regular treatment. Pulse rate was irregularly irregular in a range of 56-60/min, unresponsive to atropine, with a sinus pause on the electrocardiogram. Although the patient was asymptomatic, anticipating unmasking of the sick sinus syndrome during general anesthesia in the prone position, a temporary pacemaker was implanted at right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) septum before the scheduled surgery. A balanced anesthesia technique with endotracheal intubation was administered. There were several episodes of continuous pacing by the temporary pacemaker intraoperatively, which may be attributed to unmasking of the sinus node dysfunction due to general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, patient was extubated after adequate reversal from neuromuscular blockade. Postoperative period remained uneventful, and the pacemaker wires were removed on the 2(nd) postoperative day. With this case report, we highlight the importance of inserting a temporary pacemaker prior to anesthesia even in an asymptomatic patient if a sinus node dysfunction is suspected preoperatively and if intraoperative access to transvenous pacing is difficult such as in prone position. Pacing at RVOT septum minimizes ventricular dyssynchrony and improves hemodynamic parameters.

  4. Urinary tract infection in children after cardiac surgery: Incidence, causes, risk factors and outcomes in a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Mohamed S; Ismail, Sameh R; Fatima, Anis; Shafi, Rehana; Idris, Julinar A; Mehmood, Akhter; Singh, Reetam K; Elbarabry, Mahmoud; Hijazi, Omar; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) increases hospitalization, cost and morbidity. In this cohort study, we aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, etiology and outcomes of UTIs in post-operative cardiac children. To this end, we studied all post-operative patients admitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2012, and we divided the patients into two groups: the UTI (UTI group) and the non-UTI (control group). We compared both groups for multiple peri-operative risk factors. We included 413 children in this study. Of these, 29 (7%) had UTIs after cardiac surgery (UTI group), and 384 (93%) were free from UTIs (control group). All UTI cases were catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). A total of 1578 urinary catheter days were assessed in this study, with a CAUTI density rate of 18 per 1000 catheter days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for CAUTI development: duration of urinary catheter placement (pcongenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) (purinary catheter, the presence of CAKUT, and the presence of syndromes comprised the main risk factors for CAUTI. Gram-negative organisms were the main causes for CAUTI, and one-third of them found to be resistant in this single-center study. PMID:26829892

  5. 特发性流出道室性心律失常研究:基本原理和设计方案%Idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias study (IOTVA Study) :rationale and design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹克将; 张澍; 姚焰; 吴书林; 陈明龙; 张凤祥; 杨兵; 李小荣; 魏薇

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (IOTVA) in patients without structural heart disease mostly originate from left or right ventricular outflow tract.Data about the epidemiology,nature prognosis and treatment of idiopathic outflow tract premature ventricular complexes/nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (IOTPVC/NSVT),which based on the large sample of clinical trial,are scarce at present.Rationale Some studies have demonstrated that effects on cardiac function of IOTPVC/NSVT are related to its burden.Antiarrhythmic drugs (class IC agents and β-blockers) and catheter ablation are effective for IOTVA.This study will assess effects on cardiac function of IOTPVC burden and compare safety and effectiveness of antiarrhythmic drugs with catheter ablation in patients with IOTPVC/NSVT.Design The IOTVA study will includes the following:①to investigate the proportion of IOTVA to ventricular arrhythmias in outpatients and inpatients at the department of cardiology; ②to inquire the prognosis and its cardiac function in IOTVA patients without any treatment; ③to assess the safety of antiarrhythmic drugs therapy compared with control therapy in IOTVA patients; ④to compare safety and effectiveness of antiarrhythmic drugs with catheter ablation in IOTPVC/NSVT patients with PVCs burden more than 15%.Based on these studies,we would establish the clinical treatment approach for IOTVA.Conclusion IOTVA study will assess effects on cardiac function of IOTPVC burden and evaluate safety and effectiveness of antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablation in patients with IOTPVC/NSVT.%背景 发生在无器质性心脏病的室性心律失常又称为特发性室性心律失常(IVA),其中大多数起源于左心室或右心室流出道.目前关于特发性流出道室性早搏(IOTPVC)与非持续性室性心动过速(NSVT)的流行病学调查、预后以及临床干预均缺乏大样本的循证医学证据.基本原理 相关研究表明,不同负荷的IOTPVC/NSVT可

  6. Cardiac neural crest contributes to cardiomyogenesis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mariko; Yost, H Joseph

    2003-05-01

    In birds and mammals, cardiac neural crest is essential for heart development and contributes to conotruncal cushion formation and outflow tract septation. The zebrafish prototypical heart lacks outflow tract septation, raising the question of whether cardiac neural crest exists in zebrafish. Here, results from three distinct lineage-labeling approaches identify zebrafish cardiac neural crest cells and indicate that these cells have the ability to generate MF20-positive muscle cells in the myocardium of the major chambers during development. Fate-mapping demonstrates that cardiac neural crest cells originate both from neural tube regions analogous to those found in birds, as well as from a novel region rostral to the otic vesicle. In contrast to other vertebrates, cardiac neural crest invades the myocardium in all segments of the heart, including outflow tract, atrium, atrioventricular junction, and ventricle in zebrafish. Three distinct groups of premigratory neural crest along the rostrocaudal axis have different propensities to contribute to different segments in the heart and are correspondingly marked by unique combinations of gene expression patterns. Zebrafish will serve as a model for understanding interactions between cardiac neural crest and cardiovascular development.

  7. Evaluation of global and regional left ventricular systolic function in patients with frequent isolated premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jing; XU Jing; YONG Yong-hong; CAO Ke-jiang; CHEN Shao-liang; XU Di

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequent premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT-PVCs) are associated with left ventricular dysfunction.This study adopted two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging to evaluate global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in patients with frequent RVOT-PVCs.Methods This study included 30 patients with frequent RVOT-PVCs and 30 healthy subjects.Aortic systolic velocity-time integral (AoVTI) and myocardium strain in circumferential (CS),radial (RS) and longitudinal (LS) directions were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and speckle tracking imaging.All values of patients with RVOT-PVCs were recorded during sinus (PVC-S) and PVC beats (PVC-V).Results Significant differences were demonstrated in global CS,RS and LS between the control subjects and the PVC-V (CS:(17.46±2.48)% vs.(11.52±3.28)%,RS:(48.26±10.20)% vs.(20.92±9.78)%,LS:(19.89±2.62)% vs.(11.79±3.66)%,P <0.01),and in segmental RS and LS of nearly all the left ventricular segments.Statistical differences in segmental CS between the PVC-V and the control subjects were only observed in anterior,anteroseptal and septal segments (only seen in anteroseptal and septal segments at apex).Furthermore,V/S AoVTI (AoVTI during the PVC beat divided by AoVTI during the sinus beat,then multiplied by 100%) correlated with coupling interval (r=0.67,P <0.001) and global strain (CS:r=0.48,P=0.007; RS:r=0.65,P <0.001; LS:r=0.65,P <0.001).Conclusions Frequent RVOT-PVCs can induce global and regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction.The reduction of hemodynamic parameters relates to the coupling interval and the global systolic function.

  8. Association of neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism (rs16147) with perceived stress and cardiac vagal outflow in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-An; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Tieh-Ching; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in resilience to stress, and higher vagal (parasympathetic) activity has been associated with greater stress resilience. Thus, we examined whether rs16147, a functional promoter polymorphism (C>T) of the NPY gene, could influence vagal tone during chronic high stress levels. NPY genotyping, chronic psychological stress level measurement (using the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), cardiac autonomic function assessment (using short-term heart rate variability [HRV]) were performed in 1123 healthy, drug-free Han Chinese participants who were divided into low- and high-PSS groups. In the high-PSS group (n = 522), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences and high frequency power (both HRV indices of parasympathetic activity) were significantly increased in T/T homozygotes compared to C/C homozygotes. However, no significant between-genotype difference was found in any HRV variable in the low-PSS group (n = 601). Our results are the first to demonstrate that functional NPY variation alters chronic stress-related vagal control, suggesting a potential parasympathetic role for NPY gene in stress regulation. PMID:27527739

  9. Association of neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism (rs16147) with perceived stress and cardiac vagal outflow in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-An; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Tieh-Ching; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in resilience to stress, and higher vagal (parasympathetic) activity has been associated with greater stress resilience. Thus, we examined whether rs16147, a functional promoter polymorphism (C>T) of the NPY gene, could influence vagal tone during chronic high stress levels. NPY genotyping, chronic psychological stress level measurement (using the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), cardiac autonomic function assessment (using short-term heart rate variability [HRV]) were performed in 1123 healthy, drug-free Han Chinese participants who were divided into low- and high-PSS groups. In the high-PSS group (n = 522), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences and high frequency power (both HRV indices of parasympathetic activity) were significantly increased in T/T homozygotes compared to C/C homozygotes. However, no significant between-genotype difference was found in any HRV variable in the low-PSS group (n = 601). Our results are the first to demonstrate that functional NPY variation alters chronic stress-related vagal control, suggesting a potential parasympathetic role for NPY gene in stress regulation. PMID:27527739

  10. Löffler endocarditis: a rare cause of acute cardiac failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Niemeijer; P.L.A. van Daele (Paul); K. Caliskan (Kadir); F.B. Oei (Frans); O.J.L. Loosveld (Olaf); N.J.M. van der Meer (Nardo)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a patient with acute cardiogenic shock due to cardiac involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler endocarditis). At the echocardiography, there was a huge mass in the left ventricular cavity, resulting in inflow- and outflow tract obstruction. The posterior

  11. 频发右心室流出道室性期前收缩对右心室流出道结构影响的研究%Effect of frequent idiopathic ventricular premature contractions from right ventricular outflow tract on structure of right ventricular outflow tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔强; 史力生; 张钰聪; 陈宇嘉; 张帆; 徐东

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨右心室流出道(RVOT)起源频发室性期前收缩对RVOT结构的影响.方法 选取2009~2011年行射频消融治疗的频发RVOT起源室性期前收缩患者30例,分析其心电图特征、动态心电图、心脏彩色超声结果及术中精确定位,分析室性期前收缩对RVOT结构的影响.结果 射频消融术前RVOT直径为(31.76±3.33)mm,术后6个月为(30.93±2.68)mm(P<0.01);相关性分析显示:RVOT直径与室性期前收缩负荷呈正相关(r=0.484,P<0.05).RVOT间隔部来源室性期前收缩QRS时限为(157.69±18.33) ms,游离壁来源室性期前收缩QRS时限为(179.23±16.05)ms(P<0.01),QRS时限与来源部位相关(r=0.566,P<0.01).室性期前收缩QRS时限与RVOT直径无相关性(r=0.097,P>0.05).结论 RVOT来源室性期前收缩经射频消融治疗后,RVOT直径有减小的趋势,其与室性期前收缩负荷呈正相关,与室性期前收缩形态无相关性.%Objective To investigate the effect of frequent ventricular premature contractions(VPCs) from right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) on the structure of right ventricular outflow tract. Methods 30 patients with frequent VPCs from RVOT who underwent radiofrequency ablation from 2009 to 2011 were enrolled. The site of origin of VPCs was identified by the characters of ECG according to the stepwise electrocardiographic algorithm and the accurate anatomical location was identified by 3D electroanatomical non-contact mapping. Parameters of haemodynamic were accessed by means of transthoracic echocardiography before and 6 months after intervention. The average daily amount of VPCs was evaluated by Holter and the ECG characters of VPCs were also analyzed. Results Before and 6 months after intervention, the diameter of RVOT was (31. 76 ±3. 33) mm and (30. 93 ±2. 68) mm( P 0. 05). Conclusion The diameter of RVOT decreased after radiofrequency ablation for the patients with VPCs from RVOT and it correlated positively with the average daily

  12. In vivo functional imaging of blood flow and wall strain rate in outflow tract of embryonic chick heart using ultrafast spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yin, Xin; Shi, Liang; Rugonyi, Sandra; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2012-09-01

    During cardiac development, the cardiac wall and flowing blood are two important cardiac tissues that constantly interact with each other. This dynamic interaction defines appropriate biomechanical environment to which the embryonic heart is exposed. Quantitative assessment of the dynamic parameters of wall tissues and blood flow is required to further our understanding of cardiac development. We report the use of an ultrafast 1310-nm dual-camera spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system to characterize/image, in parallel, the dynamic radial strain rate of the myocardial wall and the Doppler velocity of the underlying flowing blood within an in vivo beating chick embryo. The OCT system operates at 184-kHz line scan rate, providing the flexibility of imaging the fast blood flow and the slow tissue deformation within one scan. The ability to simultaneously characterize tissue motion and blood flow provides a useful approach to better understand cardiac dynamics during early developmental stages.

  13. Pacing to treat low cardiac output syndrome following elective aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of low cardiac output syndrome caused by dynamic left ventricular (LV outflow obstruction after aortic valve replacement (AVR. This recognized phenomenon probably occurs more frequently than appreciated, and the author suggests that this should be considered when managing patients with severe hemodynamic instability after AVR. In addition, we also focus on the fact that invasive pacemaker systems have significant effects on cardiac output augmentation postoperatively and in long-term management of patients with LV outflow tract (LVOT obstruction following AVR. The possible mechanisms and subsequent treatments are discussed.

  14. Management of high-risk reentry sternotomy in an infant for repair of a giant pseudoaneurysm of the right ventricular outflow tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan G Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved survival from congenital heart disease has led to an increasing need for complex reoperation by reentrant sternotomy. Peripheral cannulation and initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass prior to sternotomy to avoid the risk of cardiac injury and massive hemorrhage is an option in adults and larger children, but femoral vessel size precludes this strategy in infants. We describe the management of a high-risk reentry sternotomy in an infant for repair of a giant pseudoaneurysm after prior homograft repair of tetralogy of Fallot, using surgical dissection for suprasternal cannulation of the innominate artery and subxyphoid cannulation of the inferior vena cava.

  15. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Adil S; Reddy, Sahadev T; Harinath, Lakshmi; Biederman, Robert W W

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  16. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil S. Wani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.

  17. 儿童流出道室性心律失常射频消融疗效探讨%Efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江河; 李小梅; 李延辉; 刘海菊; 张仪; 戈海延

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童流出道室性心律失常特点以及射频消融疗效及策略.方法 回顾性分析2012年1月至2015年7月因流出道室性心律失常在清华大学第一附属医院住院的53例患儿射频消融手术资料,其中男34例、女19例,年龄(8±3)岁,体重(33±13)kg.患儿均符合射频消融手术适应证而接受手术治疗,结合手术资料分析该类室性心律失常发病年龄、表现形式、好发部位以及消融疗效及策略.结果 53例流出道室性心律失常患儿平均发病年龄(8±4)岁.频发室性期前收缩为主要表现形式,占68%(36例).流出道室性心律失常主要起源于右室流出道,占66%(35例),以肺动脉瓣下1 cm区域(89%,31/35)及间隔(77%,27/35)多见.射频消融即时成功率为98%(52/53),远期复发率10% (5/52),手术并发症发生率2%(1/53).X线曝光量(743±323)mGay·cm2.6例患儿术中需要实施双侧标测消融.结论 儿童流出道室性心律失常以右室流出道起源最多见,射频消融治疗安全有效,部分病例术中需要实施双侧标测消融.%Objective To explore the features of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OTVA) in children and evaluate the efficacy and experiences of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA).Method Data were collected and analyzed on 53 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent RFCA for OTVA from January 2012 to July 2015 in the First Hospital of Tsinghua University.These children included 34 male and 19 female,whose average age was (8 ±3) years and body weight was (33 ± 13) kg.All the children met the indication criteria for RFCA of OTVA in children.Data were analyzed about the onset age,the forms and ablation efficacy and strategies of OTVA.Result The average age of onset was (8 ± 4) years.Of these children,68% (36/53) had frequent premature ventricular complex which was the main arrhythmia pattern.The proportion of 66% (35/53) were of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT).The vast

  18. Mid-ventricular hypertrophy complicated with the lengthy of mitral valve leaflets lead to dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: A case report and literature review%左心室中部肥厚合并二尖瓣冗长致左室流出道梗阻——病例报告与文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪李锋; 罗松辉; 夏璐; 范莹; 胡良焱; 项金洲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the etiology,manifestations and the progress regarding the diagnosis and treatment for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.Methods:Diagnosis and treatment of one case with mid-ventricular hypertrophy complicated with the lengthy of mitral valve leaflets lead to dynamic left ventricnlar outflow tract obstruction was followed up and reviewed with related literatures.Resuhs:The etiology of ventricular outflow tract obstruction was complex and the incidence was rather high.Transthoracic two-dimensional exercise echocardiography with transesophageal echocardiography analysis is the most effective non-invasive screening and prognostic predictive tool for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.Conclusions:It is mandatory to selectively conduct multiple imaging examinations which mainly include exercise echocardiography and selectively left ventriculography in order to successfully improve the diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.%目的:探讨左室流出道梗阻的病因分类、临床表现和诊治进展.方法:对1例左心室中部肥厚合并二尖瓣前叶冗长致隐匿性左室流出道梗阻患者的诊治过程进行全程追踪随访,结合复习相关文献.结果:左室流出道梗阻病因复杂,发生率较高;超声心动图运动试验结合经食道超声探查是左室流出道梗阻最有效的无创筛查和随访评价手段,必要时左心室造影和测压可进一步明确诊断.结论:对左心室肥厚患者常规开展运动超声心动图、必要时左心室造影等多种影像学检查可以有效提高左室流出道梗阻及其病因的诊断正确率.

  19. 室早 TpR 指数与特发性流出道室早症状的关系%Relationship between TpR index and symptoms of idiopathic outflow tract premature ventricu-lar contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 赵春梅; 王德国; 杨琴; 李小荣; 张凤祥; 曹克将

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between arrhythmic symptoms of the patients with outflow tract premature ventricular contraction (PVC)and characteristics of surface electrocardi-ogram(ECG),and to explore its clinical significance.Methods According to the existence of PVC-related arrhythmic symptoms,97 outflow tract PVC patients were divided into two group:symptomatic group(60 cases)and asymptomatic group(37 cases).The examination of echocardio-graphy and standard 1 2 lead surface ECG were performed on all the patients.The measured parame-ters included PVC burden,the width of PVC complex,coupling interval,index of PVC coupling in-terval(PVC coupling interval ÷sinus RR cycle ×1 00%),TpR interval of PVC(the duration from si-nus T peak before PVC to the starting point of PVC)and TpR index of PVC(TpR interval of PVC ÷sinus TpR interval ×1 00%).The relationship between the above measured parameters and arrhyth-mic symptoms was analyzed.Results In the symptomatic group,the index of PVC coupling inter-val,TpR interval of PVC and TpR index of PVC were significantly higher than those in the asympto-matic group(P <0.05).However,there was no statistically significant difference of PVC burden, origin of PVC or other ECG parameters between the two groups.Spearman correlation analysis showed that PVC-related symptoms were significantly positively correlated with the index of PVC coupling interval(r =0.324,P <0.05),TpR interval of PVC(r =0.272,P <0.05)and TpR in-dex of PVC(r =0.457,P <0.05).Conclusion PVC-related symptoms are associated with higher index of PVC coupling interval and TpR index for patients with outflow tract PVC.Those symptoms are related to the delayed emergence of PVC,which is helpful in the control of PVC clinically.%目的:分析流出道室早(premature ventricular contraction,PVC)患者心律失常症状与体表心电图特征的关系及其临床意义。方法将97例流出道室早患者根据有无心律失常症

  20. Localization of precise origin of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia from the right ventricular outflow tract by a 12-lead ECG: a study of pace mapping using a multielectrode "basket" catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y; Hirai, M; Murakami, Y; Kondo, T; Inden, Y; Akahoshi, M; Tsuda, M; Okamoto, M; Yamada, T; Tsuboi, N; Hirayama, H; Ito, T; Toyama, J; Saito, H

    1999-12-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by pace-mapping techniques has proven effective in eliminating idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). A method for rapidly identifying the origin of VT from 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) findings would be helpful for the catheter ablation procedure. The purpose of this study is to precisely localize the origin of idiopathic VT from the RVOT by a 12-lead ECG from a study of multipoint pace mapping. In one patient with premature ventricular complex (PVC) and 3 with VT, a "basket" catheter was deployed in the RVOT for bipolar pacing from 56 sites in the endocardium of RVOT. Under fluoroscopy the pacing sites were classified into the septum and free wall. We investigated the QRS morphology in leads, I, II, and III; the depth of the QS wave in leads aVR and aVL; and the height of the initial r wave in leads V1 and V2. Pacing was captured in 30-47 of 56 sites (54%-84%). As the pacing sites changed from the anterior to posterior of the septum, the QS notch (-) type in lead I shifted through rs to R, while a shift from R type to rR' or Rr' was noted in leads II and III. As the pacing sites changed from the anterior to posterior of the free wall, lead I showed a shift from the QS notch (+) type to R, while a shift from rR' to Rr' (or rR' unchanged) was found in leads II and III. The depth of the QS wave in leads aVR and aVL showed a tendency for aVR to be deeper than aVL toward the posterolateral attachment of both the septum and free wall, whereas aVL tended to be deeper than aVR toward the anterior attachment. The initial r waves in V1 and V2 became greater as the pacing site was positioned at a higher or more posterior location. These findings may provide more precise and clinically useful diagnostic information on the site of the origin of idiopathic VT originating from the RVOT by a 12-lead ECG.

  1. Importance of Delayed Enhanced Cardiac MRI Imaging in Idiopathic RVOT-VT: Differentiating Mimics Including Early Stage ARVC and Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Macias, MD; Keijiro Nakamura, MD; Roderick Tung, MD; Noel G. Boyle, MD PhD; Kalyanam Shivkumar, MD, PhD and Jason S. Bradfield, MD.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A detailed understanding of cardiac anatomy and pathophysiology is necessary to optimize catheter ablation procedural success for patients with symptomatic ventricular tachycardia (VT/premature ventricular contractions (PVCs of outflow tract origin. Comprehensive imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI is now at the forefront of procedural planning for complex ventricular arrhythmia ablation for patients with structural heart disease, but is increasingly used in patients with presumed “idiopathic” outflow VT/PVCs as well. cMRI with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE can localize small regions of myocardial scar from previous myocardial infarction, fibrosis from non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, or edema/fibrosis from inflammatory disorders and help define targets for ablation. LGE, in combination with structural assessment, can help differentiate true idiopathic outflow VT/PVCs from those caused by early stage disease secondary to more significant pathology, such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or cardiac sarcoidosis. We review the benefits of cMRI with LGE for patients with VT/PVCs of outflow origin.

  2. Role of ionotropic GABA, glutamate and glycine receptors in the tonic and reflex control of cardiac vagal outflow in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodchild Ann K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons (CVPN are responsible for the tonic, reflex and respiratory modulation of heart rate (HR. Although CVPN receive GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs, likely involved in respiratory and reflex modulation of HR respectively, little else is known regarding the functions controlled by ionotropic inputs. Activation of g-protein coupled receptors (GPCR alters these inputs, but the functional consequence is largely unknown. The present study aimed to delineate how ionotropic GABAergic, glycinergic and glutamatergic inputs contribute to the tonic and reflex control of HR and in particular determine which receptor subtypes were involved. Furthermore, we wished to establish how activation of the 5-HT1A GPCR affects tonic and reflex control of HR and what ionotropic interactions this might involve. Results Microinjection of the GABAA antagonist picrotoxin into CVPN decreased HR but did not affect baroreflex bradycardia. The glycine antagonist strychnine did not alter HR or baroreflex bradycardia. Combined microinjection of the NMDA antagonist, MK801, and AMPA antagonist, CNQX, into CVPN evoked a small bradycardia and abolished baroreflex bradycardia. MK801 attenuated whereas CNQX abolished baroreceptor bradycardia. Control intravenous injections of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT evoked a small bradycardia and potentiated baroreflex bradycardia. These effects were still observed following microinjection of picrotoxin but not strychnine into CVPN. Conclusions We conclude that activation of GABAA receptors set the level of HR whereas AMPA to a greater extent than NMDA receptors elicit baroreflex changes in HR. Furthermore, activation of 5-HT1A receptors evokes bradycardia and enhances baroreflex changes in HR due to interactions with glycinergic neurons involving strychnine receptors. This study provides reference for future studies investigating how diseases alter neurochemical inputs to CVPN.

  3. A new electrocardiographic algorithm for localizing idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract premature ventricular contraction%右心室流出道室性早搏的定位与导管消融

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤祥; 陈明龙; 杨兵; 陈红武; 居维竹; 徐东杰; 曹克将

    2010-01-01

    目的 本文旨在探索判断右心室流出道室性早搏(室早)起源的新流程,以便快速、准确地找到消融靶点.方法 采用非接触三维标测系统对右心室流出道室早进行标测与导管消融,并分析右心室流出道室早体表心电图特征.根据三维标测与导管消融结果,并结合先前报道的室早起源判断流程,设计新的判断室早起源流程.结果 标测与消融结果显示21例患者室早起源于右心室流出道间隔部,其中5例起源于前间隔,4例起源于中间隔,12例起源于后间隔;17例患者室早起源于右心室流出道游离壁,其中5例起源于前游离壁,2例起源于中游离壁,10例起源于后游离壁;1例患者室早起源于希氏束附近.判断室早起源新流程的总阳性预测值(77.3%)较Ito等报道的73.3%、Joshi等报道的73.3%、Dixit等报道的53.8%显著提高(P<0.05).新流程在判断室早具体起源部位较Ito等、Joshi等与Dixit等报道的室早起源部位判断流程有较大的优势,其敏感性、特异性与阳性预测值分别为78.1%,88.9%与84.2%,Joshi等报道的流程分别为32.9%,65.8%与48.1%,Dixit等报道的流程分别为50.7%,63.9%和55.2%(P均<0.05).结论 非接触三维标测系统指导右心室流出道室早消融成功率高,判断室早起源新流程的敏感性、特异性与阳性预测值较先前报道的高,有良好的临床应用价值.%Objective In this study, we explored a new electrocardiographic algorithm for localizing idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT)premature ventricular contraction (PVC). Methods A total of 39 patients [23 female, mean age (41.8±13.1) years] with RVOT-PVC enrolled in this study. Ablation was performed under the guidance of 3D non-contact mapping, and a newly proposed ECG algorithm. Results As guided by 3D mapping, the successful ablation was achieved at sites of RVOT septum (n=21), RVOT free wall (n=17) and His region (n=1). Among those PVCs originated from the

  4. Cardiac output determined by echocardiography in patients with cirrhosis: comparison with the indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik B; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    , the mean squared difference between CO(d) and CO(I) was 2.3 (l/min)2. A Bland-Altman plot revealed no trend with the level of cardiac output. The standard deviation (0.79 vs 0.30 l/min, P coefficient of variation (10.5 vs 4.2%, P ... technique (CO(I)). METHODS: Twelve patients with cirrhosis were studied. CO(d) was measured as the spatial mean velocity of the left ventricular outflow tract, multiplied by the cross-sectional area and the heart rate. CO(I) was determined by the standard indicator dilution technique after injection of 125I...

  5. Löffler endocarditis: a rare cause of acute cardiac failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeijer Nicolasine D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe a patient with acute cardiogenic shock due to cardiac involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler endocarditis. At the echocardiography, there was a huge mass in the left ventricular cavity, resulting in inflow- and outflow tract obstruction. The posterior leaflet of the mitral valve apparatus was completely embedded in a big (organized thrombus mass. The patient was treated with high dose corticosteroids, however without effect. Partial remission was achieved after treatment with hydroxycarbamide. He was also treated with anticoagulants and high dose beta-blockers. The patient’s condition improved remarkably after correction of the mitral valve insufficiency by a mitral valve bioprosthesis.

  6. Massive molecular outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Beuther, H.; Schilke, P.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Sridharan, T. K.; Wyrowski, F.

    2001-01-01

    We present a mapping study of massive molecular outflows in 26 high-mass star-forming regions at 11'' spatial resolution. Bipolar morpholgy is found in 80% of the sources and the collimation is higher than previously thought. Additionally, we find that well known low-mass correlations continue up to the high-mass regime, and accretion rates are around 10^(-4) Msun/yr rising as high as 10^(-3) Msun/yr. A tight correlation between the outflow and the core mass is established, implying that the ...

  7. Electrocardiographic characteristics and radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia and frequent ventricular premature contractions originating from left ventricular outflow tract%射频消融治疗起源于左室流出道的室性心动过速和频发室性期前收缩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; 张薇薇; 李荣琴; 李占全; 崔然

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨源自左室流出道部位的室性心动过速(室速)和室性期前收缩(室早)的心电图特点和射频消融的安全性.方法 对9例于左室流出道部位消融的室速/室早病例的心电图和射频消融情况进行归纳总结.结果 消融成功部位6例在左冠窦内,3例在主动脉瓣下.心电图特点:(1)Ⅱ、Ⅲ、avF导联均呈高R波;(2)aVR和aVL导联均呈QS型,且aVL振幅多大于aVR;(3)Ⅰ导联多呈QS型;(4)V1导联R波偏高:R/S>0.62;(5)胸前导联R波移行不规则;(6)V5、V6多呈R型.9例均消融成功,无复发病例,无左主干及主动脉瓣损伤.结论 源自左室流出道的室速/室早具有独特的心电图表现,射频消融能安全有效地根治此类心律失常.%Objective To investigate the electrocardiographic(ECG) characteristics and assess the safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of ventricular tachyeardia (VT), and frequent ventricular premature con- tractious(VPCs) originating from left ventricular outflow tract(LVOT). Methods Twelve-lead ECG analysis and RFCA were performed in 9 patient with VT or VPCs originating from LVOT. Results The sites to be successfully ablated were in left valsalva sinus in 6 patients,and subaortic valve in 3 patient. ECG revealed tall R wave in leads Ⅱ, Ⅲ ,aVF, V5 and V6. QS morphology in both leads aVR and aVL,QS morphology in lead Ⅰ in most cases. R wave in lead Ⅰ was relative tall, the R/S wave amplitude in lead V1 was over 0.62 ,and precordia R wave transition was irregular. All 9 patients were successfully ablated. No death or recurrenced case during follow-up. Conclusion Ventricular taehycardia and frequent ventricular premature rcontractions originating from left ventricutar outflow tract could be known by some specific ECG characteristics and could be radically treated safely by RFCA.

  8. Síncope em pacientes com extra-sístoles de via de saída de ventrículo direito e sem cardiopatia estrutural aparente Syncope in patients with right ventricle outflow tract premature beats and no apparent structural cardiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ludovice

    2006-11-01

    ventricular premature beats, with right ventricle outflow tract morphology (RVOT and no apparent structural cardiopathy. METHODS: Ninety patients (66 women, mean age 40.2±16.95 years of age with monomorphic premature beats originated at RVOT were evaluated prospectively. Fifty-four patients reported syncopes or near-syncopes associated to palpitations or not; twenty-seven presented palpitations with no pre-syncope or syncope, and nine were asymptomatic. All patients were submitted to echocardiogram, high resolution ECG and cardiac MRI to rule out structural cardiopathy, to exertion test to rule out adrenergic dependent ventricular tachycardia, and ECG prolonged outpatient monitoring (Holter and symptomatic events monitor to correlate symptoms and ventricular arrhythmias. Investigation on the susceptibility to neurocardiogenic syncope was evaluated by Tilt Table Test (TTT. Groups were compared regarding gender, age, premature beats frequency and complexity, at exertion or not, TTT results and clinical course. RESULTS: In the syncope and pre-syncope groups, TTT was positive for 38% of cases, and in groups with palpitations and assymptomatics, it was positive for 11% (p = 0.0257. After recommendations and treatment of neurocardiogenic syncope, 85% of syncope and pre-syncope patients and positive TTT was asymptomatic along the 40-month follow-up. Two patients with syncope and negative TTT presented spontaneous, sustained ventricular tachycardia during clinic course. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of neurocardiogenic syncope in patients with idiopathic RVOT premature beats is high. Patients with recurrent, unexplained syncope and idiopathic VE must be kept under investigation.

  9. Metallicity and Quasar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Huiyuan; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Tinggui

    2012-01-01

    Correlations are investigated of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the CIV line (Wang et al. 2011), with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to CIV prominently increases with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of dominant coolant, CIV line, decreases and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using SiIV+OIV]/CIV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicitiy and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7 to 6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that the metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely via affecting outflow acceleration. This ...

  10. Outflows and Shock Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, M.

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar outflows result from the supersonic ejection of material by a protostar, and constitute one of the most characteristic signposts of stellar birth. They also provide ideal targets to test chemical models, and can serve as templates for more complex systems of galactic and extragalactic astronomy where supersonic interactions between gas components take place.

  11. 单导管射频消融治疗右室流出道室性期前收缩%Radiofrequency catheter ablation of premature ventricular contractions from right ventricular outflow tract by single catheter electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锦军; 黄鹤; 杨波; 万军; 唐艳红; 江洪; 黄从新

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical effects of ablation of premature ventricular contractions ( PVCs ) in right ventricular outflow tracl ( RVOT) using a single catheter electrode. METHODS: Single catheter technique for radiofrequency catheter ablation ( RFCA) was performed in 65 consecutive patients with severe symptomatic monomorphic PVCs originating within the RVOT. A 7-Fr, 4-mm-tip catheter was used for both mapping and ablation. Target sites were localized by pace mapping. Pace mapping demonstrated identical QRS complex configurations during pacing and during arrhythmia in at least 11 leads. RESULTS; Acute ablation success was achieved in 63/65 patients (96. 9% ). During the follow-up of ( 28 ± 13) months, recurrence and reablation were done in three patients (4. 6% ). Two of these patients remained arrhythmia-free. Surgical time was (50+27) min, and fluoroscopy time was (8. 1 ±3. 8) min. No ablation-related complications occurred during the follow-up of 15 -40 months. CONCLUSIONS; Single catheter technique is safe and effective for mapping and ablation of PVCs from RVOT.%目的:观察单导管射频消融治疗右室流出道室性期前收缩(室性早搏,室早)的安全性和临床效果.方法:经常规体检、生化检查、X线胸片、心脏彩超、长程心电图等各种检查后,入选65例患者,采用温控消融导管以起搏为主的方法进行标测,并对单导管射频消融的安全性和临床效果进行总结.结果:消融即刻成功率97%( 63/65),其中2例放弃消融术;随访15~40个月,有3例复发并再次手术,成功2例,总成功率为95%( 62/65),无复发.电生理检测和消融时间:(50±27) min;曝光时间:(8.1±3.8)min,所有患者术中及术后均未发生消融相关并发症.结论:单导管射频消融治疗右室流出道室早安全有效,并能减少消融操作及X线暴露时间.

  12. Galaxy Outflows Without Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Sharanya; Ostriker, Eve C

    2016-01-01

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have $\\approx 50-100\\,{\\rm km\\,s^{-1}}$ line-of-sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly-compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds $\\approx 35\\,{\\rm km\\...

  13. [Assessment of risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Philipp; Blaschke, Florian; Pieske, Burkert; Tschöpe, Carsten; Haverkamp, Wilhelm

    2016-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy with or without concomitant outflow tract obstruction. Identification of patients with HCM who are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is crucial as those patients are likely to benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Based on the HCM Risk-SCD study published in 2013, that included 3675 HCM patients with 24 313 years of follow up, a new clinical risk prediction model for sudden cardiac death was developed. This model was included in the recently released 2014 ESC guidelines. This review summarizes the changes in the prediction model and the resulting recommendations and discusses potential risks and limitations of the new score. PMID:27404936

  14. Primary Cardiac Angiosarcoma in a Middle Aged Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Rozita; Naghshvar, Farshad; Habibi, Valiollah; Hakakian, Vahid; Namazi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is the most common primary sarcoma in adults between the 3rd and 4th decades of life. Nearly 90% of angiosarcomas occur in the right atrium, which is responsible for the late onset of symptoms. Case Presentation: We presented a 56-year-old woman admitted to our center with lung emboli symptoms. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography (TTE and TEE) demonstrated very large size (more than 10 cm diameter) multilobulated mass with mobile particles extended from the right atrium to the right ventricle and the right ventricular outflow tract which destructed the right atrium (RA) wall and penetrated to the pericardial space. Conclusions: Unfortunately the tumor was unresectable and just an incisional biopsy was performed. She received chemotherapy as palliative care. PMID:26328065

  15. Study of left ventricular systolic synchrony and sequence in patients with premature ventricular complexes from right ventricular outflow tract%右心室流出道起源室性期前收缩患者左心室收缩同步性及时序的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 许迪; 陆凤翔; 雍永宏; 庄燕; 季玲; 曹克将

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析正常人及右室流出道(right ventricular outflow tract,RVOT)起源室性期前收缩(premature ventricular complexes,PVCs)患者收缩期应变达峰时间,探讨RVOT起源PVCs患者心肌收缩同步性及时序规律.方法 应用斑点追踪成像(speckle tracking imaging,STI)技术测量30例RVOT起源PVCs患者在窦性心搏、室性心搏时及30例正常人纵向(TsL)、环周(TsC)、径向(TsR)收缩期应变达峰时间,分别计算标准差,并分析室性心搏时各方向应变达峰时间时序分布规律.结果 与正常对照组比较,RVOT起源PVCs患者在室性心搏时TsL、TsC、TsR标准差均增大,窦性心搏时TsC、TsR标准差增大.室性心搏时,TsL、TsR从心尖至基底的不同层面间差异显著;TsL、TsC在不同室壁间差异显著.结论 RVOT起源PVCs患者在窦性心搏及室性心搏时均存在失同步状态,其中室性心搏时各方向应变达峰时间时序分布存在规律.%Objective To evaluate left ventricular(LV) systolic synchrony and sequence in patients with premature ventricular complexes(PVCs) from right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT).Methods Thirty patients with frequent isolated PVCs from RVOT and 30 healthy subjects as control were included.Speckle tracking imaging (STI) was performed to assess the time-to-peak segmental systolic strain in longit udinal(TsL), circumferential (TsC) and radial (TsR) direction.The standard deviation (SD) of TsL,TsC and TsR of 18 LV segments were calculated respectively.All values of patients with PVCs were recorded during sinus beats(PVC-S) and PVC beats(PVC-V) respectively.LV systolic sequence in PVC-V was analyzed.Results Significant differences were observed in the SD values between the PVC-V and control subjects in three directions,as well as between the PVC-S and control subjects in circumferential and radial direction.In PVC-V significance difference was seen in TsL and TsR from apical to basal level,as well as in TsL and TsC in different

  16. Magnetic propeller outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    A model is developed for magnetic `propeller'-driven outflows which cause a rapidly rotating magnetized star accreting from a disk to spin-down. Energy and angular momentum lost by the star goes into expelling most of the accreting disk matter. The theory gives an expression for the effective Alfven radius $R_A$ (where the inflowing matter is effectively stopped) which depends on the mass accretion rate, the star's mass and magnetic moment, and the star's rotation rate. The model points to a ...

  17. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  18. Electrophysiological effects of lidocaine on myocardial tissue in guinea-pig left ventricular outflow tract under conditions of hypoxia, acidosis and treatment with epinephrine%利多卡因对低氧、酸中毒及肾上腺素条件下豚鼠左心室流出道心肌组织电活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰平; 王雪芳; 杜会博; 薛淑芳; 陈彦静

    2013-01-01

    AIM; To study the electrophysiological effects of lidocaine on the myocardial tissue in guinea-pig left ventricular outflow tract under the conditions of hypoxia, acidosis and treatment with epinephrine. METHODS: The action potentials of pacemaker cells in guinea-pig left ventricular outflow tract were recorded by conventional technique with intracellular microelectrodes. The effects of lidocaine on the spontaneous slow response potentials were investigated under the conditions of hypoxia, acidosis and treatment with epinephrine (EPI). RESULTS: Lidocaine markedly decreased the rate of pacemaker firing ( RPF) , the velocity of diastolic depolarization ( VDD) , the maximal rate of depolarization ( Vmax), the maximal diastolic potential (MDP) and the amplitude of action potential ( APA). Lidocaine also shortened the 50% and 80% of duration of action potential (APD50 and APD80). At the concentrations from 0.1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L, the effects of lidocaine were more significant. Under the condition of hypoxia and perfusion with deprived glucose content for 15 min, VDD, RPF, Vmax, MDP and APA significantly decreased, and APD50 notably shortened. Under the condition of hypoxia, lidocaine at 1 μmol/L significantly decreased VDD, RPF, Vmax and APA as compared with the cells treated with hypoxia only. Perfusion with pH 6.8 solution for 10 min, VDD, RPF, Vmax and APA significantly decreased, MDP notably increased, and APD50 and APD80 markedly shortened. Under the condition of acidosis for 10 min, lidocaine significantly decreased VDD, RPF and Vmax, and lengthened APD50 and APD80 as compared with the cells under the condition of acidosis alone. Perfusion with EPI at 10 μmol/L for 10 min resulted in significant increases in VDD, RPF, Vmax, MDP and APA, and notable shortenings of APD50 and APD80, were also observed. Compared with 10 μmol/L EPI group, 1 μmol/L lidocaine +10 μmol/L EPI significantly reduced VDD, RPF, MDP and APA, and lengthened APD50, and APD80. CONCLUSION

  19. 流出道起源室性早搏心电图特征及其对射频消融靶点的判断价值%ECG characteristics of outflow tract originated premature ventricular contraction and their location value for radiofrequency ablation target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫红; 李文华

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究室性早搏(室早)的心电图特征及对流出道室早的定位价值。方法回顾68例成功消融的右室流出道(RVOT)和左室流出道(LOVT)室早患者的图形,测量胸前导联 R/S值、R/S 转换部位、V2导联 QRS 波时限、V2导联 R 波振幅指数和 R 波时限指数,探讨其与射频消融靶点的关系。结果54例起源于 RVOT 与14例起源于 LVOT 的室早患者一般情况无显著差异。RVOT 室早比 LVOT 室早时限更短(P <0.05),R/S 转换在 V1~V2导联的有12例,其中LVOT 11例,特异性91.67%,敏感性78.57%;转换在 V3导联的24例,其中 RVOT 21例,特异性87.50%,敏感性38.89%;转换在 V4~V6导联的为32例 RVOT 患者,特异性100%,敏感性59.26%;V2导联 R 波振幅指数和时限指数对 RVOT 室早的定位价值低于对 LVOT 室早的定位价值(P <0.05)。结论R/S 转换在 V2或 V2之前对 LVOT 的诊断价值大;转换在 V4或 V4之后对 ROVT 的诊断价值大;对于 R/S 转换在 V2~V3导联时,V2导联 QRS 波时限、R 波时限指数和 R 波振幅指数三个指标对确定室早的起源部位具有重要的价值。%Objective To explore the ECG characteristics of premature ventricular contraction (PVC)and their location value for outflow tract originated PVC.Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on the figures of 68 successfully ablated cases with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT)PVC or left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT)PVC.We measured R/S value of precordial leads,switch site of R/S,QRS complex duration of V2 lead,amplitude and duration indices of R wave in V2 lead,and then discussed the relationship between each of the above index and radiofre-quency ablation target.Results There was no significant difference in general circumstances be-tween 54 RVOT-PVC and 1 4 LVOT-PVC patients.The duration of RVOT-PVC was shorter than that of LVOT-PVC(P <0

  20. Galnt1 is required for normal heart valve development and cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tian

    Full Text Available Congenital heart valve defects in humans occur in approximately 2% of live births and are a major source of compromised cardiac function. In this study we demonstrate that normal heart valve development and cardiac function are dependent upon Galnt1, the gene that encodes a member of the family of glycosyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts responsible for the initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation. In the adult mouse, compromised cardiac function that mimics human congenital heart disease, including aortic and pulmonary valve stenosis and regurgitation; altered ejection fraction; and cardiac dilation, was observed in Galnt1 null animals. The underlying phenotype is aberrant valve formation caused by increased cell proliferation within the outflow tract cushion of developing hearts, which is first detected at developmental stage E11.5. Developing valves from Galnt1 deficient animals displayed reduced levels of the proteases ADAMTS1 and ADAMTS5, decreased cleavage of the proteoglycan versican and increased levels of other extracellular matrix proteins. We also observed increased BMP and MAPK signaling. Taken together, the ablation of Galnt1 appears to disrupt the formation/remodeling of the extracellular matrix and alters conserved signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation. Our study provides insight into the role of this conserved protein modification in cardiac valve development and may represent a new model for idiopathic valve disease.

  1. The effect of Shen-Fu on gastrointestinal tract injury and its potential mechanism during cardio-pulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏中元; 詹丽英; 何宇红; 刘先义

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Shen-Fu (SF) injection on gastrointestinal tract injury and its potential mechanism. Methods: Thirty-eight patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were assigned to Group C (control group, n=18) and Group SF (n=20) randomly. In Group SF, the patients received intravenous injection of SF (0.5 ml/kg) at the beginning of the surgery followed by a continuous infusion of 100 ml SF (1.0 ml/kg) solution diluted by saline at a rate of 0.004 ml*Kg-1*min-1with a Grasby pump. The control group was injected with normal saline in the same volume. Gastric intramucosal pH (pHi), activity of blood diamine oxidase (DAO), and concentrations of blood LPS and IL-6 were measured before CPB (S0) and 1 h (S1) and 2 h (S2) after aortic declamping, respectively.Results: In Group C, pHi value was significantly lower at S1 and S2 than at S0 ( mean P<0.01) and blood DAO and concentrations of LPS and IL-6 were significantly higher at S1 and S2 than at S0 ( meanP<0.01). In Group SF, pHi was obviously lower at S1 and S2 than at S0 (P<0.05) but LPS and IL-6 levels and DAO were higher at S0 (mean P<0.05). Blood DAO and LPS level demonstrated significant negative correlations with pHi (mean P<0.01) while LPS concentration showed a positive correlation with blood DAO (P<0.01) and IL-6 concentration(P<0.05). At S1 and S2 after aortic declamping, the levels of pHi were higher in Group SF than in Group C (mean P<0.01 ) but DAO and LPS and IL-6 levels were significantly lower in Group SF than in Group C ( P<0.01).Conclusions: SF has a protective effect on gastrointestinal tract and can reduce inflammatory actions.

  2. Absorbing Outflows in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this program was a comprehensive multiwavelength study of absorption phenomena in active galactic nuclei (AGN). These include a variety of associated absorption systems: X-ray warm absorbers, X-ray cold absorbers. UV absorbers with high ionization lines, MgII absorbers, red quasars and BALQSOs. The aim is to determine the physical conditions in the absorbing outflows, study their inter-relations and their role in AGN. We designed several observing programs to achieve this goal: X-ray spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, FLAY spectroscopy and X-ray imaging. We were very successful towards achieving the goal over the five year period as shown through following observing programs and papers. Copies of a few papers are attached with this report.

  3. Intra-cardiac echocardiography in alcohol septal ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Robert M; Shahzad, Adeel; Newton, James;

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy reduces left ventricular outflow tract gradients. A third of patients do not respond; inaccurate localisation of the iatrogenic infarct can be responsible. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) using myocardial contrast can...

  4. Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation of premature ventricular contractions origina ting from the right ventricular outflow tract%右心室流出道室性早搏射频消融治疗的有效性和安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文青; 王张生; 巫慧钧; 周一泉; 许澎; 孙万峰; 冯凯; 谷慧敏; 葛均波

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价应用Carto系统射频消融治疗右心室流出道起源性室性早搏(室早)有效性和安全性.方法 选择2005年5月至2007年12月临床治疗的47例室早患者,其中男性21例,女性26例,平均年龄(34.5±19.2)岁,病程3~38个月.射频所用能量为40 W,时间为120~240 s,温度设定为60℃.分别在消融术前和术后1、3和12个月进行动态心电图检查.结果 47例中成功45例,有效率为95.8%.2例1年后复发新的早搏,未发现任何并发症.结论 应用Carto系统对右心室流出道起源性室早经射频消融治疗是有效和安全的.%Objective To assess efficacy and safety in patients with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) arrhythmias treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) combined with electro-anatomical mapping system (Carto). Methods The study group consisted of 47 consecutive patients (mean age 34. 5 ± 19.2 years,range 18~61 years,21 males,26 females) with symptomatic arrhythmias originating from RVOT, who underwent RFCA between Oct. 2005 and Dec. 2007. RFCA was performed with the use of the Carto system. The power of RF current was set at 40 Watts,duration 120~240 seconds,and maximal temperature 60 degrees C. In order to assess RFCA efficacy,a 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring was performed before RFCA and shortly after the procedure as well as one, three and twelve months afterwards. Results Holter ECG monitoring after RFCA showed that the procedure was successful in 45 (95. 8%) patients. In the remaining two patients no sig nificant reduction in the frequency of ventricular ectopy was noted,however,no complex ventricular arrhythmias were observed. None of the complications were observed. Conclusion RFCA with the use of the Carto system is effective and safe in the treatment of arrhythmias originating from RVOT.

  5. 单中心流出道室性早搏门诊调查与心电图特征分析%The investigation of the occurrence and characteristics of outpatients with premature ventricular contractions origi-nating from ventricular outflow tract detected by electrocardiogram in a single center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满艺龙; 杨兵; 汪道武; 陈明龙; 曹克将; 李小荣; 肖峰; 杜为; 刘榜霞; 陈惠平; 王子盾; 郑雅云; 张凤祥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence and characteristics of outpatients with premature ventricular con-tractions originating from ventricular outflow tract ( OT-PVC) detected by electrocardiogram ( ECG) in a single center. Methods We collected and analyzed the general characteristics and ECG of outpatients who were diagnosed as OT-PVC from January 01, 2013 to June 30, 2013 in the department of cardiology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Results ECG of 5545 outpatients were obtained in six months, in whom there were 160 patients (2. 89%) with OT-PVC, including 62 males(38. 75%) and 98 females(61. 25%). Thirty eight patients with OT-PVC (3. 53%) were between 50 and 60 years old and its ratio was higher than the other OT-PVC patients who were less than 50 and more than 60 years old. The ECG in 71 patients (44. 38%) with OT-PVC showed the following abnormalities, including T-wave inversion, ST-segment depression, atrial fibrillation, over-loading of left atrium and premature atrial complex. The average age of patients with ECG abnormalities was elder than that of patients without ECG abnormality [(62. 18±12. 03) vs (46. 37±16. 30) years old, P50~60)岁年龄段患者38例,占3.53%,高于其他年龄段。71例OT鄄PVC患者(44.38%)合并其他类型的心电图异常,依次为T波倒置、ST压低、心房颤动、左房负荷异常及房性早搏。分析发现这71例患者与未合并上述心电图异常的89例OT鄄PVC患者相比平均年龄偏大[(62.2±12.0)岁 vs (46.4±16.3)岁, P<0.05]。结论单中心心血管病门诊就诊人群心电图OT鄄PVC检出率为2.89%,其中(逸50~60)岁人群的OT鄄PVC检出率高于其他年龄段。随着年龄的增长,OT鄄PVC患者更易合并其他类型的心电图异常。

  6. Scaling ultraviolet outflows in Seyferts

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, R.; S Mathur; Krongold, Y.; Nicastro, F.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray and UV absorbing outflows are frequently seen in AGN and have been cited as a possible feedback mechanism. Whether or not they can provide adequate feedback depends on how massive they are and how much energy they carry, but it depends in a more fundamental way upon whether they escape the potential of the black hole. If the outflows have reached their asymptotic velocity when we observe them, then all of these properties critically depend on the radius of the outflow: a value which is ...

  7. Energy exchanges in reconnection outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Newman, Davd L; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Reconnection outflows are highly energetic directed flows that interact with the ambient plasma or with flows from other reconnection regions. Under these conditions the flow becomes highly unstable and chaotic, as any flow jets interacting with a medium. We report here massively parallel simulations of the two cases of interaction between outflow jets and between a single outflow with an ambient plasma. We find in both case the development of a chaotic magnetic field, subject to secondary reconnection events that further complicate the topology of the field lines. The focus of the present analysis is on the energy balance. We compute each energy channel (electromagnetic, bulk, thermal, for each species) and find where the most energy is exchanged and in what form. The main finding is that the largest energy exchange is not at the reconnection site proper but in the regions where the outflowing jets are destabilized.

  8. 右室流出道起源的室性心律失常消融靶点与电压异常区位置分布的相关性研究%Correlation Study between the Ablation Target of Ventricular Arrhythmia Originated from Right Ventricular Outflow Tract and the Distribution of Abnormal Voltage Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞暘; 程宽; 徐烨; 陈庆兴; 朱文青

    2015-01-01

    目的:(1)探讨右室流出道(right ventricular outflow tract ,RVOT)起源室性早搏(premature ventricular complex , PVC)及室性心动过速(ventricular tachycardia ,VT)的消融靶点分布特点及其电压特点;(2)探讨 RVOT 起源心律失常与RVOT局部低电压区的关系。方法:对97例心电图提示RVOT 起源的室性心律失常患者行射频消融术,术中共记录到99种PVC、6种VT。在消融前行三维电压标测,电压小于0.5 mV的区域定义为低电压区,电压为0.5~1.5 mV的区域为电压移行区域,电压大于1.5 m V的区域为正常电压区域。结果:87例患者消融成功,10例患者消融失败。2例患者的室性心律失常起源于主动脉窦,95例患者的室性心律失常起源于RVOT。起源于RVOT 的PVC患者,8个靶点位于低电压区,59个靶点位于电压移行区,30个靶点位于正常电压区。靶点处电压异常的患者中,3例的消融靶点位于肺动脉瓣下低电压区及电压移行区,34例患者的消融靶点位于局部低电压区及电压移行区。结论:对RVOT起源的室性心律失常进行射频消融,成功靶点大多位于电压移行区;肺动脉瓣下肌袖组织及局部纤维脂肪化心肌组织是RVOT起源的室性心律失常的主要发病机制之一。%Objective:(1)To explore the distribution features of ablation target of premature ventricular complex(PVC) origi‐nated from right ventricular outflow tract(RVOT) and ventricular tachycardia(VT) and its voltage characteristics .(2)To ex‐plore the relationship between ventricular arrhythmia originated from RVOT and regional low voltage of ROVT .Methods:A to‐tal of 97 patients ,who were indicated as ventricular arrhythmia originated from RVOT by electrocardiogram ,underwent radio‐frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) .During the operation ,99 morphologies of PVC and 6 morphologies of VT were recorded . Detailed three

  9. Study of intracardiac flow patterns of left ventricle in patients with premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract%右心室流出道起源室性期前收缩患者左心室腔流场分布模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 许迪; 李相权; 吴红平; 雍永宏; 季玲; 陈莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the patterns of intracardiac flow of left ventricle (LV) in patients with premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) by analyzing the vortex during isovolumetric contraction phase and the distribution rules of flow-time curves in each layer of LV.Methods Twenty-seven patients with frequent isolated PVCs from RVOT were involved and 25 healthy subjects as control.The color Doppler image of LV at apical four-chamber view was acquired.Vector flow mapping (VFM) was performed to assess the parameters of vortex during isovolumic contraction phase, including diameter (transverse and vertical diameter), velocity (maximal positive and negative velocity) and the number of vortex rings.Positive flow during systole and negative flow during diastole of LV in each layer were measured by flow-time curve.All values of patients with PVCs were recorded during sinus beats (PVC-S) and PVC (PVC-V) respectively.Results Significant differences were demonstrated in all parameters of vortex between the PVC-V and control subjects.And the flow-time curves disarrayed in PVC-V.The velocity of vortex in PVC-S was lower than that in control subjects.And the distribution pattern of flow-time curves in LV of PVC-S differed from that of control subjects.Conclusions Alternation of intracardiac fluid pattern in LV was demonstrated in patients with PVCs from RVOT during both sinus beats and PVC.VFM can be used to analyze the intracardiac flow field in normal and pathological electrical activation.%目的 分析正常人及右室流出道(right ventricular outflow tract,RVOT)起源室性期前收缩(premature ventricular complexes,PVCs)患者左心室腔等容收缩期涡流及左心室腔不同层面时间-血流曲线分布规律,探讨RVOT起源PVCs对左心室腔流场分布模式的影响。方法 分别获取27例RVOT起源PVCs患者在窦性心搏、室性期前收缩时及25例正常人的心尖四腔观二维彩色多普勒

  10. Right ventricular outflow and apical pacing comparably worsen the echocardioghraphic normal left ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.F. ten Cate (Tim); M.G. Scheffer (Michael); G.R. Sutherland (George); J.F. Verzijlbergen (Fred); N.M. van Hemel (Norbert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: A depressed left ventricular function (LVF) is sometimes observed during right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing, but any prediction of this adverse effect cannot be done. Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) pacing is thought to deteriorate LVF less frequently because of a more no

  11. Therapeutic efficiency of catheter ablation in treatment of premature ventricular complexes originating from the right ventricular outflow tract accompanied with left ventricular enlargement: a 5-year follow-up investigation of 30 cases%导管法消融右室流出道室性早搏伴左心室增大30例5年随访观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡立禄; 刘世玉; 雷挺; 高全清; 唐力; 唐成玥; 苏代泉; 帅锋利

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨导管法消融右室流出道室性早搏伴左心室增大患者的疗效.方法 对30例右室流出道室性早搏伴左心室增大的患者进行导管法射频消融(Radiofrequency cathter ablation,RFCA)治疗.术前常规完成心脏超声检查,成功消融术后5年每年随访超声心动图(ultrasound echocardiography,UCG)及动态心电图(Dynamic Electrocardiogram,DCG,又称Hol-ter).结果 30例患者即刻成功者20例,远期成功8例,无效者2例.术后1年随访20例即刻成功者,UCG结果提示18例患者左室舒张末期内径已在正常值范围内,与自身相比缩小值在3~7 mm以上;随访至第2、3、4、5年,UCG结果无明显变化.另2例患者心脏大小虽未达到正常值范围,但与自身相比较亦有相应缩小.8例远期成功者临床症状也有明显改善.结论 导管法消融治疗右室流出道室早伴左心室增大具有良好临床疗效.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of catheter ablation in treatment of patients with premature ven-tricular complexes originating from the right venlricular outftow tract accompanied with left venlricular enlargement Methods The catheler ablalion was performed to 30 patients selected. The rouline cardiac ultrasound examination was carried out before operation. Af-ter surgery, the patients were followed-up for 5 years. During the period of follow-up, echocardiography and dynamic electrocardiogram DCG(Holter)monitoring were performed every year. Results In the 30 patients,20 were acute success,8 were effective,and 2 were in-effeclive. At the first year foltow-up, the UCG resulls showed that 18 of 20 acule success patients presenled a normal left venlricular end-diastolic diameler,and at least reduced 3 ~7 mm compared to pre-operation. During the periods of 2 ~ 5 years foltow-up, no further changes were observed. The heart size of another 2 acule success patients was also reduced although not reach to the normal range. The clinical symptoms of

  12. Ablação com radiofreqüência de extra-sístoles da via de saída do ventrículo direito Radiofrequency catheter ablation of premature ventricular contractions originating in the right ventricular outflow tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C. C. Darrieux

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar se a ablação com radiofreqüência é um procedimento eficiente para o tratamento das extra-sístoles da via de saída do ventrículo direito (EVSVD, e se resulta em melhora dos sintomas. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, com 30 pacientes consecutivos (idade média de 40±13 anos, 25 do sexo feminino, sem cardiopatia estrutural aparente, com EVSVD, muito freqüentes (densidade média de 1.263±593/h, sintomáticos por mais de 1 ano (média =74 meses e refratários aos fármacos antiarrítmicos (3±1,7, incluindo os beta-bloqueadores, que foram submetidos à ablação com radiofreqüência. RESULTADOS: Após o primeiro procedimento, houve 23 sucessos iniciais (76,6% e 7 iniciais insucessos (23,4%. Quatro pacientes tiveram recorrências, sendo que dois desses não se submeteram ao segundo procedimento. O segundo procedimento foi realizado em 9 pacientes (7 insucessos iniciais e 2 recorrências, e o sucesso ocorreu em 5 pacientes adicionais, sendo 1 caso por acesso epicárdico. A taxa de sucesso final foi de 80% (24/30, e nenhuma complicação maior ocorreu. Após um seguimento médio de 14±6 meses, no grupo de sucesso final houve uma redução de mais de 90% na densidade das extra-sístoles(24/24; pOBJECTIVES: To evaluate if radiofrequency catheter ablation is an effective procedure for the treatment of right ventricular outflow tract premature ventricular contractions (RVOT-PVC and ascertain if it results in an improvement of symptoms. METHODS: A prospective study with 30 consecutive patients (mean age 40 ± 13 years, 25 females, with no apparent structural cardiopathy, with very frequent (mean density of 1,263 ± 593/h RVOT-PVC, symptomatic for more than one year (mean = 74 months and resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs (3 ± 1.7, including beta-blockers, who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation. RESULTS: After the first procedure, there were 23 initial successful cases (76.6% and 7 initial failures (23.4%. Four patients

  13. 磁导航系统遥控导管消融治疗右心室流出道室性心动过速/室性早搏%Remote radiofrequency catheter ablation of right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia/pre-mature ventricular complexes using the magnetic navigation system combined with non-contact map-ping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟立上; 顾凯; 陈明龙; 曹克将; 杨兵; 孙建辉; 徐东杰; 张凤祥; 居维竹; 陈红武; 郦明芳; 杨刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of remote radiofrequency catheter ablation of right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular complexes ( RVOT-VT/PVCs ) using the magnetic navigation system combined with the non-contact mapping system. Methods Totally 16 pa-tients with RVOT-VT/PVCs [12 women and 4 men,mean aged (44±15) years] were enrolled. The original site of arrhythmias was determined by non-contact activation mapping and conventional pace mapping. Ablation was performed using HeliosⅡmagnetic temperature-controled catheter manipulated by NiobeⅡmagnetic navi-gation system. If failed with magnetic system,the procedure would be transferred to manually controlled session. Results Among 10 of 16 subjects,documented RVOT-VT/PVCs were successfully abolished by remote abla-tion controlled by magnetic navigation system. In the other 6 patients,RVOT VT/PVCs were eliminated by man-ually controlled catheter ablation. The total procedure time was (190±42) min,and the mean ablation time was (240±33) s,and the average times of energy application were 3. 9±1. 6. The total X-ray exposure time was (4. 8±2. 6) min,which including (3. 2±2. 0) min for operators,and (1. 6±1. 0) min for remote ablation,respec-tively. No other complications were observed except one patient developed postoperative arteriovenous fistula. Conclusion Magnetic navigation system combined with non-contact mapping system was safe and effective for remote radiofrequency catheter ablation of RVOT-VT/PVCs. It may potentially reduce X-ray exposure time for both patients and operators.%目的:探讨应用磁导航遥控导管消融治疗右心室流出道起源的室性心动过速/室性早搏( RVOT-VT/PVCs)的安全性和有效性。方法2008年11月至2009年11月,在南京医科大学第一附属医院心血管内科行体表心电图检查,诊断为RVOT-VT/PVCs的患者共16例[女12例,男4例,平均年龄(44±15)岁],结合应用非接触标测系

  14. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James F.; O'Neil Baringer, Molly; Lueck, Rolf G.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Ambar, Isabel; Parrilla, Gregorio; Cantos, Alain; Kennelly, Maureen A.; Sanford, Thomas B.

    1993-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  15. Differentially expressed genes in embryonic cardiac tissues of mice lacking Folr1 gene activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Robert J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart anomalies are the most frequently observed among all human congenital defects. As with the situation for neural tube defects (NTDs, it has been demonstrated that women who use multivitamins containing folic acid peri-conceptionally have a reduced risk for delivering offspring with conotruncal heart defects 123. Cellular folate transport is mediated by a receptor or binding protein and by an anionic transporter protein system. Defective function of the Folr1 (also known as Folbp1; homologue of human FRα gene in mice results in inadequate transport, accumulation, or metabolism of folate during cardiovascular morphogenesis. Results We have observed cardiovascular abnormalities including outflow tract and aortic arch arterial defects in genetically compromised Folr1 knockout mice. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure to complete development of outflow tract and aortic arch arteries in the Folr1 knockout mouse model, we examined tissue-specific gene expression difference between Folr1 nullizygous embryos and morphologically normal heterozygous embryos during early cardiac development (14-somite stage, heart tube looping (28-somite stage, and outflow track septation (38-somite stage. Microarray analysis was performed as a primary screening, followed by investigation using quantitative real-time PCR assays. Gene ontology analysis highlighted the following ontology groups: cell migration, cell motility and localization of cells, structural constituent of cytoskeleton, cell-cell adhesion, oxidoreductase, protein folding and mRNA processing. This study provided preliminary data and suggested potential candidate genes for further description and investigation. Conclusion The results suggested that Folr1 gene ablation and abnormal folate homeostasis altered gene expression in developing heart and conotruncal tissues. These changes affected normal cytoskeleton structures, cell migration and

  16. Molecular outflows in starburst nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations have detected molecular outflows in a few nearby starburst nuclei. We discuss the physical processes at work in such an environment in order to outline a scenario that can explain the observed parameters of the phenomenon, such as the molecular mass, speed and size of the outflows. We show that outflows triggered by OB associations, with NOB ≥ 105 (corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR)≥1 M⊙ yr-1 in the nuclear region), in a stratified disk with mid-plane density n0 ˜ 200-1000 cm-3 and scale height z0 ≥ 200(n0/102 cm-3)-3/5 pc, can form molecules in a cool dense and expanding shell. The associated molecular mass is ≥107 M⊙ at a distance of a few hundred pc, with a speed of several tens of km s-1. We show that a SFR surface density of 10 ≤ ΣSFR ≤ 50 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 favours the production of molecular outflows, consistent with observed values.

  17. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI...

  18. Protostellar Outflows in L1340

    CERN Document Server

    Walawender, Josh; Smutko, Michael; O'Linger-Luscusk, JoAnn; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    We have searched the L1340 A, B, and C clouds for shocks from protostellar outflows using the H$_2$ 2.122 $\\mu$m near-IR line as a shock tracer. Substantial outflow activity has been found in each of the three regions of the cloud (L1340 A, L1340 B, & L1340 C). We find 42 distinct shock complexes (16 in L1340 A, 11 in L1340 B, and 15 in L1340 C). We were able to link 17 of those shock complexes in to 12 distinct outflows and identify candidate source stars for each. We examine the properties (A$_{V}$, T$_{bol}$, and L$_{bol}$) of the source protostars and compare that to the properties of the general population of Class 0/I and flat SED protostars and find that there is an indication, albeit at low statistical significance, that the outflow driving protostars are drawn from a population with lower A$_{V}$, higher L$_{bol}$, and lower T$_{bol}$ than the general population of protostars.

  19. Molecular outflows in starburst nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations have detected molecular outflows in a few nearby starburst nuclei. We discuss the physical processes at work in such an environment in order to outline a scenario that can explain the observed parameters of the phenomenon, such as the molecular mass, speed and size of the outflows. We show that outflows triggered by OB associations, with $N_{OB}\\ge 10^5$ (corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR)$\\ge 1$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ in the nuclear region), in a stratified disk with mid-plane density $n_0\\sim 200\\hbox{--}1000$ cm$^{-3}$ and scale height $z_0\\ge 200 (n_0/10^2 \\, {\\rm cm}^{-3})^{-3/5}$ pc, can form molecules in a cool dense and expanding shell. The associated molecular mass is $\\ge 10^7$ M$_\\odot$ at a distance of a few hundred pc, with a speed of several tens of km s$^{-1}$. We show that a SFR surface density of $10 \\le \\Sigma_{SFR} \\le 50$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ kpc$^{-2}$ favours the production of molecular outflows, consistent with observed values.

  20. Outflow forces in intermediate mass star formation

    CERN Document Server

    van Kempen, T A; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Belloche, A; Klaassen, P D; Leurini, S; Jose-Garcia, I San; Aykutalp, A; Choi, Y; Endo, A; Frieswijk, W; Harsono, D; Karska, A; Koumpia, E; van der Marel, N; Nagy, Z; Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Risacher, C; van Weeren, R J; Wyrowski, F; Yildiz, U A; Guesten, R; Boland, W; Baryshev, A

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate mass protostarsprovide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Emerging molecular outflows can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the correlation of outflow forces of intermediate mass protostars with the luminosity. The aim of this paper is to derive outflow forces from outflows of six intermediate mass protostellar regions and validate the apparent correlation between total luminosity and outflow force seen in earlier work, as well as remove uncertainties caused by different methodology. By comparing CO 6--5 observations obtained with APEX with non-LTE radiative transfer model predictions, optical depths, temperatures, densities of the gas of the molecular outflows are derived. Outflow forces, dynamical timescales and kinetic luminosities are subsequently calculated. Outflow parameters, including the forces, were derived for all sources. Temperatures in excess of 50 K were found for all flows, in line wi...

  1. 特发性右心室流出道室性心动过速/室性早搏的性别、年龄和临床特点%The gender, age and clinical feature of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 张澍; 张奎俊; 陈新; 姚焰; 马坚; 楚建民; 方丕华; 贾玉和; 王方正

    2010-01-01

    目的 特发性右心室流出道室性心动过速(室速)/室性早搏(室早)是指不伴有明显器质性心脏病的起源于右心室流出道的室速/室早.对478例特发性右心室流出道室速/室早患者进行系统的回顾性分析,探讨其性别、年龄和临床特点.方法 478例患者,平均年龄(39.8±13.8)岁,在过去的15年里,先后因特发性室速/室早在我院住院治疗,并都接受了心内电生理检查和射频消融术治疗.这478例患者室速/室早的射频消融靶点均位于右心室流出道.结果 在478例患者中,女性288例(60.3%),男性190例(39.7%),女性/男性比为1.52.出现症状的年龄女性为(41.2±12.7)岁,男性为(37.6±15.0)岁(P<0.05),所有患者均有不同程度的心悸症状,478例患者中,67例(14.2%)曾出现过黑矇症状,13例(2.7%)曾经出现晕厥.263例(55%)患者在接受射频消融术前,接受过抗心律失常的药物治疗,药物治疗不成功.结论 特发性右心室流出道室速/室早患者女性较男性多,女性出现临床症状的平均年龄较男性大,对于这一现象的研究有助于揭示这种心律失常的发生机制.所有患者均有不同程度的心慌症状,有的患者甚至出现黑矇、晕厥.因此对于特发性右心室流出道室速/室早应当更加积极地治疗.%Objective The aim of this study was to clarify gender,age and clinical feature of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular complexes(ROVT/PVC). Methods We studied 478 patients[mean age(39. 8 ± 13. 8)years]with idiopathic ROVT/PVC who were admitted to our center consecutively in past 15 years. All of them underwent catheter mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA), and the original sites of ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular complexes were confirmed by catheter mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Results Of 478 patients, 288 patients (60. 3% )were female, 190 patients(39. 7% )were male

  2. Hot Outflows in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, C C

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analyzed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using {\\it Chandra X-ray Observatory} observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the "iron radius") and jet power is found with the form $R_{\\rm Fe} \\propto P_{\\rm jet}^{0.45}$. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed $100 ~\\rm M_\\odot ~yr^{-1}$ in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10% to 20% of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at ...

  3. 单心动周期全容积成像对右心室流出道起源室性期前收缩患者左心室容积及收缩同步性的研究%Study of left ventricular systolic volume and synchrony in patients with premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract by instantaneous full-volume imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 许迪; 陆凤翔; 雍永宏; 吴红平; 陆美娟; 洪牮; 徐亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess alternations in left ventricular volume and systolic synchrony in patients with frequent premature ventricular complexes(PVCs) from the right ventricular outflow tract(RVOT).Methods Twenty-nine patients with frequent isolated PVCs from RVOT were included and 30 healthy subjects as control.Instantaneous full-volume imaging(IFI) was performed to evaluate left ventricle volumetric parameters,including end-systolic volume (ESV),end-diastolic volume (EDV),stroke volume (SV),ejection fraction (EF),and systolic synchrony parameters,including systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI),dispersion end-systole (DISPES),mean end-systolic time (MES),pre-contraction time volume (PreContr) and post-contraction time volume (PostContr).Contraction front mapping was performed to visualize volumetric contraction sequence.All values of patients with PVCs were recorded during sinus beats (PVC-S) and premature ventricular beats (PVC-V) respectively.Results Significant differences were observed in left ventricular systolic volumetric and synchrony parameters between PVC-V and control subjects (P<0.01),as well as in MES and PreContr between PVC-S and control subjects (P<0.01).Conclusions Left ventricular systolic dysynchrony was demonstrated in patients with PVCs from RVOT.IFI was a novel tool to analyze left ventricular global and regional volumetric alternations.%目的 探讨正常人及频发右室流出道(right ventricular outflow tract,RVOT)起源室性期前收缩患者左室容积改变模式.方法 应用单心动周期全容积成像(instantaneous full-volume imaging,IFI)技术分析29例RVOT起源室性期前收缩患者在室性期前收缩、窦性心搏时以及30例正常人左室容积参数[收缩末容积(ESV)、舒张末容积(EDV)、每搏量(SV)、射血分数(EF)]和左室收缩期节段容积变化同步性参数[收缩失同步性指数(SDI)、收缩末离散度(DISPES)、平均收缩末时间(MES)、收缩前时间容积(PreContr)、收缩后时

  4. Left ventricular outflow track obstruction and mitral valve regurgitation in a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM can be complicated by left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT obstruction and severe acute mitral regurgitation (MR, leading to hemodynamic instability in an otherwise benign disorder. Despite the severity of these complications, there is a paucity of literature on the matter. Because up to 20–25% of TCM patients develop LVOT obstruction and/or MR, it is important to recognize the clinical manifestations of these complications and to adhere to specific management in order to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. We report the clinical history, imaging, treatment strategy, and clinical outcome of a patient with TCM that was complicated with severe MR and LVOT obstruction. We then discuss the pathophysiology, characteristic imaging, key clinical features, and current treatment strategy for this unique patient population. Case report: A postmenopausal woman with no clear risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD presented to the emergency department with chest pain after an episode of mental/physical stress. Physical examination revealed MR, mild hypotension, and pulmonary vascular congestion. Her troponins were mildly elevated. Cardiac catheterization excluded obstructive CAD, but revealed severe apical hypokinesia and ballooning. Notably, multiple diagnostic tests revealed the presence of severe acute MR and LVOT obstruction. The patient was diagnosed with TCM complicated by underlying MR and LVOT obstruction, and mild hemodynamic instability. The mechanism of her LVOT and MR was attributed to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM, which the transesophageal echocardiogram clearly showed during workup. She was treated with beta-blocker, aspirin, and ACE-I with good outcome. Nitroglycerin and inotropes were discontinued and further avoided. Conclusions: Our case illustrated LVOT obstruction and MR associated with underlying SAM in a patient with TCM. LVOT obstruction and MR are severe

  5. Spectrum of cardiac lesions associated with Isolated Cleft Mitral Valve and their impact on therapeutic choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El hammiri, Ayoub; Drighil, Abdenasser; Benhaourech, Sanaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Isolated cleft mitral valve (ICMV) may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of cardiac lesions associated with ICMV and their potential impact on therapeutic management. Methods We conducted a descriptive study with data retrieved from the Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) single-center registry of our institution, including patients with ICMV registered between December 2008 and November 2014. Results Among 2177 patients retrieved from the CHD registry, 22 (1%) had ICMV. Median age at diagnosis was 5 years (6 days to 36 years). Nine patients (40.9%) had Down syndrome. Seventeen patients (77.3%) had associated lesions, including 11 (64.7%) with accessory chordae in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) with no obstruction, 15 (88.2%) had ventricular septal defect (VSD), three had secundum atrial septal defect, and four had patent ductus arteriosus. Thirteen patients (59.1%) required surgical repair. The decision to proceed with surgery was mainly based on the severity of the associated lesion in eight patients (61.5%) and on the severity of the mitral regurgitation in four patients (30.8%). In one patient, surgery was decided based on the severity of both the associated lesion and mitral regurgitation. Conclusion Our study shows that ICMV is rare and strongly associated with Down syndrome. The most common associated cardiac abnormalities were VSD and accessory chordae in the LVOT. We conclude that cardiac lesions associated with ICMV are of major interest, since in this study patients with cardiac lesions were diagnosed earlier. The decision to operate on these patients must take into account the severity of both mitral regurgitation and associated cardiac lesions. PMID:27096525

  6. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  7. Worker Inflow, Outflow, and Churning

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Maliranta, Mika

    2003-01-01

    Linked employer-employee data from the Finnish business sector is used in an analysis of worker turnover. The data is an unbalanced panel with over 219 000 observations in the years 1991-97. The churning (excess worker turnover), worker inflow (hiring), and worker outflow (separation) rates are explained by various plant and employee characteristics in type 2 Tobit models where the explanatory variables can have a different effect on the probability of the flow rates to be non-zero and on the...

  8. Bipolar Outflows and the Evolution of Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Adam

    1998-01-01

    Hypersonic bipolar outflows are a ubiquitous phenomena associated with both young and highly evolved stars. Observations of Planetary Nebulae, the nebulae surrounding Luminous Blue Variables such as $\\eta$ Carinae, Wolf Rayet bubbles, the circumstellar environment of SN 1987A and Young Stellar Objects all revealed high velocity outflows with a wide range of shapes. In this paper I review the current state of our theoretical understanding of these outflows. Beginning with Planetary Nebulae con...

  9. Propeller-driven Outflows and Disk Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova, M. M.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Koldoba, A. V.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of propeller-driven outflows in axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations of disk accretion to rapidly rotating magnetized stars. Matter outflows in a wide cone and is centrifugally ejected from the inner regions of the disk. Closer to the axis there is a strong, collimated, magnetically dominated outflow of energy and angular momentum carried by the open magnetic field lines from the star. The ``efficiency'' of the propeller may be very high in the respect that mos...

  10. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  11. Morphologies of protostellar outflows: An ALMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Seifried, Daniel; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of stars is usually accompanied by the launching of protostellar outflows. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) will soon revolutionalise our understanding of the morphologies and kinematics of these objects. In this paper, we present synthetic ALMA observations of protostellar outflows based on numerical magnetohydrodynamic collapse simulations. We find significant velocity gradients in our outflow models and a very prominent helical structure within the outflows. We speculate that the disk wind found in the ALMA Science Verification Data of HD 163296 presents a first instance of such an observation.

  12. Lineage and morphogenetic analysis of the cardiac valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Frederik J; Moorman, Antoon F M; Anderson, Robert H; Männer, Jörg; Soufan, Alexandre T; de Gier-de Vries, Corrie; Schneider, Michael D; Webb, Sandra; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Christoffels, Vincent M

    2004-09-17

    We used a genetic lineage-labeling system to establish the material contributions of the progeny of 3 specific cell types to the cardiac valves. Thus, we labeled irreversibly the myocardial (alphaMHC-Cre+), endocardial (Tie2-Cre+), and neural crest (Wnt1-Cre+) cells during development and assessed their eventual contribution to the definitive valvar complexes. The leaflets and tendinous cords of the mitral and tricuspid valves, the atrioventricular fibrous continuity, and the leaflets of the outflow tract valves were all found to be generated from mesenchyme derived from the endocardium, with no substantial contribution from cells of the myocardial and neural crest lineages. Analysis of chicken-quail chimeras revealed absence of any substantial contribution from proepicardially derived cells. Molecular and morphogenetic analysis revealed several new aspects of atrioventricular valvar formation. Marked similarities are seen during the formation of the mural leaflets of the mitral and tricuspid valves. These leaflets form by protrusion and growth of a sheet of atrioventricular myocardium into the ventricular lumen, with subsequent formation of valvar mesenchyme on its surface rather than by delamination of lateral cushions from the ventricular myocardial wall. The myocardial layer is subsequently removed by the process of apoptosis. In contrast, the aortic leaflet of the mitral valve, the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, and the atrioventricular fibrous continuity between these valves develop from the mesenchyme of the inferior and superior atrioventricular cushions. The tricuspid septal leaflet then delaminates from the muscular ventricular septum late in development. PMID:15297379

  13. The role of cardiac CT angiography in the pre- and postoperative evaluation of tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Banderker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is the first described and most common cyanotic congenital heart anomaly that generated the first successful surgical palliation procedure and definitive intracardiac repair. Classical TOF comprises the four typical features of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH, ventricular septal defect (VSD and aortic dextroposition. Complex forms of the condition include TOF associated with absent pulmonary valve and TOF with pulmonary atresia (TOF-PA with or without major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs. The pathophysiological understanding that the tetrad is basically the sequel of a singular abnormality of infundibular malformation, with anterior deviation of the infundibular septum, had major surgical consequences that improved survival. Diagnostic and functional imaging play a key role in the clinical and surgical management of patients with TOF. We revisit the role of traditionally employed imaging modalities (echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation only briefly as these remain within the domain of cardiology practice. The emphasis of the present review is to outline the role of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CTA in the evaluation of TOF, with special reference to the technical considerations and best practice recommendations. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is addressed only in passing, as this service is not currently available at our institution.

  14. Apical ballooning syndrome complicated by acute severe mitral regurgitation with left ventricular outflow obstruction – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celermajer David S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apical ballooning syndrome (or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome of transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Although first described in Japanese patients, it is now well reported in the Caucasian population. The syndrome mimicks an acute myocardial infarction but is characterised by the absence of obstructive coronary disease. We describe a serious and poorly understood complication of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Case Presentation We present the case of a 65 year-old lady referred to us from a rural hospital where she was treated with thrombolytic therapy for a presumed acute anterior myocardial infarction. Four hours after thrombolysis she developed acute pulmonary oedema and a new systolic murmur. It was presumed she had acute mitral regurgitation secondary to a ruptured papillary muscle, ischaemic dysfunction or an acute ventricular septal defect. Echocardiogram revealed severe mitral regurgitation, left ventricular apical ballooning, and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve with significant left ventricular outflow tract gradient (60–70 mmHg. Coronary angiography revealed no obstructive coronary lesions. She had an intra-aortic balloon pump inserted with no improvement in her parlous haemodynamic state. We elected to replace her mitral valve to correct the outflow tract gradient and mitral regurgitation. Intra-operatively the mitral valve was mildly myxomatous but there were no structural abnormalities. She had a mechanical mitral valve replacement with a 29 mm St Jude valve. Post-operatively, her left ventricular outflow obstruction resolved and ventricular function returned to normal over the subsequent 10 days. She recovered well. Conclusion This case represents a serious and poorly understood association of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with acute pulmonary oedema, severe mitral regurgitaton and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve with significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The

  15. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  17. Accretion and plasma outflow from dissipationless discs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogovalov, Sergei; Kelner, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    We consider an extreme case of disc accretion onto a gravitating centre when the viscosity in the disc is negligible. The angular momentum and the rotational energy of the accreted matter is carried out by a magnetized wind outflowing from the disc. The outflow of matter from the disc occurs due to the Blandford & Payne(1982) centrifugal mechanism. The disc is assumed to be cold. Accretion and outflow are connected by the conservation of the energy, mass and the angular momentum. The basic pr...

  18. AGN outflow feedback: Constraints from variability

    CERN Document Server

    Detmers, R G

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview on how variability can be used to constrain the location of the ionized outflow in nearby Active Galactic Nuclei using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Without these constraints on the location of the outflow, the kinetic luminosity and mass loss rate can not be determined. We focus on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which is arguably the best studied AGN on a timescale of 10 years. Our results show that frequent observations combined with long term monitoring, such as with the \\textit{Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)} satellite, are crucial to investigate the effects of these outflows on their surroundings.

  19. Metal enrichment of the CGM through outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Galactic outflows enrich the circumgalactic medium through the redistribution of metals from the disks of galaxies. We examine the history of this enrichment by analyzing the outflows of twenty high-resolution simulated galaxies spanning two and a half orders of magnitude in halo mass. These simulations match many observed trends, including the mass-metallicity relation. By tracking particles in the simulations, we follow the removal and reaccretion of metals between redshift 3.5 and 0. We also determine the enrichment of the outflowing gas compared to the local interstellar media. Finally we compare the redshift zero metal census to observed values.

  20. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jongwon; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2015-01-01

    van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na I lines at 8200 A found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted it as evidence for unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally-extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 A (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related with the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling sign of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, wh...

  1. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common kidney and urinary tract problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal ... congenital abnormalities (meaning abnormalities that exist at birth) is ...

  2. Cardiac Malpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  3. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  4. Disk-Driven Outflows in AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigl, A

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of spectral absorption features has led to the identification of several distinct outflow components in AGNs. The outflowing gas is evidently photoionized by the nuclear continuum source and originates in the accretion flow toward the central black hole. The most likely driving mechanisms are continuum and line radiation pressure and magnetic stresses. The theoretical modeling of these outflows involves such issues as: (1) Which of the above mechanisms actually contributes in each case? (2) How is the gas uplifted from the underlying accretion disk? (3) How can the intense central continuum radiation be shielded to allow efficient radiative driving? (4) Is the outflow continuous or clumpy, and, if clumpy, what is the nature and dynamical state of the ``clouds''? This review summarizes recent theoretical and observational results that bear on these questions and outlines prospects for further progress.

  5. Magnetosphere sawtooth oscillations induced by ionospheric outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambles, O J; Lotko, W; Zhang, B; Wiltberger, M; Lyon, J; Strangeway, R J

    2011-06-01

    The sawtooth mode of convection of Earth's magnetosphere is a 2- to 4-hour planetary-scale oscillation powered by the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere (SW-M-I) interaction. Using global simulations of geospace, we have shown that ionospheric O(+) outflows can generate sawtooth oscillations. As the outflowing ions fill the inner magnetosphere, their pressure distends the nightside magnetic field. When the outflow fluence exceeds a threshold, magnetic field tension cannot confine the accumulating fluid; an O(+)-rich plasmoid is ejected, and the field dipolarizes. Below the threshold, the magnetosphere undergoes quasi-steady convection. Repetition and the sawtooth period are controlled by the strength of the SW-M-I interaction, which regulates the outflow fluence. PMID:21636770

  6. Fast cold gas in hot AGN outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Tiago; Haehnelt, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the emission from spatially extended cold gas around bright high-redshift QSOs reveal surprisingly large velocity widths exceeding 2000 km s^(-1), out to projected distances as large as 30 kpc. The high velocity widths have been interpreted as the signature of powerful AGN-driven outflows. Naively, these findings appear in tension with hydrodynamic models in which AGN-driven outflows are energy-driven and thus very hot with typical temperatures T = 10^6-7 K. Using the moving-mesh code Arepo, we perform 'zoom-in' cosmological simulations of a z = 6 QSO and its environment, following black hole growth and feedback via energy-driven outflows. In the simulations, the QSO host galaxy is surrounded by a clumpy circum-galactic medium pre-enriched with metals due to supernovae-driven galactic outflows. As a result, part of the AGN-driven hot outflowing gas can cool radiatively, leading to large amounts (> 10^9 M_sun) of cold gas comoving with the hot bipolar outflow. This results in velocity widths of...

  7. Molecular Outflows From the Protocluster, Serpens South

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Higuchi, Aya E; Nishiyama, Shogo; Kawabe, Ryohei; Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L; Gutermuth, Robert A; Wilson, Grant

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of CO ($J=3-2$) and HCO$^+$ ($J=4-3$) mapping observations toward a nearby embedded cluster, Serpens South, using the ASTE 10 m telescope. Our CO ($J=3-2$) map reveals that many outflows are crowded in the dense cluster-forming clump that can be recognized as a HCO$^+$ clump with a size of $\\sim$ 0.2 pc and mass of $\\sim$ 80 M$_\\odot$. The clump contains several subfragments with sizes of $\\sim$ 0.05 pc. By comparing the CO ($J=3-2$) map with the 1.1 mm dust continuum image taken by AzTEC on ASTE, we find that the spatial extents of the outflow lobes are sometimes anti-correlated with the distribution of the dense gas and some of the outflow lobes apparently collide with the dense gas. The total outflow mass, momentum, and energy are estimated at 0.6 $M_\\odot$, 8 $M_\\odot$ km s$^{-1}$, and 64 $M_\\odot$ km$^2$ s$^{-2}$, respectively. The energy injection rate due to the outflows is comparable to the turbulence dissipation rate in the clump, implying that the protostellar outflows can mai...

  8. Theory of photospheric emission from relativistic outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2013-01-01

    (shortened) In this paper we reexamine the optical depth of ultrarelativistic spherically symmetric outflows and reevaluate the photospheric radius for each model during both the acceleration and coasting phases. It is shown that for both the wind and the shell models there are two asymptotic solutions for the optical depth during the coasting phase of the outflow. In particular we show that quite counterintuitively a geometrically thin shell may appear as a thick wind for photons propagating inside it. For this reason we introduce notions of photon thick and photon thin outflows, which appear more general and better physically motivated with respect to winds and shells. Photosphere of relativistic outflow is a dynamic surface. We study its geometry and find that the photosphere of photon thin outflow has always a convex shape, while in the photon thick one it is initially convex (there is always a photon thin layer in any outflow) and then it becomes concave asymptotically approaching the photosphere of an i...

  9. Quantifying Supernovae-Driven Multiphase Galactic Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Miao; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2016-01-01

    Galactic outflows are ubiquitously observed in star-forming disk galaxies and are critical for galaxy formation. Supernovae (SNe) play the key role in driving the outflows, but there is no consensus as to how much energy, mass and metal they can launch out of the disk. We perform 3D, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study SNe-driven outflows from stratified media. Assuming SN rate scales with gas surface density $\\Sigma_{\\rm{gas}}$ as in the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation, we find the mass loading factor, defined as the mass outflow flux divided by the star formation surface density, decreases with increasing $\\Sigma_{\\rm{gas}}$ as $\\propto \\Sigma^{-0.61}_{\\rm{gas}}$. Approximately $\\Sigma_{\\rm{gas}} \\lesssim$ 50 $M_\\odot/pc^2$ marks when the mass loading factor $\\gtrsim$1. About 10-50\\% of the energy and 40-80\\% of the metals produced by SNe end up in the outflows. The tenuous hot phase ($T>3\\times 10^5$ K) carries the majority of the energy and metals in outflows. We discuss how various physical...

  10. [Dynamic obstruction to left ventricular outflow during dobutamine stress echocardiography: the probable mechanisms and clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, S; Arcidiacono, S; Felis, S; Barbagallo, G; Deste, W; Drago, A; Calvi, V; Giuffrida, G

    1998-11-01

    We observed the development of left ventricular outflow tract dynamic obstruction in some patients during dobutamine stress echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible mechanisms and to consider the clinical implications. From 11/04/94 to 01/09/97 we studied 547 patients; 42 patients developed dynamic obstruction, defined as a late peak Doppler velocity profile that exceeded baseline outflow velocity by at least 1 m/s. The encountered mechanisms were: increased myocardial contractility; systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve; decreased venous return to the left ventricle, and peculiar characteristics of the left ventricular geometry. The results of this study show that the dynamic obstruction is mainly due to the first mechanism and secondarily to some characteristics of the left ventricular geometry. The hypotension observed in a few cases is not related to the dynamic obstruction but to beta 2 receptor hypersensibility to dobutamine. The symptoms, like dyspnea and chest pain, experienced by these patients are related to the dynamic obstruction rather than to the presence of coronary artery disease. In conclusion, we think that patients who develop dynamic obstruction, without wall motion abnormalities, during dobutamine stress echocardiography, may behave pathophysiologically as patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in whom diastolic dysfunction and outflow tract obstruction are responsible for symptoms. Therefore, these patients require a pharmacological treatment with beta blockers and/or non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. PMID:9922586

  11. A Robust Measurement of the Mass Outflow Rate of the Galactic Outflow from NGC 6090

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of stellar feedback, it is critical to estimate the mass outflow rates of galaxies. Past estimates have been plagued by uncertain assumptions about the outflow geometry, metallicity, and ionization fraction. Here we use Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the nearby starburst NGC 6090 to demonstrate that many of these quantities can be constrained by the data. We use the Si IV absorption lines to calculate the scaling of velocity (v), covering fraction (Cf), and density with distance from the starburst (r), assuming the Sobolev optical depth and a velocity law of the form: v~∝(1 - Ri/r)β (where Ri is the inner outflow radius). We find that the velocity (β=0.43) is consistent with an outflow driven by an r-2 force with the outflow radially accelerated, while the scaling of the covering fraction (Cf∝r-0.82) suggests that cool clouds in the outflow are in pressure equilibrium with an adiabatically expanding medium. We use the column densities of four weak metal lines and CLOUDY photoionization models to determine the outflow metallicity, the ionization correction, and the initial density of the outflow. Combining these values with the profile fitting, we find Ri = 63 pc, with most of the mass within 300 pc of the starburst. Finally, we find that the maximum mass outflow rate is 2.3 M⊙ yr-1 and the mass loading factor (outflow divided by the star formation rate) is 0.09, a factor of 10 lower than the value calculated using common assumptions for the geometry, metallicity and ionization structure of the outflow.

  12. NK4 antagonizes Tbx1/10 to promote cardiac versus pharyngeal muscle fate in the ascidian second heart field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart and head muscles share common developmental origins and genetic underpinnings in vertebrates, including humans. Parts of the heart and cranio-facial musculature derive from common mesodermal progenitors that express NKX2-5, ISL1, and TBX1. This ontogenetic kinship is dramatically reflected in the DiGeorge/Cardio-Velo-Facial syndrome (DGS/CVFS, where mutations of TBX1 cause malformations in the pharyngeal apparatus and cardiac outflow tract. Cardiac progenitors of the first heart field (FHF do not require TBX1 and segregate precociously from common progenitors of the second heart field (SHF and pharyngeal muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern heart versus pharyngeal muscle specification within this lineage remain elusive. Here, we harness the simplicity of the ascidian larva to show that, following asymmetric cell division of common progenitors, NK4/NKX2-5 promotes GATAa/GATA4/5/6 expression and cardiac specification in the second heart precursors by antagonizing Tbx1/10-mediated inhibition of GATAa and activation of Collier/Olf/EBF (COE, the determinant of atrial siphon muscle (ASM specification. Our results uncover essential regulatory connections between the conserved cardio-pharyngeal factor Tbx1/10 and muscle determinant COE, as well as a mutual antagonism between NK4 and Tbx1/10 activities upstream of GATAa and COE. The latter cross-antagonism underlies a fundamental heart versus pharyngeal muscle fate choice that occurs in a conserved lineage of cardio-pharyngeal progenitors. We propose that this basic ontogenetic motif underlies cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development and evolution in chordates.

  13. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  14. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack or other heart problem. You might consider cardiac rehab if you have had: Heart attack Coronary heart disease (CHD) Heart failure Angina (chest pain) Heart or heart valve surgery Heart transplant Procedures such as angioplasty and stenting In some ...

  15. Pressurized groundwater outflow experiments and numerical modeling for outflow channels on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Hauber, Ernst; McLelland, Stuart J.; Murphy, Brendan J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Conway, Susan J.; Roda, Manuel; Govers, Rob; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of Mars shows incised channels that often appear abruptly in the landscape, suggesting a groundwater source. However, groundwater outflow processes are unable to explain the reconstructed peak discharges of the largest outflow channels based on their morphology. Therefore, there is a d

  16. Protostellar Outflows and Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars. II. Feedback, Star Formation Efficiency, and Outflow Broadening

    CERN Document Server

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional axially symmetric radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to assess the impact of outflows and radiative force feedback from massive protostars by varying when the protostellar outflow starts, the ratio of ejection to accretion rates, and the strength of the wide angle disk wind component. The star formation efficiency, i.e. the ratio of final stellar mass to initial core mass, is dominated by radiative forces and the ratio of outflow to accretion rates. Increasing this ratio has three effects: First, the protostar grows slower with a lower luminosity at any given time, lowering radiative feedback. Second, bipolar cavities cleared by the outflow are larger, further diminishing radiative feedback on disk and core scales. Third, the higher momentum outflow sweeps up more material from the collapsing envelope, decreasing the protostar's potential mass reservoir via entrainment. The star formation efficiency varies with the ratio of ejection to accretion rates from 50% in the case of very we...

  17. Urinary Tract Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, V. Allen

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the current imaging investigations usually required in the work-up of common urinary tract problems such as urinary tract infection, colic, trauma, hematuria and renal failure. Radiological therapeutic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy for drainage of obstructed systems and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of renal calculi are briefly mentioned. The virtual elimination of percutaneous or open surgery for renal and upper urinary tract stones, resulting ...

  18. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  19. Evolution of Mass Outflow in Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Dan M; Fischer, William J; Forrest, W J; Manoj, P; Megeath, S Thomas; Melnick, Gary J; Najita, Joan; Neufeld, David A; Sheehan, Patrick D; Stutz, Amelia M; Tobin, John J

    2015-01-01

    We have surveyed 84 Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum protostars in mid-infrared [Si II], [Fe II] and [S I] line emission, and 11 of these in far-infrared [O I] emission. We use the results to derive their mass outflow rates. Thereby we observe a strong correlation of mass outflow rates with bolometric luminosity, and with the inferred mass accretion rates of the central objects, which continues through the Class 0 range the trend observed in Class II young stellar objects. Along this trend from large to small mass-flow rates, the different classes of young stellar objects lie in the sequence Class 0 -- Class I/flat-spectrum -- Class II, indicating that the trend is an evolutionary sequence in which mass outflow and accretion rates decrease together with increasing age, while maintaining rough proportionality. The survey results include two which are key tests of magnetocentrifugal outflow-acceleration mechanisms: the distribution of the outflow/accretion branching ratio b, and limits on the distribution of...

  20. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, Teresita; Peiris, Hiranya V; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circumgalactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disk can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at $\\mathrm{\\sim1\\;kpc}$ above disk, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on $\\mathrm{\\sim 100\\;kpc}$ scales. To do this we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the 'burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in th...

  1. Interventional management of hepatic venous outflow obstruction after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the technique and efficacy of interventional management for the treatment of hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVO) after liver transplantation. Methods: The clinical data of 5 patients with HVO developed after liver transplantation, including split (n=2) and living donor (n =3) liver transplantation, were retrospectively analyzed. Stent placement was performed in 4 cases and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in one case. The technical points of interventional management were discussed. Results: Interventional management was performed via the percutaneous hepatic vein approach in 3 patients and via the right internal jugular venous access in 2 patients. Judged from hepatic venography, the location of HVO was at the anastomotic stoma of left- or right-hepatic vein with inferior vena cava (n=3 ) or at the anastomotic stoma of middle hepatic vein with right hepatic vein (n=2). Interventional technical success was achieved in all 5 patients. After the procedure, the venous pressure gradient, i.e. the blood pressure difference between the hepatic artery and the right atrium, was significantly reduced from (15.4 ± 5.6)mmHg to(1.9 ±1.2) mmHg. During the follow-up period of 9-482 days, no restenosis was found on Doppler sonographic manifestations. The liver enzyme and/or bilirubin which were markedly elevated before procedure returned to normal after the procedure in 4 patients except one patient who died of multiple-organs failure at the 9th day after the treatment. In two patients with large quantity of ascites and upper digestive tract bleeding, the ascites receded and the bleeding stopped after the procedure. Conclusion: Hepatic venous outflow obstruction is a rare, but potentially fatal, complication after liver transplantation and interventional management with stent placement or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is an effective and safe treatment for it. (authors)

  2. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  3. Observations of Protostellar Outflow Feedback in Clustered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role of protostellar outflow feedback in clustered star formation using the observational data of recent molecular outflow surveys toward nearby cluster-forming clumps. We found that for almost all clumps, the outflow momentum injection rate is significantly larger than the turbulence dissipation rate. Therefore, the outflow feedback is likely to maintain supersonic turbulence in the clumps. For less massive clumps such as B59, L1551, and L1641N, the outflow kinetic energy is comparable to the clump gravitational energy. In such clumps, the outflow feedback probably affects significantly the clump dynamics. On the other hand, for clumps with masses larger than about 200 M$_\\odot$, the outflow kinetic energy is significantly smaller than the clump gravitational energy. Since the majority of stars form in such clumps, we conclude that outflow feedback cannot destroy the whole parent clump. These characteristics of the outflow feedback support the scenario of slow star formation.

  4. Analysis of risk factors for sudden cardiac death%心源性猝死危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自云

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨和分析心源性猝的危险因素。方法收集和整理在我院2012年04月-2013年10月诊治时发生心源性猝死的心肌患者64例为研究对象,对上述收集对象的临床资料进行整理和分析。结果本组单因素分析显示自发性持续室速、心室颤动(心脏骤停)、晕阙、左室流出道梗阻、非持续性室速等因素为心肌疾病患者发生心源性猝死的危险因素;多因素Logistic分析发现自发性持续性室速、心室颤动、晕阙以及猝死家族史是发生心源性猝死的重要危险因素。结论心肌疾病患者发生心源性猝死的为危险因素呈现综合化、多样化,临床治疗中应给予针对性的预防或治疗,这对降低心肌疾病患者心源性猝死率有着积极的意义。%Objective To investigate and analyze the risk factors for sudden cardiac death. Methods Sixty-four patients with cardiomyopathy who suffered sudden cardiac death in our hospital from April 2012 to October 2013 were collected as subjects, and their clinical data were sorted and analyzed. Results The univariate analysis showed that the risk factors for sudden cardiac death in patients with cardiomyopathy included spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation (sudden cardiac arrest), syncope, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. The multivariate logistic analysis showed that spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, syncope, and a family history of sudden death were important risk factors for sudden cardiac death. Conclusion The risk factors for sudden cardiac death in patients with cardiomyopathy are complicated and diverse, and specific prevention or treatment should be adopted in clinical treatment, which is of great significance for reducing the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with cardiomyopathy.

  5. Magnetospheric outflows in young stellar objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanni Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different classes of outflows are associated with the magnetospheric activity of accreting T Tauri protostars. Stellar winds are accelerated along the open field lines anchored in the stellar surface; disk winds (extended or X-type can be launched along the open magnetic surfaces threading the accretion disk; another type of ejection can arise from the region of interaction of the closed magnetosphere with the accretion disk (magnetospheric ejections, conical winds, where the magnetic surfaces undergo quasiperiodic episodes of inflation and reconnection. In this chapter I will present the main dynamical properties of these different types of outflow. Two main issues will be addressed. First, I will try to understand if these ejection phenomena can account for the origin of the jets often observed in young forming stellar systems. Second, I will evaluate the impact of these outflows on the angular momentum evolution of the central protostar.

  6. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  7. Episodic High Velocity Outflows from V899 Mon: A Constraint On The Outflow Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ninan, J P; Philip, N S

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of large variations in the outflow wind velocity from a young eruptive star, V899 Mon during its ongoing high accretion outburst phase. Such large variations in the outflow velocity (from -722 km s$^{-1}$ to -425 km s$^{-1}$) have never been reported previously in this family of objects. Our continuous monitoring of this source shows that the multi-component, clumpy, and episodic high velocity outflows are stable in the time scale of a few days, and vary over the time scale of a few weeks to months. We detect significant decoupling in the instantaneous outflow strength to accretion rate. From the comparison of various possible outflow mechanisms in magnetospheric accretion of young stellar objects, we conclude magnetically driven polar winds to be the most consistent mechanism for the outflows seen in V899 Mon. The large scale fluctuations in outflow over the short period makes V899 Mon the most ideal source to constrain various magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of magnetospheric ...

  8. Episodic High-velocity Outflows from V899 Mon: A Constraint On The Outflow Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Philip, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the detection of large variations in the outflow wind velocity from a young eruptive star, V899 Mon, during its ongoing high accretion outburst phase. Such large variations in the outflow velocity (from ‑722 to ‑425 km s‑1) have never been reported previously in this family of objects. Our continuous monitoring of this source shows that the multi-component, clumpy, and episodic high velocity outflows are stable in the timescale of a few days, and vary over the timescale of a few weeks to months. We detect significant decoupling in the instantaneous outflow strength to accretion rate. From the comparison of various possible outflow mechanisms in magnetospheric accretion of young stellar objects, we conclude magnetically driven polar winds to be the most consistent mechanism for the outflows seen in V899 Mon. The large scale fluctuations in outflow over the short period makes V899 Mon the most ideal source to constrain various magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetospheric accretion. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  11. Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  12. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  13. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  14. Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A

    2008-04-11

    The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.

  15. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Romanova, M M

    2016-01-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars...

  16. Propeller-driven Outflows and Disk Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanova, M M; Koldoba, A V; Lovelace, R V E

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of propeller-driven outflows in axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations of disk accretion to rapidly rotating magnetized stars. Matter outflows in a wide cone and is centrifugally ejected from the inner regions of the disk. Closer to the axis there is a strong, collimated, magnetically dominated outflow of energy and angular momentum carried by the open magnetic field lines from the star. The ``efficiency'' of the propeller may be very high in the respect that most of the incoming disk matter is expelled from the system in winds. The star spins-down rapidly due to the magnetic interaction with the disk through closed field lines and with corona through open field lines. Diffusive and viscous interaction between magnetosphere and the disk are important: no outflows were observed for very small values of the diffusivity and viscosity. These simulation results are applicable to the early stages of evolution of classical T Tauri stars and to different stages of evolution of cataclysmi...

  17. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  18. Pacemaker optimization guided by echocardiography in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT or biventricular pacing is a contemporary treatment in the management of advanced heart failure. Echocardiography plays an evolving and important role in patient selection for CRT, follow-up of acute and chronic CRT effects and optimization of device settings after biventricular pacemaker implantation. In this paper we illustrate usefulness of echocardiography for successful AV and VV timing optimization in patients with CRT. A review of up-to-date literature concerning rationale for AV and VV delay optimization, echocardiographic protocols and current recommendations for AV and VV optimization after CRT are also presented. Outline of Cases. The first case is of successful AV delay optimization guided by echocardiography in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy treated with CRT is presented. Pulsed blood flow Doppler was used to detect mitral inflow while programming different duration of AV delay. The AV delay with optimal transmittal flow was established. The optimal mitral flow was the one with clearly defined E and A waves and maximal velocity time integral (VTI of the mitral flow. Improvement in clinical status and reverse left ventricle remodelling with improvement of ejection fraction was registered in our patient after a month. The second case presents a patient with heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy; six months after CRT implantation the patient was still NYHA class III and with a significantly depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Optimization of VV interval guided by echocardiography was undertaken measuring VTI of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT during programming of different VV intervals. The optimal VV interval was determined using a maximal LVOT VTI. A month after VV optimization our patient showed improvement in LV ejection fraction. Conclusion. Optimal management of patients treated with CRT integrate both clinical and echocardiographic follow

  19. [Cardiac amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Caroline; Angermann, Christiane E; Knop, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan

    2008-03-15

    Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders, which are characterized by an extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Typically affected are the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. More than half of the patients die due to cardiac involvement. Clinical signs of cardiac amyloidosis are edema of the lower limbs, hepatomegaly, ascites and elevated jugular vein pressure, frequently in combination with dyspnea. There can also be chest pain, probably due to microvessel disease. Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system or arrhythmias may cause low blood pressure, dizziness, or recurrent syncope. The AL amyloidosis caused by the deposition of immunoglobulin light chains is the most common form. It can be performed by monoclonal gammopathy. The desirable treatment therapy consists of high-dose melphalan therapy twice followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Due to the high peritransplantation mortality, selection of appropriate patients is mandatory. The ATTR amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the amyloidogenic form of transthyretin, a plasmaprotein that is synthesized in the liver. Therefore, liver transplantation is the only curative therapy. The symptomatic treatment of cardiac amyloidosis is based on the current guidelines for chronic heart failure according to the patient's New York Heart Association (NYHA) state. Further types of amyloidosis with possible cardiac involvement comprise the senile systemic amyloidosis caused by the wild-type transthyretin, secondary amyloidosis after chronic systemic inflammation, and the beta(2)-microglobulin amyloidosis after long-term dialysis treatment. PMID:18344065

  20. Anatomy of the Vestibulo-automatic Outflow to the Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness can be induced by vestibular effects on the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system. However, the pathways linking the vestibular and autonomic pathways are unknown. As a first step in this analysis, the locations of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSN) and dorsal root afferent ganglionic neurons (DRG) which supply sympathetic innervation to major portions of the gastrointestinal tract in rabbits were identified. The objective of a second series of experiments is to determine which of the brainstem nuclei project to the autonomic regions of the spinal cord that control gastrointestinal motility. To achieve this goal, a trans-synaptic retrograde tracer (3H-tetanus toxoid) is applied to the greater splanchnic nerve. This method allows the labeling of neurons within the brainstem that project only to the preganglionic synpathetic neurons. One structure that has been strongly implicated in mediating vestibulo-autonomic control is the cerebellum (i.e., nodulus and uvula). The outflow of these lobules to the autonomic regions of the brainstem is mediated by the fastigial nucleus. To determine the precise projections of the fastigial nucleus to the brainstem nuclei involved in emesis, anterograde tracer (3H-leucine) was injected into the fastigial nucleus in a third series of experiments.

  1. Cardiac output determined by echocardiography in patients with cirrhosis: comparison with the indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik B; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    technique (CO(I)). METHODS: Twelve patients with cirrhosis were studied. CO(d) was measured as the spatial mean velocity of the left ventricular outflow tract, multiplied by the cross-sectional area and the heart rate. CO(I) was determined by the standard indicator dilution technique after injection of 125I...... albumin and 99mTc albumin into the right atrium and subsequent sampling from the femoral artery. RESULTS: The mean CO(d) and CO(I) were similar (7.20 vs 7.15 l/min, NS). A highly significant correlation was present between CO(d) and CO(I) (r = 0.86, P ..., the mean squared difference between CO(d) and CO(I) was 2.3 (l/min)2. A Bland-Altman plot revealed no trend with the level of cardiac output. The standard deviation (0.79 vs 0.30 l/min, P coefficient of variation (10.5 vs 4.2%, P

  2. Clinical Assessment of Intraventricular Blood Transport in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Benito, Y.; Perez Del Villar, C.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Barrio, A.; Yotti, R.; Kahn, A. M.; Shadden, S. C.; Fernandez-Aviles, F.; Bermejo, J.; Del Alamo, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    In the healthy heart, left ventricular (LV) filling generates flow patterns which have been proposed to optimize blood transport by coupling diastole and systole phases. We present a novel image-based method to assess how flow patterns influence LV blood transport in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Solving the advection equation with time-varying inflow boundary conditions allows to track the transport of blood entering the LV in the different filling waves, as well as the transport barriers which couple filling and ejection. The velocity fields were obtained using echocardiographic color Doppler velocimetry, which provides two-dimensional time-resolved flow maps in the apical long axis three-chamber view of the LV. We analyze flow transport in a group of patients with CRT devices as well as in healthy volunteers. In the patients under CRT, the device programming was varied to analyze flow transport under different values of the atrioventricular (AV) conduction delay and to model tachycardia. This analysis illustrates how CRT influences the transit of blood inside the LV, contributes to conserving kinetic energy and favors the generation of hemodynamic forces that accelerate blood in the direction of the LV outflow tract.

  3. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. After the initial radial infall an accretion disk develops. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius by the stellar magnetic field. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. Hα, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many (if not all) accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. However, the exact driving mechanism is still unclear. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner disk rim, and thermally driven stellar winds. In any case, the outflows contain material of very different temperatures and speeds. The disk wind is cool and can have a molecular component with just a few tens of km s-1, while the central component of the outflow can reach a few 100 km s-1. In some cases the inner part of the outflow is collimated to a small-angle jet. These jets have an onion-like structure, where the inner components are consecutively hotter and faster. The jets can contain working surfaces, which show up as Herbig-Haro knots. Accretion and outflows in the CTTS phase do not only determine stellar parameters like the rotation rate on the main-sequence, they also can have a profound impact on the environment of young stars. This review concentrates on CTTS in near-by star forming regions where

  4. Acute Urinary Tract Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksic Djordje

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are paired organs with the primary function of helping to remove toxins from the body and regulate water balance. They are vital to survival. After urine is produced in the kidneys, it must pass into the bladder, where it can be stored before being eliminated from the body through the urethra. Urinary tract obstruction is a common problem encountered by urologists, primary care physicians, and emergency medicine physicians. Urine can become obstructed at any point in this pathway. There are three groups of urinary tract obstructions: 1 obstruction of the urinary tract lumen; 2 obstruction of the urinary tract wall; and 3 extrinsic obstruction, which can press on the urinary tract lumen. An obstruction can be present from birth or develop later in life. The most common causes of obstruction include stones, strictures, tumours, and bladder dysfunction. These obstructions may result in the hydronephrosis of one or both kidneys, which, if left untreated, may lead to the deterioration of renal function. The goal of an initial treatment of urinary tract obstruction is to remove the obstruction. Later, we treat the cause that led to the obstruction. The bottom line is that all efforts should be made to preserve kidney function to avoid the need for dialysis or renal transplantation.

  5. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011229 Combined detection of markers in the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. CHE Miaolin (车妙琳) ,et al. Renal Division,Renji Hosp,Med Sch,Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200127.

  6. Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chlumský, Jaromír; Holá, Dana; Hlaváček, Karel; Michal, Michal; Švec, Alexander; Špatenka, Jaroslav; Dušek, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm and is difficult to diagnose. The case of a 51-year-old man with a left atrial tumour, locally recurrent three months after its surgical removal, is presented. Computed tomography showed metastatic spread to the lung parenchyma. On revised histology, the mass extirpated was a sarcoma. Because of the metastatic spread, further therapy was symptomatic only; the patient died 15 months after the first manifestation of his problems. Immunohistochemical stain...

  7. Cluster Magnetic Fields from Galactic Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Donnert, J; Lesch, H; Müller, E

    2008-01-01

    We performed cosmological, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, exploring the possibility that the origin of the magnetic seed fields are galactic outflows during the star-burst phase of galactic evolution. To do this we coupled a semi-analytical model for magnetized galactic winds as suggested by Bertone et.al. (2006) to our cosmological simulation. We find that the strength and structure of magnetic fields observed in galaxy clusters are well reproduced for a wide range of model parameters for the magnetized, galactic winds and do only weakly depend on the exact magnetic structure within the assumed galactic outflows. Although the evolution of a primordial magnetic seed field shows no significant differences to that of galaxy clusters fields from previous studies, we find that the magnetic field pollution in the diffuse medium within filaments is below the level predicted by scenarios with pure primordial magnetic seed field. We therefore conclude...

  8. Influence of Mediterranean Outflow on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    A cover article in Eos last year [Johnson, 1997] called for a dam across the Strait of Gibraltar to prevent a new Ice Age. In this article, R. G. Johnson argued that reduced Nile River flow after building the Aswan Dam increases Mediterranean Sea salinity, leading to enhanced outflow of salty water into the Atlantic Ocean. This, in turn, would alter the thermohaline (that is, temperature and salinity driven) circulation of the Atlantic, heat up the Labrador Sea and enhance evaporation there, and increase snowfall in Canada until a new ice sheet builds up. Ocean circulation model experiments, however, suggest that this fear is unfounded. While Mediterranean saltwater outflow (Figure 1a) does appear to have some effect on North Atlantic circulation and surface climate, the change in Mediterranean salt budget resulting from the Aswan Dam is far too small to have any noticeable impact.

  9. Protostellar outflows with Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD)

    CERN Document Server

    Bürzle, Florian; Stasyszyn, Federico; Dolag, Klaus; Klessen, Ralf S

    2011-01-01

    The protostellar collapse of a molecular cloud core is usually accompanied by outflow phenomena. The latter are thought to be driven by magnetorotational processes from the central parts of the protostellar disc. While several 3D AMR/nested grid studies of outflow phenomena in collapsing magnetically supercritical dense cores have been reported in the literature, so far no such simulation has been performed using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. This is mainly due to intrinsic numerical difficulties in handling magnetohydrodynamics within SPH, which only recently were partly resolved. In this work, we use an approach where we evolve the magnetic field via the induction equation, augmented with stability correction and divergence cleaning schemes. We consider the collapse of a rotating core of one solar mass, threaded by a weak magnetic field initially parallel to the rotation axis so that the core is magnetically supercritical. We show, that Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) is a...

  10. Hepatic venous outflow obstruction: Three similar syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulas Darda Bayraktar; Soley Seren; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a detailed review of venoocclusive disease (VOD), Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS),and congestive hepatopathy (CH), all of which results in hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This is the first article in which all three syndromes have been reviewed,enabling the reader to compare the characteristics of these disorders. The histological findings in VOD, BCS,and CH are almost identical: sinusoidal congestion and cell necrosis mostly in perivenular areas of hepatic acini which eventually leads to bridging fibrosis between adjacent central veins. Tender hepatomegaly with jaundice and ascites is common to all three conditions.However, the clinical presentation depends mostly on the extent and rapidity of the outflow obstruction.Although the etiology and treatment are completely different in VOD, BCS, and CH; the similarities in clinical manifestations and liver histology may suggest a common mechanism of hepatic injury and adaptation in response to increased sinusoidal pressure.

  11. Extracellular Matrix Turnover and Outflow Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Kate E Keller; Mini, Aga; Bradley, John M.; Kelley, Mary J.; Acott, Ted S.

    2008-01-01

    Normal homeostatic adjustment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) involves remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM). This entails sensing elevated IOP, releasing numerous activated proteinases to degrade existing ECM and concurrent biosynthesis of replacement ECM components. To increase or decrease IOP, the quantity, physical properties and/or organization of new components should be somewhat different from those replaced in order to modify outflow resistan...

  12. In situ cardiac perfusion reveals interspecific variation of intraventricular flow separation in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Axelsson, Michael; Altimiras, Jordi; Wang, Tobias

    2016-07-15

    The ventricles of non-crocodilian reptiles are incompletely divided and provide an opportunity for mixing of oxygen-poor blood and oxygen-rich blood (intracardiac shunting). However, both cardiac morphology and in vivo shunting patterns exhibit considerable interspecific variation within reptiles. In the present study, we develop an in situ double-perfused heart approach to characterise the propensity and capacity for shunting in five reptile species: the turtle Trachemys scripta, the rock python Python sebae, the yellow anaconda Eunectes notaeus, the varanid lizard Varanus exanthematicus and the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps To simulate changes in vascular bed resistance, pulmonary and systemic afterloads were independently manipulated and changes in blood flow distribution amongst the central outflow tracts were monitored. As previously demonstrated in Burmese pythons, rock pythons and varanid lizards exhibited pronounced intraventricular flow separation. As pulmonary or systemic afterload was raised, flow in the respective circulation decreased. However, flow in the other circulation, where afterload was constant, remained stable. This correlates with the convergent evolution of intraventricular pressure separation and the large intraventricular muscular ridge, which compartmentalises the ventricle, in these species. Conversely, in the three other species, the pulmonary and systemic flows were strongly mutually dependent, such that the decrease in pulmonary flow in response to elevated pulmonary afterload resulted in redistribution of perfusate to the systemic circuit (and vice versa). Thus, in these species, the muscular ridge appeared labile and blood could readily transverse the intraventricular cava. We conclude that relatively minor structural differences between non-crocodilian reptiles result in the fundamental changes in cardiac function. Further, our study emphasises that functionally similar intracardiac flow separation evolved independently in

  13. In situ cardiac perfusion reveals interspecific variation of intraventricular flow separation in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Axelsson, Michael; Altimiras, Jordi; Wang, Tobias

    2016-07-15

    The ventricles of non-crocodilian reptiles are incompletely divided and provide an opportunity for mixing of oxygen-poor blood and oxygen-rich blood (intracardiac shunting). However, both cardiac morphology and in vivo shunting patterns exhibit considerable interspecific variation within reptiles. In the present study, we develop an in situ double-perfused heart approach to characterise the propensity and capacity for shunting in five reptile species: the turtle Trachemys scripta, the rock python Python sebae, the yellow anaconda Eunectes notaeus, the varanid lizard Varanus exanthematicus and the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps To simulate changes in vascular bed resistance, pulmonary and systemic afterloads were independently manipulated and changes in blood flow distribution amongst the central outflow tracts were monitored. As previously demonstrated in Burmese pythons, rock pythons and varanid lizards exhibited pronounced intraventricular flow separation. As pulmonary or systemic afterload was raised, flow in the respective circulation decreased. However, flow in the other circulation, where afterload was constant, remained stable. This correlates with the convergent evolution of intraventricular pressure separation and the large intraventricular muscular ridge, which compartmentalises the ventricle, in these species. Conversely, in the three other species, the pulmonary and systemic flows were strongly mutually dependent, such that the decrease in pulmonary flow in response to elevated pulmonary afterload resulted in redistribution of perfusate to the systemic circuit (and vice versa). Thus, in these species, the muscular ridge appeared labile and blood could readily transverse the intraventricular cava. We conclude that relatively minor structural differences between non-crocodilian reptiles result in the fundamental changes in cardiac function. Further, our study emphasises that functionally similar intracardiac flow separation evolved independently in

  14. In vivo mechanical study of helical cardiac pacing electrode interacting with canine myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangming Zhang; Nianke Ma; Hualin Fan; Guodong Niu; Wei Yang

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac pacing is a medical device to help human to overcome arrhythmia and to recover the regular beats of heart. A helical configuration of electrode tip is a new type of cardiac pacing lead distal tip. The helical electrode attaches itself to the desired site of heart by screwing its helical tip into the myocardium. In vivo experiments on anesthetized dogs were carried out to measure the acute interactions between helical electrode and myocardium during screw-in and pull-out processes. These data would be helpful for electrode tip design and electrode/myocardium adherence safety evaluation. They also provide reliability data for clinical site choice of human heart to implant and to fix the pacing lead.A special design of the helical tip using strain gauges is instrumented for the measurement of the screw-in and pull-out forces. We obtained the data of screw-in torques and pull-out forces for five different types of helical electrodes at nine designed sites on ten canine hearts. The results indicate that the screw-in torques increased steplike while the torque-time curves presente saw-tooth fashion. The maximum torque has a range of 0.3-1.9N mm. Obvious differences are observed for different types of helical tips and for different test sites.Large pull-out forces are frequently obtained at epicardium of left ventricle and right ventricle lateral wall, and the forces obtained at right ventricle apex and outflow tract of right ventricle are normally small. The differences in pull-out forces are dictated by the geometrical configuration of helix and regional structures of heart muscle.

  15. Magnotospheric imaging of high latitude ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Garrido

    Full Text Available High latitude ion outflows mostly consist of upward streaming O+ and He+ emanating from the ionosphere. At heights above 1000 km, these flows consist of cold and hot components which resonantly scatter solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV light, however, the ion populations respond differently to Doppler shifting resulting from the large relative velocities between the ions and the Sun. The possibility of optical detection of the Doppler effect on the scattering rate will be discussed for the O+ (83.4 nm ions. We have contrasted the EUV solar resonance images of these outflows by simulations of the 30.4 nm He+ and 83.4 nm O+ emissions for both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Input data for the 1000 km level has been obtained from the EICS instrument aboard the Dynamics Explorer satellite. Our results show emission rates of 50 and 56 milli-Rayleighs at 30.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions and 65 and 75 milli-Rayleighs at 83.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions, respectively, obtained for a polar orbiting satellite and viewing radially outward. We also find that an imager at an equatorial distance of 9 RE or more is in a favourable position for detecting ion outflows, particularly when the plasmapause is depressed in latitude. However, an occultation disk is necessary to obscure the bright plasmaspheric emissions.

  16. DLA kinematics and outflows from starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Razoumov, Alexei O

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a numerical study of the multiphase interstellar medium in sub-Lyman-break galaxy protogalactic clumps. Such clumps are abundant at z=3 and are thought to be a major contributor to damped Ly-alpha absorption. We model the formation of winds from these clumps and show that during star formation episodes they feature outflows with neutral gas velocity widths up to several hundred km/s. Such outflows are consistent with the observed high-velocity dispersion in DLAs. In our models thermal energy feedback from winds and supernovae results in efficient outflows only when cold (~ 300 K), dense (> 100 msun/pc^3) clouds are resolved at grid resolution of 12 pc. At lower 24 pc resolution the first signs of the multiphase medium are spotted; however, at this low resolution thermal injection of feedback energy cannot yet create hot expanding bubbles around star-forming regions -- instead feedback tends to erase high-density peaks and suppress star formation. At 12 pc resolution feedback compresses...

  17. A Robust Measurement of the Mass Outflow Rate of the Galactic Outflow from NGC 6090

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, John; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of stellar feedback, it is critical to estimate the mass outflow rates of galaxies. Past estimates have been plagued by uncertain assumptions about the outflow geometry, metallicity, and ionization fraction. Here we use Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the nearby starburst NGC 6090 to demonstrate that many of these quantities can be constrained by the data. We use the Si~{\\sc IV} absorption lines to calculate the scaling of velocity (v), covering fraction (C$_f$), and density with distance from the starburst (r), assuming the Sobolev optical depth and a velocity law of the form: $v \\propto(1 -R_i/r )^\\beta$ (were R$_i$ is the inner outflow radius). We find that the velocity ($\\beta$=0.43) is consistent with an outflow driven by an r$^{-2}$ force, while the scaling of the covering fraction ($C_f \\propto r^{-0.82}$) suggests that cool clouds in the outflow are in pressure equilibrium with an adiabatically expanding medium. We use the column densities of fou...

  18. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  19. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity-velocity dispersion distribution of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ˜500 to ˜1000 km s-1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ˜1500-2000 km s-1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  20. Regression of outflow tract obstruction subsequent to treatment with verapamil in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, F; Mickley, H

    1990-01-01

    A 29-year-old man suffering from hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was treated with verapamil 240 mg daily for 4.5 years. During this period the symptoms were reduced, and an intraventricular gradient diminished from 80 to 20 mm Hg, possibly due to a decrease in left ventricular ejection...

  1. Exercise-Induced Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia in a Patient with Isolated Left Ventricular Noncompaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Eren; Erkan İlhan; Ahmet Taha Alper; Tolga Sinan Güvenç

    2011-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction is a hereditary cardiomyopathy in which a variety of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias could be observed. We report a patient with exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia with left bundle branch block morphology that had characteristics of an idiopathic ventricular tachycardia who was subsequently diagnosed as left ventricular noncompaction. Successful remission of arrhythmia was ensured after the introduction of oral beta-blocker therapy.

  2. Induced apnea enhances image quality and visualization of cardiopulmonary anatomic during contrastenhanced cardiac computerized tomographic angiography in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of induced apnea on quality of cardiopulmonary structures during computerized tomographic (CT angiography images in children with congenital heart diseases. Methods: Pediatric patients with congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac CT angiography at our facility in the past 3 years participated in this study. The earlier patients underwent cardiac CT angiography without induced apnea and while, later, apnea was induced in patients, which was followed by electrocardiogram gated cardiac CT angiography. General anesthesia was induced using sleep dose of intravenous propofol. After the initial check CT, on request by the radiologist, apnea was induced by the anesthesiologist by administering 1 mg/kg of intravenous suxamethonium. Soon after apnea ensued, the contrast was injected, and CT angiogram carried out. CT images in the "apnea group" were compared with those in "nonapnea group." After the completion of the procedure, the patients were mask ventilated with 100% oxygen till the spontaneous ventilation was restored. Results: We studied 46 patients, of whom 36 with apnea and yet another 10 without. The quality of the image, visualization of structures such as cardiac wall, outflow tracts, lung field, aortopulmonary shunts, and coronary arteries were analyzed and subjected to statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U, Fischer′s exact test and Pearson′s Chi-square test. In the induced apnea group, overall image quality was considered excellent in 89% (n = 33 of the studies, while in the "no apnea group," only 30% of studies were excellent. Absent or minimal motion artifacts were seen in a majority of the studies in apnea group (94%. In the nonapnea group, the respiratory and body motion artifacts were severe in 50%, moderate in 30%, and minimal in 20%, but they were significantly lesser in the apnea group. All the studied parameters were statistically significant in the apnea group in

  3. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  4. A resolved outflow of matter from a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Natta, A; Testi, L; Randich, S; Whelan, Emma T.; Ray, Thomas P.; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-01-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs amongst newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  5. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  6. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiawei

    2016-01-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of $\\sim10^{-7}\\,\\rm GeV\\,cm^{-2}\\,s^{-1}\\,sr^{-1}$ at neutrino energies $E_{\

  7. Discovery of Relativistic Outflow in the Seyfert Galaxy Ark 564

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A; Mathur, S; Krongold, Y.; F. Nicastro

    2013-01-01

    We present \\chandra high energy transmission grating spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies \\citep{Gupta2013}. There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here we present identifications of the strongest lines as $K\\alpha$ transitions of \\oviin (two lines) and \\ovin at outflow ve...

  8. Suppression of galactic outflows by cosmological infall and circumgalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Rana, Sandeep; Bagla, Jasjeet S.; Nath, Biman B.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the relative importance of two galactic outflow suppression mechanisms: (a) cosmological infall of the intergalactic gas on to the galaxy, and (b) the existence of a hot circumgalactic medium (CGM). Considering only radial motion, the infall reduces the speed of outflowing gas and even halts the outflow, depending on the mass and redshift of the galaxy. For star-forming galaxies, there exists an upper mass limit beyond which outflows are suppressed by the gravitational field of the galaxy. We find that infall can reduce this upper mass limit approximately by a factor of 2 (independent of the redshift). Massive galaxies (≳1012 M⊙) host large reservoir of hot, diffuse CGM around the central part of the galaxy. The CGM acts as a barrier between the infalling and outflowing gas and provides an additional source of outflow suppression. We find that at low redshifts (z ≲ 3.5), the CGM is more effective than the infall in suppressing the outflows. Together, these two processes give a mass range in which galaxies are unable to have effective outflows. We also discuss the impact of outflow suppression on the enrichment history of the galaxy and its environment.

  9. DISCOVERY OF RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT GALAXY Ark 564

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S. [Astronomy Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Krongold, Y. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Nicastro, F., E-mail: agupta@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We present Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low-velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies. There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here, we present identifications of the strongest lines as K{alpha} transitions of O VII (two lines) and O VI at outflow velocities of {approx}0.1c. These lines are detected at 6.9{sigma}, 6.2{sigma}, and 4.7{sigma}, respectively, and cannot be due to chance statistical fluctuations. Photoionization models with ultra-high velocity components improve the spectral fit significantly, providing further support for the presence of relativistic outflow in this source. Without knowing the location of the absorber, its mass and energy outflow rates cannot be well constrained; we find E-dot (outflow)/L{sub bol} lower limit of {>=}0.006% assuming a bi-conical wind geometry. This is the first time that absorption lines with ultra-high velocities are unambiguously detected in the soft X-ray band. The presence of outflows with relativistic velocities in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with Seyfert-type luminosities is hard to understand and provides valuable constraints to models of AGN outflows. Radiation pressure is unlikely to be the driving mechanism for such outflows and magnetohydrodynamic may be involved.

  10. Discovery of Relativistic Outflow in the Seyfert Galaxy Ark 564

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.; Nicastro, F.

    2013-07-01

    We present Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low-velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies. There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here, we present identifications of the strongest lines as Kα transitions of O VII (two lines) and O VI at outflow velocities of ~0.1c. These lines are detected at 6.9σ, 6.2σ, and 4.7σ, respectively, and cannot be due to chance statistical fluctuations. Photoionization models with ultra-high velocity components improve the spectral fit significantly, providing further support for the presence of relativistic outflow in this source. Without knowing the location of the absorber, its mass and energy outflow rates cannot be well constrained; we find \\dot{E}(outflow)/L_{bol} lower limit of >=0.006% assuming a bi-conical wind geometry. This is the first time that absorption lines with ultra-high velocities are unambiguously detected in the soft X-ray band. The presence of outflows with relativistic velocities in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with Seyfert-type luminosities is hard to understand and provides valuable constraints to models of AGN outflows. Radiation pressure is unlikely to be the driving mechanism for such outflows and magnetohydrodynamic may be involved.

  11. Power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Moraghan, Anthony; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence through high-resolution three-dimensional isothermal numerical simulations where the turbulence is driven locally in real-space by a simple spherical outflow model. The resulting turbulent flow saturates at an average Mach number of ~2.5 and is analysed through density and velocity power spectra, including an investigation of the evolution of the solenoidal and compressional components. We obtain a shallow density power spectrum with a slope of ~-1.2 attributed to the presence of a network of localised dense filamentary structures formed by strong shock interactions. The total velocity power spectrum slope is found to be ~-2.0, representative of Burgers shock dominated turbulence model. The density weighted velocity power spectrum slope is measured as ~-1.6, slightly less than the expected Kolmogorov scaling value (slope of -5/3) found in previous works. The discrepancy may be caused by the nature of our real space driving model and we suggest ther...

  12. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Günther, Hans Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. H\\alpha, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner dis...

  13. Jet driven molecular outflows in Orion

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Franco, A; Wilson, T L

    1999-01-01

    We present high sensitivity and high angular resolution images of the high velocity (vLSR>30kms^-1) CO emission in the J=1-0 and J=2-1 lines of the Orion KL region. These results reveal the morphology of the high-velocity CO emission at the most extreme velocities. High velocity emission have been only detected in two regions: BN/KL (IRc2/I) and Orion-S. The Orion-S region contains a very young (dynamical age of 10^3years), very fast (~110kms^-1) and very compact (<0.16pc) bipolar outflow. From the morphology of the high-velocity gas we estimate that the position of the powering source must be ~20'' north of FIR4. For the IRc2/I molecular outflow the morphology of the moderate velocity (<60kms^-1) gas shows a weak bipolarity around IRc2/I. The gas at the most extreme velocities does not show any bipolarity around IRc2/I, if any, it is found ~30'' north from these sources. The blue and redshifted gas at moderate velocities shows similar spatial distribution with a systematic trend for the size of the hig...

  14. Quasar feedback revealed by giant molecular outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Feruglio, Chiara; Piconcelli, Enrico; Menci, Nicola; Aussel, Herve'; Lamastra, Alessandra; Fiore, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In the standard scenario for galaxy evolution the transformation of young star-forming galaxies into red bulge-dominated spheroids, where star formation has been quenched, is often explained by invoking a strong negative feedback generated by accretion onto a central super-massive black hole. The depletion of gas resulting from quasar-driven outflows should eventually stop star-formation across the host galaxy and lead to the black hole "suicide" for starvation. Direct observational evidence for a major quasar feedback onto the host galaxy is still missing, since outflows previously observed in quasars are associated with the ionized component of the gas, which only accounts for a minor fraction of the total gas content, and typically occur in the central regions. We used the IRAM PdBI to observe the CO(1-0) transition in Mrk 231, the closest quasar known. We detect broad wings of the CO line, with velocities up to 750 km/s and spatially resolved on the kpc scale. Such broad CO wings trace a giant molecular o...

  15. Disks and Outflows Around Young Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Steven; Staude, Jakob; Quetz, Axel; Natta, Antonella

    The subject of the book, the ubiquitous circumstellar disks around very young stars and the corresponding jets of outflowing matter, has recently become one of the hottest areas in astrophysics. The disks are thought to be precursors to planetary systems, and the outflows are thought to be a necessary phase in the formation of a young star, helping the star to get rid of angular momentum and energy as it makes its way onto the main sequence. The possible connections to planetary systems and stellar astrophysics makes these topics especially broad, appealing to generalists and specialists alike. The CD not only contains papers that could not be printed in the book but allows the authors to include a fair amount of data, often displayed as color images. The CD-ROM contains all the contributions printed in the corresponding book (Lecture Notes in Physics Vol. 465) and, in addition, those presented exclusively in digital form. Each contribution consists of a file in portable document format (PDF). The electronic version allows full-text searching within each file using Adobe's Acrobat Reader providing instructions for installation on Unix (Sun), PC and Macintosh computers, respectively. All contributions can be printed out; the color diagrams and color frames, which are printed in black and white in the book, can be viewed in color on screen.

  16. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  17. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  18. Utilising ductus venosus Doppler waveform and four-chamber view to screen for foetal cardiac malformation in early second trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-chang; ZHANG Jing; ZHANG Ming; PENG Qing-hai; CAO Dan-ming; WANG Xiao-yan

    2005-01-01

    Background Foetal echocardiography has become a diagnostic method to detect foetal congenital heart disease with high probability. However, it is not only time consuming and but also difficult to visualize outflow tract of foetus early in the second trimester of pregnancy, even for an experienced obstetric ultrasonographer. Recently, many methods for screening foetal cardiac anomalies were explored, but much more work is needed to develop an effective and suitable screening method. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of utilising the ductus venosus (DV) Doppler examination and the four-chamber view of heart to screen for foetal cardiac malformation in early second trimester of pregnancy.Methods Heart and DV of 401 consecutive foetuses in early second trimester (12+1-17+6 weeks) in high risk pregnancies were examined with Acuson 128 xp/10 or Sequoia 512 ultrasound diagnostic systems. Absent or reversed flow during atrial contraction (A-wave) in the DV was defined as sufficiently abnormal to screen for foetal cardiac malformations. The foetal echocardiographic diagnosis was confirmed by postnatal echocardiography (or postmortem). The sensitivities of screening tests were compared among the three methods: DV Doppler examination, four-chamber view alone, and the combination of both techniques.Results Satisfactory examinations were obtained in 383/401 foetuses (95%). Thirty foetuses with cardiac abnormalities were confirmed by neonatal echocardiography (or postmortem). The sensitivity of DV Doppler examination or four-chamber view alone is 63 % ( 19/30) and 60 % ( 18/30), respectively. The sensitivity of combining information, DV Doppler flow waveform and four-chamber view, to screen for foetal cardiac malformation is 83% (25/30) and significantly better than that of either DV Doppler flow waveform or four chamber view alone (P<0.05).Conclusion Doppler flow waveform of DV can be used to screen for foetal cardiac malformation early in the

  19. Angiotensin II--nitric oxide interactions in the control of sympathetic outflow in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, I H; Liu, J L

    2000-03-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is a compensatory mechanism which initially provides support for the circulation in the face of a falling cardiac output. It has been recognized for some time that chronic elevation of sympathetic outflow with the consequent increase in plasma norepinephrine, is counterproductive to improving cardiac function. Indeed, therapeutic targeting to block excessive sympathetic activation in heart failure is becoming a more accepted modality. The mechanism(s) by which sympathetic excitation occurs in the heart failure state are not completely understood. Components of abnormal cardiovascular reflex regulation most likely contribute to this sympatho-excitation. However, central mechanisms which relate to the elaboration of angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO) may also play an important role. Ang II has been shown to be a sympatho-excitatory peptide in the central nervous system while NO is sympatho-inhibitory. Recent studies have demonstrated that blockade of Ang II receptors of the AT(1) subtype augments arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in the heart failure state, thereby predisposing to a reduction in sympathetic tone. Ang II and NO interact to regulate sympathetic outflow. Blockade of NO production in normal conscious rabbits was only capable of increasing sympathetic outflow when accompanied by a background infusion of Ang II. Conversely, providing a source of NO to rabbits with heart failure reduced sympathetic nerve activity when accompanied by blockade of AT(1) receptors. Chronic heart failure is also associated with a decrease in NO synthesis in the brain as indicated by a reduction in the mRNA for the neuronal isoform (nNOS). Chronic blockade of Ang II receptors can up regulate nNOS expression. In addition, exercise training of rabbits with developing heart failure has been shown to reduce sympathetic tone, decrease plasma Ang II, improve arterial baroreflex function and increase n

  20. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied

  1. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  2. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. Abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation in mice lacking ASIC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3(-/-) mice. Asic3(-/-) mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3(-/-) mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3(-/-) mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  4. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Feng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Collective outflow from a small multiple stellar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Klaassen, Pamela D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Schrön, Martin; Klessen, Ralf S. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia); Smith, Michael D., E-mail: tpeters@physik.uzh.ch [Centre for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NH (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-10

    The formation of high-mass stars is usually accompanied by powerful protostellar outflows. Such high-mass outflows are not simply scaled-up versions of their lower-mass counterparts, since observations suggest that the collimation degree degrades with stellar mass. Theoretically, the origins of massive outflows remain open to question because radiative feedback and fragmentation of the accretion flow around the most massive stars, with M > 15 M {sub ☉}, may impede the driving of magnetic disk winds. We here present a three-dimensional simulation of the early stages of core fragmentation and massive star formation that includes a subgrid-scale model for protostellar outflows. We find that stars that form in a common accretion flow tend to have aligned outflow axes, so that the individual jets of multiple stars can combine to form a collective outflow. We compare our simulation to observations with synthetic H{sub 2} and CO observations and find that the morphology and kinematics of such a collective outflow resembles some observed massive outflows, such as Cepheus A and DR 21. We finally compare physical quantities derived from simulated observations of our models to the actual values in the models to examine the reliability of standard methods for deriving physical quantities, demonstrating that those methods indeed recover the actual values to within a factor of two to three.

  6. Standing Shocks around Black Holes and Estimation of Outflow Rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santabrata Das; Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    2002-03-01

    We self-consistently obtain shock locations in an accretion flow by using an analytical method. One can obtain the spectral properties, quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and the outflowrates when the inflow parameters are known. Since temperature of the CENBOL decides the spectral states of the black hole, and also the outflow rate, the outflow rate is directly related to the spectral states.

  7. FIRE simulations: galactic outflows and their consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keres, Dusan; FIRE team

    2016-06-01

    We study gaseous outflows and their consequences in high-resolution galaxy formation simulations with explicit stellar feedback from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. Collective, galaxy scale, effect of stellar feedback results in episodic ejections of large amount of gas and heavy elements into the circum-galactic medium. Gas ejection episodes follow strong bursts of star formation. Properties of galactic star formation and ejection episodes depend on galaxy mass and redshift and, together with gas infall and recycling, shape the evolution of the circum-galactic medium and galaxies. As a consequence, our simulated galaxies have masses, star formation histories and heavy element content in good agreement with the observed population of galaxies.

  8. Propeller outflows from an MRI disc

    CERN Document Server

    Lii, Patrick S; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Lovelace, Richard V E

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of axisymmetric simulations of MRI-driven accretion onto a rapidly rotating, magnetized star accreting in the propeller regime. The stellar magnetosphere corotates with the star, forming a centrifugal barrier at the disc-magnetosphere boundary which inhibits matter accretion onto the star. Instead, the disc matter accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface and slowly diffuses into the inner magnetosphere where it picks up angular momentum and is quickly ejected from the system as an outflow. Due to the interaction of the matter with the magnetosphere, this wind is discontinuous and is launched as discrete plasmoids. If the ejection rate is lower than the disc accretion rate, the matter accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere boundary faster than it can be ejected. In this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through the episodic accretion instability in which episodes of matter accumulation are followed by simultaneous accretion and ejection. During the accretion phase of this inst...

  9. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  10. Searching for molecular outflows in Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, D; Veilleux, S; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Lira, P; Schulze, S; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    We present constraints on the molecular outflows in a sample of five Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies using Herschel observations of the OH doublet at 119 {\\mu}m. We have detected the OH doublet in three cases: one purely in emission and two purely in absorption. The observed emission profile has a significant blueshifted wing suggesting the possibility of tracing an outflow. Out of the two absorption profiles, one seems to be consistent with the systemic velocity while the other clearly indicates the presence of a molecular outflow whose maximum velocity is about ~1500 km/s. Our analysis shows that this system is in general agreement with previous results on Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies and QSOs, whose outflow velocities do not seem to correlate with stellar masses or starburst luminosities (star formation rates). Instead the galaxy outflow likely arises from an embedded AGN.

  11. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  12. Cardiac perception and cardiac control. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, D

    1977-12-01

    The evidence regarding specific cardiac perception and discrimination, and its relationship to voluntary cardiac control, is critically reviewed. Studies are considered in three sections, depending on the method used to assess cardiac perception: questionnaire assessment, discrimination procedures, and heartbeat tracking. The heartbeat tracking procedure would appear to suffer least from interpretative difficulties. Recommendations are made regarding the style of analysis used to assess heartbeat perception in such tracking tasks. PMID:348240

  13. Respiratory tract and mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory tract problems originating in attempts to diagnose and treat illness are commonplace. They range from pharyngeal trauma during intubation to radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma. Occasionally, as with pulmonary hypervolemia accompanying drug-induced renal failure, they originate at a distance. Their actual number far exceeds those brought to clinical attention. Familiarity with the procedures which give rise to these complications is helpful in detecting and remedying them. It is important, therefore, to discuss their pathogenesis as well as their clinical and radiological findings

  14. Molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars. I. Correcting for underestimates when measuring outflow masses and dynamical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Stutz, Amelia M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in {sup 12}CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in {sup 12}CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass (M {sub flow}), momentum (P {sub flow}), kinetic energy (E {sub flow}), mechanical luminosity (L {sub flow}), and force (F {sub flow}) assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatures, inclination effects, and dissociation of molecular gas will all work to further increase outflow properties. Molecular outflows are thus almost certainly more massive and energetic than commonly reported. Additionally, outflow properties are lower, on average, by almost an order of magnitude when calculated from the {sup 12}CO (3-2) maps compared to the {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps, even after accounting for different opacities, map sensitivities, and possible excitation temperature variations. It has recently been argued in the literature that the {sup 12}CO (3-2) line is subthermally excited in outflows, and our results support this finding.

  15. Collective outflow from a small multiple stellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Schrön, Martin; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Michael D; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is usually accompanied by powerful protostellar outflows. Such high-mass outflows are not simply scaled-up versions of their lower-mass counterparts, since observations suggest that the collimation degree degrades with stellar mass. Theoretically, the origins of massive outflows remain open to question because radiative feedback and fragmentation of the accretion flow around the most massive stars, with M > 15 M_Sun, may impede the driving of magnetic disk winds. We here present a three-dimensional simulation of the early stages of core fragmentation and massive star formation that includes a subgrid-scale model for protostellar outflows. We find that stars that form in a common accretion flow tend to have aligned outflow axes, so that the individual jets of multiple stars can combine to form a collective outflow. We compare our simulation to observations with synthetic H_2 and CO observations and find that the morphology and kinematics of such a collective outflow resembles s...

  16. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  17. The contribution of quasar outflows to cosmological structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Nahum

    2011-10-01

    A vast new discovery space is opened up by the high sensitivity of COS in the far UV. These new capabilities are ushering a revolution in the study of AGN outflows. We now have the ability to obtain high quality data on objects up to a redshift of about 1, providing access to ten times more {and better} diagnostic absorption lines than was possible with STIS {which could only observe outflows at z<0.05 with sufficient S/N}. These diagnostics will allow us to quantify how much do quasar outflow contribute to AGN feedback. On the way to this lofty goal, we'll be able to resolve important questions in the study of these outflows: Where are they situated within the host galaxy? What is their ionization equilibrium and chemical abundances? Unlike ground-based observations, COS data can yield the answers to all these questions for the most ubiquitous outflows, and therefore connect them to our developing understanding of cosmological structure formation.Our analysis of recent archived COS observations gives a concrete example for the above claims; including the first determination of the distance from the central source for a high-ionization outflow. Here we propose an archive program to look through the 520 COS G130M and G160M orbits of AGN archive observations, identify quasar outflows and publish the analyses of the best cases.

  18. The role of cosmic ray pressure in accelerating galactic outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Christine M; Marinacci, Federico; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Glover, Simon C O; Clark, Paul C; Smith, Rowan J

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation of galactic outflows from supernova explosions (SNe) with the moving-mesh code AREPO in a stratified column of gas with a surface density similar to the Milky Way disk at the solar circle. We compare different simulation models for SNe placement and energy feedback, including cosmic rays (CR), and find that models that place SNe in dense gas and account for CR diffusion are able to drive outflows with similar mass loading as obtained from a random placement of SNe with no CRs. Despite this similarity, CR-driven outflows differ in several other key properties including their overall clumpiness and velocity. Moreover, the forces driving these outflows originate in different sources of pressure, with the CR diffusion model relying on non-thermal pressure gradients to create an outflow driven by internal pressure and the random-placement model depending on kinetic pressure gradients to propel a ballistic outflow. CRs therefore appear to be non-negligible physics in the formation of outflows...

  19. High-velocity molecular outflows hear massive young stellar objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月芳; 李月兴; 杨传义; 雷成明; 孙金江; 吕静; 韩溥

    1999-01-01

    By mapping the 12CO J=1—0 lines in IRAS 05391-0217, 06114+1745 and 06291+0421, three new high-velocity bipolar molecular outflows are found. Parameters of these outflows are derived, which suggest that they are massive and energetic outflows with total kinetic energies of about 1038 J and mass loss rates about 10-5 M⊙/a. The driving sources are identified by analyzing the positions, intensities and color temperatures of the associated infrared sources. These outflows are most likely driven by single sources which correspond to massive young stellar objects. In these regions H2O masers have been detected located near the embedded infrared sources, which indicates that their exciting mechanism may be correlated with that of the CO outflows. The relationship between the parameters of outflows and central sources shows that high-velocity outflow and thermal radiation of a star are two basic correlated but different features in the evolution of young stars.

  20. Evolution of Protostellar Outflow around Low-mass Protostar

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of protostellar outflow is investigated with resistive magneto-hydrodynamic nested-grid simulations that cover a wide range of spatial scales (\\sim 1AU - 1pc). We follow cloud evolution from the pre-stellar core stage until the infalling envelope dissipates long after the protostar formation. We also calculate protostellar evolution to derive protostellar luminosity with time-dependent mass accretion through a circumstellar disk. The protostellar outflow is driven by the first core prior to protostar formation and is directly driven by the circumstellar disk after protostar formation. The opening angle of the outflow is large in the Class 0 stage. A large fraction of the cloud mass is ejected in this stage, which reduces the star formation efficiency to \\sim 50%. After the outflow breaks out from the natal cloud, the outflow collimation is gradually improved in the Class I stage. The head of the outflow travels more than \\sim 10^5AU in \\sim 10^5 yr. The outflow momentum, energy and mass derived ...

  1. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ∼270 yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (∼100 km s–1) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (≲ 10 km s–1) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation

  2. Suppression of galactic outflows by cosmological infall and circumgalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Priyanka; Bagla, Jasjeet S; Nath, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relative importance of two galactic outflow suppression mechanisms : a) Cosmological infall of the intergalactic gas onto the galaxy, and b) the existence of a hot circumgalactic medium (CGM). Considering only radial motion, the infall reduces the speed of outflowing gas and even halts the outflow, depending on the mass and redshift of the galaxy. For star forming galaxies there exists an upper mass limit beyond which outflows are suppressed by the gravitational field of the galaxy. We find that infall can reduce this upper mass limit approximately by a factor of two (independent of the redshift). Massive galaxies ($\\gtrsim 10^{12} M_{\\odot}$) host large reservoir of hot, diffuse CGM around the central part of the galaxy. The CGM acts as a barrier between the infalling and outflowing gas and provides an additional source of outflow suppression. We find that at low redshifts ($z\\lesssim3.5$), the CGM is more effective than the infall in suppressing the outflows. Together, these two processes...

  3. Isolated cardiac metastasis from plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peck Joshua R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 57-year-old male with a history of hypertension presented with shortness of breath, intermittent substernal chest pain, subjective fevers, and a 30-pound weight loss. He was found to have a bladder mass four months prior to presentation, for which he underwent cystoscopy and surgical removal. Pathology demonstrated high-grade superficial plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma extending into the submucosa but not the muscularis propria. Given the superficial nature of his bladder cancer, a cystectomy was deferred. He was subsequently lost to follow-up care. On arrival, physical exam was notable for tachycardia, tachypnea, and distant heart sounds. An ECG showed an incomplete right bundle branch block and sinus tachycardia. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed a three-cm pericardial effusion. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed this finding and revealed a mass in the right ventricle (RV extending into the outflow tract and infiltrating the free wall. The RV was dilated with an estimated RV systolic pressure of 37 mmHg. Pericardiocentesis yielded nearly one liter of serosanguinous fluid with non-diagnostic cytology. Partial median sternotomy with biopsy showed pathologic findings consistent with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, plasmacytoid variant. A PET scan showed increased uptake exclusively in the heart. The oncology team discussed options with the patient including chemotherapy and palliative care. The patient decided to withhold further therapy and went home with hospice care. He died two months later. Discussion Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men in the United States. Most patients (69% with metastatic bladder cancer have multiple organs involved; conversely, our patient had a PET scan indicating his disease was localized to the heart. Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare subtype of bladder cancer, and is estimated to make up less than three percent of all invasive bladder carcinomas. At

  4. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  5. Gravitational Microlensing and the Structure of Quasar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Chelouche, D

    2005-01-01

    We show that invaluable information on the structure of quasar outflows can be obtained by considering microlensing (ML) induced variability of absorption line troughs in lensed quasars. Depending on the structure and geometry of the outflowing gas, such extrinsic line variability can be manifested as changes to the equivalent width of the line as well as line profile distortions. Here we consider several physically distinct outflow models, having very similar spectral predictions, and show how ML induced absorption line variability can be used to distinguish between them. The merits of future systematic studies of these effects are exemplified.

  6. Optically thick outflows in ultraluminous supersoft sources

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are defined by a thermal spectrum with colour temperatures ~0.1 keV, bolometric luminosities ~ a few 10^39 erg/s, and almost no emission above 1 keV. It has never been clear how they fit into the general scheme of accreting compact objects. To address this problem, we studied a sample of seven ULSs with extensive Chandra and XMM-Newton coverage. We find an anticorrelation between fitted temperatures and radii of the thermal emitter, and no correlation between bolometric luminosity and radius or temperature. We compare the physical parameters of ULSs with those of classical supersoft sources, thought to be surface-nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), thought to be super-Eddington stellar-mass black holes. We argue that ULSs are the sub-class of ULXs seen through the densest wind, perhaps an extension of the soft-ultraluminous regime. We suggest that in ULSs, the massive disk outflow becomes effectively optically thick and forms a large ...

  7. Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: Opacity Regrouping

    CERN Document Server

    Wollaeger, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) are methods used to stochastically solve the radiative transport and diffusion equations, respectively. These methods combine into a hybrid transport-diffusion method we refer to as IMC-DDMC. We explore a multigroup IMC-DDMC scheme that, in DDMC, combines frequency groups with sufficient optical thickness. We term this procedure "opacity regrouping". Opacity regrouping has previously been applied to IMC-DDMC calculations for problems in which the dependence of the opacity on frequency is monotonic. We generalize opacity regrouping to non-contiguous groups and implement this in \\supernu, a code designed to do radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with non-monotonic opacities. We find that regrouping of non-contiguous opacity groups generally improves the speed of IMC-DDMC radiation transport. We present an asymptotic analysis that informs the nature of the Doppler shift in DDMC groups and summarize the derivation of the Gentile-Fleck ...

  8. Dissipation in Relativistic Outflows: A Multisource Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Relativistically expanding sources of X-rays and gamma-rays cover an enormous range of (central) compactness and Lorentz factor. The underlying physics is discussed, with an emphasis on how the dominant dissipative mode and the emergent spectrum depend on these parameters. Photons advected outward from high optical depth are a potentially important source of Compton seeds. Their characteristic energy is bounded below by ~1 MeV in pair-loaded outflows of relatively low compactness, and remains near ~1 MeV at very high compactness and low matter loading. This is compared with the characteristic energy of O(1) MeV observed in the rest frame spectra of many sources, including gamma-ray bursts, OSSE jet sources, MeV Blazars, and the intense initial 0.1 s pulse of the March 5 event. Additional topics discussed include the feedback of pair creation on electron heating and the formation of non-thermal spectra, their effectiveness at shielding the dissipative zone from ambient photons, direct Compton damping of irregu...

  9. Bipolar outflows in OH/IR stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Hekkert, P L; Likkel, L; Comeron, F; Norris, R P; Molster, F J; Cohen, R J; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the development of bipolar outflows during the early post-AGB evolution. A sample of ten OH/IR stars is observed at high angular resolution, including bipolar nebulae (OH231.8+4.2), bright post-AGB stars (HD 101584) and reflection nebulae (e.g. Roberts 22). The IRAS colour--colour diagram separates the sample into different types of objects. One group may contain the progenitors to the (few) extreme bipolar planetary nebulae. Two objects show colours and chemistry very similar to the planetary nebulae with late IR-[WC] stars. One object is a confirmed close binary. A model is presented consisting of an outer AGB wind which is swept up by a faster post-AGB wind, with either wind being non-spherically symetric. The interface of the two winds is shown to exhibit a linear relation between velocity and distance from the star. The OH data confirms the predicted linear velocity gradients, and reveals torus-like, uniformly expanding components. All sources are discussed in detail using optical/HST imag...

  10. Simulating galactic outflows with kinetic supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2008-01-01

    Feedback from star formation is thought to play a key role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, but its implementation in cosmological simulations is currently hampered by a lack of numerical resolution. We present and test a sub-grid recipe to model feedback from massive stars in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. The energy is distributed in kinetic form among the gas particles surrounding recently formed stars. The impact of the feedback is studied using a suite of high-resolution simulations of isolated disc galaxies embedded in dark halos with total mass 10^{10} and 10^{12} M_sol/h. We focus in particular on the effect of pressure forces within the disc, which we turn off temporarily in some of our runs to mimic a recipe that has been widely used in the literature. We find that (ram) pressure forces on expanding superbubbles determine both the structure of the disc and the development of large-scale outflows. Pressure forces exerted by expanding superbubbles puff up the disc...

  11. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Amin; A. Asghari-Roodsari; H.L. Tan

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  12. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  13. Indirect measurement of Delta outflow using ultrasonic velocity meters and comparison with mass-balance calculated outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Richard N.

    1998-01-01

    A measurement of the quantity of water flowing from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay (Delta outflow) has been desired by those studying and managing the San Francisco Bay/Delta estuary since the 1920s.  Historically, Delta outflow has been estimated using a mass-balance calculation that uses measured Delta inflows and exports, and imprecise estimates of consumptive use for the approximately 2,000 small agricultural diversions with the Delta.  The DWR has estimated Delta outflow for 1929 to present using the computer program DAYFLOW.

  14. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  15. Nucleosynthesis in Outflows from the Inner Regions of Collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Pruet, J; Hoffman, R D; Pruet, Jason; Thompson, Todd

    2004-01-01

    We consider nucleosynthesis in outflows originating from the inner regions of viscous accretion disks formed after the collapse of a rotating massive star. We show that wind-like outflows driven by viscous and neutrino heating can efficiently synthesize Fe-group elements moving at near-relativistic velocities. The mass of 56Ni synthesized and the asymptotic velocities attained in our calculations are in accord with those inferred from observations of SN1998bw and SN2003dh. These steady wind-like outflows are generally proton rich, characterized by only modest entropies, and consequently synthesize essentially nothing heavier than the Fe-group elements. We also discuss bubble-like outflows resulting from rapid energy deposition in localized regions near or in the accretion disk. These intermittent ejecta emerge with low electron fraction and are a promising site for the synthesis of the A=130 r-process peak elements.

  16. Estimation of cold plasma outflow during geomagnetic storms

    CERN Document Server

    Haaland, S; André, M; Maes, L; Baddeley, L; Barakat, A; Chappell, R; Eccles, V; Johnsen, C; Lybekk, B; Li, K; Pedersen, A; Schunk, R; Welling, D

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy ions of ionospheric origin constitute a significant contributor to the magnetospheric plasma population. Measuring cold ions is difficult though. Observations have to be done at sufficiently high altitudes and typically in regions of space where spacecraft attain a positive charge due to solar illumination. Cold ions are therefore shielded from the satellite particle detectors. Furthermore, spacecraft can only cover key regions of ion outflow during segments of their orbit, so additional complications arise if continuous longtime observations, such as during a geomagnetic storm, are needed. In this paper we suggest a new approach, based on a combination of synoptic observations and a novel technique to estimate the flux and total outflow during the various phases of geomagnetic storms. Our results indicate large variations in both outflow rates and transport throughout the storm. Prior to the storm main phase, outflow rates are moderate, and the cold ions are mainly emanating from moderately sized ...

  17. About the seasonal and fortnightly variabilities of the Mediterranean outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Millot

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CTD time series from the HYDRO-CHANGES programme and INGRES projects have been collected simultaneously (2004–2008 on the shelf of Morocco and at the sills of Camarinal and Espartel in the strait of Gibraltar. They provide information that supports results recently obtained from the analysis of the two former time series, as well as from a reanalysis of GIBEX CTD profiles (1985–1986. The outflow of Mediterranean Waters, which does not show a clear seasonal variability before entering the strait, strongly mixes within the strait, due mainly to the internal tide, with the seasonally variable inflow of Atlantic Water. The outflow thus gets marked seasonal and fortnightly variabilities within the strait. Furthermore, since the outflowing waters entering the strait display marked spatial heterogeneity and long-term temporal variabilities, accurately predicting the characteristics of the Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic Ocean appears almost impossible.

  18. Advances in alimentary tract imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Maglinte, Dean DT; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Tann, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Advances in imaging techniques are changing the way radiologists undertake imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and their ability to answer questions posed by surgeons. In this paper we discuss the technological improvements of imaging studies that have occurred in the last few years and how these help to better diagnosing alimentary tract disease.

  19. Searching for molecular outflows in Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    D. Calderón; Bauer, F. E.; Veilleux, S; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; P. Lira; Schulze, S.; Kim, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present constraints on the molecular outflows in a sample of five Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies using Herschel observations of the OH doublet at 119 {\\mu}m. We have detected the OH doublet in three cases: one purely in emission and two purely in absorption. The observed emission profile has a significant blueshifted wing suggesting the possibility of tracing an outflow. Out of the two absorption profiles, one seems to be consistent with the systemic velocity while the other clearly indi...

  20. Ultra-fast outflows (aka UFOs) from AGNs and QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, M; Giustini, M

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, strong observational evidence has been accumulated for the existence of massive, high velocity winds/outflows (aka Ultra Fast Outflows, UFOs) in nearby AGNs and in more distant quasars. Here we briefly review some of the most recent developments in this field and discuss the relevance of UFOs for both understanding the physics of accretion disk winds in AGNs, and for quantifying the global amount of AGN feedback on the surrounding medium.

  1. Capital Outflow Controls and Income Distribution in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jarita Duasa

    2008-01-01

    The study seeks to analyze the impact of capital outflow controls, imposed by Malaysian government on September 1998, on income distribution. Regression analysis using OLS (Ordinary Least Square), 2SLS (Two Stages Least Square) and GMM (Generalised Method of Moment) methods of estimation reveals that the capital outflow controls reduce inequality of income distribution in the country. The controls are believed to result in improvement of export-led industries, through devaluation from control...

  2. Fast outflows and star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2016-06-01

    Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is considered a key mechanism in shaping galaxy evolution. Fast, extended outflows are frequently detected in the AGN host galaxies at all redshifts and luminosities, both in ionised and molecular gas. However, these outflows are only potentially able to quench star formation, and we are still lacking decisive evidence of negative feedback in action. Here we present observations obtained with the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) H- and K-band integral-field of two quasars at z ~ 2.4 that are characterised by fast, extended outflows detected through the [Oiii]λ5007 line. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our observations allows us to identify faint narrow (FWHManti-correlated with the fast outflows. The ionised outflows therefore appear to be able to suppress star formation in the region where the outflow is expanding. However, the detection of narrow spatially extended Hα emission indicates star formation rates of at least ~50-90 M⊙ yr-1, suggesting either that AGN feedback does not affect the whole galaxy or that many feedback episodes are required before star formation is completely quenched. On the other hand, the narrow Hα emission extending along the edges of the outflow cone may also lead also to a positive feedback interpretation. Our results highlight the possible double role of galaxy-wide outflows in host galaxy evolution. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, P.ID: 086.B-0579(A) and 091.A-0261(A).The reduced data cubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A28

  3. Identifying the Main Driver of Active Region Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; Murray, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    Hinode's EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) has discovered ubiquitous outflows of a few to 50 km s-1 from active regions (ARs). The characteristics of these outflows are very curious in that they are most prominent at the AR boundary and appear over monopolar magnetic areas. They are linked to strong non-thermal line broadening and are stronger in hotter EUV lines. The outflows persist for at least several days. Whereas red-shifted down flows observed in AR closed loops are well understood, to date there is no general consensus for the mechanism(s) driving blue-shifted AR-related outflows. We use Hinode EIS and X-Ray Telescope observations of AR 10942 coupled with magnetic modeling to demonstrate for the first time that the outflows originate from specific locations of the magnetic topology where field lines display strong gradients of magnetic connectivity, namely quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), or in the limit of infinitely thin QSLs, separatrices. The strongest AR outflows were found to be in the vicinity of QSL sections located over areas of strong magnetic field. We argue that magnetic reconnection at QSLs, separating closed field lines of the AR and either large-scale externally connected or ‘open’ field lines, is a viable mechanism for driving AR outflows which are potentially sources of the slow solar wind. In fact, magnetic reconnection along QSLs (including separatricies) is the first theory to explain the most puzzling characteristics of the outflows, namely their occurrence over monopolar areas at the periphery of ARs and their longevity.

  4. Ultra-fast outflows (aka UFOs) from AGNs and QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappi, M.; Tombesi, F.; Giustini, M.

    During the last decade, strong observational evidence has been accumulated for the existence of massive, high velocity winds/outflows (aka Ultra Fast Outflows, UFOs) in nearby AGNs and in more distant quasars. Here we briefly review some of the most recent developments in this field and discuss the relevance of UFOs for both understanding the physics of accretion disk winds in AGNs, and for quantifying the global amount of AGN feedback on the surrounding medium.

  5. Collapse and Outflow Towards an Integrated Theory of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pudritz, R E; Ouyed, R

    1997-01-01

    Observational advances over the last decade reveal that star formation is associated with the simultaneous presence of gravitationally collapsing gas, bipolar outflow, and an accretion disk. Two theoretical views of star formation suppose that either stellar mass is determined from the outset by gravitational instability, or by the outflow which sweeps away the collapsing envelope of initially singular density distributions. Neither picture appears to explain all of the facts. This contribution examines some of the key issues facing star formation theory.

  6. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong [Department of Physics, International University-Vietnam National University HCM, Block 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Di, E-mail: pbngoc@hcmiu.edu.vn, E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Chaoyang District Datun Rd A20, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M {sub J}, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} to 2.9 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} to 4.1 × 10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M {sub J} in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M {sub J} in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  7. Tracing outflows in the AGN forbidden region with SINFONI

    CERN Document Server

    Kakkad, D; Padovani, P; Cresci, G; Husemann, B; Carniani, S; Brusa, M; Lamastra, A; Lanzuisi, G; Piconcelli, E; Schramm, M

    2016-01-01

    AGN driven outflows are invoked in numerical simulations to reproduce several observed properties of local galaxies. The z > 1 epoch is of particular interest as it was during this time that the volume averaged star formation and the accretion rate of black holes were maximum. Radiatively driven outflows are therefore believed to be common during this epoch. We aim to trace and characterize outflows in AGN hosts with high mass accretion rates at z > 1 using integral field spectroscopy. We obtain spatially-resolved kinematics of the [OIII]5007 line in two targets which reveal the morphology and spatial extension of the outflows. We present J and H+K band SINFONI observations of 5 AGNs at 1.2 < z < 2.2. To maximize the chance of observing radiatively driven outflows, our sample was pre-selected based on peculiar values of the Eddington ratio and the hydrogen column density of the surrounding interstellar medium. We observe high velocity (~600-1900 km/s) and kiloparsec scale extended ionized outflows in at...

  8. Characterization of Molecular Outflows in The Substellar Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Ho, Paul T P; Dang-Duc, Cuong; Li, Di

    2014-01-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J=2-1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M_J, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36 degrees. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9x10^-6 M_Sun to 2.9x10^-5 M_Sun and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7x10^-9 M_Sun yr^-1 to 4.1x10^-8 M_Su...

  9. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Zangrilli, L

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R_sun, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H I Lyman alpha line and the O VI doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 A. Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two t...

  10. On the physical origin of AGN outflow driving mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Wako

    2016-07-01

    Super-massive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) respond to the accretion process by feeding back energy and momentum into the surrounding environment. Galaxy-scale outflows are thought to provide the physical link connecting the small scales of the central black hole to the large scales of the host galaxy. Such powerful outflows are now starting to be commonly observed, and have been considered as a proof of AGN feedback in action. However, the physical origin of the mechanism driving the observed outflows is still unclear, and whether it is due to energy-driving or radiation-driving is a source of much debate in the literature. We consider AGN feedback driven by radiation pressure on dust, and show that AGN radiative feedback is capable of driving powerful outflows on galactic scales. In particular, we can obtain outflowing shells with high velocity and large momentum flux, by properly taking into account the effects of radiation trapping. Alternatively, the observed outflow characteristics may be significantly biased by AGN variability. I will discuss the resulting implications in the global context of black hole accretion-AGN feedback coupling.

  11. A COMPLETE Search for Molecular Outflows in Perseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallscheer, C.; Borkin, M.; Ridge, N.; Schnee, S.; Goodman, A.

    2003-12-01

    Using 12CO data collected in the Coordinated Molecular Probe Line Extinction Thermal Emission (COMPLETE) Survey, we have carried out an unbiased search for molecular outflows. To begin the search, we analyzed maps of the Spectral Correlation Function (SCF) of the 12CO spectra, at a variety of spatial lags. The known outflows were all apparent in the SCF maps as regions of either very low or very high spectral correlation. Other regions identified by the SCF as having low or high spectral correlation in the data cube were examined by hand in order to assess the possibility that they harbored previously unknown outflows. Upon making customized "channel" maps of these 15 suspect regions, we have now confidently identified 4 new outflows, and 11 other regions with unusual spectral properties potentially associated with outflow. This work is still in progress, but we can say with certainty that COMPLETE has identified several new molecular outflows in Perseus. This work was supported in part by the SAO intern program under NSF grant AST-9731923.

  12. Discovery of Relativistic Outflow in the Seyfert Galaxy Ark 564

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, A; Krongold, Y; Nicastro, F

    2013-01-01

    We present Chandra high energy transmission grating spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies (Gupta et al. 2013). There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here we present identifications of the strongest lines as K{\\alpha} transitions of OVII(two lines) and OVI at outflow velocities of ~0.1c. These lines are detected at 6.9{\\sigma}, 6.2{\\sigma}, and 4.7{\\sigma} respectively and cannot be due to chance statistical fluctuations. Photoionization models with ultra-high velocity components improves the spectral fit significantly, providing further support for the presence of relativistic outflow in this source. Without knowing the location of the absorber, its mass and energy outflow rates cannot be well constrained; we find E$\\dot{E}(outflow)/L_{bo}$ ranging from < 0.001% to 60% using different a...

  13. A distance limited sample of massive molecular outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Maud, L T; Lumsden, S L; Mottram, J C; Urquhart, J S; Hoare, M G

    2015-01-01

    We have observed 99 mid-infrared-bright, massive young stellar objects and compact HII regions drawn from the Red MSX source (RMS) survey in the J=3$-$2 transition of $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. 89 targets are within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a representative range of luminosities and core masses. These constitute a relatively unbiased sample of bipolar molecular outflows associated with massive star formation. Of these, 59, 17 and 13 sources (66, 19 and 15 percent) are found to have outflows, show some evidence of outflow, and have no evidence of outflow, respectively. The time-dependent parameters of the high-velocity molecular flows are calculated using a spatially variable dynamic timescale. The canonical correlations between the outflow parameters and source luminosity are recovered and shown to scale with those of low-mass sources. For coeval star formation we find the scaling is consistent with all the protostars in an embedded cluster providing the outflow force,...

  14. MOS Mapping of the NIR Outflow HH 223

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Estalella, R.; Gómez, G.; García-Lorenzo, B.

    2016-10-01

    The Multi-Object-Spectroscopy (MOS) mode of LIRIS was used to map the near-IR stellar outflow HH 223, in the dark cloud Lynds 723 (L723). HH 223 spatially coincides with the east-west component of the L723 quadrupolar CO outflow. The radio continuum source SMA2, towards the center of the quadrupolar CO outflow, hides the YSO that seems to power both the near-IR and the CO outflows. To map the S-shaped, near-IR emission of HH 223, extending ˜ 5', an appropriate mask was designed, with 16 rectangular slitlets. J, H and K-band spectra (R ˜eq 2500) were obtained through the mask. The kinematics of the neutral (H2) and ionized ([FeII]) gas outflow was derived from these data. The results confirm that both the near-IR and the CO outflows have a common driving source. To our knowledge, this is the first use of the MOS-LIRIS observing mode with the mask designed ad hoc to fit several extended, nonaligned targets.

  15. The Prevalence of Ionized Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs II. 3-D Biconical Outflow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Hyun-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We present 3-D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3-D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shift with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O III] line profiles, e.g., a narrow core and a broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O III] velocity-velo...

  16. RADIATION TRANSPORT FOR EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOWS: OPACITY REGROUPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaeger, Ryan T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 1500 Engineering Drive, 410 ERB, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Van Rossum, Daniel R., E-mail: wollaeger@wisc.edu, E-mail: daan@flash.uchicago.edu [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) are methods used to stochastically solve the radiative transport and diffusion equations, respectively. These methods combine into a hybrid transport-diffusion method we refer to as IMC-DDMC. We explore a multigroup IMC-DDMC scheme that in DDMC, combines frequency groups with sufficient optical thickness. We term this procedure ''opacity regrouping''. Opacity regrouping has previously been applied to IMC-DDMC calculations for problems in which the dependence of the opacity on frequency is monotonic. We generalize opacity regrouping to non-contiguous groups and implement this in SuperNu, a code designed to do radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with non-monotonic opacities. We find that regrouping of non-contiguous opacity groups generally improves the speed of IMC-DDMC radiation transport. We present an asymptotic analysis that informs the nature of the Doppler shift in DDMC groups and summarize the derivation of the Gentile-Fleck factor for modified IMC-DDMC. We test SuperNu using numerical experiments including a quasi-manufactured analytic solution, a simple 10 group problem, and the W7 problem for Type Ia supernovae. We find that opacity regrouping is necessary to make our IMC-DDMC implementation feasible for the W7 problem and possibly Type Ia supernova simulations in general. We compare the bolometric light curves and spectra produced by the SuperNu and PHOENIX radiation transport codes for the W7 problem. The overall shape of the bolometric light curves are in good agreement, as are the spectra and their evolution with time. However, for the numerical specifications we considered, we find that the peak luminosity of the light curve calculated using SuperNu is ∼10% less than that calculated using PHOENIX.

  17. Quasar Outflows and Black Hole Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon; Hennawi, Joseph; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2016-08-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries ('blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km/s to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. Using both archival data and new observations, we have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Ha and/or Hb emission lines, for ~400 luminous (L_Bol = 45.5-48.5 erg/s) SDSS quasars, at redshifts 1.5 population. A strong correlation between CIV-velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km/s, the velocity-widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Using the Ha/Hb emission to provide black hole masses free from non-virial contributions, we are able to derive a quantitative correction to the CIV-based black-hole masses as a function of blueshift. This correction reduces the scatter between Ha/Hb and CIV velocity widths to just ~0.1 dex. Without the correction, black hole masses would be overestimated by a factor of nine at the largest blueshifts. With a suitable systemic redshift-estimation algorithm, this correction can be straightforwardly applied based only on information contained in the rest-frame UV spectra.

  18. Isolated Fetal Ascite Associated with Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal ascite is defined as fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity. It can be seen as isolated disease or an early sign of hydrops fetalis. Once fetal ascite is detected, a careful examination for hydops fetalis and possible underlying disease is necessary, since its prognosis and treatment depends mostly on the cause. Non-immunologic fetal ascite is an uncommon problem occurring for many reasons, such as urinary tract obstruction, congenital infections, genetic and metabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Here in this report we present two isolated fetal ascite that occurred secondary to cardiac diseases.

  19. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  20. Kiloparsec-scale outflows are prevalent among luminous AGN: outflows and feedback in the context of the overall AGN population

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, C M; Mullaney, J R; Swinbank, A M

    2014-01-01

    We present integral field unit (IFU) observations covering the [O III]4959,5007 and H-Beta emission lines of sixteen z~(6-16) kpc in all targets and observe signatures of spherical outflows and bi-polar superbubbles. We show that our targets are representative of z 5x10^41 erg/s) type 2 AGN and that ionised outflows are not only common but also in >=70% (3 sigma confidence) of cases, they are extended over kiloparsec scales. Our study demonstrates that galaxy-wide energetic outflows are not confined to the most extreme star-forming galaxies or radio-luminous AGN; however, there may be a higher incidence of the most extreme outflow velocities in quasars hosted in ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. Both star formation and AGN activity appear to be energetically viable to drive the outflows and we find no definitive evidence that favours one process over the other. Although highly uncertain, we derive mass outflow rates (typically ~10x the SFRs), kinetic energies (~0.5-10% of L[AGN]) and momentum rates (typically...

  1. Molecular Outflows Driven by Low-Mass Protostars. I. Correcting for Underestimates When Measuring Outflow Masses and Dynamical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Mardones, Diego; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Matthews, Brenda C; Stutz, Amelia M; Williams, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity, and force assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatur...

  2. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  3. Control of heart rate variability by cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity during voluntary static exercise in humans with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Matsukawa, Kanji; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Sakaguchi, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Kotaro; Onari, Kiyoshi

    2007-11-01

    Heart rate (HR) is controlled solely by via cardiac parasympathetic outflow in tetraplegic individuals, who lack supraspinal control of sympathetic outflows and circulating catecholamines but have intact vagal pathways. A high-frequency component (HF; at 0.15-0.40 Hz) of the power spectrum of HR variability and its relative value against total power (HF/Total) were assessed using a wavelet transform to identify cardiac parasympathetic outflow. The relative contribution of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic outflows to controlling HR was estimated by comparing the HF/Total-HR relationship between age-matched tetraplegic and normal men. Six tetraplegic men with complete cervical spinal cord injury performed static arm exercise at 35% of the maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Although resting cardiac output and arterial blood pressure were lower in tetraplegic than normal subjects, HR, HF, and HF/Total were not statistically different between the two groups. When tetraplegic subjects developed the same force during exercise as normal subjects, HF and HF/Total decreased to 67-90% of the preexercise control and gradually recovered 1.5 min after exercise. The amount and time course of the changes in HF/Total during and after exercise coincided well between both groups. In contrast, the increase in HR at the start of exercise was blunted in tetraplegic compared with normal subjects, and the HR recovery following exercise was also delayed. It is likely that, although the withdrawal response of cardiac parasympathetic outflow is preserved in tetraplegic subjects, sympathetic decentralization impairs the rapid acceleration of HR at the onset of exercise and the rapid deceleration following exercise. PMID:17761788

  4. Population-based evaluation of a suggested anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart defects based on the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffinet François

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of the overall spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHD has always been challenging, in part because of the diversity of the cardiac phenotypes, but also because of the oft-complex associations. The purpose of our study was to establish a comprehensive and easy-to-use classification of CHD for clinical and epidemiological studies based on the long list of the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC. Methods We coded each individual malformation using six-digit codes from the long list of IPCCC. We then regrouped all lesions into 10 categories and 23 subcategories according to a multi-dimensional approach encompassing anatomic, diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. This anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart disease (ACC-CHD was then applied to data acquired from a population-based cohort of patients with CHD in France, made up of 2867 cases (82% live births, 1.8% stillbirths and 16.2% pregnancy terminations. Results The majority of cases (79.5% could be identified with a single IPCCC code. The category "Heterotaxy, including isomerism and mirror-imagery" was the only one that typically required more than one code for identification of cases. The two largest categories were "ventricular septal defects" (52% and "anomalies of the outflow tracts and arterial valves" (20% of cases. Conclusion Our proposed classification is not new, but rather a regrouping of the known spectrum of CHD into a manageable number of categories based on anatomic and clinical criteria. The classification is designed to use the code numbers of the long list of IPCCC but can accommodate ICD-10 codes. Its exhaustiveness, simplicity, and anatomic basis make it useful for clinical and epidemiologic studies, including those aimed at assessment of risk factors and outcomes.

  5. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  6. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, Rolf [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J., E-mail: kuiper@mpia.de, E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: Neal.J.Turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  7. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass

  8. Absorption-line measurements of AGN outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dale L.

    Investigations into the elemental abundances in two nearby active galaxies, the narrow-line Seyfert 1 Markarian 1044 and the Seyfert 1 Markarian 279, are reported. Spectra from three space-based observatories HST, FUSE, and CHANDRA, are used to measure absorption lines in material outflowing from the nucleus. I make multi-wavelength comparisons to better convert the ionic column densities into elemental column densities which can then be used to determine abundances (metallicities). Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies are known to have extreme values of a number of properties compared to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as a class. In particular, emission-line studies have suggested that NLS1s are unusually metal-rich compared to broad-line AGNs of comparable luminosity. To test these suggestions I perform absorption-line studies on the NLS1 Markarian 1044, a nearby and bright AGN. I use lines of H I, C IV, N V, and O VI to properly make the photoionization correction through the software Cloudy and determine abundances of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. I find two results. The first is that Markarian 1044 has a bulk metallicity greater than five times solar. The second is that the N/C ratio in Markarian 1044 is consistent with a solar mixture. This is in direct contradiction of extrapolations from local H II regions which state N/ C should scale with bulk metallicity. This implies a different enrichment history in Markarian 1044 than in the Galactic disk. I also report discovery of three new low-redshift Lya forest lines with log N HI >= 12:77 in the spectrum of Markarian 1044. This number is consistent with the 2.6 expected Lya forest lines in the path length to Markarian 1044. I also investigate the CHANDRA X-ray spectrum of Markarian 279, a broad-line Seyfert 1. I use a new code, PHASE, to self-consistently model the entire absorption spectrum simultaneously. Using solely the X-ray spectrum I am able to determine the physical parameters of this absorber to a degree only

  9. Supernovae and AGN Driven Galactic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Nath, Biman B.

    2013-01-01

    We present analytical solutions for winds from galaxies with a Navarro-Frank-White (NFW) dark matter halo. We consider winds driven by energy and mass injection from multiple supernovae (SNe), as well as momentum injection due to radiation from a central black hole. We find that the wind dynamics depends on three velocity scales: (1) v_\\star ˜ (\\dot{E} / 2 \\dot{M})^{1/2} describes the effect of starburst activity, with \\dot{E} and \\dot{M} as energy and mass injection rate in a central region of radius R; (2) v • ~ (GM •/2R)1/2 for the effect of a central black hole of mass M • on gas at distance R; and (3) v_{s} =(GM_h / 2 {C}r_s)^{1/2}, which is closely related to the circular speed (vc ) for an NFW halo, where rs is the halo scale radius and {C} is a function of the halo concentration parameter. Our generalized formalism, in which we treat both energy and momentum injection from starbursts and radiation from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN), allows us to estimate the wind terminal speed to be (4v 2 sstarf + 6(Γ - 1)v • 2 - 4v 2 s )1/2, where Γ is the ratio of force due to radiation pressure to gravity of the central black hole. Our dynamical model also predicts the following: (1) winds from quiescent star-forming galaxies cannot escape from 1011.5 M ⊙ ~ 1000 km s-1. We also find that the ratio [2v 2 sstarf - (1 - Γ)v • 2]/v 2 c dictates the amount of gas lost through winds. Used in conjunction with an appropriate relation between M • and Mh and an appropriate opacity of dust grains in infrared (K band), this ratio has the attractive property of being minimum at a certain halo mass scale (Mh ~ 1012-1012.5 M ⊙) that signifies the crossover of AGN domination in outflow properties from starburst activity at lower masses. We find that stellar mass for massive galaxies scales as M sstarfvpropM 0.26 h , and for low-mass galaxies, M sstarfvpropM 5/3 h .

  10. Exercise-induced intra-ventricular gradients as a frequent potential cause of myocardial ischemia in cardiac syndrome X patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Ana G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of intra-ventricular gradients (IVG during dobutamine or exercise stress is not infrequent, and can be associated to symptoms during stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of IVG during exercise stress echocardiography in cardiac syndrome X patients. Methods We prospectively evaluated 91 patients (pts mean aged 51 ± 12 years (age ranged 20 to 75 years old, 44 of whom were women. All pts had angina, positive exercise ECG treadmill testing, normal rest echocardiogram and no coronary artery disease on coronary angiogram (cardiac X syndrome. After complete Doppler echocardiographic evaluation with determination of left ventricular outflow tract index (LVOTi, relative left ventricular wall thickness (RLVWT and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVDVi, all patients underwent stress echocardiography with two-dimensional and Doppler echographic evaluation during and after treadmill exercise. Results For analysis purpose patients were divided in 2 groups, according to the development of IVG. Doppler evidence of IVG was found in 33 (36% of the patients (Group A, with mean age 47 ± 14 years old (age ranged 20 to 72 years and with a mean end-systolic peak gradient of 86 ± 34 mmHg (ranging from 30 to 165 mmHg. The IVG development was accompanied by SAM of the mitral valve in 23 pts. Three of these pts experienced symptomatic hypotension. Ten were women (30% pts. 58 pts in group B, 34 of whom were women (59% (p = 0,01 vs group A, mean aged 53,5 ± 10,9 years old (age ranged 34 to 75 years (p = 0,03 vs group A, did not develop IVG. LVOTi was 10,29 ± 0,9 mm/m2 in group A and 11,4 ± 1 mm/m2 in group B (p 2 in group A and 56 ± 11,6 ml/m2 in group B (p = 0,000. Conclusion 1. A significant number of patients with cardiac X syndrome developed IVG during upright exercise in treadmill. These pts (group A are mainly males and younger than those who did not develop IVG. 2. The development of IVG

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your urinary tract, take these steps: Keep clean. Wash your private parts every day when you take ... choices. Those trips to the bathroom can help wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  14. Evidence for outflows in z ~ 6 galaxies with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Gallerani, S; Feruglio, C; Ferrara, A; Maiolino, R; Vallini, L; Riechers, D A

    2016-01-01

    We present the first attempt to detect outflows from galaxies approaching the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) using a sample of 9 star-forming (5 < SFR < 70 Msun/yr) z ~ 6 galaxies for which high-quality spectra of the [CII]158 micron line has been previously obtained with ALMA. We first fit each line with a Gaussian function and compute the residuals by subtracting the best fitting model from the data. We combine the residuals of all sample galaxies and find that the total signal is characterized by a flux excess that can be ascribed to broad wings of the [CII] line, which we interpret as a signature of starburst-driven outflows. The tentatively inferred outflow rate is dM/dt ~ 65 Msun/yr. Our interpretation is consistent with results from zoomed hydro- simulations of Dahlia, a z ~ 7 galaxy (SFR ~ 100 Msun/yr) whose feedback-regulated star formation results in an outflow rate dM/dt ~ 30 Msun/yr. These results suggest that starburst-driven outflows are in place in the EoR. Deeper observations of the [CII] l...

  15. Estimation of cold plasma outflow during geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, S.; Eriksson, A.; André, M.; Maes, L.; Baddeley, L.; Barakat, A.; Chappell, R.; Eccles, V.; Johnsen, C.; Lybekk, B.; Li, K.; Pedersen, A.; Schunk, R.; Welling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Low-energy ions of ionospheric origin constitute a significant contributor to the magnetospheric plasma population. Measuring cold ions is difficult though. Observations have to be done at sufficiently high altitudes and typically in regions of space where spacecraft attain a positive charge due to solar illumination. Cold ions are therefore shielded from the satellite particle detectors. Furthermore, spacecraft can only cover key regions of ion outflow during segments of their orbit, so additional complications arise if continuous longtime observations, such as during a geomagnetic storm, are needed. In this paper we suggest a new approach, based on a combination of synoptic observations and a novel technique to estimate the flux and total outflow during the various phases of geomagnetic storms. Our results indicate large variations in both outflow rates and transport throughout the storm. Prior to the storm main phase, outflow rates are moderate, and the cold ions are mainly emanating from moderately sized polar cap regions. Throughout the main phase of the storm, outflow rates increase and the polar cap source regions expand. Furthermore, faster transport, resulting from enhanced convection, leads to a much larger supply of cold ions to the near-Earth region during geomagnetic storms.

  16. Star Formation Ecology: YSO Outflow Feedback in Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Adam; Bally, John; Blackman, Eric; Gutermuth, Robert; Pipher, Judy; Quillen, Alice

    2007-05-01

    Energetic outflows associated with young stellar objects exert a strong effect on their parent molecular clouds. The dynamics of this interaction is yet to be well understood. In particular the role of jets and outflows in powering cloud turbulence, modifying the star formation efficiency (SFE) and/or disrupting the parent clouds remains unclear. Spitzer images of young clusters have provided new views of jet-cloud interactions that can help resolve these critical issues. In this proposal we seek to continue a highly successful (cycle 2) theory program to explore theoretical issues of jet-cloud interactions, turbulence and cloud disruption. Our research relies on 3-D Adaptive Mesh Refinement hydrodynamic and MHD simulations developed in house, in concert with Spitzer databases and other complementary observations. The team we have assembled includes computational and analytic theorists (Frank, Blackman) as well as observers who have worked closely with existing Spitzer Datasets (Bally, Quillen, Pipher, Gutermuth) The work funded through the previous TR program revealed fundamentally new aspects of YSO outflow feedback on parent cloud cores including the importance of the temporal evolution of outflow power. In this proposal we seek to extend the understanding gained in those studies to address specific questions on the nature and efficacy of outflow feedback in real systems.

  17. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  18. Colonic malakoplakia in a cardiac transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamathullah Sadiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory condition which is usually seen in the urogenital tract and less commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal malakoplakia may be associated with organ transplantation. There are previously only three reported cases of malakoplakia in cardiac transplant recipient. We report a case of colonic malakoplakia in a 38‑year‑old male who underwent cardiac transplantation for dilated cardiomyopathy 4 years previously and who had been on tacrolimus and mycophenolate. The patient presented with history of diarrhea associated with fecal incontinence for the past 6 months. Ileocolonoscopic examination was within normal limits. A rectal biopsy was done to exclude microscopic pathology. Microscopy revealed expansion of the lamina propria by histiocytes admixed with a few lymphocytes. The histiocytes showed granular eosinophilic cytoplasm with intracytoplasmic presence of Michaelis‑Gutmann bodies, rounded basophilic laminated structures having central core with a targetoid appearance. These stained positively for Von kossa stain for calcium and were diagnostic for malakoplakia. Although rare, malakoplakia may be associated with chronic diarrhea even if there are no macroscopic lesions seen during colonoscopy. The patient’s symptoms resolved with long‑term ciprofloxacin therapy

  19. Discs, outflows, and feedback in collapsing magnetized cores

    CERN Document Server

    Duffin, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The pre-stellar cores in which low mass stars form are generally well magnetized. Our simulations show that early protostellar discs are massive and experience strong magnetic torques in the form of magnetic braking and protostellar outflows. Simulations of protostellar disk formation suggest that these torques are strong enough to suppress a rotationally supported structure from forming for near critical values of mass-to-flux. We demonstrate through the use of a 3D adaptive mesh refinement code -- including cooling, sink particles and magnetic fields -- that one produces transient 1000 AU discs while simultaneously generating large outflows which leave the core region, carrying away mass and angular momentum. Early inflow/outflow rates suggest that only a small fraction of the mass is lost in the initial magnetic tower/jet event.

  20. The outflow speed of the coma of Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning the outflow speed of the coma of Comet Halley are studied in relation to a generalization of the coupled pure-gas-dynamic/Monte Carlo model of Combi and Smyth (1988) to include the dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma. Measurements made by the Giotto neutral-gas spectrometer, IR water observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and Doppler radio line profiles of HCN and OH are used to examine the radial dependence of the outflow speed, the asymmetry in the outflow speed, and the overall heliocentric distance dependence of the Doppler profiles, respectively. The results suggest that the model makes it possible to understand the gross long-term behavior and radial structure of the dynamics of the cometary coma. 23 refs

  1. The early history of protostellar disks, outflows, and binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Duffin, Dennis F

    2009-01-01

    In star formation, magnetic fields act as a cosmic angular momentum extractor which increases mass accretion rates onto protostars and in the process, creates spectacular outflows. However, recently it has been argued that this magnetic brake is so strong that early protostellar disks -- the cradles of planet formation -- cannot form. Our 3D numerical simulations of the early stages of collapse (\\lesssim 10^5 yrs) of overdense star--forming clouds form early outflows and have magnetically regulated and rotationally dominated disks (inside 10 AU) with high accretion rates, despite the slip of the field through the mostly neutral gas. We find that in 3D, magnetic fields suppress gravitationally driven instabilities which would otherwise prevent young, well ordered disks from forming. Our simulations have surprising consequences for the early formation of disks, their density and temperature structure, the mechanism and structure of early outflows, the flash heating of dust grains through ambipolar diffusion, an...

  2. 3D AMR simulations of G2 as an outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Ballone, A; Burkert, A; Gillessen, S; Plewa, P M; Pfuhl, O; Genzel, R; Eisenhauer, F; Ott, T; George, E M; Habibi, M

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of G2 in a \\textit{Compact Source Scenario}, where G2 is the outflow from a low-mass central star moving on the observed orbit. This is done through 3D AMR simulations of the hydrodynamic interaction of G2 with the surrounding hot accretion flow. A comparison with observations is done by means of mock position-velocity (PV) diagrams. We found that a massive ($\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{w}=5\\times 10^{-7} \\;M_{\\odot} \\; \\mathrm{yr^{-1}}$) and slow ($v_\\mathrm{w}=50 \\;\\mathrm{km\\; s^{-1}}$) outflow can reproduce G2's properties. A faster outflow ($v_\\mathrm{w}=400 \\;\\mathrm{km\\; s^{-1}}$) might also be able to explain the material that seems to follow G2 on the same orbit.

  3. The Massive Bipolar Outflow in IRAS 20110+3321

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Jing; XU Ye; MIYAZAKI Atsushi; SHEN Zhi-Qiang; CHEN Xi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mapping observations were made towards IRAS 20110+3321 using the Nobeyama 45 m and the Delingha 13.7m radio telescopes. The high angular resolution (~ 21″) image with the 45m telescope shows that there is a highvelocity bipolar molecular outflow in this region, which is in the NW-SE direction with a collimation factor of ~ 2.2. The outflow has significantly higher mass loss rate and mechanical luminosity than those from low mass YSOs, indicating that the outflow is driven by the IRAS source. A dense massive core was detected by mapping C18O (J= 1 - 0) line in the area with the 13.7m telescope. The IRAS source lies within the core but slightly offsets from its emission peak.

  4. Outflow distribution at the distal anastomosis of infrainguinal bypass grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R K; How, T V; Bakran, A; Brennan, J A; Harris, P L

    2004-03-01

    Outflow distribution at the distal anastomosis of infrainguinal bypass grafts remains unquantified in vivo, but is likely to influence flow patterns and haemodynamics, thereby impacting upon graft patency. This study measured the ratio of distal to proximal outflow in 30 patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass for lower limb ischaemia, using a flow probe and a transit-time ultrasonic flow meter. The mean outflow distribution was approximately 75% distal to 25% proximal, with above knee anastomoses having a greater proportion of distal flow (84%) compared to below knee grafts (73%). These in vivo flow characteristics differ significantly from those used in theoretical models studying flow phenomena (50:50 and/or 100:0), and should be incorporated into future research. PMID:14757463

  5. Management of Infection in the Post-Cardiac-Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Zeluff, Barry; Gentry, Layne O.

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing our post-transplant experience with infection in 192 cardiac transplant patients, * we have noticed a pattern. During the first month following transplantation, the patient seldom has an opportunistic infection, but is in danger of nosocomial infection (84 episodes in 57 patients). These include wound infection, and infections of the lungs, blood, and urinary tract. After the first month, and for the duration of the first year following transplantation, nosocomial infections beco...

  6. Studying the Outflow-Core Interaction with ALMA Cycle 1 Observations of the HH 46/47 Molecular Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yichen; Mardones, Diego; Cabrit, Sylvie; Dunham, Michael M; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Offner, Stella S R; Raga, Alejandro C; Corder, Stuartt A

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow using combined 12m array and 7m array observations. We use 13CO and C18O emission to correct for the 12CO optical depth, to accurately estimate the outflow mass, momentum and kinetic energy. Applying the optical depth correction increases the mass estimate by a factor of 14, the momentum by a factor of 6, and the kinetic energy by a factor of about 2. The new 13CO(1-0) and C18O(1-0) data also allow us to trace denser and slower outflow material than that traced by 12CO. These species are only detected within about 1~2 km/s from the cloud velocity. The cavity wall of the red lobe appears at very low velocities (~0.2 km/s). Combing the material traced only by 13CO and C18O, the measured total mass of the CO outflow is 1.4 Msun, the total momentum is 1.7 Msun km/s and the total energy is 4.7e43 erg, assuming Tex=15 K. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity in 12CO reveal more details of the outflow structure. Specifically, we find th...

  7. Short-duration spaceflight impairs human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Janice M.; Charles, John B.; Bennett, Barbara S.; Jones, Michele M.; Eckberg, Dwain L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a spaceflight on the vagally mediated baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses of humans were investigated by measuring the responses (provoked by neck pressure changes) in supine position and the heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and standing positions in 16 astronauts before and after 4- to 5-day long Space Shuttle missions. The results showed that exposures to spaceflight resulted in reduced baseline levels of the vagal-cardiac outflow and the vagally mediated responses to changes of the arterial baroreceptor input and that these changes contribute to postflight reductions of astronauts' ability to maintain standing arterial pressures.

  8. Heating of the Intracluster Medium by Quasar Outflows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suparna Roychowdhury; Biman B. Nath

    2002-03-01

    We study the possibility of quasar outflows in clusters and groups of galaxies heating the intracluster gas in order to explain the recent observation of excess entropy in this gas. We show that radio galaxies alone cannot provide the energy required to explain the observations but the inclusion of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) outflows can do so, and that in this scenario most of the heating takes place at ∼ 1–4, the ``preheating” epoch being at a lower redshift for lower mass clusters.

  9. Can dark energy explain the observed outflow in galaxy clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Donnari, M; Merafina, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of the Virgo cluster and the Local Group suggested that some galaxies are flowing out from their parent cluster. This may be the signature that dark energy (DE) acts significantly also on small cosmological scales. By means of direct N-body simulations we performed several simulations, in which the effect of DE and gravity are taken into account, aiming to determine whether DE can produce an outflow of galaxies compatible with observations. Comparing the different simulations, our results suggest that the observed outflow of galaxies is likely due to the local effect of DE.

  10. Magnetized Astrophysical Outflows Cradle to Grave, Source to Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I; Lery, T; Frank, Adam; Gardiner, Thomas A.; Lery, Thibaut

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the propagation of radiative MHD jets and outflows focusing on outflows driven by magneto-centrifugal rotators. Our goal is to link the properties of the jets with the physics of the sources which produce them. We find that density and magnetic field stratification (with radius) in jets from magnetized rotators leads to new behavior including the development of a dense inner jet core and a low density collar. We also report on more general studies of ambipolar diffusion and field geometry in pulsed jets. Finally we describe a new work designed to study the effects of magnetized winds on circumstellar environments appropriate to YSOs and PNe.

  11. The effects of vertical outflows on disk dynamos

    OpenAIRE

    Bardou, A.; Rekowski, B. v.; Dobler, W.; Brandenburg, A.; Shukurov, A.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the effect of vertical outflows on the mean-field dynamo in a thin disk. These outflows could be due to winds or magnetic buoyancy. We analyse both two-dimensional finite-difference numerical solutions of the axisymmetric dynamo equations and a free-decay mode expansion using the thin-disk approximation. Contrary to expectations, a vertical velocity can enhance dynamo action, provided it is not too strong. In the nonlinear regime this can lead to super-exponential growth of the ma...

  12. Outflow channel sources, reactivation, and chaos formation, Xanthe Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Sasaki, S.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Dohm, J.M.; Tanaka, K.L.; Miyamoto, H.; Kurita, K.; Komatsu, G.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The undulating, warped, and densely fractured surfaces of highland regions east of Valles Marineris (located north of the eastern Aureum Chaos, east of the Hydraotes Chaos, and south of the Hydaspis Chaos) resulted from extensional surface warping related to ground subsidence, caused when pressurized water confined in subterranean caverns was released to the surface. Water emanations formed crater lakes and resulted in channeling episodes involved in the excavation of Ares, Tiu, and Simud Valles of the eastern part of the circum-Chryse outflow channel system. Progressive surface subsidence and associated reduction of the subsurface cavernous volume, and/or episodes of magmatic-driven activity, led to increases of the hydrostatic pressure, resulting in reactivation of both catastrophic and non-catastrophic outflow activity. Ancient cratered highland and basin materials that underwent large-scale subsidence grade into densely fractured terrains. Collapse of rock materials in these regions resulted in the formation of chaotic terrains, which occur in and near the headwaters of the eastern circum-Chryse outflow channels. The deepest chaotic terrain in the Hydaspis Chaos region resulted from the collapse of pre-existing outflow channel floors. The release of volatiles and related collapse may have included water emanations not necessarily linked to catastrophic outflow. Basal warming related to dike intrusions, thermokarst activity involving wet sediments and/or dissected ice-enriched country rock, permafrost exposed to the atmosphere by extensional tectonism and channel incision, and/or the injection of water into porous floor material, may have enhanced outflow channel floor instability and subsequent collapse. In addition to the possible genetic linkage to outflow channel development dating back to at least the Late Noachian, clear disruption of impact craters with pristine ejecta blankets and rims, as well as preservation of fine tectonic fabrics, suggest that

  13. River Outflow of the Conterminous United States, 1939-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetter, Alexandre K.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    1993-10-01

    A record of 50 years of daily outflows through the boundaries of the continental United States has been assembled based on observations recorded by U.S. Geological Survey streamflow stations. Only stations with continuous records from 1939 through 1988 were included. These stations (197 total) are near the outlets of rivers located at the vicinity of the Canadian, Mexican, Atlantic (including the Gulf of Mexico), and Pacific borders of the continental United States. The drainage area of the selected stations covers 77% of the conterminous United States, whereas the existing network of gauging stations covers 83% of the conterminous U.S. area. Station daily data were aggregated over the entire boundary of the United States and were integrated in monthly and annual totals. The 50-year average annual streamflow divergence normalized by the aggregated drainage area is 210.2 mm yr1, reaching a peak in April with 27.3 mm month1 and a minimum in September with 8.7 mm month1. The Mississippi-Missouri Basin comprises 50% of the gauged area and dominates the absolute value of the outflow discharge. Spectral analysis of the monthly outflow anomalies shows an 11-year dominant cycle. The 1939-1988 period contains four notable droughts. Two droughts are partially registered in the limits of the records characterized by the negative anomalies extending from 1939 to 1941 and by the 1987-1988 anomalies for the late 1980s drought. The middle 1950s and early 1960s droughts are fully included in the dataset. Periods of high outflows were registered in the middle 1940s, early 1970s, and early 1980s. Analysis of the spatial coherence of the annual anomalies shows large-scale features, whereas analysis of the monthly anomalies yields the frequency and persistence patterns of floods and droughts. An estimate of the climatological land-surface water budget for the continental United States was done based on recorded precipitation, panevaporation, and outflow. Eigenvector analysis of the

  14. The role of cosmic ray pressure in accelerating galactic outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Christine M.; Pakmor, Ruediger; Marinacci, Federico; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Smith, Rowan J.

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation of galactic outflows from supernova explosions (SNe) with the moving-mesh code AREPO in a stratified column of gas with a surface density similar to the Milky Way disk at the solar circle. We compare different simulation models for SNe placement and energy feedback, including cosmic rays (CR), and find that models that place SNe in dense gas and account for CR diffusion are able to drive outflows with similar mass loading as obtained from a random placement of SNe with ...

  15. XMM observations of BAL Quasars with polar outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JunXian; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Dong, Xiaobo; Wang, Huiyuan

    2008-01-01

    We have selected a sample of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars which show significant radio variations, indicating the presence of polar BAL outflows. We obtained snapshot XMM observations of four polar BAL QSOs, to check whether strong X-ray absorption, one of the most prominent characteristics of most BAL QSOs, also exist in polar outflows. Two of the sources are detected in X-ray. Spectral fittings show that they are X-ray normal with no intrinsic X-ray absorption, suggesting the X-ray s...

  16. On the thermal line emission from the outflows in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ya-Di; Cao, Xinwu

    2016-01-01

    The atomic features in the X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) may be associated with the outflow (Middleton et al. 2015), which may provide a way to explore the physics of the ULXs. We construct a conical outflow model, and calculate the thermal X-ray Fe emission lines from the outflows. Our results show that thermal line luminosity decreases with increasing outflow velocity or/and opening angle of the outflow for a fixed kinetic power of the outflows. Assuming the kinetic ...

  17. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus...

  18. (abstract) A Test of the Theoretical Models of Bipolar Outflows: The Bipolar Outflow in Mon R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul; Patel, Nimesh

    1993-01-01

    We report some results of a study of the massive bipolar outflow in the central region of the relatively nearby giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2. We make a quantative comparison of our results with the Shu et al. outflow model which incorporates a radially directed wind sweeping up the ambient material into a shell. We find that this simple model naturally explains the shape of this thin shell. Although Shu's model in its simplest form predicts with reasonable parameters too much mass at very small polar angles, as previously pointed out by Masson and Chernin, it provides a reasonable good fit to the mass distribution at larger polar angles. It is possible that this discrepancy is due to inhomogeneities of the ambient molecular gas which is not considered by the model. We also discuss the constraints imposed by these results on recent jet-driven outflow models.

  19. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  20. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  1. Functional cardiac MRI for assessment of aortic valve disease; Aortenklappenstenose im MRT mit Dynamik und 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagmeister, F.; Ritter, C.; Machann, W.; Koestler, H.; Hahn, D.; Beer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Herrmann, S.; Voelker, W.; Weidemann, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Medizinische Klinik I, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Aortic valve disease shows a rising incidence with the increasing mean age of Western populations. The detection of hemodynamic parameters, which transcends the mere assessment of valve morphology, has an important future potential concerning classification of the severity of disease. MRI allows a non-invasive and a spatially flexible view of the aortic valve and the adjacent anatomic region, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and ascending aorta. Moreover, the technique allows the determination of functional hemodynamic parameters, such as flow velocities and effective orifice areas. The new approach of a serial systolic planimetry velocity-encoded MRI sequence (VENC-MRI) facilitates the sizing of blood-filled cardiac structures with the registration of changes in magnitude during systole. Additionally, the subvalvular VENC-MRI measurements improve the clinically important exact determination of the LVOT area with respect to its specific eccentric configuration and its systolic deformity. (orig.) [German] Erworbene Erkrankungen der Aortenklappe wie die Aortenklappenstenose zeigen mit zunehmender Alterungstendenz unserer Gesellschaft eine ansteigende Inzidenz. Die Erfassung ueber die reine Klappenmorphologie hinausgehender haemodynamischer Parameter hat ein wichtiges zukuenftiges Potenzial zur Schweregradeinschaetzung. Die MRT erlaubt eine nichtinvasive und raeumlich flexible Darstellung der Aortenklappe sowie ihrer benachbarten anatomischen Strukturen (linksventrikulaerer Ausflusstrakt/LVOT, Aorta ascendens). Darueber hinaus ist eine Bestimmung funktioneller haemodynamischer Parameter wie Flussgeschwindigkeiten und effektiven Oeffnungsflaechen (EOeF) moeglich. Der neue Ansatz einer seriellen Planimetrie geschwindigkeitskodierter MRT-Sequenzen (Velocity-encoding- [VENC-]MRT) erlaubt die Groessenbestimmung flussdurchstroemter kardialer Strukturen und die Aufzeichnung ihrer dynamischen Groessenveraenderung waehrend der Systole. Zusaetzlich ermoeglicht die

  2. [Cardiac evaluation before non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzenbach, Jan; Boehm, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    Before non-cardiac surgery, evaluation of cardiac function is no frequent part of surgical treatment. European societies of anesthesiology and cardiology published consensus-guidelines in 2014 to present a reasonable approach for preoperative evaluation. This paper intends to differentiate the composite of perioperative risk and to display the guidelines methodical approach to handle it. Features to identify patients at risk from an ageing population with comorbidities, are the classification of surgical risk, functional capacity and risk indices. Application of diagnostic means, should be used adjusted to this risk estimation. Cardiac biomarkers are useful to discover risk of complications or mortality, that cannot be assessed by clinical signs. After preoperative optimization and perioperative cardiac protection, the observation of the postoperative period remains, to prohibit complications or even death. In consideration of limited resources of intensive care department, postoperative ward rounds beyond intensive care units are considered to be an appropriate instrument to avoid or recognize complications early to reduce postoperative mortality. PMID:27479258

  3. Outflows from dynamo-active protostellar accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Von Rekowski, B; Dobler, W; Shukurov, A M; Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang; Rekowski, Brigitta von; Shukurov, Anvar

    2003-01-01

    An axisymmetric model of a cool, dynamo-active accretion disc is applied to protostellar discs. Thermally and magnetically driven outflows develop that are not collimated within 0.1 AU. In the presence of a central magnetic field from the protostar, accretion onto the protostar is highly episodic, which is in agreement with earlier work.

  4. Ionization driven molecular outflow in K3-50A

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Peters, T; Longmore, S N; Maercker, M

    2013-01-01

    Whether high mass stars continue to accrete material beyond the formation of an HII region is still an open question. Ionized infall and outflow have been seen in some sources, but their ties to the surrounding molecular gas are not well constrained. We aim to quantify the ionized and molecular gas dynamics in a high mass star forming region (K3-50A) and their interaction. We present CARMA observations of the 3mm continuum, H41\\alpha, and HCO+ emission, and VLA continuum observations at 23 GHz and 14.7 GHz to quantify the gas and its dynamics in K3-50A. We find large scale dynamics consistent with previous observations. On small scales, we find evidence for interaction between the ionized and molecular gas which suggests the ionized outflow is entraining the molecular one. This is the first time such an outflow entrained by photo ionized gas has been observed. Accretion may be ongoing in K3-50A because an ionized bipolar outflow is still being powered, which is in turn entraining part of the surrounding molec...

  5. Molecular Gas in M82 Resolving the Outflow and Streamers

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, F; Scoville, N Z; Walter, Fabian; Weiss, Axel; Scoville, Nick

    2002-01-01

    We present a high-resolution (3.6'', 70pc) CO(1-0) mosaic of the molecular gas in M 82 covering an area of 2.5' x 3.5' (2.8kpc x 3.9kpc) obtained with the OVRO millimeter interferometer. The observations reveal the presence of huge amounts of molecular gas (> 70% of the total molecular mass, M_tot=1.3 x 10^9 M_sun) outside the central 1 kpc disk. Molecular streamers are detected in and below M82's disk out to distances from the center of 1.7 kpc. Some of these streamers are well correlated with optical absorption features; they form the basis of some of the prominent tidal HI features around M 82. This provides evidence that the molecular gas within M 82's optical disk is disrupted by the interaction with M 81. Molecular gas is found in M 82's outflow/halo, reaching distances up to 1.2 kpc below the plane; CO line-splitting has been detected for the first time in the outflow. The maximum outflow velocity is 230 km/s; we derive an opening angle of 55 deg for the molecular outflow cone. The total amount of gas ...

  6. Mechanisms for pressurized groundwater outflow channels, implications for Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter; Kleinhans, Maarten; Hauber, E.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Murphy, Brendan J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Conway, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Various valleys on Mars show evidence for extensive fluvial activity in the past. The largest valleys on Mars are several tens to hundreds of kilometers wide and are thought to have originated from outflow of pressurized groundwater. However, exact mechanisms of these processes are lacking, which ha

  7. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben;

    2010-01-01

    at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane...

  8. Possible Outflow Formation in the Central Engine of GRBs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tong Liu; Wei-Min Gu; Ju-Fu Lu

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the vertical structure of neutrino-dominated accretion flows in spherical coordinates. In our calculation, the empty funnel along the rotation axis can naturally explain the neutrino annihilable ejection. The outflow is possible due to the positive Bernoulli function, and the luminosity of neutrino annihilation is enhanced by one or two orders of magnitude.

  9. Fast outflows and star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carniani, S; Maiolino, R; Balmaverde, B; Brusa, M; Cano-Díaz, M; Cicone, C; Comastri, A; Cresci, G; Fiore, F; Feruglio, C; La Franca, F; Mainieri, V; Mannucci, F; Nagao, T; Netzer, H; Piconcelli, E; Risaliti, G; Schneider, R; Shemmer, O

    2016-01-01

    Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is considered a key mechanism in shaping galaxy evolution. Fast, extended outflows are frequently detected in the AGN host galaxies at all redshifts and luminosities, both in ionised and molecular gas. However, these outflows are only "potentially" able to quench star formation and we are still missing a decisive evidence of negative feedback in action. Here we present Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) H- and K-band integral-field spectroscopic observations of two quasars at $z\\sim$2.4 characterised by fast, extended outflows detected through the [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 line (Carniani et al. 2015). The high signal-to-noise ratio of our observations allows us to identify faint narrow (FWHM $< 500$ km/s), and spatially extended components in [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 and H$\\alpha$ emission associated with star formation in the host galaxy. Such star-formation powered emission is spatially anti-correlated with the fast outflow...

  10. Evidence for a chemically differentiated outflow in Mrk 231

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, J E; Muller, S; Martí-Vidal, I; Falstad, N; Costagliola, F; Henkel, C; van der Werf, P; García-Burillo, S; González-Alfonso, E

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Our goal is to study the chemical composition of the outflows of active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies. Methods: We obtained high-resolution interferometric observations of HCN and HCO$^+$ $J=1\\rightarrow0$ and $J=2\\rightarrow1$ of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Mrk~231 with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We also use previously published observations of HCN and HCO$^+$ $J=1\\rightarrow0$ and $J=3\\rightarrow2$, and HNC $J=1\\rightarrow0$ in the same source. Results: In the line wings of the HCN, HCO$^+$, and HNC emission, we find that these three molecular species exhibit features at distinct velocities which differ between the species. The features are not consistent with emission lines of other molecular species. Through radiative transfer modelling of the HCN and HCO$^+$ outflow emission we find an average abundance ratio $X(\\mathrm{HCN})/X(\\mathrm{HCO}^+)\\gtrsim1000$. Assuming a clumpy outflow, modelling of the HCN and HCO$^+$ emission produces strongly inconsistent outflow masses....

  11. Protostellar Outflow Heating in a Growing Massive Protocluster

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Yuefang; Li, Hua-bai; Zhang, Huawei

    2011-01-01

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here we present the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H2O and class I CH3OH masers. Multiple NH3 transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH3 (3,3) emission are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH3 (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may n...

  12. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li Huabai, E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH{sub 3} (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH masers. Multiple NH{sub 3} transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH{sub 3} (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH{sub 3} (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  13. Fueling AGN II: Spatially Resolved Molecular Inflows and Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, R I; Hicks, E K S; Emsellem, E; Erwin, P; Burtscher, L; Dumas, G; Lin, M; Malkan, M A; Mueller-Sanchez, F; de Xivry, G Orban; Rosario, D J; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Tran, A

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the 2-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the stars as well as molecular and ionised gas in the central few hundred parsecs of 5 active and 5 matched inactive galaxies. The equivalent widths of the Br-gamma line indicate there is no on-going star formation in their nuclei, although recent (terminated) starbursts are possible in the active galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show no signs of non-circular motions, while the 1-0S(1) H_2 kinematics exhibit significant deviations from simple circular rotation. In the active galaxies the H_2 kinematics reveal inflow and outflow superimposed on disk rotation. Steady-state circumnuclear inflow is seen in three AGN, and hydrodynamical models indicate it can be driven by a large scale bar. In three of the five AGN, molecular outflows are spatially resolved. The outflows are oriented such that they intersect, or have an edge close to, the disk - which may be the source of molecular gas in the outflow. The relatively low speeds imply the gas will fall...

  14. The Physics and Physical Properties of Quasar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; Chartas, George; McGraw, Sean; Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Shields, Joseph; Charlton, Jane; Eracleous, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We describe two studies designed to characterize the total column densities, kinetic energies, and acceleration physics of broad absorption line (BAL) outflows in quasars. The first study uses new Chandra X-ray and ground-based rest-frame UV observations of 7 quasars with mini-BALs at extreme high speeds, in the range 0.1c to 0.2c, to test the idea that strong radiative shielding is needed to moderate the mini-BAL ionizations and facilitate their acceleration to extreme speeds. We find that the X-ray absorption is weak or absent, with generally N_H 15% of the UV continuum source along our lines of sight (based on measured line depths), then the radial thickness of these outflows is only Delta_R 8 x 10^15 cm. Thus the outflow regions have the shape of very thin "pancakes" viewed face-on, or they occupy larger volumes like a spray of dense cloudlets with a very small volume filling factor. We speculate that this situation (with ineffective shielding and small dense outflow substructures) applies to most quasar...

  15. Unipolar outflows and global meridional circulations in rotating accretion flows

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V

    1999-01-01

    Using two-dimensional simulations of non-radiative viscous rotating black hole accretion flows, we show that the flows with alpha~0.1-0.3 self-organize to form stationary unipolar or bipolar outflows accompanied by global meridional circulations. The required energy comes, with efficiency implications are discussed.

  16. Tracing Inflows and Outflows with Absorption Lines in Circumgalactic Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Amanda Brady; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A; Thompson, Robert; Weinberg, David H

    2013-01-01

    We examine how HI and metal absorption lines within low-redshift galaxy halos trace the dynamical state of circumgalactic gas, using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that include a well-vetted heuristic model for galactic outflows. We categorize inflowing, outflowing, and ambient gas based on its history and fate as tracked in our simulation. Following our earlier work showing that the ionisation level of absorbers was a primary factor in determining the physical conditions of absorbing gas, we show here that it is also a governing factor for its dynamical state. Low-ionisation metal absorbers (e.g. MgII) tend to arise in gas that will fall onto galaxies within several Gyr, while high-ionisation metal absorbers (e.g. OVI) generally trace material that was deposited by outflows many Gyr ago. Inflowing gas is dominated by enriched material that was previously ejected in an outflow, hence accretion at low redshifts is typically substantially enriched. Recycling wind material is preferentially found closer t...

  17. Methanol Maser Associated Outflows: Detection statistics and properties

    CERN Document Server

    de Villiers, H M; Thompson, M A; Ellingsen, S P; Urquhart, J S; Breen, S L; Burton, M G; Csengeri, T; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    We have selected the positions of 54 6.7GHz methanol masers from the Methanol Multibeam Survey catalogue, covering a range of longitudes between $20^{\\circ}$ and $34^{\\circ}$ of the Galactic Plane. These positions were mapped in the J=3-2 transition of both the $\\rm{^{13}CO}$ and $\\rm{C^{18}O}$ lines. A total of 58 $\\rm{^{13}CO}$ emission peaks are found in the vicinity of these maser positions. We search for outflows around all $\\rm{^{13}CO}$ peaks, and find evidence for high-velocity gas in all cases, spatially resolving the red and blue outflow lobes in 55 cases. Of these sources, 44 have resolved kinematic distances, and are closely associated with the 6.7GHz masers, a sub-set referred to as Methanol Maser Associated Outflows (MMAOs). We calculate the masses of the clumps associated with each peak using 870 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ continuum emission from the ATLASGAL survey. A strong correlation is seen between the clump mass and both outflow mass and mechanical force, lending support to models in which accretion is...

  18. THE JET-DRIVEN BOW SHOCK IN OUTFLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQing; ZhengXingwu

    1999-01-01

    Recent high resolution observations show the high collimated bipolar molecular outflows from young stellar objects, such as NGC 2 264G and NGC 2 024. Existing models can not yet give complete interpretations of the structure and properties of the observed flow. Here, we propose a jet-driven bow

  19. Complex Molecules in the L1157 Molecular Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, Héctor G; J\\orgensen, Jes K; Tafalla, Mario; Bachiller, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    We report the detection of complex organic molecules in the young protostellar outflow L1157. We identify lines from HCOOCH3, CH3CN, HCOOH and C2H5OH at the position of the B1 shock in the blueshifted lobe, making it the first time that complex species have been detected towards a molecular outflow powered by a young low-mass protostar. The time scales associated with the warm outflow gas (< 2,000 yr) are too short for the complex molecules to have formed in the gas phase after the shock-induced sputtering of the grain mantles. It is more likely that the complex species formed in the surface of grains and were then ejected from the grain mantles by the shock. The formation of complex molecules in the grains of low-mass star forming regions must be relatively efficient, and our results show the importance of considering the impact of outflows when studying complex molecules around protostars. The relative abundance with respect to methanol of most of the detected complex molecules is similar to that of hot ...

  20. Chandra Observations of Outflows from PSR J1509-5850

    CERN Document Server

    Klingler, Noel; Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George G; Posselt, Bettina; Ng, C -Y

    2016-01-01

    PSR J1509-5850 is a middle-aged pulsar with the period P ~ 89 ms, spin-down power Edot = 5.1 x 10^35 erg/s, at a distance of about 3.8 kpc. We report on deep Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of this pulsar and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). In addition to the previously detected tail extending up to 7' southwest from the pulsar (the southern outflow), the deep images reveal a similarly long, faint diffuse emission stretched toward the north (the northern outflow) and the fine structure of the compact nebula (CN) in the pulsar vicinity. The CN is resolved into two lateral tails and one axial tail pointing southwest (a morphology remarkably similar to that of the Geminga PWN), which supports the assumption that the pulsar moves towards the northeast. The luminosities of the southern and northern outflows are about 1 x 10^33 and 4 x 10^32 erg/s, respectively. The spectra extracted from four regions of the southern outflow do not show any softening with increasing distance from the pulsar. The lack of synchr...

  1. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, Christoph; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ~ 1000 times lower resolution than would be required without SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to t...

  2. Triggering the Formation of Halo Globular Clusters with Galaxy Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Scannapieco, E; Harlow, F; Scannapieco, Evan; Weisheit, Jon; Harlow, Francis

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the interactions of high-redshift galaxy outflows with low-mass virialized (Tvir 20% of the cloud. Such estimates ignore the likely presence of large-scale vortices, however, which would further enhance turbulence generation. Thus quantitative mixing predictions must await more detailed numerical studies.

  3. Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermández-Molina, F.J.; Stow, D.A.V.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.A.; Acton, G.; Bahr, A.; Balestra, B.; Ducassou, E.; Flood, R.; Flores, J.-A.; Furota, S.; Grunert, P.; Hodell, D.; Jimenez-Espejo, F.; Kim, J.K.; Krissek, L.; Kuroda, J.; Li, B.; Llave, E.; Lofi, J.; Lourens, L.; Miller, M.; Nanayama, F.; Nishida, N.; Richter, C.; Roque, C.; Pereira, H.; Sanchez Goñi, M.F.; Sierro, F.J.; Singh, A.D.; Takashimizu, Y.; Tzanova, A.; Voelker, A.; Williams, T.; Xuan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Sediments cored along the southwestern Iberian margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 provide constraints on Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) circulation patterns from the Pliocene epoch to the present day. After the Strait of Gibraltar opened (5.33 million years ago), a lim

  4. Impact of Protostellar Outflow on Star Formation: Effects of Initial Cloud Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2011-01-01

    Star formation efficiency controlled by the protostellar outflow in a single cloud core is investigated by three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations. Starting from the prestellar cloud core, the star formation process is calculated until the end of the main accretion phase. In the calculations, the mass of the prestellar cloud is parameterized. During the star formation, the protostellar outflow is driven by the circumstellar disk. The outflow extends also in the transverse direction until its width becomes comparable to the initial cloud scale, and thus, the outflow has a wide opening angle of >40 degrees. As a result, the protostellar outflow sweeps up a large fraction of the infalling material and ejects it into the interstellar space. The outflow can eject at most over half of the host cloud mass, significantly decreasing star formation efficiency. The outflow power is stronger in clouds with a greater initial mass. Thus, the protostellar outflow effectively suppresses star formation efficiency in a mas...

  5. Are molecular outflows around high-mass stars driven by ionization feedback?

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klessen, Ralf S; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-01-01

    The formation of massive stars exceeding 10 solar masses usually results in large-scale molecular outflows. Numerical simulations, including ionization, of the formation of such stars show evidence for ionization-driven molecular outflows. We here examine whether the outflows seen in these models reproduce the observations. We compute synthetic ALMA and CARMA maps of CO emission lines of the outflows, and compare their signatures to existing single-dish and interferometric data. We find that the ionization-driven models can only reproduce weak outflows around high-mass star-forming regions. We argue that expanding H II regions probably do not represent the dominant mechanism for driving observed outflows. We suggest instead that observed outflows are driven by the collective action of the outflows from the many lower-mass stars that inevitably form around young massive stars in a cluster.

  6. ARE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS AROUND HIGH-MASS STARS DRIVEN BY IONIZATION FEEDBACK?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Klaassen, Pamela D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Banerjee, Robi, E-mail: tpeters@physik.uzh.ch [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-20

    The formation of massive stars exceeding 10 M {sub Sun} usually results in large-scale molecular outflows. Numerical simulations, including ionization, of the formation of such stars show evidence for ionization-driven molecular outflows. Here we examine whether the outflows seen in these models reproduce the observations. We compute synthetic ALMA and CARMA maps of CO emission lines of the outflows, and compare their signatures to existing single-dish and interferometric data. We find that the ionization-driven models can only reproduce weak outflows around high-mass star-forming regions. We argue that expanding H II regions probably do not represent the dominant mechanism for driving observed outflows. We suggest instead that observed outflows are driven by the collective action of the outflows from the many lower-mass stars that inevitably form around young massive stars in a cluster.

  7. Structure and Nuclear Composition of General Relativistic, Magnetohydrodynamic Outflows from Neutrino-Cooled Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Barzilay, Yudith

    2007-01-01

    We compute the structure and degree of neutronization of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) outflows originating from the inner region of neutrino-cooled disks. We consider both, outflows expelled from a hydrostatic disk corona and outflows driven by disk turbulence. We show that in outflows driven thermally from a static disk the electron fraction quickly evolves to its equilibrium value which is dominated by neutrino capture. Those outflows are generally proton rich and, under certain conditions, can be magnetically dominated. They may also provide sites for effective production of 56Ni. Centrifugally driven outflows and outflows driven by disk turbulence, on the other hand, can preserve the large in-disk neutron excess. Those outflows are, quite generally, subrelativistic by virtue of the large mass flux driven by the additional forces.

  8. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  9. Overconsumption, outflows and the quenching of satellite galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Sean L.; Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    2014-07-01

    The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events - either direct stripping of the disc (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) - or from internally driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. These time-scales show significant deviations from the evolution expected for gas stripping mechanisms and suggest that either ram pressure stripping is much more efficient at high redshift, or that secular outflows quench satellites before orbit-based stripping occurs. Given the strong redshift evolution of star formation rates, at high redshift even moderate outflow rates will lead to extremely short delay times with the expectation that high-redshift (z > 1.5) satellites will be quenched almost immediately following the cessation of cosmological inflow. Observations of high-redshift satellites give an indirect but sensitive measure of the outflow rate, with current measurements suggesting that outflows are no larger than 2.5 times the star formation rate for galaxies with a stellar mass of 1010.5 M⊙.

  10. Multiwavelength Spectroscopy of the Bipolar Outflow from Cepheus E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Froebrich, Dirk; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2003-07-01

    Cepheus E is the site of an exceptional example of a protostellar outflow with a very young dynamical age and extremely high near-infrared luminosity. We combine molecular spectroscopic data from the submillimeter to the near-infrared in order to interpret the rotational excitation of CO and the rovibrational excitation of H2. We conclude that C-type shocks with a paraboloidal bow shock geometry can simultaneously explain all the molecular excitations. Extinction accounts for the deviation of the column densities from local thermodynamic equilibrium. A difference in the extinction between the red- and blueshifted outflow lobes may account for the measured flux difference. The outflow is deeply embedded in a clump of density 105 cm-3, yet a good fraction of atomic hydrogen, about 40%, is required to explain the excitation and statistical equilibrium. We propose that this atomic component arises, self-consistently, from the dissociated gas at the apex of the leading bow shocks and the relatively long molecule reformation time. At least 20 bow shocks are required in each lobe, although these may be subdivided into smaller bows and turbulent shocked regions. The total outflow mechanical power and cooling amounts to over 30 Lsolar, almost half the source's bolometric luminosity. Nevertheless, only about 6% of the clump mass has been set in outward motion by the outflow, allowing a collapse to continue. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  11. Cardiac metabolism and arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Andreas S.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2009-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death remains a leading cause of mortality in the Western world, accounting for up to 20% of all deaths in the U.S.1, 2 The major causes of sudden cardiac death in adults age 35 and older are coronary artery disease (70–80%) and dilated cardiomyopathy (10–15%).3 At the molecular level, a wide variety of mechanisms contribute to arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death, ranging from genetic predisposition (rare mutations and common polymorphisms in ion channels and structural...

  12. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  13. SOFIA observations of CO(12-11) emission along the L1157 bipolar outflow

    OpenAIRE

    Eislöffel, Jochen; Nisini, Brunella; Güsten, Rolf; Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Gusdorf, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is an excellent tracer of the physical conditions of gas in molecular outflows from young stars. To understand the outflow mechanism we need to investigate the origin of the molecular emission and the structure and interaction of the outflowing molecular gas. Deriving the physical parameters of the gas will help us to trace and understand the various gas components in the flow. We observed CO(12-11) line emission at various positions along the L1157 bipolar outflow with GREAT ...

  14. Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.

  15. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to assess cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring ... LDL-C but does not respond to typical strategies to lower LDL-C such as diet, exercise, ...

  16. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) SCA: Who's At Risk? Prevention of SCA What Causes SCA? SCA Awareness Atrial Flutter Heart Block Heart Failure Sick Sinus Syndrome Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  17. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt;

    2012-01-01

    to a standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements......%. Patients were equally distributed to the SRP and the ERP. No inequality was found in attendance and adherence among referred patients. Conclusions: It seems possible to overcome unequal referral, attendance, and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation by organisation of systematic screening and social......Aim: The comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme after myocardial infarction (MI) improves quality of life and results in reduced cardiac mortality and recurrence of MI. Hospitals worldwide face problems with low participation rates in rehabilitation programmes. Inequality...

  18. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes pictures of the body’s internal organs and soft tissues without using x rays. MRI machines use radio waves and magnets to ... Urinary tract imaging techniques include conventional radiology, or x rays; ... tomography (CT) scans; and radionuclide scans. Preparations for an ...

  19. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a diary of your diet and gas symptoms. ​​​​ ​Treatment for Gas in the Digestive Tract To reduce or prevent gas and gas symptoms, your doctor may suggest that you reduce swallowed air, quit smoking, make changes to your diet, or take medicines. ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's ... near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. Gross! Reviewed by: T. Ernesto Figueroa, ... Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  1. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  2. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  3. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  4. Cardiac tumours in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadava, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tumours in infancy are rare and are mostly benign with rhabdomyomas, fibromas and teratomas accounting for the majority. The presentation depends on size and location of the mass as they tend to cause cavity obstruction or arrhythmias. Most rhabdomyomas tend to regress spontaneously but fibromas and teratomas generally require surgical intervention for severe haemodynamic or arrhythmic complications. Other relatively rare cardiac tumours too are discussed along with an Indian perspect...

  5. Infected cardiac hydatid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ceviz, M; Becit, N; Kocak, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with chest pain and palpitation. The presence of a semisolid mass—an echinococcal cyst or tumour—in the left ventricular apex was diagnosed by echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The infected cyst was seen at surgery. The cyst was removed successfully by using cardiopulmonary bypass with cross clamp.


Keywords: cardiac hydatid cyst; infected cardiac hydatid cyst

  6. Cardiac applications of optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Christina M; Klimas, Aleksandra; Yu, Jinzhu; Entcheva, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    In complex multicellular systems, such as the brain or the heart, the ability to selectively perturb and observe the response of individual components at the cellular level and with millisecond resolution in time, is essential for mechanistic understanding of function. Optogenetics uses genetic encoding of light sensitivity (by the expression of microbial opsins) to provide such capabilities for manipulation, recording, and control by light with cell specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. As an optical approach, it is inherently scalable for remote and parallel interrogation of biological function at the tissue level; with implantable miniaturized devices, the technique is uniquely suitable for in vivo tracking of function, as illustrated by numerous applications in the brain. Its expansion into the cardiac area has been slow. Here, using examples from published research and original data, we focus on optogenetics applications to cardiac electrophysiology, specifically dealing with the ability to manipulate membrane voltage by light with implications for cardiac pacing, cardioversion, cell communication, and arrhythmia research, in general. We discuss gene and cell delivery methods of inscribing light sensitivity in cardiac tissue, functionality of the light-sensitive ion channels within different types of cardiac cells, utility in probing electrical coupling between different cell types, approaches and design solutions to all-optical electrophysiology by the combination of optogenetic sensors and actuators, and specific challenges in moving towards in vivo cardiac optogenetics.

  7. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Brinch, C.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Changing physical conditions in the vicinity of protostars allow for a rich and interesting chemistry to occur. Heating and cooling of the gas allows molecules to be released from and frozen out on dust grains. These changes in physics, traced by chemistry as well as the kinematical information, allows us to distinguish between different scenarios describing the infall of matter and the launching of molecular outflows and jets. Aims: We aim to determine the spatial distribution of different species that are of different chemical origin. This is to examine the physical processes in play in the observed region. From the kinematical information of the emission lines we aim to determine the nature of the infalling and outflowing gas in the system. We also aim to determine the physical properties of the outflow. Methods: Maps from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The line radiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of the system taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ are detected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, the circumstellar envelope and the surrounding cloud also have a profound impact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ is detected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region, perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO and H3+ in the densest regions as well as the destruction of N2H+ by CO. N2D+ is detected in a ridge south-west of the protostellar condensation and is not associated with the outflow. The morphology and kinematics of the CO emission suggests that the source is younger than ~1000 years. The mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy, and mass-loss rate are also all estimated to be low. A full 3D radiative transfer model of the system can explain all the kinematical and morphological features in the system.

  8. Chiricahua National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Piscataway Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Pipestone National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Hovenweep National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Pinnacles National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Petersburg National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Fort Donelson National Battlefield Tract & Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Sequoia National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Canyonlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Saguaro National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Theodore Roosevelt Island Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Cowpens National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Boundaries, Tracts (Published 2006), Petrified Forest, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI shapefile of National Park Service tract data. Tracts are numbered and created by the regional cartographic staff at the Land Resources Program...

  1. Coronado National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Chamizal National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Badlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Mojave National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Antietam National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Noatak National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Vietnam Vetrans Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Alagnak Wild River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Colorado National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Buffalo National River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Zion National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Catoctin Mountain Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Haleakala National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Navajo National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Wupatki National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. An overview of the hemodynamic aspects of the blood flow in the venous outflow tract of the arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Kapoulas, Konstantinos C; Georgiadis, George S; Tsangaris, Adamantios S; Nikolopoulos, Evagelos S; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb vein aneurysms complicate all types of autogenous arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) and comprise false aneurysms secondary to venipuncture trauma as well as true aneurysms, characterized by dilatation of native veins. The dilatation of a normal vein and the development of a true aneurysm are strongly influenced by local hemodynamic factors affecting the flow in the drainage venous system and are also the target of operative interventions. This review article focuses on the description of these hemodynamic aspects which all physicians involved in the management of dialysis patients should be aware of. Furthermore, it delineates their complicated interactions and also highlights their utility in clinical decision-making and therapeutic management. PMID:22266583

  17. Assessment of a single monomorphic ventricular ectopy from the right ventricular outflow tract in standard and high resolution electrocardiogram

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski, Dariusz; Kosiński, Adam; Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Alicja; Lewicka-Nowak, Ewa; Dudziak, Maria; Grzybiak, Marek; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction High-resolution electrocardiography (ECG-CREM) is a method based on digital electrocardiography. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the Crem records the technique of vectorcardiography was used. In comparison the origin of the ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) could be estimated based on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. The aim of the study was to assess the point of origin of the VPCs in ECG-CREM and correlate it with standard electrocardiography (ECG-Stand)....

  18. Observing the onset of outflow collimation in a massive protostar

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-González, C; Cantó, J; Curiel, S; Surcis, G; Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Goddi, C; Anglada, G; Kim, S -W; Kim, J -S; Gómez, J F

    2015-01-01

    The current paradigm of star formation through accretion disks, and magnetohydrodynamically driven gas ejections, predicts the development of collimated outflows, rather than expansion without any preferential direction. We present radio continuum observations of the massive protostar W75N(B)-VLA 2, showing that it is a thermal, collimated ionized wind and that it has evolved in 18 years from a compact source into an elongated one. This is consistent with the evolution of the associated expanding water-vapor maser shell, which changed from a nearly circular morphology, tracing an almost isotropic outflow, to an elliptical one outlining collimated motions. We model this behavior in terms of an episodic, short-lived, originally isotropic, ionized wind whose morphology evolves as it moves within a toroidal density stratification.

  19. On the Thermal Line Emission from the Outflows in Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Di; Cao, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    The atomic features in the X-ray spectra of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be associated with the outflow, which may provide a way to explore the physics of the ULXs. We construct a conical outflow model and calculate the thermal X-ray Fe emission lines from the outflows. Our results show that thermal line luminosity decreases with increasing outflow velocity and/or opening angle of the outflow for a fixed kinetic power of the outflows. Assuming the kinetic power of the outflows to be comparable with the accretion power in the ULXs, we find that the equivalent width can be several eV for the thermal X-ray Fe emission line from the outflows in the ULXs with stellar-mass black holes. The thermal line luminosity is proportional to 1/M bh (M bh is the black hole mass of the ULX). The equivalent width decreases with the black hole mass, which implies that the Fe line emission from the outflows can hardly be detected if the ULXs contain intermediate-mass black holes. Our results suggest that the thermal X-ray Fe line emission should be preferentially be detected in the ULXs with high kinetic power slowly moving outflows from the accretion disks surrounding stellar-mass black holes/neutron stars. The recently observed X-ray atomic features of the outflows in a ULX may imply that it contains a stellar-mass black hole.

  20. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionatos, Odyssefs; Nisini, Brunella; Cabrit, Sylvie;

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We employ archival Spitzer slit-scan observations of the HH211 outflow in order to investigate its warm gas content, assess the jet mass flux in the form of H2 and probe for the existence of an embedded atomic jet. Methods: Detected molecular and atomic lines are interpreted by means of emi...... uncertainties on jet speed and shock conditions are too large for a definite conclusion....

  1. Estimation of cold plasma outflow during geomagnetic storms

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Stein; Eriksson, A.; Maes, L.; Baddeley, Lisa; A. Barakat; Chappell, R; Eccles, V.; Johnsen, C.; Lybekk, Bjørn; Li, K.; A. Pedersen; Schunk, R.; Welling, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy ions of ionospheric origin constitute a significant contributor to the magnetospheric plasma population. Measuring cold ions is difficult though. Observations have to be done at sufficiently high altitudes and typically in regions of space where spacecraft attain a positive charge due to solar illumination. Cold ions are therefore shielded from the satellite particle detectors. Furthermore, spacecraft can only cover key regions of ion outflow during segments of their orbit, so addi...

  2. NIHAO XI: Formation of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies by outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris B.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Obreja, Aura C.; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    We address the origin of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs), which have stellar masses typical of dwarf galaxies but effective radii of Milky Way-sized objects. Their formation mechanism, and whether they are failed $\\rm L_{\\star}$ galaxies or diffuse dwarfs, are challenging issues. Using zoom-in cosmological simulations from the NIHAO project, we show that UDG analogues form naturally in medium-mass haloes due to episodes of gas outflows associated with star formation. The simulated UDGs live in ...

  3. Isotropically Driven versus Outflow Driven Turbulence: Observational Consequences for Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Jonathan J; Blackman, Eric G

    2010-01-01

    Feedback from protostellar outflows can influence the nature of turbulence in star forming regions even if they are not the primary source of velocity dispersion for all scales of molecular clouds. For the rate and power expected in star forming regions, we previously (Carroll et al. 2009) demonstrated that outflows could drive supersonic turbulence at levels consistent with the scaling relations from Matzner 2007 although with a steeper velocity power spectrum than expected for an isotropically driven supersonic turbulent cascade. Here we perform higher resolution simulations and combine simulations of outflow driven turbulence with those of isotropically forced turbulence. We find that the presence of outflows within an ambient isotropically driven turbulent environment produces a knee in the velocity power spectrum at the outflow scale and a steeper slope at sub-outflow scales than for a purely isotropically forced case. We also find that the presence of outflows flattens the density spectrum at large scal...

  4. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  5. Clustered star formation and outflows in AFGL 2591

    CERN Document Server

    Sanna, A; Carrasco-Gonzàlez, C; Menten, K M; Brunthaler, A; Moscadelli, L; Rygl, K L J

    2011-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 Solar masses. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km/s) and perhaps a lower-velocit...

  6. Eruptive Variable Stars and Outflows in Serpens NW

    CERN Document Server

    Hodapp, Klaus W; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland

    2011-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser) and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broad-band K and in a narrow-band filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of molecular hydrogen allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify a molecular hydrogen jet emerging ...

  7. How stellar feedback simultaneously regulates star formation and drives outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for how momentum deposition from stellar feedback simultaneously regulates star formation and drives outflows in a turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). Because the ISM is turbulent, a given patch of ISM exhibits sub-patches with a range of surface densities. The high-density patches are 'pushed' by feedback, thereby driving turbulence and self-regulating local star formation. Sufficiently low-density patches, however, are accelerated to above the escape velocity before the region can self-adjust and are thus vented as outflows. In the turbulent-pressure-supported regime, when the gas fraction is $\\gtrsim 0.3$, the ratio of the turbulent velocity dispersion to the circular velocity is sufficiently high that at any given time, of order half of the ISM has surface density less than the critical value and thus can be blown out on a dynamical time. The resulting outflows have a mass-loading factor ($\\eta \\equiv M_{\\rm out}/M_{\\star}$) that is inversely proportional to the gas fraction ...

  8. The role of superthermal electrons in high latitude ionospheric outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2014-12-01

    It is well accepted that the ionosphere is a critical source of plasma for the magnetosphere, providing O+, H+, and He+ which can have wide ranging consequences for the space environment system. Changing ion composition affects magnetic reconnection in the magnetosphere, the ring current, and the wave environment which is important for high energy radiation belt electrons. Of the myriad of mechanisms that are important in determining the ionospheric outflow solution at high latitudes, we focus on the role of superthermal electron populations. It has been demonstrated in multiple studies that even small concentrations of superthermal electrons can have a dramatic effect on the outflow solution. In this presentation, we present simulation results using our Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) and our SuperThermal Electron Transport (STET) code. We describe recent results on superthermal electrons role in defining the quiet time solar wind solution with comparisons to observations. We also discuss preliminary results that combine the PWOM and STET codes for a more comprehensive treatment of the impact of superthermal electrons.

  9. Jets and Outflows From Star to Cloud: Observations Confront Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A; Cabrit, S; Hartigan, P; Arce, H G; Bacciotti, F; Bally, J; Benisty, M; Eislöffel, J; Güdel, M; Lebedev, S; Nisini, B; Raga, A

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focus on the role jets and outflows play in the star and planet formation process. Our essential question can be posed as follows: are jets/outflows merely an epiphenomenon associated with star formation or do they play an important role in mediating the physics of assembling stars both individually and globally? We address this question by reviewing the current state of observations and their key points of contact with theory. Our review of jet/outflow phenomena is organized into three length-scale domains: Source and Disk Scales ($0.1-10^2$ au) where the connection with protostellar and disk evolution theories is paramount; Envelope Scales ($10^2-10^5$ au) where the chemistry and propagation shed further light on the jet launching process, its variability and its impact on the infalling envelope; Parent Cloud Scales ($10^5-10^6$ au) where global momentum injection into cluster/cloud environments become relevant. Issues of feedback are of particular importance on the smallest scales where p...

  10. The Launch Region of the SVS13 Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    We present the results of Keck Telescope laser adaptive optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC1333 SVS13 jet that drives the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a 0.4" long micro-jet traced by the emission of shock-excited [FeII]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of near-spherical bubbles traced in the lower excitation H 2 1-0 S(1) line. While this most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (PA 170°) to the south of SVS13, the older bubbles show a different direction of motion and orientation more towards the south-east, connecting the recent outflow activity to the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk. Our velocity-resolved observations of the microjet in the [FeII] emission line at 1.644μm, as well as the HI12-4 and 13-4 (Brackett series) emission lines originating from the accretion disk or jet launch region clearly show the kinematic signature of disk and jet rotation.

  11. An Analytic Model of Galactic Winds and Mass Outflows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Gang Shu; Hou-Jun Mo; Shu-De Mao

    2005-01-01

    Galactic winds and mass outflows are observed both in nearby starburst galaxies and in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We develop a simple analytic model to understand the observed superwind phenomenon with a discussion of the model uncertainties. Our model is built upon the model of McKee & Ostriker for the interstellar medium. It allows one to predict how properties of a superwind,such as wind velocity and mass outflow rate, are related to properties of its star forming host galaxy, such as size, gas density and star formation rate. The model predicts a threshold of star formation rate density for the generation of observable galactic winds. Galaxies with more concentrated star formation activities produce superwinds with higher velocities. The predicted mass outflow rates are compara ble to (or slightly larger than) the corresponding star formation rates. We apply our model to both local starburst galaxies and high-redshift Lyman break galaxies, and find its predictions to be in good agreement with current observations. Our model is simple and so can be easily incorporated into numerical simulations and semi-analytical models of galaxy formation.

  12. Constraining FeLoBAL outflows from absorption line variability

    CERN Document Server

    McGraw, S M; Hamann, F W; Capellupo, D M; Gallagher, S C; Brandt, W N

    2015-01-01

    FeLoBALs are a rare class of quasar outflows with low-ionization broad absorption lines (BALs), large column densities, and potentially large kinetic energies that might be important for `feedback' to galaxy evolution. In order to probe the physical properties of these outflows, we conducted a multiple-epoch, absorption line variability study of 12 FeLoBAL quasars spanning a redshift range between 0.7 and 1.9 over rest frame time-scales of approximately 10 d to 7.6 yr. We detect absorption line variability with greater than 8 sigma confidence in 3 out of the 12 sources in our sample over time-scales of 0.6 to 7.6 yr. Variable wavelength intervals are associated with ground and excited state Fe II multiplets, the Mg II 2796, 2803 doublet, Mg I 2852, and excited state Ni II multiplets. The observed variability along with evidence of saturation in the absorption lines favors transverse motions of gas across the line of sight (LOS) as the preferred scenario, and allows us to constrain the outflow distance from th...

  13. Spin Properties of Supermassive Black Holes with Powerful Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between beam power and accretion disk luminosity are studied for a sample of 55 HERG, 13 LERG, and 29 RLQ with powerful outflows. The ratio of beam power to disk luminosity tends to be high for LERG, low for RLQ, and spans the full range of values for HERG. Writing general expressions for the disk luminosity and beam power and applying the empirically determined relationships allows a function that parameterizes the spins of the holes to be estimated. Interestingly, one of the solutions that is consistent with the data has a functional form that is remarkably similar to that expected in the generalized Blandford-Znajek model with a magnetic field that is similar in form to that expected in MAD and ADAF models. Values of the spin function, obtained independent of specific outflow models, suggest that spin and AGN type are not related for these types of sources. The spin function can be used to solve for black hole spin in the context of particular outflow models, and one example is provided.

  14. A Variable PV Broad Absorption Line and Quasar Outflow Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellupo, Daniel M; Barlow, Tom A

    2014-01-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift $z_e = 2.56$), aided by the first detection of PV $\\lambda\\lambda$1118,1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, PV absorption at velocities where the CIV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the CIV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size 22.3 (cm^-2). Variability in the PV and saturated CIV BALs strongly disfavors changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high-column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of ...

  15. On the Formation of Molecular Clumps in QSO Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We study the origin of the cold molecular clumps in quasar outflows, recently detected in CO and HCN emission. We first describe the physical properties of such radiation-driven outflows and show that a transition from a momentum- to an energy-driven flow must occur at a radial distance of R ~ 0.25 kpc. During this transition, the shell of swept up material fragments due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, but these clumps contain little mass and are likely to be rapidly ablated by the hot gas in which they are immersed. We then explore an alternative scenario in which clumps form from thermal instabilities at R >~ 1 kpc, possibly containing enough dust to catalyze molecule formation. We investigate this processes with 3D two-fluid (gas+dust) numerical simulations of a kpc^3 patch of the outflow, including atomic and dust cooling, thermal conduction, dust sputtering, and photoionization from the QSO radiation field. In all cases, dust grains are rapidly destroyed in ~10,000 years; and while some cold clumps for...

  16. Spin properties of supermassive black holes with powerful outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ruth. A.

    2016-05-01

    Relationships between beam power and accretion disc luminosity are studied for a sample of 55 high excitation radio galaxies (HERG), 13 low excitation radio galaxies (LERG), and 29 radio loud quasars (RLQ) with powerful outflows. The ratio of beam power to disc luminosity tends to be high for LERG, low for RLQ, and spans the full range of values for HERG. Writing general expressions for the disc luminosity and beam power and applying the empirically determined relationships allows a function that parametrizes the spins of the holes to be estimated. Interestingly, one of the solutions that is consistent with the data has a functional form that is remarkably similar to that expected in the generalized Blandford-Znajek model with a magnetic field that is similar in form to that expected in magnetically arrested disk (MAD) and advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. Values of the spin function, obtained independent of specific outflow models, suggest that spin and active galactic nucleus type are not related for these types of sources. The spin function can be used to solve for black hole spin in the context of particular outflow models, and one example is provided.

  17. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M☉. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s–1) and perhaps a lower-velocity (∼10 km s–1) wind with an opening angle of about 20° from the jet axis.

  18. An analytic model for the galactic winds and mass outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, C; Mao, S; Shu, Chenggang; Mao, Shude

    2003-01-01

    Galactic winds and mass outflows are observed both in nearby starburst galaxies and in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. In this paper we develop a simple analytic model to understand the observed superwind phenomenon. Our model is built upon the model of McKee & Ostriker (1977) for the interstellar medium. It allows one to predict how properties of a superwind, such as wind velocity and mass outflow rate, are related to properties of its star-forming host galaxy, such as size, gas density and star formation rate. The model predicts a threshold of star formation rate density for the generation of observable galactic winds. Galaxies with more concentrated star formation produce superwinds with higher velocities. The predicted mass outflow rates are comparable to (or slightly larger than) the corresponding star formation rates. We apply our model to both local starburst galaxies and high-redshift Lyman break galaxies, and find its predictions to be in good agreement with current observations. Our model i...

  19. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerkeli, P; Brinch, C

    2016-01-01

    Changing physical conditions in the vicinity of protostars allow for a rich and interesting chemistry to occur. Heating and cooling of the gas allows molecules to be released from and frozen out on dust grains. These changes in physics, traced by chemistry, as well as the kinematical information allows us to distinguish between different scenarios describing the infall of matter and the launching of molecular outflows and jets. We aim at determining the spatial distribution of different species, of different chemical origin. This is to examine the physical processes in play in the observed region. From the kinematical information of the emission lines we aim at determining the nature of the infalling and outflowing gas in the system. We also aim at determining the physical properties of the outflow. Maps from the Sub-Millimeter Array reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous emission toward IRAS15398-3359. The line radiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of the system taking all...

  20. The large-scale ionised outflow of CH Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, R L M; Livio, M; Mampaso, A; Gonçalves, D R; Schwarz, H E; Corradi, Romano L.M.; Munari, Ulisse; Livio, Mario; Mampaso, Antonio; Goncalves, Denise R.

    2001-01-01

    HST and ground-based [OII} and [NII] images obtained from 1996 to 1999 reveal the existence of a ionised optical nebula around the symbiotic binary CH Cyg extending out to 5000 A.U. from the central stars. The observed velocity range of the nebula, derived from long-slit echelle spectra, is of 130 km/s. In spite of its complex appearence, the velocity data show that the basic morphology of the inner regions of the optical nebula is that of a bipolar (or conical) outflow extending nearly along the plane of the sky out to some 2000 A.U. from the centre. Even if the extension of this bipolar outflow and its position angle are consistent with those of the radio jet produced in 1984 (extrapolated to the time of our optical imagery), no obvious counterpart is visible of the original, dense radio bullets ejected by the system. We speculate that the optical bipolar outflow might be the remannt of the interaction of the bullets with a relatively dense circumstellar medium.

  1. Effect of Cerium on Cardiac Muscle of Rat and Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of Ce3+ on cardiac muscle of rat and guinea pig was studied. In vitro, 0.05 mmol.L-1 solution of Ce3+ inhibited the contraction of guinea pig atria. The change of action potential duration(APD) of guinea pig papillary muscle exposed to 0.4 mmol·L-1 Ce3+ was significant, and those exposed to 0.1 and 0.2 mmol·L-1 Ce3+ were not significant. In vivo, compared with the control group, the APD for rat cardiac muscle after long-term feed on Ce3+ was significantly delayed in high dose, and that was not significantly delayed in low dose. The results suggest that Ce3+ with long-term high dose intake might affect the influx of Ca2+, Na+ and outflow of K+ for rat cardiac muscle.

  2. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  3. Musculature of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, J E

    2000-04-01

    Leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas are derived from smooth muscle tissues. Smooth muscle cells also surround the blood vessels that supply the alimentary tract. These cells have at times been said to contribute to the formation of smooth muscle tumors in the alimentary canal. With such an abundance of smooth muscle, there is little reason at present to implicate the smooth muscle elements of blood vessel walls.

  4. Diet and biliary tract cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman CJ; Bueno de Mesquita HB; Runia S; Smeets FWM

    1991-01-01

    We studied the relation between diet and biliary tract cancer in a case-control study, comprising 111 incident cases and 480 controls from the general population. Food intake was assessed with a semi- quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which covered diet comprehensively. In half of the cases and 30% of the controls the information was obtained from the spouse or other relatives (indirect respondents). Mono- and disaccharides showed an elevated risk, independent from other sources of e...

  5. Trasplante de homoinjertos valvulares cardiacos y vasculares Cardiac and vascular homograft valves transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herreros

    2006-08-01

    for heart transplant; c Cadaver donors with asystolia of less than 8 hours. Homograft cardiac valves are the substitute of choice in aortic valve endocarditis, patients with counter-indications for anticoagulation, reconstruction of the outflow tract of the right ventricle, aortic valve replacement in children and young adults through the Ross operation, and an optional indication is the aortic valve and/or rising aorta replacement in patients over 60 years of age. Although there are not sufficiently broad series of homogratfs with arterial substitutes, with respect to the number of patients and time of evolution, the results suggest that this can benefit patients with vascular infection, immunodepressed patients or complex patients whose technique during the operation might require a homograft.

  6. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  7. HiRes Deconvolved Spitzer Images of 89 Protostellar Jets and Outflows: New Data on Evolution of Outflow Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Velusamy, T; Thompson, T

    2013-01-01

    To study the role of protosellar jets and outflows in the time evolution of the parent cores and the protostars, the astronomical community needs a large enough data base of infrared images of protostars at the highest spatial resolution possible, to reveal the details of their morphology. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features, however its spatial resolution is limited by its 0.85m mirror. Here we use a high resolution deconvolution algorithm, "HiRes", to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to sub-arcsecond levels in the IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating sidelobes from bright sources in a sample of 89 protostellar objects. These reprocessed images are useful to detect: (i) wide angle outflow seen in scattered light; (ii) morphological details of H2 emission in jets and bow shocks; and (iii) compact features in MIPS 24 micron images as protostar/ disk and atomic/ionic line emissions associated with the...

  8. Momentum-driven outflow emission from an O-type YSO: Comparing the radio jet with the molecular outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Sanna, A; Cesaroni, R; Garatti, A Caratti o; Goddi, C; Carrasco-González, C

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We want to study the physical properties of the ionized jet emission in the vicinity of an O-type young stellar object (YSO), and estimate how efficient is the transfer of energy and momentum from small- to large-scale outflows. Methods: We conducted Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations, at both 22 and 45 GHz, of the compact and faint radio continuum emission in the high-mass star-forming region G023.01-00.41, with an angular resolution between 0.3" and 0.1", and a thermal rms of the order of 10 uJy/beam. Results: We discovered a collimated thermal (bremsstrahlung) jet emission, with a radio luminosity (L_rad) of 24 mJy kpc^2 at 45 GHz, in the inner 1000 AU from an O-type YSO. The radio thermal jet has an opening angle of 44 degrees and brings a momentum rate of 8 10^-3 M_sun yr^-1 km/s. By combining the new data with previous observations of the molecular outflow and water maser shocks, we can trace the outflow emission from its driving source through the molecular clump, across more than...

  9. Uncovering the Outflow Driven by the Brown Dwarf LS-RCr A1: H-alpha as a Tracer of Outflow Activity in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F

    2009-01-01

    It is now apparent that classical T Tauri-like outflows commonly accompany the formation of young brown dwarfs. To date two optical outflows have been discovered and results presented in this paper increase this number to three. Using spectro-astrometry the origin of the LS-RCrA 1 forbidden emission lines in a blue-shifted outflow is confirmed. The non-detection of the red-shifted component of the outflow in forbidden lines, along with evidence for some separation between low and high velocity outflow components, do not support the hypothesis that LS-RCrA 1 has an edge-on accretion disk. The key result of this analysis is the discovery of an outflow component to the H-alpha line. The H-alpha line profile has blue and red-shifted features in the wings which spectro-astrometry reveals to also originate in the outflow. The discovery that H-alpha emission in BDs can have a significant contribution from an outflow suggests the use of H-alpha line widths as a proxy of mass accretion in BDs is not clear-cut. This me...

  10. Application of cine cardiac MR imaging in normal subjects and patients with valvular, coronary artery, and aortic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cine MR imaging was performed on 15 normal subjects and 27 patients with cardiac disease. In normal subjects, high signal intensity of flowing blood contrasted with that of the myocardium. In 16 patients with valvular regurgitation, signal void jet due to turbulence was visualized across the diseased valves. In three IHSS patients, thickened LV myocardium, mitral regurgitant jets, and systolic LV outflow jets were noted. Five patients with myocardial infarction (MI) showed thinning and/or hypokinesis of MI regions. In three patients with Marfan syndrome, aortic dilatation, insufficiency, and flap (one pt) were identified. Cine MR imaging is potentially useful for evaluation of a variety of cardiac diseases

  11. Pediatric cardiac postoperative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. José Otávio Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo, Medical School is a referral center for the treatment of congenital heart diseases of neonates and infants. In the recent years, the excellent surgical results obtained in our institution may be in part due to modern anesthetic care and to postoperative care based on well-structured protocols. The purpose of this article is to review unique aspects of neonate cardiovascular physiology, the impact of extracorporeal circulation on postoperative evolution, and the prescription for pharmacological support of acute cardiac dysfunction based on our cardiac unit protocols. The main causes of low cardiac output after surgical correction of heart congenital disease are reviewed, and methods of treatment and support are proposed as derived from the relevant literature and our protocols.

  12. The cardiac anxiety questionnaire: cross-validation among cardiac inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H. van; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Deelen, F.M. van; Balkom, A.J. van; Pop, G.A.; Speckens, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the D

  13. THE CARDIAC ANXIETY QUESTIONNAIRE : CROSS-VALIDATION AMONG CARDIAC INPATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M. H. C. T.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude; van Deelen, F. M.; van Balkom, A. J. L. M.; Pop, G.; Speckens, A. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the D

  14. Acute impact of pacing at different cardiac sites on left ventricular rotation and twist in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wen Zhou

    Full Text Available We evaluated the acute impact of different cardiac pacing sites on two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE derived left ventricular (LV rotation and twist in healthy dogs.Twelve dogs were used in this study. The steerable pacing electrodes were positioned into right heart through the superior or inferior vena cava, into LV through aorta across the aortic valve. The steerable pacing electrodes were positioned individually in the right atrium (RA, right ventricular apex (RVA, RV outflow tract (RVOT, His bundle (HB, LV apex (LVA and LV high septum (LVS, individual pacing mode was applied at 10 minutes interval for at least 5 minutes from each position under fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance and at stabilized hemodynamic conditions. LV short-axis images at the apical and basal levels were obtained during sinus rhythm and pacing. Offline STE analysis was performed. Rotation, twist, time to peak rotation (TPR, time to peak twist (TPT, and apical-basal rotation delay (rotational synchronization index, RSI values were compared at various conditions. LV pressure was monitored simultaneously.Anesthetic death occurred in 1 dog, and another dog was excluded because of bad imaging quality. Data from 10 dogs were analyzed. RVA, RVOT, HB, LVA, LVS, RARV (RA+RVA pacing resulted in significantly reduced apical and basal rotation and twist, significantly prolonged apical TPR, TPT and RSI compared to pre-pacing and RA pacing (all P<0.05. The apical and basal rotation and twist values were significantly higher during HB pacing than during pacing at ventricular sites (all P<0.05, except basal rotation at RVA pacing. The apical TPR during HB pacing was significantly shorter than during RVOT and RVA pacing (both P<0.05. The LV end systolic pressure (LVESP was significantly lower during ventricular pacing than during pre-pacing and RA pacing.Our results show that RA and HB pacing results in less acute reduction on LV twist, rotation and LVESP compared

  15. Giant Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eric; Costic, Joseph; Laub, Glenn

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic giant cardiac cavernous hemangioma in a 71-year-old man. The intracardiac mass was discovered incidentally during surveillance for his prostate cancer; however, the patient initially declined intervention. On presentation to our institution 7 years later, the lesion had enlarged significantly, and the patient consented to excision. At surgery, an 8 × 6.5 × 4.8 cm intracardiac mass located on the inferior heart border was excised with an intact capsule through a median sternotomy approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We discuss the diagnostic workup, treatment, and characteristics of this rare cardiac tumor. PMID:26140782

  16. Perioperative management of cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti, N A; Malik, A A; Ihsan, K M; Aftab, S M E; Khan, W S

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing cardiac disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality amongst patients undergoing non cardiac surgery. Patients with pre-existing cardiac disease or with risk factors for it, have as much as a 3.9% risk of suffering a major perioperative cardiac event (Lee et al 1999, Devereaux 2005). Furthermore, the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) is increased 10 to 50 fold in patients with previous coronary events (Jassal 2008).

  17. Relation of fragmented QRS complex to right ventricular fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance in adults with repaired tetralogy of fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Seung Woo; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Kang, I-Seok; Lee, Heung Jae; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Huh, June

    2012-01-01

    Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on 12-lead electrocardiography reflects conduction delay caused by myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction. Ventricular fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is reportedly correlated with worse clinical outcomes in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of fQRS is associated with right ventricular (RV) fibrosis or dysfunction in this patient group. In 37 consecutive patients (median age 30 years, median age at repair 6.6 years), the number of leads showing fQRS, defined as the presence of >2 notches on the R/S wave in ≥2 contiguous leads, was counted. RV systolic function, dilatation, and LGE score were measured using LGE CMR. Ventricular LGE was observed mainly at the previous surgical sites: the RV outflow tract (33 of 37), ventricular septal defect patch region (15 of 37), and RV anterior wall (11 of 37). Fragmented QRS was found mostly in the right and mid precordial leads. The fQRS group (n = 20) demonstrated higher RV LGE scores (p <0.001) and lower RV ejection fractions (p = 0.02) and a trend toward larger RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (p = 0.12 and p = 0.06, respectively) compared to the non-fQRS group (n = 17). The number of electrocardiographic leads showing fQRS was positively correlated with RV LGE score (r = 0.75, p <0.001). The presence of fQRS remained independently associated with the presence of supramedian RV LGE score, even after adjusting for relevant parameters. In conclusion, fQRS was closely associated with more extensive RV fibrosis and dysfunction in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

  18. The cardiac malpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Joseph K

    2011-11-01

    Dextrocardia was known in the 17th century and was 1 of the first congenital malformations of the heart to be recognized. Fifty years elapsed before Matthew Baillie published his account of complete transposition in a human of the thoracic and abdominal viscera to the opposite side from what is natural. In 1858, Thomas Peacock stated that "the heart may be congenitally misplaced in various ways, occupying either an unusual position within the thorax, or being situated external to that cavity." In 1915, Maude Abbott described ectopia cordis, and Richard Paltauf's remarkable illustrations distinguished the various types of dextrocardia. In 1928, the first useful classification of the cardiac malpositions was proposed, and in 1966, Elliott et al's radiologic classification set the stage for clinical recognition. The first section of this review deals with the 3 basic cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral asymmetry. The second section deals with cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral left-sidedness or right-sidedness. Previous publications on cardiac malpositions are replete with an arcane vocabulary that confounds rather than clarifies. Even if the terms themselves are understood, inherent complexity weighs against clarity. This review was designed as a guided tour of an unfamiliar subject.

  19. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser; Mahrous; Fouad; Reem; Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases

  20. Cardiac effects of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Dicken, Bryan; Bigam, David; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2014-07-01

    Vasopressin is an essential hormone involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. It has been in use therapeutically for many decades, with an emphasis on its vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic properties. However, this hormone has a ubiquitous influence and has specific effects on the heart. Although difficult to separate from its powerful vascular effects in the clinical setting, a better understanding of vasopressin's direct cardiac effects could lead to its more effective clinical use for a variety of shock states by maximizing its therapeutic benefit. The cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin are complex and require further elucidation. Complicating our understanding include the various receptors and secondary messengers involved in vasopressin's effects, which may lead to various results based on differing doses and varying environmental conditions. Thus, there have been contradictory reports on vasopressin's action on the coronary vasculature and on its effect on inotropy. However, beneficial results have been found and warrant further study to expand the potential therapeutic role of vasopressin. This review outlines the effect of vasopressin on the coronary vasculature, cardiac contractility, and on hypertrophy and cardioprotection. These cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin represent an interesting area for further study for potentially important therapeutic benefits. PMID:24621650

  1. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...

  2. Cardiac pacemaker power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of chemical and radioisotope batteries used in cardiac pacemakers is presented. The battery systems are examined in terms of longevity, reliability, cost, size and shape, energy density, weight, internal resistance versus time, end-of-life voltage, chemical compatibility, and potential failure mechanisms

  3. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  4. DENSE CLUMPS AND CANDIDATES FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN W40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Fumitaka; Hara, Chihomi; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomohiro [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sugitani, Kouji, E-mail: ikura@u-gakugei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan)

    2015-06-20

    We report the results of the {sup 12}CO (J = 3−2) and HCO{sup +} (J = 4−3) observations of the W40 H ii region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope (HPBW ≃ 22″) to search for molecular outflows and dense clumps. We found that the velocity field in the region is highly complex, consisting of at least four distinct velocity components at V{sub LSR} ≃ 3, 5, 7, and 10 km s{sup −1}. The ∼7 km s{sup −1} component represents the systemic velocity of cold gas surrounding the entire region, and causes heavy absorption in the {sup 12}CO spectra over the velocity range 6 ≲ V{sub LSR} ≲ 9 km s{sup −1}. The ∼5 and ∼10 km s{sup −1} components exhibit high {sup 12}CO temperature (≳40 K) and are found mostly around the H ii region, suggesting that these components are likely to be tracing dense gas interacting with the expanding shell around the H ii region. Based on the {sup 12}CO data, we identified 13 regions of high velocity gas, which we interpret as candidate outflow lobes. Using the HCO{sup +} data, we also identified six clumps and estimated their physical parameters. On the basis of the ASTE data and near-infrared images from 2MASS, we present an updated three-dimensional model of this region. In order to investigate molecular outflows in W40, the SiO (J = 1−0, v = 0) emission line and some other emission lines at 40 GHz were also observed with the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, but they were not detected at the present sensitivity.

  5. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  6. Impact of respiratory infection in the results of cardiac surgery in a tertiary hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Newton Guimarães Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:To assess the impact of respiratory tract infection in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery in relation to mortality and to identify patients at higher risk of developing this complication.Methods:Cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Recovery of Cardiothoracic Surgery, using information from a database consisting of a total of 900 patients operated on in this hospital during the period from 01/07/2008 to 1/07/2009. We included patients whose medical records contained all the information required and undergoing elective surgery, totaling 109 patients with two excluded. Patients were divided into two groups, WITH and WITHOUT respiratory tract infection, as the development or respiratory tract infection in hospital, with patients in the group without respiratory tract infection, the result of randomization, using for the pairing of the groups the type of surgery performed. The outcome variables assessed were mortality, length of hospital stay and length of stay in intensive care unit. The means of quantitative variables were compared using the Wilcoxon and student t-test.Results:The groups were similar (average age P=0.17; sex P=0.94; surgery performed P=0.85-1.00 Mortality in the WITH respiratory tract infection group was significantly higher (P<0.0001. The times of hospitalization and intensive care unit were significantly higher in respiratory tract infection (P<0.0001. The presence of respiratory tract infection was associated with the development of other complications such as renal failure dialysis and stroke P<0.00001 and P=0.002 respectively.Conclusion:The development of respiratory tract infection postoperative cardiac surgery is related to higher mortality, longer periods of hospitalization and intensive care unit stay.

  7. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  8. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  9. Alternative venous outflow vessels in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrara, Babak J; Santoro, Timothy; Smith, Andrew; Arcilla, Eric A; Watson, James P; Shaw, William W; Da Lio, Andrew L

    2003-08-01

    The lack of adequate recipient vessels often complicates microvascular breast reconstruction in patients who have previously undergone mastectomy and irradiation. In addition, significant size mismatch, particularly in the outflow veins, is an important contributor to vessel thrombosis and flap failure. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' experience with alternative venous outflow vessels for microvascular breast reconstruction. In a retrospective analysis of 1278 microvascular breast reconstructions performed over a 10-year period, the authors identified all patients in whom the external jugular or cephalic veins were used as the outflow vessels. Patient demographics, flap choice, the reasons for the use of alternative venous drainage vessels, and the incidence of microsurgical complications were analyzed. The external jugular was used in 23 flaps performed in procedures with 22 patients. The superior gluteal and transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps were used in the majority of the cases in which the external jugular vein was used (72 percent gluteal, 20 percent TRAM flap). The need for alternative venous outflow vessels was usually due to a significant vessel size mismatch between the superior gluteal and internal mammary veins (74 percent). For three of the external jugular vein flaps (13 percent), the vein was used for salvage after the primary draining vein thrombosed, and two of three flaps in these cases were eventually salvaged. In three patients, the external jugular vein thrombosed, resulting in two flap losses, while the third was salvaged using the cephalic vein. A total of two flaps were lost in the external jugular vein group. The cephalic vein was used in 11 flaps (TRAM, 64.3 percent; superior gluteal, 35.7 percent) performed in 11 patients. In five patients (54.5 percent), the cephalic vein was used to salvage a flap after the primary draining vein thrombosed; the procedure was successful in four cases. In three

  10. Infall and Outflow Activities in the Be star FY CMa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Unusual activity of outflow mass motion connected with infall eventswas recorded for the B0.5 IVe star FY CMa in February 1987 from both archivalIUE spectrograms of circumstellar N v resonance lines and optical spectra of Hαand He Iλ5876 A emission lines which showed inverse P Cygni-type profiles. Weestimate the mass loss rate using ultraviolet Si IVresonance lines with expanding atmosphere modeling calculations, and describe how the radial pressure performs the dominant role in accelerating the stellar wind. We attempt to give a qualitativeexplanation for the activity observed for FY CMa in terms of circumstellar matterraining down to the star.

  11. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE MOLECULAR OUTFLOW G331.512-0.103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merello, Manuel; Bronfman, Leonardo; Garay, Guido; Lo, Nadia [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Nyman, Lars-Ake; Cortes, Juan R. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Cunningham, Maria R. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. Observations with ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The velocities of the bipolar outflow are about 70 km s{sup -1} on either side of the systemic velocity. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is {approx}24 km s{sup -1}, implying a crossing time of about 2000 yr. Along the symmetry axis of the outflow, there is a velocity feature, which could be a molecular ''bullet'' of high-velocity dense material. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.

  12. ALMA observations of the massive molecular outflow G331.512-0.103

    CERN Document Server

    Merello, Manuel; Garay, Guido; Lo, Nadia; Evans, Neal J; Nyman, Lars-Ake; Cortés, Juan R; Cunningham, Maria R

    2013-01-01

    The object of this study is one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. Observations with ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The velocities of the bipolar outflow are about 70 km s^{-1} on either side of the systemic velocity. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is ~24 km s^{-1}, implying a crossing time of about 2000 yrs. Along the symmetry axis of the outflow, there is a velocity feature, which could be a molecular "bullet" of high-velocity dense material. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.

  13. The Turbulent Origin of Outflow and Spin Misalignment in Multiple Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Offner, Stella S R; Lee, Katherine I; Arce, Hector G; Fielding, Drummond B

    2016-01-01

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momenta. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce $^{12}$CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multipl...

  14. Multi-epoch Sub-arcsecond [Fe II] Spectroimaging of the DG Tau Outflows with NIFS. II. On the Nature of the Bipolar Outflow Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    White, Marc C; McGregor, Peter J; Salmeron, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The origin of bipolar outflow asymmetry in young stellar objects (YSOs) remains poorly understood. It may be due to an intrinsically asymmetric outflow launch mechanism, or it may be caused by the effects of the ambient medium surrounding the YSO. Answering this question is an important step in understanding outflow launching. We have investigated the bipolar outflows driven by the T Tauri star DG Tauri on scales of hundreds of AU, using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini North. The approaching outflow consists of a well-collimated jet, nested within a lower-velocity disc wind. The receding outflow is composed of a single-component bubble-like structure. We analyse the kinemat- ics of the receding outflow using kinetic models, and determine that it is a quasi-stationary bubble with an expanding internal velocity field. We propose that this bubble forms because the receding counterjet from DG Tau is obstructed by a clumpy ambient medium above the circumstellar disc surface, based on...

  15. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIGUCHI, Tohru; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death. PMID:27703406

  16. On the thermal line emission from the outflows in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ya-Di

    2016-01-01

    The atomic features in the X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) may be associated with the outflow (Middleton et al. 2015), which may provide a way to explore the physics of the ULXs. We construct a conical outflow model, and calculate the thermal X-ray Fe emission lines from the outflows. Our results show that thermal line luminosity decreases with increasing outflow velocity or/and opening angle of the outflow for a fixed kinetic power of the outflows. Assuming the kinetic power of the outflows to be comparable with the accretion power in the ULXs, we find that the equivalent width can be several eV for the thermal X-ray Fe emission line from the outflows in the ULXs with stellar mass black holes. The thermal line luminosity is proportional to 1/M (M is the black hole mass of the ULX). The equivalent width decreases with the black hole mass, which implies that the Fe line emission from the outflows can hardly be detected if the ULXs contain intermediate mass black holes. Our results suggest...

  17. AGN-driven outflows without quenching in simulations of high-redshift disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gabor, Jared M

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have revealed nuclear outflows in high-redshift, star forming galaxies. We study outflows driven by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) using high- resolution simulations of idealized z=2 isolated disk galaxies. Episodic accretion events lead to outflows with velocities >1000 km/s and mass outflow rates up to the star formation rate (several tens of Msun/yr). Outflowing winds escape perpendicular to the disk with wide opening angles, and are typically asymmetric (i.e. unipolar) because dense gas above or below the AGN in the resolved disk inhibits outflow. Owing to rapid variability in the accretion rates, outflowing gas may be detectable even when the AGN is effectively "off." The highest velocity outflows are concentrated within 2-3 kpc of the galactic center during the peak accretion. With our purely thermal AGN feedback model -- standard in previous literature -- the outflowing material is mostly hot (10^6 K) and diffuse (nH<10^(-2) cm-3), but includes a cold component entrained in the ho...

  18. Smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamic simulations of protostellar outflows with misaligned magnetic field and rotation axes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Benjamin T; Price, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a modified form of the equations of smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics which are stable in the presence of very steep density gradients. Using this formalism, we have performed simulations of the collapse of magnetised molecular cloud cores to form protostars and drive outflows. Our stable formalism allows for smaller sink particles ( 30{\\deg}, and a collimated outflow is not sustained when {\\theta} > 10{\\deg}. No substantial outflows of any kind are produced when {\\theta} > 60{\\deg}. This may place constraints on the geometry of the magnetic field in molecular clouds where bipolar outflows are seen.

  19. Cardiac fusion and complex congenital cardiac defects in thoracopagus twins: diagnostic value of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Hye-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Most thoracopagus twins present with cardiac fusion and associated congenital cardiac defects, and assessment of this anatomy is of critical importance in determining patient care and outcome. Cardiac CT with electrocardiographic triggering provides an accurate and quick morphological assessment of both intracardiac and extracardiac structures in newborns, making it the best imaging modality to assess thoracopagus twins during the neonatal period. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic value of cardiac CT in thoracopagus twins with an interatrial channel and complex congenital cardiac defects. (orig.)

  20. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Son, Donghoon; Karouzos, Marios

    2015-01-01

    To constrain the nature and fraction of the ionized gas outflows in AGNs, we perform a detailed analysis on gas kinematics as manifested by the velocity dispersion and shift of the OIII {\\lambda}5007 emission line, using a large sample of ~39,000 type 2 AGNs at z<0.3. First, we confirm a broad correlation between OIII and stellar velocity dispersions, indicating that the bulge gravitational potential plays a main role in determining the OIII kinematics. However, OIII velocity dispersion is on average larger than stellar velocity dispersion by a factor of 1.3-1.4, suggesting that the non-gravitational component, i.e., outflows, is almost comparable to the gravitational component. Second, the increase of the OIII velocity dispersion (after normalized by stellar velocity dispersion) with both AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio suggests that non-gravitational kinematics are clearly linked to AGN accretion. The distribution in the OIII velocity - velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large val...

  1. A Two-Temperature Model of Magnetized Protostellar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang-Yao; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Chiang, Tzu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    We explore kinematics and morphologies of molecular outflows driven by young protostars using magnetohydrodynamic simulations in the context of the unified wind model of Shang et al. The model explains the observed high-velocity jet and low-velocity shell features. In this work we investigate how these characteristics are affected by the underlying temperature and magnetic field strength. We study the problem of a warm wind running into a cold ambient toroid by using a tracer field that keeps track of the wind material. While an isothermal equation of state is adopted, the effective temperature is determined locally based on the wind mass fraction. In the unified wind model, the density of the wind is cylindrically stratified and highly concentrated toward the outflow axis. Our simulations show that for a sufficiently magnetized wind, the jet identity can be well maintained even at high temperatures. However, for a high temperature wind with low magnetization, the thermal pressure of the wind gas can drive ma...

  2. Far-IR Excited OH Lines from Orion KL Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, J R; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Lerate, M R; Lim, T L; Swinyard, B M; Viti, S; Yates, J; Barlow, Michael J.; Cernicharo, Jose; Daniel, Fabien; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Lerate, Mercedes R.; Lim, Tanya L.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Viti, Serena; Yates, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    As part of the first far-IR line survey towards Orion KL, we present the detection of seven new rotationally excited OH Lambda-doublets (at 48, 65, 71, 79, 98 and 115 um). Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) Fabry-Perots on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In total, more than 20 resolved OH rotational lines, with upper energy levels up to 620 K, have been detected at an angular and velocity resolutions of 80$'' and 33 km s^-1 respectively. OH line profiles show a complex behavior evolving from pure absorption, P-Cygni type to pure emission. We also present a large scale 6' declination raster in the OH ^2\\Pi_3/2 J=5/2^+-3/2^- and ^2\\Pi_3/2 J=7/2^-5/2^+ lines (at 119.441 and 84.597 um) revealing the decrease of excitation outside the core of the cloud. From the observed profiles, mean intrinsic line widths and velocity offsets between emission and absorption line peaks we conclude that most of the excited OH arises from Orion outflow(s), i.e. the ``plateau'' compon...

  3. Strong Gravitational Lensing and the Structure of Quasar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Chelouche, D

    2003-01-01

    We show that by analyzing the spectra of lensed broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs), it is possible to reveal key properties of the outflowing gas in the inner regions of these objects. This results from the fact that each image of the quasar corresponds to a different line of sight through the outflow. This combined with dynamical estimates for the location of the flow, adds new information concerning the lateral, non line of sight structure of the absorbing gas. Here we consider a sample of lensed BALQSOs and note that the similarity of BAL profiles of different images of the same quasar implies that the flow is relatively isotropic on small scales. We show that its geometry is inconsistent with the ballistically accelerated spherical cloud model, and that wind models provide a better description of the flow structure. Furthermore, observations seem to disagree with naive interpretations of recent time-dependent wind simulations. This may hint on several important physical processes that govern the stru...

  4. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  5. Ultra Fast Outflows: Galaxy-Scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, A Y; Bicknell, G V

    2012-01-01

    We show, using global 3D grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that Ultra Fast Outflows (UFOs) from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous hot hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the inter-cloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically, rather than in a disc. In the latter case the turbulent backflow...

  6. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Bicknell, G. V., E-mail: ayw@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  7. The Launch Region of the SVS 13 Outflow and Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Hodapp, Klaus W

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of Keck Telescope laser adaptive optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.2 arc sec long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [FeII]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H_2 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (PA ~145 deg) to the south-east of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection of the newly observed bubble ejection events to the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. Astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at 3 epochs covering a time span of over two years gives kinematic ages for two of these. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slight...

  8. Impedance-based outflow boundary conditions for human carotid haemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvè, M; Chandra, S; García, A; Mena, A; Martínez, M A; Finol, E A; Doblaré, M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop structured tree outflow boundary conditions for modelling the human carotid haemodynamics. The model geometry was reconstructed through computerised tomography scan. Unsteady-state computational fluid dynamic analyses were performed under different conditions using a commercial software package ADINA R&D, Inc., (Watertown, MA, USA) in order to assess the impact of the boundary conditions on the flow variables. In particular, the results showed that the peripheral vessels massively impact the pressure while the flow is relatively unaffected. As an example of application of these outflow conditions, an unsteady fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation was carried out and the dependence of the wall shear stress (WSS) on the arterial wall compliance in the carotid bifurcation was studied. In particular, a comparison between FSI and rigid-wall models was conducted. Results showed that the WSS distributions were substantially affected by the diameter variation of the arterial wall. In particular, even similar WSS distributions were found for both cases, and differences in the computed WSS values were also found.

  9. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  10. Glider observations of the Dotson Ice Shelf outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Lee, Sang Hoon; Wåhlin, Anna; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Tae Wan; Assmann, Karen M.; Schofield, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea is one of the most productive polynyas in the Antarctic per unit area and is undergoing rapid changes including a reduction in sea ice duration, thinning ice sheets, retreat of glaciers and the potential collapse of the Thwaites Glacier in Pine Island Bay. A growing body of research has indicated that these changes are altering the water mass properties and associated biogeochemistry within the polynya. Unfortunately difficulties in accessing the remote location have greatly limited the amount of in situ data that has been collected. In this study data from a Teledyne-Webb Slocum glider was used to supplement ship-based sampling along the Dotson Ice Shelf (DIS). This autonomous underwater vehicle revealed a detailed view of a meltwater laden outflow from below the western flank of the DIS. Circumpolar Deep Water intruding onto the shelf drives glacial melt and the supply of macronutrients that, along with ample light, supports the large phytoplankton blooms in the Amundsen Sea Polynya. Less well understood is the source of micronutrients, such as iron, necessary to support this bloom to the central polynya where chlorophyll concentrations are highest. This outflow region showed decreasing optical backscatter with proximity to the bed indicating that particulate matter was sourced from the overlying glacier rather than resuspended sediment. This result suggests that particulate iron, and potentially phytoplankton primary productivity, is intrinsically linked to the magnitude and duration of sub-glacial melt from Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions onto the shelf.

  11. Geological behavior of wet outflow deposition fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德泉; 赵明华; 刘宏利; 周毅; 严聪

    2008-01-01

    The geological behaviors of wet outflow deposition fly ash were investigated, including the feature of in-situ single and even bridge cone penetration test (CPT) curves, the change of the penetration parameters and vane strength with the increase of depth and the difference of the penetration resistance on and down the water level. Drilling, CPT and vane shear test were carried out in silty clay, fine sand, and fly ash of the ash-dam. The CPT curves of the fly ash do not show a critical depth. The cone resistance (qc) of the fly ash is smaller than that of silty clay or sand; the friction resistance is smaller than that of filling silty clay, similar to that of deposition silty clay or more than that of fine sand; the friction ratio is smaller than that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay or much more than that of fine sand. The specific penetration resistance (ps) is similar to that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay. There is a clear interface effect between the deposition fly ash and the clay. Interface effect of ps-h curve at the groundwater table is clear, and ps of the fly ash reduces significantly under the table. The vane strength of the fly ash increases as the depth increases. The deposition fly ash with wet outflow is similar to silt in the geological behavior.

  12. NIHAO XI: Formation of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies by outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Di Cintio, Arianna; Dutton, Aaron A; Macciò, Andrea V; Obreja, Aura C; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    We address the origin of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs), which have stellar masses typical of dwarf galaxies but effective radii of Milky Way-sized objects. Their formation mechanism, and whether they are failed $\\rm L_{\\star}$ galaxies or diffuse dwarfs, are challenging issues. Using zoom-in cosmological simulations from the NIHAO project, we show that UDG analogues form naturally in medium-mass haloes due to episodes of gas outflows associated with star formation. The simulated UDGs live in isolated haloes of masses $10^{10-11}\\rm M_{\\odot}$, have stellar masses of $10^{7-8.5}\\rm M_{\\odot}$, effective radii larger than 1 kpc and dark matter cores. They show a broad range of colors, an average S\\'ersic index of 0.83, a typical distribution of halo spin and concentration, and a non-negligible HI gas mass of $10^{7-9}\\rm M_{\\odot}$, which correlates with the extent of the galaxy. Gas availability is crucial to the internal processes that form UDGs: feedback driven gas outflows, and subsequent dark matter and st...

  13. HNCO enhancement by shocks in the L1157 molecular outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Gueth, Frederic; Bachiller, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The isocyanic acid (HNCO) presents an extended distribution in the centers of the Milky Way and the spiral galaxy IC342. Based on the morphology of the emission and the HNCO abundance with respect to H2, several authors made the hypothesis that HNCO could be a good tracer of interstellar shocks. Here we test this hypothesis by observing a well-known Galactic source where the chemistry is dominated by shocks. We have observed several transitions of HNCO towards L1157-mm and two positions (B1 and B2) in the blue lobe of the molecular outflow. The HNCO line profiles exhibit the same characteristics of other well-known shock tracers like CH3OH, H2CO, SO or SO2. HNCO, together with SO2 and OCS, are the only three molecules detected so far whose emission is much more intense in B2 than in B1, making these species valuable probes of chemical differences along the outflow. The HNCO abundance with respect to H2 is 0.4-1.8 10^-8 in B1 and 0.3-1 10^-7 in B2. These abundances are the highest ever measured, and imply an i...

  14. Multiple Outflows in the Giant Eruption of a Massive Star

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, Roberta M; Gordon, Michael S; Jones, Terry J

    2016-01-01

    The supernova impostor PSN J09132750+7627410 in NGC 2748 reached a maximum luminosity of approximately -14 mag. It was quickly realized that its was not a true supernova, but another example of a non-terminal giant eruption. PSN J09132750+7627410 is distinguished by multiple P Cygni absorption minima in the Balmer emission lines that correspond to outflow velocities of -400, -1100, and -1600 km/s. Multiple outflows have been observed in only a few other objects. In this paper we describe the evolution of the spectrum and the P Cygni profiles for three months past maximum, the post-maximum formation of a cool, dense wind, and the identification of a possible progenitor. One of the possible progenitors is an infrared source. Its pre-eruption spectral energy distribution suggests a bolometric luminosity of -8.3 mag and a dust temperature of 780 degrees K. If it is the progenitor it is above the AGB limit unlike the intermediate luminosity red transients. The three P Cygni profiles could be due to ejecta from the...

  15. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  16. Outflows and complex stellar kinematics in SDSS star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cicone, Claudia; Marconi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of star formation-driven outflows by using a large spectroscopic sample of ~160,000 local "normal" star forming galaxies, drawn from the SDSS, spanning a wide range of star formation rates and stellar masses. The galaxy sample is divided into a fine grid of bins in the M_*-SFR parameter space, for each of which we produce a composite spectrum by stacking together the SDSS spectra of the galaxies contained in that bin. We exploit the high signal-to-noise of the stacked spectra to study the emergence of faint features of optical emission lines that may trace galactic outflows and would otherwise be too faint to detect in individual galaxy spectra. We adopt a novel approach that relies on the comparison between the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LoSVD) of the ionised gas (as traced by the [OIII]5007 and Halpha+[NII]6548,6583 emission lines) and the LoSVD of the stars, which are used as a reference tracing virial motions. Significant deviations of the gas kinematics from the st...

  17. Hypothermia ameliorates gastrointestinal ischemic injury sustained in a porcine cardiac arrest model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; WANG Shuo; LI Chun-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background During cardiac arrest,the gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to ischemia.Protection of the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor in determining prognosis following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).This study seeks to determine the extent of gastrointestinal tract injury and the potential protective effect of inducing hypothermia following a porcine cardiac arrest model and CPR.Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced by programmed electrical stimulation in 16 male domestic pigs (n=8 per group).Four minutes after ventricular fibrillation,CPR was performed.Pigs that successfully restored spontaneous circulation then received intravenous infusions of saline at either 4C or room temperature to produce hypothermic and control conditions respectively.Serum diamine oxidase and gastrointestinal adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity were determined and histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract was performed by light microscopy and electron microscopy.Results Significant injury of the gastrointestinal tract after CPR was found.Na+-K+ and Ca2+ adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity in the gastric tissue were significantly high in animals receiving hypothermia treatment compared to controls.Hypothermia also significantly reduced serum diamine oxidase after CPR compared to the control group.Moreover,severe injury sustained by the gastrointestinal tissue was significantly ameliorated under hypothermic conditions compared to controls.Conclusions Gastrointestinal injury and abnormal energy metabolism are strikingly evident following CPR.Hypothermia,which is induced by an infusion of 4C saline,can rapidly reduce internal body temperature,improve energy metabolism,and ameliorate injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa after CPR.

  18. Systematic traction techniques in minimal-access pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiwa, Hiroshi; Ishida, Ryoichi; Sudo, Kenichi

    2004-11-01

    Minimal-access pediatric cardiac surgery is now common in the treatment of simple congenital heart defects. However, methods of securing a good, unobstructed view for surgery and the difficulties of working in a deep, narrow field jeopardize safety in surgical procedures, especially for less experienced surgeons have been described. Our systematic, step-by-step traction techniques on the skin, the pericardium, the right atrial appendage, the aortic root, both venae cavae, and the free wall of the right ventricular outflow, using a mechanical retractor and traction sutures, facilitate surgical field exposure and the achievement of safety. As described below, our procedures are simple, allow direct inspection, and assist those working toward technical mastery.

  19. Sudden Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipsy María Gutiérrez Báez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the twentieth century, dying suddenly due to heart-related problems has become the main health issue in all countries where infectious diseases are not prevalent. Sudden death from cardiac causes is an important global health problem. Major databases were searched for the leading causes of sudden cardiac death. It has been demonstrated that there is a group of hereditary diseases with structural alterations or without apparent organic cause that explains many cases of sudden death in young people, whether related or not to physical exertion. Certain population groups are at higher risk for this disease. They are relatively easy to identify and can be the target of primary prevention measures.

  20. Inherited cardiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Charron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Major advances have been achieved over the two last decades in the field of genetic cardiovascular diseases, not only through increased recognition and understanding of underlying molecular defects but also through rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Genetic counseling and organization of cardiac family screening has become part of the medical management of these diseases, and these should be performed systematically unless an acquired cause has been diagnosed...

  1. Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    MILICA RADISIC; GORDANA VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick),compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3) can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of p...

  2. Cardiac developmental toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Jonathan T Butcher

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause ...

  3. The physics and the structure of the quasar-driven outflow in Mrk 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicone, C.; Feruglio, C.; Maiolino, R.; Fiore, F.; Piconcelli, E.; Menci, N.; Aussel, H.; Sturm, E.

    2012-07-01

    Massive AGN-driven outflows are invoked by AGN-galaxy co-evolutionary models to suppress both star formation and black hole accretion. Massive molecular outflows have been discovered in some AGN hosts. However, the physical properties and structures of these AGN-driven molecular outflows are still poorly constrained. Here we present new IRAM PdBI observations of Mrk 231, the closest quasar known, targeting both the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) transitions. We detect broad wings in both transitions, which trace a massive molecular outflow moving with velocities of up to 800 km s-1. The wings are spatially resolved at high significance levels (5-11σ), indicating that the molecular outflow extends to the kpc scale. The CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) ratio of the red broad wings is consistent with the ratio observed in the narrow core, while the blue broad wing is less excited than the core. The latter result suggests that quasar-driven outflow models invoking shocks (which would predict higher gas excitation) are inappropriate for describing the bulk of the outflow in Mrk 231. However, we note that within the central 700 pc the CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) ratio of the red wing is slightly, but significantly, higher than in the line core, suggesting that shocks may play a role in the central region. We also find that the average size of the outflow anticorrelates with the critical density of the transition used as a wind tracer. This indicates that, although diffuse and dense clumps coexist in the outflowing gas, dense outflowing clouds have shorter lifetimes and that they evaporate into the diffuse component along the outflow or, more simply, that diffuse clouds are more efficiently accelerated to larger distances by radiation pressure.

  4. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of Cardiac Functions in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Ece, İbrahim; Demirören, Kaan; Demir, Nihat; Uner, Abdurrahman; Balli, Sevket

    2014-01-01

    Background Cow’s milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children, with rates estimated at 1.9% to 4.9%. Clinical phenotypes of cow’s milk allergy are varied and involve 1 or more target organs, with the main targets being the skin, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. To date, no studies have investigated detailed cardiac function in children with cow’s milk allergy. The current study aimed to investigate cardiac function in infants with cow’s milk allergy. Material/Method...

  6. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders. In kids, the more common problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal shape or position. One common congenital abnormality (an abnormality that exists at birth) is ...

  7. Renal tract malformations: perspectives for nephrologists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerecuk, L.; Schreuder, M.F.; Woolf, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Renal tract malformations are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and/or lower urinary tract. One challenging feature of these conditions is that they can present not only prenatally but also in childhood or adulthood. The most severe types of malformations, such as bilateral renal agenesis or dyspl

  8. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  9. The launch region of the SVS 13 outflow and jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: rolf.chini@astro.ruhr-uni-bochum.de [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  10. The Launch Region of the SVS 13 Outflow and Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Chini, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H2 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  11. The launch region of the SVS 13 outflow and jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H2 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  12. Indeterminacy of Spatiotemporal Cardiac Alternans

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (at the cellular level) or in ECG morphology (at the whole heart level), is a marker of ventricular fibrillation, a fatal heart rhythm that kills hundreds of thousands of people in the US each year. Investigating cardiac alternans may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and eventually better algorithms for the prediction and prevention of such dreadful diseases. In paced cardiac tissue, alternans develops under increasingly shorter pacing period. Existing experimental and theoretical studies adopt the assumption that alternans in homogeneous cardiac tissue is exclusively determined by the pacing period. In contrast, we find that, when calcium-driven alternans develops in cardiac fibers, it may take different spatiotemporal patterns depending on the pacing history. Because there coexist multiple alternans solutions for a given pacing period, the alternans pattern on a fiber becomes unpredictable. Usin...

  13. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In this article we review the different steps of heart development, focusing on the processes of alignment and septation. We also show, as often as possible, the links between abnormalities of cardiac development and the main congenital heart defects. The development of animal models has permitted the unraveling of many mechanisms that potentially lead to cardiac malformations. A next step towards a better knowledge of cardiac development could be multiscale cardiac modelling. PMID:24138816

  14. DETECTION OF HIGH VELOCITY OUTFLOWS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Mrk 590

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, Columbus State Community College, Columbus, OH 43215 (United States); Mathur, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Krongold, Y., E-mail: agupta1@cscc.edu [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-01-01

    We report on the detection of ultra-fast outflows in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 590. These outflows are identified through highly blueshifted absorption lines of O VIII and Ne IX in the medium energy grating spectrum and Si XIV and Mg XII in the high energy grating spectrum on board the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our best-fit photoionization model requires two absorber components at outflow velocities of 0.176c and 0.0738c and a third tentative component at 0.0867c. The components at 0.0738c and 0.0867c have high ionization parameters and high column densities, similar to other ultra-fast outflows detected at low resolution by Tombesi et al. We also found suggestive evidence for super-solar silicon in these components. These outflows carry sufficient mass and energy to provide effective feedback proposed by theoretical models. The component at 0.176c, on the other hand, has a low ionization parameter and low column density, similar to those detected by Gupta et al. in Ark 564. These absorbers occupy a different locus on the velocity versus ionization parameter plane and have opened up a new parameter space of active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows. The presence of ultra-fast outflows in moderate luminosity AGNs poses a challenge to models of AGN outflows.

  15. Financial Crisis, Capital Outflows, and Policy Responses: Examples from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ramkishen S.

    2007-01-01

    Financial crises seem to have become the norm rather than the exception since 1992. The author examines the impact of a crisis of confidence and resultant capital outflows from a small and open economy and the possible policy options in response to such outflows, using simple tools and definitions that will be familiar to any money and banking or…

  16. Perturbation of Hyaluronan Synthesis in the Trabecular Meshwork and the Effects on Outflow Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kate E Keller; Sun, Ying Ying; Yang, Yong-feng; Bradley, John M.; Acott, Ted S.

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effects of hyaluronan synthase (HAS1-3) gene silencing on outflow facility in anterior segment perfusion culture. Hyaluronan synthesized by HAS1 and HAS2 contributed to outflow resistance but hyaluronan synthesized by HAS3 did not appear to have a significant effect.

  17. Fast outflow of Hi in starburst radio galaxy 3C 293

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, B; van der Hulst, T; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T; Tadhunter, C; Holt, J; Wills, K; Aalto, S; Huttemeister, S; Pedlar, A

    2004-01-01

    We detect a fast outflow of gas in the central region of the nearby starburst radio galaxy 3C 293. The outflow is detected both in the optical emission lines of ionized gas as well as in HI absorption against the radio continuum. The broad HI absorption feature (observed with the recently upgraded W

  18. Discovery of an outflow of the very low-mass star ISO 143

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Pohl, A

    2012-01-01

    We discover that the very young very low-mass star ISO143 (M5) is driving an outflow based on spectro-astrometry of forbidden [SII] emission lines at 6716A and 6731A observed in UVES/VLT spectra. ISO143 is only one of a handful of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars (M5-M8) for which an outflow has been detected and that show that the T Tauri phase continues at very low masses. We have found the outflow of ISO143 to be intrinsically asymmetric and the accretion disk to not obscure the outflow, as solely the red outflow component is visible in the [SII] lines. ISO143 is only the third T Tauri object showing a stronger red outflow component in spectro-astrometry, after RW Aur (G5) and ISO217 (M6.25). We show here that including ISO143 two out of seven outflows confirmed in the very low-mass regime (M5-M8) are intrinsically asymmetric. We measure a spatial extension of the outflow in [SII] of up to 200-300 mas (about 30-50 AU) and velocities of up to 50-70 km/s. We detect furthermore line emission of ISO143 in ...

  19. INVESTMENT CLIMATE AND OUTFLOW IN THE MAJOR RISK SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN ECONOMY STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov A. B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the state of the investment climate in Russia at the present time to determine the cause of increasing capital outflows. In this article we show that the outflow of capital - one of the main risks of the Russian economy stability

  20. Isotropically Driven Versus Outflow Driven Turbulence: Observational Consequences for Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jonathan J.; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.

    2010-10-01

    Feedback from protostellar outflows can influence the nature of turbulence in star-forming regions even if they are not the primary source of velocity dispersion for all scales of molecular clouds. For the rate and power expected in star-forming regions, we previously (Carroll et al.) demonstrated that outflows could drive supersonic turbulence at levels consistent with the scaling relations from Matzner although with a steeper velocity power spectrum than expected for an isotropically driven supersonic turbulent cascade. Here, we perform higher resolution simulations and combine simulations of outflow driven turbulence with those of isotropically forced turbulence. We find that the presence of outflows within an ambient isotropically driven turbulent environment produces a knee in the velocity power spectrum at the outflow scale and a steeper slope at sub-outflow scales than for a purely isotropically forced case. We also find that the presence of outflows flattens the density spectrum at large scales effectively reducing the formation of large-scale turbulent density structures. These effects are qualitatively independent of resolution. We have also carried out Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for synthetic data from our simulations. We find that PCA as a tool for identifying the driving scale of turbulence has a misleading bias toward low amplitude large-scale velocity structures even when they are not necessarily the dominant energy containing scales. This bias is absent for isotropically forced turbulence but manifests strongly for collimated outflow driven turbulence.

  1. The triggering mechanism and properties of ionized outflows in the nearest obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, M Villar; Humphrey, A; Lavers, A Cabrera; Binette, L

    2014-01-01

    We have identified ionized outflows in the narrow line region of all but one SDSS type 2 quasars (QSO2) at z1000 cm-3) and covers a region the size of a few kpc. This implies ionized outflow masses M~(0.3-2.4)x1e6 Msun and mass outflow rates M(dot)outflows is related to the nuclear activity. The QSO2 can be classified in two groups according to the behavior and properties of the outflowing gas. QSO2 in Group 1 (5/20 objects) show the most extreme turbulence, they have on average higher radio luminosities and higher excess of radio emission. QSO2 in Group 2 (15/20 objects) show less extreme turbulence, they have lower radio luminosities and, on average, lower or no radio excess. We propose that two competing outflow mechanisms are at work: radio jets and accretion disk winds. Radio jet induced outflows are dominant in Group 1, while disk winds dominate in Group 2. We find that the radio jet mode is capable of producing more extreme outflows. To test this inter...

  2. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Hutter, Adolph M; Weiner, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There are clear health benefits to exercise; even so, patients with cardiac conditions who engage in exercise and athletic competition may on rare occasion experience sudden cardiac death (SCD). This article reviews the epidemiology and common causes of SCD in specific athlete populations. There is ongoing debate about the optimal mechanism for SCD prevention, specifically regarding the inclusion of the ECG and/or cardiac imaging in routine preparticipation sports evaluation. This controversy and contemporary screening recommendations are also reviewed. PMID:27486488

  3. Powerful Outflows and Feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) represent the growth phases of the supermassive black holes in the center of almost every galaxy. Powerful, highly ionized winds, with velocities $\\sim 0.1- 0.2c$ are a common feature in X--ray spectra of luminous AGN, offering a plausible physical origin for the well known connections between the hole and properties of its host. Observability constraints suggest that the winds must be episodic, and detectable only for a few percent of their lifetimes. The most powerful wind feedback, establishing the $M -\\sigma$ relation, is probably not directly observable at all. The $M - \\sigma$ relation signals a global change in the nature of AGN feedback. At black hole masses below $M-\\sigma$ feedback is confined to the immediate vicinity of the hole. At the $M-\\sigma$ mass it becomes much more energetic and widespread, and can drive away much of the bulge gas as a fast molecular outflow.

  4. Chasma Australe Mars: Structural Framework for a Catastrophic Outflow Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, F.; Babin, R.; Benito, G.; Collado, A.; Gomez, D.; Rice, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    Chasma Australe is the most remarkable of the martian south pole erosional reentrants carved in the polar layered deposits. Ms chasma originates near the south pole and runs across the polar troughs over a distance of about 500 km. Its width varies between 20 and 80 km and, with a depth up to 1000 m, it reaches the bedrock. Following an idea put forward originally for Chasma Boreale, we propose for the genesis of Chasma Australe a mechanism of catastrophic outflow preceded by a tectonically induced powerful sapping process. A detailed geomorphological analysis of Chasma Australe shows erosional and depositional features that can be interpreted as produced by the motion of a fluid. Like other polar reentrants, Chasma Australe is clearly assymetric, with a steep eastern margin where basal and lateral erosion prevailed, and a gentler western side, where the stepped topography and bedrock spurs favored deposition.

  5. Irrelevance of information outflow in opinion dynamics models

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The Sznajd model for opinion dynamics has attracted a large interest as a simple realization of the psychological principle of social validation. As its most salient feature, it has been claimed that the Sznajd model is qualitatively different from other ordering processes, because it is the only one featuring outflow of information as opposed to inflow. We show that this claim is unfounded by presenting a generalized zero-temperature Glauber-type of dynamics which yields results indistinguishable from those of the Sznajd model. In one-dimension we also derive an exact expression for the exit probability of the Sznajd model, that turns out to coincide with the result of an analytical approach based on the Kirkwood approximation. This observation raises interesting questions about the applicability and limitations of this approach.

  6. The Hot and Cold Outflows of NGC 3079

    CERN Document Server

    Shafi, N; Oosterloo, T; Booth, R

    2009-01-01

    Very deep neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3079 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) are presented. The galaxy has been studied extensively in different wavelengths and known for its several unique and complex features. However, the new data still revealed several new features and show that the galaxy is even more complicated and interesting than previously thought. In the new data a large stream of gas, encircling the entire galaxy, was discovered, while the data also show, for the first time, that not only hot gas is blown into space by the starburst/AGN, but also large amounts of cold gas, despite the high energies involved in the outflow.

  7. Overconsumption, outflows and the quenching of satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Balogh, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events -- either direct stripping of the disk (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) -- or from internally-driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. The observed timescales show significant deviation from the evolution expec...

  8. Solar illumination control of ionospheric outflow above polar cap arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, L; De Keyser, J; Dandouras, I; Fear, R C; Fontaine, D; Haaland, S

    2016-01-01

    We measure the flux density, composition, and energy of outflowing ions above the polar cap, accelerated by quasi-static electric fields parallel to the magnetic field and associated with polar cap arcs, using Cluster. Mapping the spacecraft position to its ionospheric foot point, we analyze the dependence of these parameters on the solar zenith angle (SZA). We find a clear transition at SZA between We find a clear transition at SZA between $\\sim$94$^{\\circ}$ and $\\sim$107$^{\\circ}$, with the O$^{+}$ flux higher above the sunlit ionosphere. This dependence on the illumination of the local ionosphere indicates that significant O$^{+}$ upflow occurs locally above the polar ionosphere. The same is found for H$^{+}$, but to a lesser extent. This effect can result in a seasonal variation of the total ion upflow from the polar ionosphere. Furthermore, we show that low-magnitude field-aligned potential drops are preferentially observed above the sunlit ionosphere, suggesting a feedback effect of ionospheric conducti...

  9. Rotational structure and outflow in the infrared dark cloud 18223-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallscheer, C.; Beuther, H.; Zhang, Q.; Keto, E.; Sridharan, T. K.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: We examine an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) at high spatial resolution as a means to study rotation, outflow, and infall at the onset of massive star formation. Methods: The IRDC 18223-3 was observed at 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and follow-up short spacing information was obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional data were taken at 3 mm with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI). Results: Submillimeter Array observations combined with IRAM 30 m data in 12CO(2-1) reveal the outflow orientation in the IRDC 18223-3 region, and PdBI 3 mm observations confirm this orientation in other molecular species. The implication of the outflow's presence is that an accretion disk is feeding it, so using line data for high density tracers such as C18O, N2H^+, and CH3OH, we looked for indications of a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow direction. Surprisingly, this gradient turns out to be most apparent in CH3OH. The large size (28 000 AU) of the flattened rotating object detected indicates that this velocity gradient cannot be due solely to a disk, but rather from inward spiraling gas within which a Keplerian disk likely exists. The rotational signatures can be modeled via rotationally infalling gas. From the outflow parameters, we derive properties of the source such as an outflow dynamical age of ~37 000 years, outflow mass of ~13 M⊙, and outflow energy of ˜1.7 × 1046 erg. While the outflow mass and energy are clearly consistent with a high-mass star forming region, the outflow dynamical age indicates a slightly more evolved evolutionary stage than previous spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates. Conclusions: The orientation of the molecular outflow associated with IRDC 18223-3 is in the northwest-southeast direction and velocity gradients orthogonal to the outflow reveal a large rotating structure likely harboring an accretion disk within. We also present a model of the observed methanol velocity

  10. Case Report: Penetrating Cardiac Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Grbolar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Penetrating cardiac injurys caused by gunshots and penetrating tools have high mortality rates. The way of injury, how the cardiac area is effected and the presence of cardiac tamponadecauses mortality in different rates. However the better treatment quality of hospitals, increasingoperative techniques, and internel care unit quality has not been change during the years. Searching the literature, we want to present a 42 years old male patient whowas injured by knife and had a 1 cm skin wound on chest with cardiac tamponade. After sternotomy a 7 cm laseration was observed in heart. Cardioraphy was performed.

  11. Jets and outflows from pre main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassell, Edward Joseph, III

    2009-09-01

    Extensive research has been done on the evolution of young low mass T Tauri stars (TTS), and a paradigm has been developed that successfully explains how the star grows by the accretion of matter from a circumstellar disk. It is currently a matter of debate whether or not the same paradigm can be applied to the higher mass counterpart Herbig Ae stars. In this dissertation, I propose to address this issue. By investigating a wide range of phenomena using ground- based and satellite observing platforms, I will construct detailed observational pictures of the two prototypical Herbig Ae stars, HD163296 and AB Aur. Then, I will test whether or not this model can explain all the phenomena associated with these two stars. First, my research characterized the bipolar collimated outflow from HD163296. Using narrowband coronagraphic imagery with the Goddard Fabry-Perot, I discovered a chain of six previously unreported Herbig-Haro (HH) knots along the redshifted counterjet spanning greater than 27 arcseconds, and three HH knots along the blueshifted jet. Combining Hubble Space Telescope imagery and spectroscopy, I found a striking asymmetry in velocity, momentum and ionization between the two lobes of the outflow. Such asymmetries have been found in TTS, and can readily be explained through the same paradigm of magnetospheric accretion successfully applied to TTS. Next, by piecing together a wide range of data for AB Aur, I found evidence for magnetospheric accretion with the detection of excess continuum emission and semi-forbidden line emission in the ultraviolet. Reviewing archival spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer for AB Aur and five other Herbig Ae stars known to be powering microjets, I found a correlation between the Magnesium II wind absorption profile and inclination, which correlation strongly suggests that AB Aur is also powering a microjet, although currently, high resolution imagers have failed to detect jet signatures.

  12. Shocks in nova outflows. II. Synchrotron radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Andrey; Vurm, Indrek; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of GeV gamma-rays from classical novae indicates that shocks and relativistic particle acceleration are energetically key in these events. Further evidence for shocks comes from thermal keV X-ray emission and an early peak in the radio light curve on a timescale of months with a brightness temperature which is too high to result from freely expanding photo-ionized gas. Paper I developed a one dimensional model for the thermal emission from nova shocks. This work concluded that the shock-powered radio peak cannot be thermal if line cooling operates in the post-shock gas at the rate determined by collisional ionization equilibrium. Here we extend this calculation to include non-thermal synchrotron emission. Applying our model to three classical novae, we constrain the amplification of the magnetic field ɛB and the efficiency ɛe of accelerating relativistic electrons of characteristic Lorentz factor γ ˜ 100. If the shocks are radiative (low velocity v_sh ≲ 1000 km s-1) and cover a large solid angle of the nova outflow, as likely characterize those producing gamma-rays, then values of ɛe ˜ 0.01 - 0.1 are required to achieve the peak radio brightness for ɛB = 10-2. Such high efficiencies exclude secondary pairs from pion decay as the source of the radio-emitting particles, instead favoring the direct acceleration of electrons at the shock. If the radio-emitting shocks are instead adiabatic (high velocity), as likely characterize those responsible for the thermal X-rays, then much higher brightness temperatures are possible, allowing the radio-emitting shocks to cover a smaller outflow solid angle.

  13. Ultrafast outflows in radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Tazaki, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Cappi, M.; Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent X-ray observations show absorbing winds with velocities up to mildly relativistic values of the order of ˜0.1c in a limited sample of six broad-line radio galaxies. They are observed as blueshifted Fe XXV-XXVI K-shell absorption lines, similarly to the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) reported in Seyferts and quasars. In this work we extend the search for such Fe K absorption lines to a larger sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The sample is drawn from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58-month catalogue and blazars are excluded. X-ray bright Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxies constitute the majority of the sources. Combining the results of this analysis with those in the literature we find that UFOs are detected in >27 per cent of the sources. However, correcting for the number of spectra with insufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we can estimate that the incidence of UFOs is this sample of radio-loud AGN is likely in the range f ≃ (50 ± 20) per cent. A photoionization modelling of the absorption lines with XSTAR allows us to estimate the distribution of their main parameters. The observed outflow velocities are broadly distributed between vout ≲ 1000 km s-1 and vout ≃ 0.4c, with mean and median values of vout ≃ 0.133c and vout ≃ 0.117c, respectively. The material is highly ionized, with an average ionization parameter of logξ ≃ 4.5 erg s-1 cm, and the column densities are larger than NH > 1022 cm-2. Overall, these characteristics are consistent with the presence of complex accretion disc winds in a significant fraction of radio-loud AGN and demonstrate that the presence of relativistic jets does not preclude the existence of winds, in accordance with several theoretical models.

  14. Viscous and resistive accretion flows with radially self-similar and outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Faghei, Kazem

    2012-01-01

    The existence of outflow in accretion flows is confirmed by observations and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. In this paper, we study outflows of accretion flows in the presence of resistivity and toroidal magnetic field. The mechanism of energy dissipation in the flow is assumed to be the viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity due to turbulence in the accretion flow. It is also assumed that the magnetic diffusivity and the kinematic viscosity are not constant and vary by position and $\\alpha$-prescription is used for them. The influence of outflow emanating from accretion disc is considered as a sink for mass, angular momentum and energy. The self-similar method is used to solve the integrated equations that govern the behavior of the accretion flow in the presence of outflow. The solutions represent the disc which rotates faster and becomes cooler for stronger outflows. Moreover, by adding the magnetic diffusivity, the surface density and rotational velocity decrease, while the radial velocity and te...

  15. Breaking the Obscuring Screen: A Resolved Molecular Outflow in a Buried QSO

    CERN Document Server

    Rupke, David

    2013-01-01

    We present Keck laser guide star adaptive optics observations of the nearby buried QSO F08572+3915:NW. We use near-infrared integral field data taken with OSIRIS to reveal a compact disk and molecular outflow using Pa-alpha and H_2 rotational-vibrational transitions at a spatial resolution of 100 pc. The outflow emerges perpendicular to the disk into a bicone of one-sided opening angle 100 degrees up to distances of 400 pc from the nucleus. The integrated outflow velocities, which reach at least -1300 km/s, correspond exactly to those observed in (unresolved) OH absorption, but are smaller (larger) than those observed on larger scales in the ionized (neutral atomic) outflow. These data represent a factor of >10 improvement in the spatial resolution of molecular outflows from mergers/QSOs, and plausibly represent the early stages of the excavation of the dust screen from a buried QSO.

  16. Stellar Populations, Outflows, and Morphologies of High-Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornei, Katherine Anne

    Understanding the regulation and environment of star formation across cosmic time is critical to tracing the build-up of mass in the Universe and the interplay between the stars and gas that are the constituents of galaxies. Three studies are presented in this thesis, each examining a different aspect of star formation at a specific epoch. The first study presents the results of a photometric and spectroscopic survey of 321 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ˜ 3 to investigate systematically the relationship between Lyalpha emission and stellar populations. Lyalpha equivalent widths were calculated from rest-frame UV spectroscopy and optical/near-infrared/Spitzer photometry was used in population synthesis modeling to derive the key properties of age, dust extinction, star formation rate (SFR), and stellar mass. Using a variety of statistical tests, we find that Lyalpha equivalent width and age, SFR, and dust extinction, respectively, are significantly correlated in the sense that objects with strong Lyalpha emission also tend to be older, lower in star formation rate, and less dusty than objects with weak Lyalpha emission, or the line in absorption. We accordingly conclude that, within the LBG sample, objects with strong Lyalpha emission represent a later stage of galaxy evolution in which supernovae-induced outflows have reduced the dust covering fraction. The second study focuses specifically on galactic-scale outflowing winds in 72 star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1 in the Extended Groth Strip. Galaxies were selected from the DEEP2 survey and follow-up LRIS spectroscopy was obtained covering SiII, CIV, FeII, MgII, and MgI lines in the rest-frame ultraviolet. Using GALEX, HST, and Spitzer imaging available for the Extended Groth Strip, we examine galaxies on a per-object basis in order to better understand both the prevalence of galactic outflows at z ˜ 1 and the star-forming and structural properties of objects experiencing outflows. Gas velocities, measured from

  17. Toward a Complete Picture of Quasar Outflows: from BALs to mini-BALs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Emily; Hamann, Fred; Capellupo, Daniel M.; McGraw, Sean; Shields, Joseph C.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disk outflows are important for galaxy evolution and an integral part of the quasar phenomenon, but they remain poorly understood. In order to construct a more complete picture of the quasar phenomenon, we need to understand the full range of different types of quasar outflows and how they correlate with one another. We examine seven SDSS quasars with CIV 1548,1551 Å outflow lines that span a range from strong BALs to weak mini-BALs. They have moderate redshifts (1.68 based spectra obtained at the MDM and Kitt Peak observatories to measure a variety of ions across the rest UV wavelength range. Our preliminary analysis shows OVI is present and stronger than CIV in all seven quasars. In one case, we detect an OVI mini-BAL with no accompanying CIV, requiring a highly-ionized outflow. In the strongest BAL quasar, we detect resolved PV doublet absorption that requires PV optical depths > 3 and in outflow gas with a line-of-sight covering fraction of only 0.27. Thus, the total column density in this outflow component might exceed N_H > 1023 cm-2 which has important consequences for the outflow kinetic energies and feedback. The multi-epoch CIV data reveal CIV outflow variability in all seven quasars; four become weaker, one becomes stronger, and two become both stronger and weaker over the different epochs. This variability happens across time scales of ~1-12 years in the quasar rest frames which is consistent with outflow locations close to the central quasar engines. We use these and other results to constrain the ionization, column density, and location of the absorbers with the broader goals of understanding accretion physics, the integrated structure of quasar outflows, and the impact a quasar has on its host galaxy.

  18. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Dhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA. While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances.

  19. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  20. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714